Afghanistan
 
It has an ancient and has a complex history. The people of this region are fierce fighters and established an independent and self governing empires throughout their history. Kabul is the capital and largest city in Afghanistan, a place of great strategic import. Kabul is also one of the oldest cities in the region - there are references to the place in the Hindu Rig Veda scriptures (c. 1500 BCE), during Alexandrian times it was called Gandara, and Claudius Ptolemy identifies it (as "Kabura or Ortospana") in the Geographos, 2nd cent. CE.
 
  • Persia................................................c. 530 - 330 BCE
    • Dadarshish (Balkh)................................520's - 510's
    • Vivana (Qandahar).........................................fl. 520's
    • Megabazus (Kabul).........................................fl. 510's
    • Bakabadush (Qandahar).....................................fl. c. 500
    • Masistes............................................490 - 465
    • Spitamana...........................................340 - 329 d. 325
    • Spitamana's daughter Apama was married to Seleucus I Nicator during Alexander's campaign to marry his generals and men to Persian women and created a hybrid empire.
  • Bessus...................................................330 - 329 BCE
  • He was a Persian general who attempted, unsuccessfully, to stave off Alexander the Great's invasion of the eastern portion of the Persian Empire.
  • Macedon..................................................329 - 301 BCE
    • Artabazus (Balkh).........................................329
    • Clitus the Black (Balkh)..................................329
    • Amyntas Nikolaos (Balkh)............................328 - 325
    • Philip (Balkh, Satrap of Khurasan c. 320)...........325 - 321
    • Oxyartes (Kabul)..........................................fl. 320
    • Father of Alexander's wife Roxane, in Gandara (Kabul).
    • Sybirtios (Qandahar)......................................fl. 320
    • Stasanor the Solian (Balkh, Satrap of Khurasan 316).321 - 312
  • The Seleucid Empire......................................301 - 256 BCE
  • BACTRIA An Hellenic state whose rulers are known primarily from their coinage. It eventually fell under the vassalage of Scythian nomads from the north, the Tocharians. Capitals: Bactra and Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum).
  • Diodotus I...............................................255 - 239
  • Diodotus I wrested independence for his territory after the death of the Seleucid ruler Antiochus II Theos, who had been embroiled in a war against Ptolemaic Egypt. Diodotus I married Apama of Syria, born c. 266 BC, daughter of Antiochus II Theos and wife Laodice I and had two children: Diodotus II and a daughter, born c. 250 BC, who married Euthydemus I.
  • Diodotus II S/o Diodotus I...............................239 - 223
  • He is known for concluding a peace treaty with the Parthian king Arsaces, in order to forestall the Seleucid reconquest of both Parthia and Bactria. Diodotus II was killed by a usurper, his brother-in-law Euthydemus I.
  • Euthydemus I S/o Antimachus..............................230 - 200
  • Demetrius I S/o Euthydemus I.............................200 - 190
  • He conquered extensive areas known as Paropamisade and Arachosia, what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan, thus creating an Indo-Greek Kingdom far from Hellenistic Greece. He was never defeated in battle and was posthumously qualified as the Invincible (Aniketos) on the pedigree coins of his successor Agathocles. He had diademed and draped bust facing right on his coins, wearing elephant-skin headdress (evoking Alexander the Great), symbol of his conquests in India. He married daughter of Antiochus III.
  • Euthydemus II S/o Demetrius I............................190 - 185
  • He ruled only Bactria region.
  • Agathocles S/o Demetrius I...............................190 - 180
  • He ruled only Bactria and Paropamisade.
  • Pantaleon S/o Euthydemus I...............................190 - 180
  • He ruled Arachosia, Gandhara and Western Punjab.
  • Antimachus I Theos.......................................185 - 170
  • He ruled Bactria, Paropamisade and Arachosia.
  • Apollodotus I Soter S/o Eucratides I.....................180 - 160
  • He ruled Paropamisade, Arachosia, Gandhara and Western Punjab.
  • Demetrius II S/o Demetrius I.............................175 - 170
  • He ruled Bactria, Paropamisade and Arachosia.
  • Antimachus II Nikephoros.................................160 - 155
  • He ruled Paropamisade, Arachosia, Gandhara and Western Punjab. Yuezhi occupation (loss of Ai-Khanoum) of West Bactria in 155 BCE.
  • Eucratides I.............................................170 - 145
  • He ruled Bactria, Paropamisade, Arachosia, Gandhara and Western Punjab.
  • Eucratides II (East Bactria).............................155 - 130 with...
  • Yuezhi occupied the remaining East Bactria in 130 BCE.
  • Plato (East Bactria).....................................155 - 130 and...
  • Heliocles I (East Bactria)...............................155 - 130
  • Menander Soter...........................................155 - 130
  • Menander was initially a king of Bactria. After conquering the Punjab he established an empire in the Indian Subcontinent stretching from the Kabul River valley in the west to the Ravi River in the east, and from the Swat River valley in the north to Arachosia (the Helmand Province). Ancient Indian writers indicate that he launched expeditions southward into Rajasthan and as far east down the Ganges River Valley as Pataliputra (Patna), and the Greek geographer Strabo wrote that he "conquered more tribes than Alexander the Great."
  • Thrason S/o Menander Soter.....................................130
  • Menander was briefly succeeded by his son Thrason, of whom a single coin is known. Thrason, was an Indo-Greek king in Central and Western Punjab, unknown until the 1982 discovery of one of his coins by R. C. Senior in the Surana hoard. The coin is in a style similar to those of Menander I, has the same type of Athena, and shares one of Menander's mint marks. On the coin, the title of Thraso is Basileus Megas ("Great King"), a title which only Eucratides the Great had dared take before him and which is seemingly misplaced on the young boy Thraso, whose single preserved coin indicates a small and insignificant reign. Osmund Bopearachchi suggests a preliminary dating of 95–80 BC, but Senior himself concludes that Thraso was the son and heir of Menander (c. 155–130 BC), since his coin was not worn and was found in a hoard with only earlier coins. After Thrason was murdered, competing kings such as Zoilos I or Lysias may have taken over Menander's kingdom. Menander's dynasty was thus dethroned and did not return to power until later, though his relative Nicias may have ruled a small principality in the Kabul valley.
  • Zoilus I Dikaios.........................................130 - 120
  • He ruled areas of Paropamisade and Arachosia.
  • Lysias Anicetus..........................................120 - 110
  • Bopearachchi suggests that Lysias' territory covered the areas of the Paropamisade and Arachosia, but his coins have been found in the Punjab and it is possible that Lysias ruled most of the Indo-Greek territory for a period, though perhaps in cooperation with Antialcidas, with whom he shared most of his monograms.
  • Antialcidas Nikephoros...................................110 - 100
  • He ruled Paropamisade, Arachosia and Gandhara.
  • Polyxenos Epiphanes Soter......................................100
  • Epander Nikephoros........................................95 - 90
  • He may have been a relative of Menander I and the find places of his coins seem to indicate that, he ruled in the area of Punjab.

Tetradrachm. Mint: Balkh. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Weight: 15.25 grams. Diameter: 28.30 mm. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Diademed head of king facing right, within dotted border.
Reverse: Nude Herakles seated left on a pile of rocks, holding club in right hand which he rests on another pile of rocks. "BAΣIΛEΩΣ" (King) written in Greek at the right side from top to bottom. "EYΘYΔHMOY" (Euthydemos) written in Greek at the left side from top to bottom. Monogram in lower right field. Ruler: Euthydemus I (230 - 200 BCE). Ruling areas: Bactria, Sogdiana, Ferghana and Arachosia.

Euthydemos I (also spelled Euthydemus) was not a direct descendant of the Diodoti. He appears to have had a long reign, perhaps 230-200 BCE according to Bopearachchi, as the portraits on his coins show a steady maturing or aging.
During his reign, Euthydemos faced a challenge from the Seleucid king Antiochos III, who attempted to take back the Bactrian kingdom. Euthydemos was able to convince him that, since he was not related to the usurper Diodoti, he should not be the target of Seleucid aggression and thus he was able to obtain recognition of his sovereignty.

Tetradrachm Metal: 0.925 Silver. Weight: 14.67 grams. Diameter: 35.00 mm. Alignment: Medal. Ruler: Demetrius I (200 - 190 BCE).

He is also known to conquer modern day areas of north India and Pakistan. His basic coin type, wearing an elephant scalp, symbolizes this as the elephant represented India to the Greeks.

Obverse: Diademed head of king facing right, wearing elephant scalp head-dress. Reverse: Nude Herakles standing with face straight, holding club and lion skin in left hand and crowning himself with his right hand. "BAΣIΛEΩΣ" (King) written in Greek at the right side from top to bottom. "ΔHMHTPIOY" (Demetrius) written in Greek at the left side from top to bottom. Monogram in lower left field.

 
  • Scythians.............................................c. 130 - c. 30 BCE
    • Antimachus II....................................c. 130 - 125 and...
    • Strato I.........................................c. 130 - 95 d. c. 75; with...
    • Philoxenus.......................................c. 125 - 115 and...
    • Lysias...........................................c. 120 - 110 and...
    • Apollodotus......................................c. 115 - 95 and...
    • Artemidorus.......................................... ? - 95 and...
    • Peucolnus............................................ ? - 95
    • Nicias...............................................95 - 85 with ?
    • Theophilos........................................... ? - 85 and...
    • Zoilus II.........................................c. 95 - 80 and...
    • Dionysios.........................................c. 95 - 80 and...
    • Apollophanes......................................c. 95 - 80 and...
    • Hippostratus......................................c. 85 - 70 and...
    • Strato I (restored)...............................c. 80 - 75 and...
    • Strato II.........................................c. 80 - 75
    • Appolodotus...............................................fl. c. 50
    • Hippostratos..............................................fl. c. 30 BCE
  • The SAKAE (INDO-SCYTHIA) - The eastern branch of the Scythians, who constantly harassed the eastern provinces of the Persian empires and invaded Afghanistan and Northern India in the first century BCE. Sakae (Indo-Scythian) capitals were: Sigal, Taxila, Mathura and Minnagara. They ruled modern day area of almost all Pakistan and Northwest part of India.
  • Maues.....................................................97 - 58 BCE
  • Maues had his capital in Sirkap and minted most of his coins in Taxila. Maues did not manage however to conquer the Punjab territories of the Indo-Greeks east of the Jhelum, which remained under Greek control. After his death the Indo-Greeks regained most of their territory. Maues issued joint coins mentioning a queen Machene ("ΜΑΧΗΝΗ"). Machene may have been a daughter of one of the Indo-Greek houses. An Indo-Greek king, Artemidoros, also issued coins where he describes himself as "Son of Maues".
  • Vonones................................................c. 75 - c. 65
  • Vonones was an Indo-Scythian king who ruled in Sakastan and Arachosia from ca. 75 BC to 65 BC. He is also sometimes described as a Parthian Suren. He succeeded Maues and took the title "Great King of Kings".
    His brother, Spalahores, was mentioned on his coins, as well as Spalahores' son Spalagadames. Spalahores succeeded him.
  • Spalirises (Spalyris)..................................c. 60 - c. 57
  • Spalahores, satrap and brother of King Vonones, and probably later became King Spalirises.
  • Spalagademes S/o Spalahores....................................c. 50
  • He ruled in areas of the North-western South Asia between around 50 BCE. No coins of him as king are known, so he must have been a subordinate local ruler, such as a satrap.
  • Azilises...............................................c. 57 - c. 35
  • Azilises was an Indo-Scythian king who ruled in the area of Gandhara. Azilises issued some joint coins with Azes, where Azes is presented as king on the obverse ("BASILEOS BASILEON MEGALOY AZOY"), and Azilises is introduced as king on the obverse in kharoshthi ("Maharajasa rajarajasa mahatasa Ayilisasa", "The great king, the king of kings, the great Azilises").
  • Azes I.................................................c. 48 - c. 25
  • He was an Indo-Scythian ruler who completed the domination of the Scythians in Gandhara. According to Senior, Azes I may have been identical with Azes II, due to the discovery of an overstrike of the former over the latter.
  • Azes II................................................c. 35 - c. 12
  • After the death of Azes II, the rule of the Indo-Scythians in northwestern India and Pakistan finally crumbled with the conquest of the Kushans, one of the five tribes of the Yuezhi who had lived in Bactria for more than a century, and who were then expanding into India to create a Kushan Empire. Soon after, the Parthians invaded from the west. Their leader Gondophares temporarily displaced the Kushans and founded the Parthian that was to last until the middle of the 1st century CE. The Kushans ultimately regained Mardan and ancient Taxila c. 75 CE, where they were to prosper for several centuries. After the death of the great king Azes II, Scythian power in India rapidly waned, with a few kings surviving here and there for a short while longer. Rajuvula (ruled c. 10 - 25 CE) was one of these kings. He ruled in Mathura and in the Jammu area in the early part of the new millennium, losing part of his kingdom to the rising Indo-Parthian king Gondophares. He retained his seat in Mathura, where he was succeeded by his son Sodasa.
  • Zeionises S/o Manigul..............................c. 10 BCE - c. 10 CE and...
  • Zeionises was an Indo-Scythian satrap of the area of southern Chach (Kashmir) for king Azes II. He then became king, and ruled in parts of the Indian subcontinent around 10 BCE – 10 CE, but apparently lost his territory to the invasion of the Indo-Parthians. His coins bear the Buddhist Triratna symbol on the obverse, and adopt representations of Greek divinities such as the city goddess Tyche. A silver jug found at Taxila (Konow 1929: 81-83) indicates that Zeionises was "satrap of Chuksa, son of Manigula, brother of the great king", but who this king was remains uncertain.
  • Kharahostes S/o Arta...............................c. 10 BCE - c. 10 CE
  • Kharahostes or Kharaostasa was an Indo-Scythian ruler (probably a satrap) in the northern Indian subcontinent around 10 BCE – 10 CE. He is known from his coins, often in the name of Azes II, and possibly from an inscription on the Mathura lion capital, although another satrap Kharaostes has been discovered in Mathura. Coin finds suggest that Kharahostes ruled in the area of the Darunta district to the west of Jalalabad, probably based on the ancient city of Nagarahara, located to the west of Jalalabad. Kharahostes's own coins attest that he was the son of Arta, a brother of king Maues and Satrap of Chukhsa.
  • Mujatria S/o Kharahostes.......................................c. 10 CE
    Mujatria, previously read Hajatria (ruled circa 10 CE, or 40-50 CE according to more recent research based on numismatics), is the name of an Indo-Scythian ruler, the son of Kharahostes as mentioned on his coins. According to Joe Cribb, Mujiatria was located in the region of Jalalabad in eastern Afghanistan and lived in the later part of the 1st century CE.

MIG 681a / Sen 65.1T Tetradrachm Weight: 9.00 g. (Indian Standard). Metal: 0.925 Silver. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: King mounted on horse riding right, holding spear, Greek legend around "BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MEΓAΛOY" (Great King of Kings) "ONΩNOY" (Vonones) written at the bottom.

Vonones and Spalagadames Silver tetradrachm issue. King Vonones mentioning his nephew Spalagadames, son of his brother Spalahores. Spalahores probably succeeded his father as Vonones's viceroy.

Reverse: Zeus holding a thunderbolt and a sceptre in the center. Kharoshthi legend around: "spalahoraputrasa dhramiasa / spalagadamasa" (Of Spalagadames, the son of Spalahores, the follower of the Dharma). Monogram at bottom left field. Ruler: Vonones [Basileos Basileon Megaloy Ononiu]. Reign recorded by some historian: c. 75 BCE - 65 BCE.

There is no single-word translation for Dharma in Western languages. In Hinduism, dharma signifies behaviours that are considered to be in accord with Ṛta, the order that makes life and universe possible and includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and "right way of living". In Buddhism, dharma means "cosmic law and order" and is also applied to the teachings of the Buddha. In Buddhist philosophy, dhamma/dharma is also the term for "phenomena". Dharma in Jainism refers to the teachings of tirthankara (Jina) and the body of doctrine pertaining to the purification and moral transformation of human beings. For Sikhs, the word dharm means the path of righteousness and proper religious practice. The word dharma was already in use in the historical Vedic religion, and its meaning and conceptual scope has evolved over several millennia. The antonym of dharma is adharma.

MIG 850j / Sen 102.100 Hexa-Chalkon. Weight: 12.70g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 28.00 mm. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Taxila.

Obverse: Humped bull standing facing right with monogram above. Greek legend around: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MEΓAΛOY / AZOY" (Great King of Kings / Azes). Reverse: Lion standing facing right with monograms above. Kharoshthi legend around: maharajasa rajarajasa mahatasa / ayasa (The Great King of Kings Azes). Ruler: Azes II [Basileos Basileon Megalou Azou]. Reign: c. 35 BCE to 12 BCE.

 
  • Suren (Parthia)...................................last half of 1st cent. BCE
  • The Kushanid Empire.................................c. 30 BCE - c. 230 CE
    • Tu-Mi a Kushan subkingdom centered on Qonduz. Qonduz, a northern Afghan state, about equidistant between Mazar-I-Sharif and Faizabad.
    • Arseiles (Qonduz)..........................................fl. c. 20 BCE
    • Sapadbizes (Qonduz)........................................fl. c. 1 BCE
  • The KUSHANSHAHS - A Persian state established as a buffer zone. They ruled from c. 230 to 410, but became a Persian dependency from c. 350.
  • Ardashir...............................................c. 230 - c. 245
  • Peroz I................................................c. 245 - c. 270
  • Hormazd I..............................................c. 270 - c. 295
  • Hormazd II.............................................c. 295 - c. 300
  • Peroz II...............................................c. 300 - c. 325
  • Varhran I..............................................c. 325 - c. 350
  • Persia.................................................c. 350 - 410
    • Varhran II........................................c. 350 - c. 400 with...
    • Peroz III.........................................c. 350 - c. 400
    • Varhran III.......................................c. 400 - c. 410
  • The White Huns (Hephthalites).............................410 - 565
  • KSHATRIYA - Hindu dynasty mainly as Kingdom of Zabulistan. Controlled Kabul at various times.
    • Napki......................................................fl. c. 550
    • Kanik
    • Rutbal.....................................................fl. c. 670
    • Bahr Tigin.................................................c. 698
    • Katorman...................................................c. 750
    • Unknown rulers
    • Zunbil (Phiruz)...................................c. 850 - c. 870
    • Lagutarman.................................................fl. c. 880's
  • Much to the Western Turks (Gök)...........................565 - 652
  • Much to The Prophet Muhammad's elected successors.........652 - 661
    • Hemar Beg (Badakhshan).....................................fl. 652
  • Umayyad Caliphate.........................................661 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate.........................................750 - 867
    • Ilyas ibn Asad (Khorasan Governor at Herat)................fl. 819
  • The NEZAK - The Nezak were a Hephtalite clan which seized control during the 600's and 700's in various places in Afghanistan, including Kapisa, Kabul, and Ghazni, as well as parts of Seistan.
    • Nezak Malka................................................early 600's
    • Sri Shaho (in northern India).....................c. 650 - 700
    • Shahi Tigin................................................fl. 690's
    • Nezak Shah
    • Vakhu (Vakka) Deva.........................................fl. c. 720
    • Spalapati Deva.............................................fl. c. 750
    • The Nezak were defeated and dispersed by the Caliphate in c. 730.
  • Persia...................................................867 - 900
  • SHAHI - A Hindu dynasty controlling much of northeastern Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan, including Kabul. They are split into two eras the Buddhist-Shahis and the later Hindu-Shahis with the change-over occurring around 870.
    • Lalliya..........................................c. 890 - 895
    • Toramana Kamaluka (1st time)..............................895 d.921
    • Samanta Deva........................................895 - c. 900
    • Kashmir..........................................c. 900 - c. 902
    • Toramana Kamaluka (2nd time)........................902 - 921
    • Khudarayaka (Saffarid Governor)..................c. 903 - 915
    • Coin with Arabic word "Adil" (meaning "justice") to right of horseman were minted at Kabul. Coins issued with this legends exists because for a short period Muslims captured Kabul for a brief period.
    • Bhima Deva..........................................921 - 960
    • Jayapala S/o Hutpala................................960 - 1002
    • His kingdom stretched from Laghman to Kashmir and Sirhind to Multan, with Peshawar being in the center. efore his struggle began Jayapala had raised a large army of Punjabis. When Jayapala went to the Punjab region, his army was raised to 100,000 horsemen and an innumerable host of foot soldiers. However, the army was hopeless in battle against the western forces, particularly against the young Mahmud of Ghazni. Sultan Mahmud came to power and was occupied with the Qarakhanids north of the Hindu Kush, Jayapala attacked Ghazni at the Battle of Peshawar, which was fought on 27 November 1001, between the Ghaznavid army under Sultan Mahmud bin Sebuktigin (Mahmud of Ghazni) and the Hindu Shahi army of Jayapala, near Peshawar. Jayapala was defeated and captured, and as a result, Jayapala was bound and paraded, and a large ransom were paid for the release of members of his family. Due to the humiliation of the defeat, he later immolated himself in a funeral pyre and committed suicide because his subjects thought he had brought disaster and disgrace to the Shahi dynasty. This left the region vulnerable and North India was then open to further invasions.
    • Anandapala S/o Jayapal.............................1002 - 1011
    • Anandapala's last stand against Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. Mahmud later conquered the upper Indus region, and then in 1009, defeated Jayapala's son Anandapala in a battle at Chach (Chach is at the edge of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa - Punjab border within Pakistan. It is 20.4 km from Attock city and 22.9 km from Topi, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa). Mahmud then captured Lahore and Multan, giving him control of the Punjab region. Anandapala eventually signed a treaty with the Ghaznavid Empire in 1010 and shortly a year later died as a result of a natural death. R.C Majumdar (D.V. Potdar Commemoration Volume, Poona 1950, p. 351) compared him ironically to his dynastic ancient famous ancestor "King Porus, who bravely opposed Alexander but later submitted and helped in subduing other Indian rulers". Tahqíq Má li'l-Hind (p. 351) finally revered him in his legacy as "noble and courageous".
    • Trilochanpala S/o Anandapala.......................1011 - 1021
    • He was assassinated by his own troops at the year of 1021.
    • Bhimapala S/o Trilochanpala........................1021 - 1026
    • He was referred to by Utbí as "Bhīm, the Fearless" due to his courage and valour. Considering his kingdom was at its lowest point, possibly only in control of Nandana, he admirably earned the title of "fearless" from his enemy's own chronicle writer. He is known to have commanded at the battle of Nandana personally and seriously wounded the commander of the Ghaznavid army Muhammad bin Ibrahim at-Tāī ('Utbi, vil.ii, p. 151). He ruled only five years before meeting his death in 1026. This Hindu dynasty came to an end with the conquest of Ghaznavid Empire in 1026.
    • Bhimapala's sons Rudrapal, Diddapal, Kshempala and Anangpala served as generals in Kashmir. They gained prominence in the Kashmiri royal court where they occupied influential positions and intermarried with the royal family. Hindu Kashmir had aided the Hindus Shahis against Mahmud of Ghazni. As a result after barely defeating the Hindu Shahis, Mahmud marched his men to Hindu Kashmir to take revenge for Kashmir's support of the Hindu Shahis. Al-Biruni was with Mahmud on these campaigns. They are mentioned frequently in Rajatarangini of Kalhana written during AD 1147–1149. Rudrapal was mentioned by the writer Kalhana as a valiant general in the campaigns he led to quell resistance to the Kashmiri kings whom they served whilst in exile. His later descendants fell out of favour at the royal court and were exiled to the Siwalik Hills, retaining control of the Mandu fort. After a brief period, they rose again to take control of Mathura under Raja Dhrupet Dev in the 12th century before the campaigns of the Ghorid Empire. The Janjua Rajputs of Punjab region claim to be the descendants of the Jayapala.
 

Tye#14.1 Silver Jital. Year: c. 850 - c. 1000. Weight: 3.28g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Mint: Gandhara - Ohind. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Horseman riding horse towards right and holding banner. "दी" (Bhi) written in Nagari at the left side. Plume symbol at right side. Reverse: "श्री सामन्त देव" (sri samanta deva) written in Nagari above Zebu wearing jhula (saddle-cloth). Trident symbol on rump. Star above pellet above crescent. Minted Years: One year type with various varieties. Ruler: Samanta Deva.
Note: Samanta Deva was a title rather than a name of a ruler according to coin collectors. The first rulers were called "Samanta Deva" (="Feudatory Chief") and later rulers were called "Spalapati Deva" (="Military Commander"). These Jital with various character like "Gu" (Tye#4), "Gu" (Tye#5), "Ka" (Tye#6),"Da" (Tye#7), etc. were documented with reference numbers given by Robert & Monica Tye.

Further Reading:

Tye#15 Silver Jital. Year: c. 850 - c. 1000. Weight: 3.32g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 18.25 mm. Mint: Gandhara - Ohind. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Obverse: Horseman riding horse towards right and holding banner. "टा" (Ta) written in Nagari at the left side. Hook symbol at right side. Reverse: "श्री सामन्त देव" (sri samanta deva) written in Nagari above Zebu wearing jhula (saddle-cloth). Trident symbol on rump. Star above pellet above crescent. Minted Years: One year type with various varieties. Ruler: Samanta Deva.

Tye#23 Silver Jital. Year: c. 895 - c. 921. Weight: 2.59g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 20.25 mm. Mint: Kabul. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Obverse: Horseman riding horse towards right and holding banner. Unknown Nagari character written at the left side. "Adi" (Justice) written at right side. Reverse: "Sri KhuDaRaYaKaH" written in Nagari above Zebu wearing jhula (saddle-cloth). Trident symbol on rump. Star above pellet above crescent. Two dots after Nagari inscription. Minted Years: One year type with various varieties. Ruler: Khudarayaka.

Note: Yaqub ibn Layith Saffari, the founder of the Saffarid dynasty, conquered the Kabul. Kabul Shahis had built a defensive wall all around the Kabul city to protect it against the army of Muslim Saffarids. The remains of these walls are still visible over the mountains which are located inside the Kabul city. Khudarayaka who ruled c.895 - c. 921 in Kabul under Saffarid influence is believed to issue these coins. These are not really rare but seen much less frequently than the common Spalapati and Samanta coins. There are a few minor variations with different characters right of the horseman or between the horse's front legs. Khudarayaka is an epithet used by the governor of Kabul under Yaqub ibn Layith of Seistan but the exact circumstances of his rule or issuing coins is unclear.

 
  • BALKH A small town in northern Afghanistan, before the 13th century one of the largest and most important centers of the region. The place is most likely the ancient city of Baktra, the capital of the Kingdom of Bactria. A center of Islamic culture in the Middle Ages, the city was pillaged by Ghenghis Khan and never recovered. It about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif. A minor dynasty was established in eastern Khorasan in the Panjsher valley and adjoining regions.
    • BANIJURID (ABU DAWUD)
    • Dawud................................................848 - 873
    • Abu Dawud Muhammad ibn Ahmad ........................874 - 899
    • Said ibn Shuayb (rebel)..............................883 - 887
    • He is known for producing coins from Andaraba exclusively.
    • Ahmad ibn Muhammad...................................899 - 910
    • Jafar ibn Ahmad (al-Khuttal).........................922 - 925
    • Banu FARIGHUN - An Arab Muslim dynasty in western Afghanistan at Guzgan and Balkh.
    • Ahmad ibn Farighun................................c. 908 - 949
    • Abu-Nasr Mohammed....................................949 - 979
    • Abu'l-Harith Ahmad...................................979 - 1011

SA#1435 Dirham. Year: circa AH 286-289 [c.900 - c.908 CE]. Weight: 3.34g. Metal: 0.825 Silver. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Andaraba. Ruler: Ahmad ibn Muhammad (899 - 910 CE).

Banijurid (Abu Da'udid) ruled Balkh [Andaraba and Banjhir (Panjsher) areas]. Ahmad is sometimes cited Abu Ibrahim. After AH 290, all coins cite the Samanid ruler as overload.

 
  • Central Afghanistan to Bokhara............................900 - c. 950
  • Abu Bakr Lawik (1st time)..............................c. 950 - 962
  • Ibrahim ibn Abd al-Ghaffar Yaminid (Ghazna)............c. 949 - c. 956
  • Bokhara................................................c. 962 - c. 964
    • Alptigin Yaminid (Ghazna, then under Bokhara's rule).954 - 963
    • (Abu-) Ishaq Yaminid (1st time)......................963 - ?
  • Abu Bakr Lawik (2nd time).......................................fl 960's
  • Bokhara................................................c. 965 - 999
    • Slave Commanders for the Samanids - Yaminid dynasty.
    • (Abu-) Ishaq Yaminid (2nd time)......................965 - 966
    • Balkatekin.......................................... 966 - 975
    • Mansur ibn Balkatekin (1st time at Ghazna).................969
    • Piri.................................................975 - 977
    • Nasir al-Dawla Sebüktigin.....................20 Apr 977 - 05 Aug 997
    • Sabuktigin lived as a slave during his youth and later married the daughter of his master Alptigin, the man who seized the region of Ghazna (modern Ghazni Province in Afghanistan). When his father-in-law Alptigin died, Sebuktigin became the new ruler and expanded the kingdom after defeating Jayapala to cover the territory as far as the Neelum River in Kashmir and the Indus River in what is now Pakistan.
    • Mansur ibn Balkatekin (2nd time at Ghazna)........c. 977 - 983
    • Ismail ibn Sebüktekin.........................05 Aug 997 - 998
    • He reigning for 7 months. He succeeded his father Sabuktigin, who died of an illness acquired in Balkh during a campaign in the Samanid civil war. Ismail was designated his successor by Sabuktigin on his death-bed, while Mahmud, the older brother who was involved in the Samanid civil war, was stationed in Nishapur.
  • GHAZNAVID EMPIRE (YAMINID Dynasty) - The capital of this Empire was Ghazna, now called Ghazni, is a town in eastern Afghanistan, about 128 kilometers southwest of Kabul, on the road to Qandahar.
  • Yamin Al-Dawla Abu'l Qasim Mahmud ibn Sebüktekin..........998 - 30 Apr 1030
  • Upon receiving these news Mahmud, contested Ismail's right to the throne and divested his charge of Nishapur to his uncle Borghuz and younger brother Nur-ud-Din Yusuf and marched upon Ghazna. Mahmud won the Battle of Ghazni and took the crown from Ismail. Ismail spent the rest of his life confined to a fort in Guzgan. Mahmud was a Samanid governor in western Khorasan under Nuh II from 994 to 997, then under Mansur II. Yaminid dynasty started in 999 CE. He declared himself as Sultan in 1002. He is well known for his seventeen attacks on India. He attacked the holy cities like Thaneshwar, Mathura etc. In his seventeenth raid he plundered Somnath Temple (located in Prabhas Patan near Veraval in Saurashtra on the western coast of Gujarat) and got as much money as he had got in his past sixteen raids.
  • Nasr ibn Sebuktekin (Sistan).............................1010 - 1022
  • Jalal al-Dawla Abu Ahmad Muhammad ibn Mahmud (1st time).........1030
  • He was the younger of a set of twins of Mahmud; this circumstance resulted in civil strife. His reign lasted five months before he was overthrown by his twin Ma'sud I, after which he was blinded and imprisoned. Nine years later he was reinstated for a year before being slain by his nephew Maw'dud.
  • Nasir Din Allah Abu Said Masud I ibn Mahmud..............1030 - 1041
  • Mas'ud, asked for three provinces that he had won by his sword, but his brother did not consent. Mas'ud had to fight his brother, and he became king, blinding and imprisoning Mohammed as punishment. Mas'ud was unable to preserve the empire and following a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Dandanaqan in 1040, he lost all the Ghaznavid lands in Iran and Central Asia to the Seljuks, plunging the realm into a "time of troubles".
  • Jalal al-Dawla Abu Ahmad Muhammad ibn Mahmud (2nd time).........1041
  • Shihab al-Dawla Abu'l-Fath Mawdud ibn Masud I............1041 - 1049
  • He was the governor of Balkh, and in 1040, after hearing of his father's death, came to Ghazni to claim his kingdom. He fought with the sons of the blind Mohammed and was victorious. However, the empire soon disintegrated and most kings did not submit to Mawdud. In a span of nine years, four more kings claimed the throne of Ghazni.
  • Masud II ibn Mawdud.............................................1049
  • Baha ad-Dawlah Ali ibn Masud I...........................1049 - 1050
  • Izz al-Dawla Abd al-Rashid ibn Mahmud....................1050 - 1052
  • He was the fifth son of Mahmud.
  • Qiwan al-Dawla Abu Said Toghril (Usurper).......................1053
  • He was a Turkish mamluk slave general. He usurped the Ghaznavid throne after massacring Abd al-Rashid and eleven other Ghaznavid princes. With Ghazna under his control, Toghrul sent letters to the ghulam general Kirghiz, commander of the Ghaznavid forces in India, seeking his support. Kirghiz responded by condemning Toghrul and his massacre of the Ghaznavid princes. Meanwhile, Toghrul married Masud I's daughter to legitimise his reign and started minting coins. Despite this, Kirghiz sent letters to the garrison and army commanders which motivated a ghulam (slave) named Nushtigin to murder Toghrul. By the time Kirghiz and his army arrived, Toghrul's head was being paraded around Ghazna.
  • Jamal al-Dawla Abu Shuja Farrukhzad ibn Masud I..........1053 - 04 Apr 1059
  • He was very devout Muslim and fasted during Rajab, Sha'ban and Ramadan. In 1058, palace ghulams (slaves) attempted to assassinate Farrukhzad in his bath, but he grabbed a sword and held them at bay until his guards arrived and killed the ghulams. Depressed and sickened by the attempt on his life, Farrukh-Zad withdrew from worldly affairs and died of colitis on 04 April 1059 at the age of thirty four. He was succeeded by his brother Ibrahim.
  • Zahir (or Nasir) al-Dawla Ibrahim ibn Masud I.....06 Apr 1059 - 25 Aug 1099
  • In 1059, Mas'ud's son Ibrahim, a great calligrapher who wrote the Koran with his own pen, became king. Ibrahim re-established a truncated empire on a firmer basis by arriving at a peace agreement with the Seljuks and a restoration of cultural and political linkages. Having been imprisoned at the fortress of Barghund, he was one of the Ghaznavid princes that escaped the usurper Toghrul's massacre in 1052. Following Farrukhzad's death, Ibrahim was recognized as the last surviving male Ghaznavid. A military escort was sent to fetch him from fortress Nay and he entered Ghazna on 06 April 1059. Ibrahim's reign was considered a golden age for the Ghaznavid empire, due to the treaties and cultural exchanges with the Great Seljuq empire. He raids across Northern India, where it faced stiff resistance from Indian rulers such as the Paramara of Malwa and the Gahadvala of Kannauj. Ibrahim died on 25 August 1099 ending a reign of 41 years. His tomb lies in the northeastern part of medieval Ghazna near Shaikh Radi d-Din 'Ali Lala's tomb.
  • Ala al-Dawla Abu Said Masud III ibn Ibrahim..............1099 - 1115
  • Masud III became king for sixteen years, with no major event in his lifetime. Signs of weakness in the state became apparent when he died in 1115, with internal strife between his sons ending with the ascension of Sultan Bahram Shah as a Seljuk vassal.
  • Kamal ad-Dawlah Shirzad ibn Masud III....................1115 - 1116
  • He was murdered by his younger brother Arslan.
  • Sultan Baha al-Dawla Malik Arslan Shah ibn Masud III.....1116 - 1117
  • Yamin al-Dawla Bahram Shah ibn Masud III..........25 Feb 1117 - 1152
  • Bahram shah defeated his brother Arslan for the throne at the Battle of Ghazni in 1117 supported by the sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire, Ahmad Sanjar. In 1148 he was defeated in Ghazni by Sayf al-Din Suri, but he recaptured the capital the next year. Ala al-Din Husayn, a Ghorid King, conquered the city in 1151, for the revenge of his brother Kutubbuddin's death, who was son-in-law of the king but was publicly punished and killed for a minor offence. Ala al-Din Husayn then razed the city and burned it for 7 days, after which he became known as "Jahānsuz" (World Burner). Ghazni was restored to the Ghaznavids by the intervention of the Seljuks, who came to the aid of Bahram. Ghaznavid struggles with the Ghurids continued in subsequent years as they nibbled away at Ghaznavid territory, and Ghazni and Zabulistan was lost to a group of Oghuz Turks before captured by the Ghurids.
  • Muizz al-Dawla Khusrau Shah ibn Bahram Shah..............1152 - 1160
  • Taj al-Dawla Khusrau Malik ibn Khusrau Shah..............1160 - 1187
  • Ghaznavid power in northwestern India continued until the Ghurid conquest of Lahore from Khusrau Malik in 1186. His silver Dirham, normally of Ghazna types have three laqabs progressively; first Taj al-Dawla, then Siraj al-Dawla then Abu'l-Muluk. In 1061-1062, a group of Oghuz Turks seized the Ghaznavid capital of Ghazna, forcing Khusrau Malik to retreat to Lahore, which became his new capital. From there he made incursions into northern India, expanding his rule as far as southern Kashmir. He also created an alliance with the Indian Khokar tribe. In 1170, Khusrau (or one of his commanders) invaded the southern part of the Ganges. In 1178 the Ghurid ruler Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad invaded the southern part of Ghaznavid Punjab and reached as far as Gujarat. In 1179-1780 he seized Peshawar, and by 1181-1182 swept around Lahore, but Khusrau Malik managed to keep him from the city by paying him. However, Lahore was finally captured by the Ghurids in 1186, while Khusrau-Malik and his son Bahram-Shah were taken to Ghur and imprisoned, marking the end of the Ghaznavid Empire.

SA#1599. Dirham. Year: 977-997. Weight: 3.85g. Metal: 0.825 Silver. Diameter: 17.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Farwan. Ruler: Nasir al-Dawla Sebuktekin [Sebüktigin] (977-997). Common type.

Ruled Bust and Gardez. Also became as autonomous ruler in Ghazna from AH 373 (984 CE) but cited Samanid ruler Nuh II ibn Mansur as overlord on his coinage as indicated on this particular coin. Sebüktigin was the son-in-law of Alptigin.

SA#1607. Dinar. Year: AH 408 (1017 CE). Weight: 3.70g. Metal: 0.900 Gold. Mint: Ghazna. Ruler: Mahmud Ghaznavid (998-1030). Common type.

Gold Dinars coins were minted at Herat from AH 389 to 421 and at Ghazna from AH 406 to 421. The gold alloy is generally rather good until about AH 408 and becomes increasingly pale thereafter.

SA#1608. Dirham. Year: AH 389 (999 CE). Weight: 3.40g. Metal: 0.825 Silver. Mint: Andaraba. Ruler: Mahmud Ghaznavid [Sayf wa Yamin ad-Dawlah Abd al-Qasim Mahmud ibn Abu Mansur Sebük Tigin (Sebuktekin) Khan].

Note: Sword in obverse field. Extremely common type.

SA#1610 / SG#GZ4. Dirham. Year: AH 418 (1027 CE). Weight: 2.52g. Metal: 0.825 Silver. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Mahmoodpur (Lahore). Bilingual script in Sanskrit and Arabic, "billah" is above Shahada and "al-qadir" at the right. Ruler: Mahmud Ghaznavid (998-1030).

Similar bilingual coin were was struck in year AH 419, dated in words in Arabic and in ciphers in Sanskrit. Rare type.

SA#1617. Dirham. Year: AH 421 (1030 CE). Weight: 3.44g. Metal: 0.825 Silver. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Balkh. Obverse: "Muhammad Balkh" written at the bottom under "Alaihi Wassalam". Ruler: Jalal al-Dawla Abu Ahmad Muhammad ibn Mahmud (1030).

No coins were issued in his second reign in AH 432 (1041 CE). Rare type.

SA#1617. Dirham. Year: AH 421 (1030 CE). Weight: 3.25g. Metal: 0.825 Silver. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Ghazna. Ruler: Jalal al-Dawla Abu Ahmad Muhammad ibn Mahmud (1030).

SA#1621. Dirham. Year: 1030-1041. Weight: 2.70g. Metal: 0.825 Silver. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Ghazna. Ruler: Nasir Din Allah (or Nizam al-Din) Abu Said Masud ibn Mahmud (1030-1041).

Date and Mint: off flan, but known to be struck at Ghazna. Abundant type. This coin has Masud's name without titles but also citing Caliph Al-Qaim.

SA#1632. Dirham. Year: 1053. Weight: 3.67g. Metal: 0.825 Silver. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Ghazna. Ruler: Qiwan al-Dawla Abu Said Tughril [AH 443-444 (1053 CE)] citing Caliph: Abbasid Al-Hakim.

He is known as a usurper at Ghazna during Ghaznavid Empire. Very rare type.

SA#1663 / SG#GZ61. Jital. Year: 1060-1087. Weight: 2.97g. Metal: Bronze. Diamater: 16.00 mm. Observe: geometric design on bull to the left without "Khair" written on bull. "sri sama" written above. Reverse: al-sultan al-azam taj al-dawla khusru malik. Ruler: Taj al-Dawla Khusraw Malik (1160-1187). Abundant type. Geometric design on bull instead of "khair" type.

SA#1664 / SG#GZ64. Jital. Year: 1060-1087. Weight: 3.28g. Metal: Bronze. Diamater: 16.00 mm. Observe: crescent above Khusraw Malik. Reverse: al-sultan al-azam taj al-dawla khusru malik. Ruler: Taj al-Dawla Khusraw Malik (1160-1187). Abundant type. Crescent instead of Star type.
 
  • SELJUQ at HERAT
  • Al Malik Al Adil Musa Bayghu [Yabghu](Herat & Sistan)....1043 - 1056
  • Alp Arslan Argun.........................................1058 - 1072
  • Local Governor of Herat from 1058 to 1063, later Sultan.
  • Toghanshah (Marw & Herat)................................1072 - c. 1082

SA#1669A. Billion Dirham. Year: 1043-1056. Weight: 2.20g. Metal: 0.250 Silver. Diameter: 22.30 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Sistan (Sijistan). Ruler: Al Malik Al Adil Musa Bayghu [Yabghu] citing Caliph: Al-Qaim Bi'am'rallah / Nasr. Minted Years: 1043-1056.

This coin in my collection is frequently cutting into small pieces from the edge due to strong corrosion. Extremely rare type.

 
  • GHURID EMPIRE (SHANSABANI Dynasty) Sultan Bahram tried to reorganize the control but that leaded to the sack of Ghazna by the Shansabani in 1150.
  • Nominaly to the Seljuqs...................................1090's - c. 1148
  • Malik Saif-ud-din Sām bin Hussain...........................1146 - 1149
  • Malik Baha-ud-din Sām bin Hussain..................................1149
  • Father of Ghiyath ud-Din and Shihab ud-Din (The famous Muhammad Ghuri). He was with his brother Saif ud-Din Suri in during the initial defeat of Bahram Shah and occupation of Ghazni during spring of 1148 AD, but he left for Ghor before the arrival of winter/snow.
  • Jahan-Suz [World burner] Ala-ud-din Hussain bin Hussain......1149 - 1161
  • Qandahar was apparently established c. 1160 by the Ghurid ruler Alauddin Jahan-Suz after the destruction of Bust, although the first unambiguous reference to the place dates from 1281. Alauddin Jahan-Suz struck upon Ghazni in 1149 AD, surprising the Ghaznavid forces. Occupied Ghazni and gave up the city to plunder after executing all those who could be captured including women folk. Even the tombs of the Ghaznavid Sultans except Mahmud, Masud and Ibrahim were desecrated and the remains of the Sultans put to fire. Bahram Shah escaped and also solicited the help of his maternal uncle the Seljuq Sultan Sanjar. In the meantime Alauddin occupied Balkh and Heart from Sanjar [1118-1157 AD (511-552 AH)], but was defeated, captured and later restored when Sanjar was himself taken prisoner by the Ghuzz Turks. He died in AH 551 and was succeeded by his only son Saif ud-Din, who died within a period of 1 ˝ years. The throne then passed on to the joint rule of Ghiyath ud-Din and Shihab ud-Din. (The famous Ghuri Brothers who annexed Punjab and defeated the kings of India).
  • Malik Saif-ud-din Muhammad bin Hussain.......................1161 - 1163
  • Sultan Abul-Fateh Muhammad Shams ad-din bin Sam (Firuzkuh)...1163 - 1203
  • He was also known as Ghiyath ud-Din Muhammad ibn Sam on his later coinage.
  • Muizz al-Din Muhammad ibn Sam (Ghazna).......................1173 - 1206
  • He took the title as Sultan Shahāb-ud-din Muhammad Ghori. Before 1160, the Ghaznavid Empire covered an area running from central Afghanistan to the Punjab, with capitals at Ghazni and Lahore. In 1160, the Ghorids conquered Ghazni from the Ghaznavids and in 1173 Muhammad Shahab ud-Din Ghori became governor of the province. In 1186-1187 he conquered Lahore, ending the Ghaznavid Empire and bringing the last of Ghaznavid territory under his control. Muhammad Shahab ud-Din Ghori was a loyal brother. He refrained from declaring his independence in South Asia, knowing that it would result in civil war between the two brothers. Till the death of Ghiyas-ud-din Muhammad in 1203, Ghori never considered himself anything but a general in his brother's army. After every victory he would send the best of the looted items to his elder brother in Firuzkuh. Ghiyas-ud-din reciprocated never interfering in the affairs of his younger brother. Thus they were each able to concentrate on their own responsibilities. As a result, Ghori managed to push permanent Muslim rule much further east than Mahmud Ghaznavi did.
    Muhammad Shahab ud-Din attacked the north-western regions of the Indian subcontinent many times. The first time he was defeated in the First Battle of Tarain in present-day Haryana, India by Prithviraj Chauhan. Though Ghori's main aim was the expansion of his empire, he also took an interest in the patronization of education and learning. Illustrious Muslim philosopher Fakh-ud-din Razi and the well know poet Nizami Aruzi were few of the big names of his era.
  • Break up of the Ghurid Empire under Turkic slaves: Qutb-ud-din Aibak becomes ruler of Delhi in 1206, establishing the Sultanate of Delhi; Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha became ruler of Multan in 1210; Tajuddin Yildiz became ruler of Ghazni; Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji became ruler of Bengal; the actual Ghurid dynasty divided into two groups, one under Mahmud bin Ghiyāṣ-ud-din Muhammad bin Sam who succeeded his uncle Muhammad of Ghor in possession of Ghor, Herat, Sistan and eastern Khorasan with his capital at Firuzkuh the other family group under Jalal-ud-din Ali bin Sam at Bamiyan with possession of Tukharistan, Badakhshan, Shughnan, Vakhsh and Chaghaniyan.
  • GHORID OF FIRUZKUH - Ghurid vassalage under the Khwārazm-Shah dynasty.
  • Malik Mahmud ibn Ghiyath ud-Din Muhammad ibn Sam............1206 - 1212
  • Taj ud-Din Yildiz Muizzi (General at Ghazna)................1206 - 1215
  • Malik Baha ud-Din Sam II ibn Mahmud.........................1212 - 1213
  • Malik Ala-ud-Daulah Ala-ud-din Atsiz bin Hussain............1213 - 1214
  • Khwarazm-Shah dynasty replaces the Ghurids in 1214.

SA#1764 / SG#D5). Dinar (or Unit). Weight: 4.25g. Metal: 0.900 Gold. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Kanauj in Northern India. Obverse: figure of Lakshmi. Reverse: Nagari legends Devanagari sri maha / mira mahama / da samah. Ruler: Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad ibn Sam (1173-1206 CE). Common type.

SA#1798. Billon Jital. Weight: 3.07g. Metal: 0.250 silver. Mint: Ghazna. Ruler: Tajuddin ibn Yildiz Al-Mu'izzi (1206-1215 CE). Common type.

He is known to be a military General at Ghazna.

 
  • GHORID OF BAMIYAN - Town in North-central Afghanistan's Hazarijat province. Bamiyan is an ancient caravan center on the route across the Hindu Kush between India and central Asia. It is approximately 240 kilometers north-west of Kabul. By the 7th cent. the town was a center of Buddhism; the Chinese pilgrims Fa Hsien and Hsüan-tsang traveled through the town. Bamiyan was invaded by the Saffarids in 871. A Muslim fortress town from the 9th to the 12th cent., Bamian was sacked by Ghenghis Khan in 1221 and never regained its former prominence. The Bamiyan valley is lined with cave dwellings cut out of the cliffs by Buddhist monks. Particularly interesting were two great figures (one 175 ft/53 m high, the other 120 ft/37 m) carved from rock c. 625 CE and finished in fine plaster. These were the statues destroyed in 2001 by the Taliban, who considered them idolatrous. The area also has grottoes decorated with wall paintings in Greco-Buddhist styles. A small dynasty was established parallel the Ghurid Empire from 1145 to 1215 as follow. The only conflict that was thrust upon it in 1215 by Alauddin Muhammad Shah of Khawarizm, brought the dynasty to an end. It was taken away by the Mongols short afterwards in the same year.
    • Autonomous city-state, subject to various nominal overlords..1000 BCE - 650 CE

    • The Caliphate.............................................650 - 871

      • SHANSABANI (Emirs of Ghuristan) - The Emirs of Ghuristan were of the Shansabani clan that eventually would establish the Ghurid Empire in the 1100's at Badakhshan and Bamiyan.
      • Shansab.....................................................fl. c. 650
      • Pervez
      • Darmansh
      • Darmash
      • Nehatan
      • Yahya.......................................................fl. c. 800
      • Muhammad I
    • Persia.....................................................871 - 999
      • Suri
    • The Ghaznavid Empire.......................................999 - 1090's
      • Malik Muhammad bin Shansabani...........................? - 1011
      • Malik Abu Ali bin Muhammad...........................1011 - 1030s?
      • Malik Abbas bin Shith...............................1030s - 1059?
      • Malik Muhammad bin Abbas............................1059? - ?
      • Malik Qutb-ud-din Hasan bin Muhammad
    • Nominally to the Seljuqs................................1090's - 1145
      • Abu'l-Muluk Izz-ud-din Hussain bin Hasan..........c. 1100 - 1146
    • Within the Ghurid Empire..................................1145 - 1215
      • Malik Fakhr ud-Din Masud ibn Hussain.................1145 - 1163
      • Malik Shams ud-Din Muhammad ibn Masud................1163 - 1192
      • Malik Abu'l Mu'ayyid Baha ud-Din Sam ibn Muhammad....1192 - 1206
      • Malik Jalal ud-Din Ali bin Sam.......................1206 - 1215

  

Dinar. Year: AH 581 (1185). Weight: 2.92g. Metal: 0.900 Gold. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Mint: Bamiyan. Legends: Bamian Al Malik al Azam Shams-ud-duniya w'ad Din Abu'l Muzzafar Muhammad ibn Fakhuruddin Masud citing Caliph: al-Nasir b'Allah. Ruler: Shams-ud-Din Muhammad ibn Masud (1163-1192).

Only two pieces are known. Extremely Rare to find. The information on Ghorid of Bamiyan was available at: http://www.islamiccoinsgroup.50g.com/assikka22/ghorids.htm.

  • Khwarazm.................................................1213 - 1231
    • Lala Khatun (female at Bamiyan)...................1210's - 1221
    • The Mongols settled a garrison of a thousand warriors in the area around Bamiyan (the city itself had been destroyed by them). The Persian word for thousand being Hazara, this quickly became the name by which these soldiers were known. The Turco-Mongol Hazara, after intermarrying with local populations and adopting an Iranic language and Shi'ite Islam, became the dominant sect in the area of Ghuristan, which became known as the Hazarajat.
    • Aladdin Aziz........................................1213 - 1214
    • Aladdin Muhammad Shah...............................1214 - 1215
  • Mongols..................................................1231 - 1345
  • SHAHS OF BADAKHSHAN - Chaghatayid dynasty. The northeastern corner of Afghanistan, the velayet (province) which is today the core territory of the Northern Alliance of opposition to the Taliban. It's modern capital is Faizabad.
    • A local dynasty under Mongols
    • Ali Shah I...........................................fl. < 1291
    • Dawlat Shah ibn Ali Shah............................1291 - 1292
    • ?
    • Sultan Bakht........................................1303 - ?
    • Arghun Shah.........................................1307 - 1311
    • Azam Ali Shah II....................................1311 - 1318
    • ?
    • Probably another dynasty, but independent
    • Shah Baha' ud-Din...................................1344 - 1358
    • Muhammad Shah..............................................fl. 1358/1369
    • Bahramshah..........................................1359 - 1374/1375
    • Shaykh Ali.................................................fl. 1368/1369

SA#A2015 Dirham. Year: AH 718 (1318). Weight: 2.30g. Metal: 0.825 Silver. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Mint: Khost. Ruler: Al Sultan Al Azam Ali Shah II.

Extremely rare type.

 
  • HERAT (Eastern Khorasan) - Kurts (or Karts) dynasty
  • A wealthy city and fertile region in northwestern Afghanistan, comprising the plains on the watershed of the Harirud River, with the edge of the Hindu Kush Mountains bordering on the east. Kurts (or Karts) dynasty started in 1245 under Mongols to1332, then became the sole rulers of Afghanistan.
    • Shams ud-Din I Muhammad.............................1245 - 1277
    • Shams ud-Din II.....................................1278 - 1295
    • Fakhr ud-Din........................................1295 - 1308
    • Ghiyath ud-Din I....................................1308 - 1329
    • Shams ud-Din III....................................1329 - 1330
    • Hafiz...............................................1330 - 1332
  • Mu'izz ud-Din Pir Husain Muhammad........................1332 - 1370
  • He was ruling parts of Southern Afghanistan and areas comprising of modern day Balochistan on both sides of Iran-Pakistan border when the famous traveler Ibn Batuta passed from this area on his way to India. He (Sultan Muizzuddin Hussain) is mentioned by Ibn Batuta in his travelogue "Ajaib Al asfar" (The wonders of travels).
  • Ghiyath ud-Din II Pir Ali................................1370 - 1389

SA#2350A 1/4 Tanka. Year: AH 746-750 (1346-1349). Weight: 2.73g. Metal: 0.825 Silver. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Almost coin. Mint: Herat.
Obverse Legends: Zarb Ba-Mir Dawla Al-Sultan Muizz Al-Haq wa Ud-din Khalid Malik. Reverse Legends: Kalima in the center square. Caliph "Abu Bakr" written at the top, "Omar" at the left side, "Usman" at the bottom and "Ali" on the right side; all outside the center square. Ruler: Sultan Mu'izz ud-Din Pir Husain Muhammad (1332-1370).

Extremely rare type. My coin was part of ex-jewelry as it has marks on both sides indicating that a clip was removed.

SA#2351 / Mitchiner MWIS# 1865. 12 Dirhams. Year: AH 751 (1350). Weight: 8.29g. Metal: 0.825 Silver. Diameter: 29.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Herat. Obverse: Date at the top. Six petal flower in the center surrounded by two circles. Legend in circular form outside the center circle. Reverse Legends: Kalima in the center double square. Caliph "Abu Bakr" written at the top, "Omar" at the left side, "Usman" at the bottom and "Ali" on the right side; all outside the center square. Ruler: Sultan Mu'izz ud-Din Pir Husain Muhammad (1332-1370). Scarce type.
Note: 12 Dirhams or Double Dinar weighting 8.50 - 8.60 grams, equal to Two Sarbadarid or Walid 6 Dirham coins. Stuck at Beled Herat.
 
  • Timurid Empire
  • This Empire was split into three different series of rules, First at Hissar and Badakhshan (1460 to somehow 1584; it's capital at Faizabad). Second at Herat (1405 to somehow 1506) and thirdly at Kabul (1419 to somehow 1530). Some of these rulers overlapped their reign between these three regions.
    • Pir Muhammad ibn Jahangir (Balkh)...................1405 - 1406
    • Qaidu ibn Pir muhammad ibn Jahangir (Balkh).........1406 - 1409
    • Shahrukh (Herat & Sabzawar).........................1405 - 1447
    • Minted coins also at Astarabad, Isfahan, Kashan, Khwarizm, Kirman, Nimruz, Samarqand, Shabankara, Sahaqq (Bamm), Sawah, Shaykh Abu Ishaq (Kazirun), Shiraz and Yazd. Posthumously minted at Tabriz.
    • Suurgatmish ibn Shahrukh (Kabul)....................1419 - 1427
    • Masud (Kabul).......................................1427 - 1439
    • Karuchar (Kabul)....................................1439 - 1451
    • Ala al-Dawla (Herat & Sabzawar)............................1447
    • Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad Juki (Balkh).........................1447
    • Ulugh Beg I (Herat, Sabzawar & Samarqand)...........1447 - 1449
    • Shah Sultan Muhammad (Badakhshan)................c. 1450 - 1467
    • Abu Said (Samarqand & Transoxiana)..................1451 - 1469
    • Minted coins after capturing Khorasan from 1459, Astarabad from 1460 and later Herat.
    • Abu'l-Qasim Babur (Herat & Kabul)...................1447 - 1457
    • He struck coins in 1447 to 1448 before the capturing Herat in AH 853 (1449 CE) and Kabul in 1451.
    • Shah Mahmud (Astarabad & Herat)............................1457
    • Sultan Ibrahim (Herat & Nishapur)...................1457 - 1459
    • Mirza Abu Bakr ibn Abu Said (Badakhshan)............1460 - 1480
    • Sultan Mirza Hussein Baiqara ibn Mansur (Herat).....1469 - 1470
    • It is also known that Sultan Hussein reign at Astarabad from AH 862-864 (1459-1460 CE), and again at Astarabad from AH 865-868 (1461-1464 CE).
    • Ulugh Beg II Kabuli (Kabul).........................1469 - 1501
    • Yadigar Muhammad (Herat)...................................1470
    • Sultan Mirza Hussein Baiqara (2nd time at Herat)....1470 - 04 Mar 1506
    • Ruled again 2nd time at Herat. Muhammad and Badi al-Zaman are known to rebel against their father's reign as indicated below.
    • Dhu’l-Nun Arghun (Timur Governor at Qandahar)....c. 1470 - 1507
    • Sultan Mahmud ibn Abu Said (Badakhshan).............1480 - 1495
    • Masud ibn Mahmud (Badakhshan).......................1495 - 1497
    • Baysuqur Mirza ibn Mahmud (Badakhshan)..............1497 - 1499
    • Muhammad ibn Hussein Baiqara (rebel at Astarabad)...1498 - 1501
    • Badi al-Zaman ibn Hussein Baiqara (rebel at Balkh)..1499 - 1502
    • Sultan Ali ibn Mahmud (Badakhshan)..................1499 - 1500
    • Badakhshan was occupied by Uzbek Khanate of Shaybanids from 1500 to 1505 CE.
    • Abd al-Razzak (Kabul)...............................1502 - 1503
    • Muzaffar Hussein ibn Hussein Baiqara (Herat)...............1506 with...
    • Badi al-Zaman ibn Hussein Baiqara (2nd time but in Herat)..1506
    • Muzaffar Hussein and his brother Badi al-Zaman ruled Herat briefly in 1506. Badi al-Zaman later ruled separately in various places, principally at Astarabad and Nimruz from 1506 to 1508 as an independent ruler. Herat was occupied by Shaybanids of Transoxania from 1506 to 1516. Later Herat was occupied by Iran from 1516 to 1709.

SA#2432.3. Tanka Year: AH 895-910 (1490-1506). Weight: 4.78g. Metal: 0.800 Silver. Mint: Astarabad. Abundant type. The type has "Bih bud" in knotted diamond on obverse, which means prosperity, and it was the name of Sultan Hussein's coinage. Kalma at reverse in square. Ruler: Sultan Hussein Baiqara [Mirza Husseyn Bayqarah] ibn Mansur (1470-1506).

Herat & Astarabad are by far the most common mints. Coinage of other 18 mints are also commonly available.

 
  • Independent Rulers at Maimana
  • A city-state in the northwest of Afghanistan, independent from the time when Persia retreated out of the region, to the era in which Afghanistan coalesced into a recognizable state.
  • Persia................................................c. 1506 - 1747
  • Hajji....................................................1747 - 1770
  • Ghan........................................................? - 1790
  • Ahmad....................................................1790 - 1810
  • Allah Yar................................................1810 - 1826
  • Mizhrab..................................................1826 - 1845
  • Hikmat...................................................1845 - 1853
  • Husain Khan (1st time)...................................1853 - 1876
  • Afghanistan..............................................1876 - 1879
  • Dilwar Khan..............................................1879 - 1883
  • Husain Khan (2nd time)...................................1883 - ?
  • Kemal Khan........................................early 1890s - c. 1900
  • under Afghanistan afterwards.
 
  • Independent Rulers at Qonduz
  • A northern Afghan state, about equidistant between Mazar-I-Sharif and the capital of the Northern Alliance, Faizabad.
  • Persia.................................................c. 500 - 329
  • Macedon...................................................329 - 306
  • The Seleucid Empire.......................................306 - 256
  • Bactria...................................................256 - c. 80
  • Kushanid Empire.....................................c. 80 BCE - c. 240 CE
  • The Kushanshahs........................................c. 240 - c. 410
  • The White Huns (Hephthalites).............................410 - 565
  • The Western Turks (Gök)...................................565 - 652
  • The Caliphate.............................................652 - 848
  • Balkh.....................................................848 - 1011
  • The Ghaznavid Empire.....................................1011 - 1148
  • The Ghurid Empire........................................1148 - 1212
  • Khwarazm.................................................1212 - 1220
  • Mongols..................................................1220 - 1332
  • Herat....................................................1332 - 1389
  • Timurid Empire...........................................1389 - 1506
  • Persia...................................................1506 - 1508
  • Wais Mirza...............................................1508 - 1520
  • Badakhshan...............................................1520 - 1545
  • Abu Nasr Muhammad Hindal.................................1545 - 1550
  • He ruled Badakh in 1529 and then again from 1546 to 1547.
  • Ibrahim.........................................................1550's
  • Badakhshan................................................. ? - 1698
  • Mahmud Bey...............................................1698 - 1708
  • Qubad Beg.......................................................fl. c. 1768
  • Unknown rulers
  • Murad Beg................................................1815 - 1842
  • Rustam Beg...............................................1842 - late 1840s
  • Mir Ataliq...............................................1850 - 1865
  • Sultan Murad.............................................1865 - 1887
  • Ali Bardi Khan....................................early 1890s - c. 1900
  • under Afghanistan afterwards.
 
  • Independent Rulers at Sar-I-Pul
  • Persia................................................c. 1510 - 1747
  • Mostly to Afghanistan (Balkh)............................1747 - 1831
  • Dhu'l-Fiqar Khan.........................................1831 - 1838
  • Mahmud Khan..............................................1838 - 1850
  • Kabul (Dost Mohammed)....................................1850 - 1863
  • Faiz Muhammad Khan.......................................1863 - 1867
  • Hakim Khan...............................................1867 - 1879
  • Mir Muhammad.............................................1879 - 1880's
  • under Afghanistan afterwards.
 
  • Other independent Rulers in various areas of Afghanistan
  • Shah Sultan Muhammad (Badakhshan).....................c. 1450 - 1467
  • Shahab-ud-Din (Karlugh dynasty in Pakhli region)......c. 1472 - ?
  • Zu-n-Nun Beg Argun Mehrabanid (1st time at Kabul)........1501 - 1502
  • Zu-n-Nun Beg Argun Mehrabanid (2nd time at Kabul)........1503 - 1504
  • Shah Beg Arghun (Qandahar, in Sindh from 1522-1524)......1507 - 1522 d. 1524
  • Wali Muhammad Astrakhanid (Balkh, Bokhara 1605-1608).....1599 - 1611
  • Nadir Muhammad Astrakhanid (Balkh, Bokhara 1640-1645)....1611 - 1651
  • Subhan Quli Astrakhanid (Balkh, Bokhara 1681-1702).......1651 - 1702
  • Hussain Khan (Karlugh dynasty in Pakhli region)...............fl. 2nd half 16th cent.
  • Mehmud Khurd (Karlugh dynasty in Pakhli region)............ ? - 1703
  • The Pakhli Sardar fragmented owing to increasing weakness on the part of the dynasty; most districts devolved to purely local control, and were absorbed later by Afghanistan.
  • Persia (but some regions to Mughal rule).................1506 - 1747
    • Timurid Dynasty - Below are the Timurid rulers at Kabul, Badakhshan and Qonduz from 1504:
    • Muhammad Zahir ad-din Babur Mirza ibn Umar Shaikh...1504 - 1530
    • Ruled Samarqand from 1497 to1498, then  again in 1500. Eastern Khorasan and Transoxian from 1500 to 1530. He defeated Ibrahim Shah Lodhi, the ruler of Delhi, at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 and became the founder and first Mughal Emperor of India from 1526 to 1530.
    • Muborek Shah Muzaffar (Badakhshan)..................1505 - 1507
    • Nasir Mirza Miran Shah (Badakhshan).................1507 - 1520
    • Sultan Uvays Mirza ibn Sultan Mahmud (Qonduz).......1507 - 1520
    • Humayun ibn Babar (Badakhshan & Qonduz).............1520 - 1529
    • He became the second Mughal Emperor of India from 1530 to 1539 and again from 1555 to 1556.
    • Abu Nasir Muhammad Hindal ibn Babur (Badakhshan)...........1529
    • Sulayman Shah Mirza ibn Sultan Uvays (Badakhshan)...1529 - 1546
    • Muhammad Kamran Mirza ibn Babur (Kabul).............1530 - 1555
    • He was the second surviving son of Babur and was half-brother to Babur's eldest son Humayun (who go on and inherit the Mughal throne). Kamran was a full brother to Babur’s third son, Askari. Humayun was able to enter Kabul in November 1545 in a bloodless takeover. Kamran then wound up in the Punjab, where a local ruler handed him over to Humayun in 1553. Although Humayun resisted the pressure to put his rebellious brother to death, he was persuaded that something needed to be done about him so he reluctantly had him blinded. Humayun then sent him off to perform the Hajj to Makkah, where he died in 1557.
    • Abu Nasir Muhammad Hindal ibn Babur (Qonduz)........1545 - 1550 and at
    • Abu Nasir Muhammad Hindal ibn Babur (Badakhshan)....1546 - 1547
    • Sulayman Shah Mirza ibn Sultan Uvays (Badakhshan)...1547 - 1575
    • Abu'l-Qasim Muhammad ibn Kamran (probably at Kabul)........1560
    • Hakim Mirza S/o Humayun (Mughal Governor of Kabul).1580? - 10 Aug 1581
    • In 1580, some prominent Muslim officers of Akbar, displeased with his liberal religious policies, started to conspire against him. Qazi Muhammad Yazdi declared it the duty of every Muslim to rebel against Akbar. In Bihar and Bengal they declared Mirza Hakim, Akbar's stepbrother and Governor of Kabul, to be the emperor. Akbar sent armies to Bihar and Bengal to crush this rebellion, while he himself started towards Kabul; Man Singh (Kacchwaha King of Amber, a state later known as Jaipur) with him. Akbar himself arrived at Kabul on August 10, 1581. Hakim was pardoned by Akbar, but his sister "Bakhtunissa Begum" was appointed Governor of Kabul. After Akbar returned to Fatehpur Sikri; Bakhtunissa remained as the nominal head of state, while Hakim acted as the Governor. Hakim died in July, 1582.
    • Shahrukh ibn Ibrahim ibn Sulayman Mirza (Badakhshan)1575 - 1584
    • (2nd time)
    • Badakhshan was occupied by Bokara from 1584 to 1657. At Badakhshan, someone named Akbar from Timurid dynasty has been known to mint his coins from 1556 to 1605.

SA#2462. Tanka (or Shahrukhi). Year: AH 933 (1527). Weight: 4.20g. Metal: 0.825 Silver. Mint: Qandahar. Alignment: Rotated. Obverse: In eightfoil area: "Zarb Qandahar 933" and ruler's name and title around. Reverse: Kalima in centre, with first four caliph's names around. Ruler: Muhammad Zahir ad-din Babur Mirza ibn Umar Shaykh. Very Rare type.

His Tankas (Shahrukis) were struck at Khorasanian and Transoxianan mints between AH 906 and AH 933.

SA#I2464. Shahrukhi. Years: AH 937-962 (1530-1555). Weight: 3.72g. Metal: 0.825 Silver. Diameter: approx. 25.00 mm. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Kabul. Obverse: In twelvefoil area: "Muhammad Kamran Badshah Ghazi". In the area around: "al-sultan al-azam wa khaqan al-Mukarram te'ala khallad Allah mulkahu wa sultanahu zarb Kabul" and date. Reverse: Kalima in centre, with first four caliph's names around. Ruler: Muhammad Kamran Mirza ibn Zahir al-Din Babur [AH 937-962 (1530-1555)]. Rare type.

Ruler at Kabul and briefly at Lahore.

While his father, Babur, was conquering the northern Indian Subcontinent from 1525 onwards, Kamran remained in Qandahar in order to secure his northern flank. He was still in charge of the northern part of the newly formed empire, when his father died in 1530. According to the Mughal historian Abu'l Fazl, Babur’s last words to Humayun were “do nothing against your brothers, even though they may deserve it.”
In 1538, Kamran first crossed into India, bringing with him 12,000 soldiers, while Humayun was away fighting in Bengal. He appeared to have come in order to put down the rebellion of his brother Hindal against Humayun. However, despite Humayun's calls for help, Kamran offered him no aid whatsoever. After Humayun returned from his defeat at the Battle of Chausa, Kamran refused to place his troops under Humayun's command as he was more interested in taking power for himself. Seeing no chance of furthering his ambition, Kamran withdrew back to Lahore. Later Humayun captured him and took over his territories.
 
  • DURRANI at Herat - Saddozai segment
  • Abdullah Khan Abdali (Herat).............................1709 - Aug 1712
  • Served as Persian governor of Herat from 1695 to 1708. Later became Shah of Herat.
    • Persian Governors at Herat
    • Shahzada Assadullah Khan Abdali..............16 Oct 1712 - 04 Oct 1720
    • Shahzada Muhammad Khan Abdali................15 Jul 1722 - Aug 1724
    • Allah Yar Khan Abdali...........................Aug 1724 - 21 Apr 1730
    • Sardar Zulfikhar Khan Abdali.................21 Apr 1730 - 22 Aug 1731
    • Persia.......................................22 Aug 1731 - Jul 1747
  • GILZHAI (HOTAKI) - Chieftains at Qandahar. Qandahar is a major city, linked by highways with Herat to the west, Ghazni and Kabul to the east, Tarin Kowt to the north, and Quetta in Pakistan to the south. Qandahar was an independent Kingdom from 1709 to 1738. Under the leadership of Mahmud Shah, they launched a successful invasion of Iran in AH1134 (1721 CE). Their coins are readily distinguished by their Sunni legends. However Iran (Persia) under Nadir Shah Afsharid in 1738 took all these areas captured by Gilzhai (or Hotaki) dynasty.
    • Persian Governors at Qandahar
    • Gurgin Khan [Giorgi XI of Kartli]...............May 1704 - 21 Apr 1709
    • Ki-Khosrow [Kaikhosro of Kartli]................Nov 1709 - 26 Oct 1711
  • Mir Wais (rebel till 1711)........................21 Apr 1709 - 1715
  • He overthrew and killed Gurgin Khan, the Safavid governor of Kandahar. Mir Wais successfully defeated the Persians, who were attempting to convert the local population of Kandahar from Sunni to the Shia sect of Islam. Mir Wais held the region of Kandahar until his death in 1715 and was succeeded by his son Mir Mahmud Hotaki.
  • Mir Abdul Aziz (or, Abdullah) Khan Hotaki (six months)..........1715
  • Mir Mahmud Shah Hotaki (Shah of Persia 1722-1725)........1715 - 25 Apr 1725
  • In 1722, Mir Mahmud led an Afghan army to Isfahan (Iran), sacked the city and proclaimed himself King of Persia. He invited all leading Persians to a great festival and then butchered them all.
  • However, the great majority still rejected the Afghan regime as usurping, and after the massacre of thousands of civilians in Isfahan by the Afghans – including more than three thousand religious scholars, nobles, and members of the Safavid family. Eventually the Hotaki dynasty was eventually removed from power by a new ruler, Nader Shah of Persia came to power.
  • Ashraf Shah Hotaki (also Shah of Persia)..........26 Apr 1725 - 13 Nov 1729
  • Mir Husayn Sultan Khan Hotaki............................1730 - 12 Mar 1738
  • Qandahar came under Persian rule 1738-1747 and then back under Afghanistan rule.

SA#2714. Rupi (10 Shahi). type A. Year: 1722-1725. Weight: 11.14g. Metal: 0.900 Silver. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Thickness: 3.00 mm. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Qandahar. Ruler: Mir Mahmud Shah (1715-1725). Scarce type.

He belonged to Hotaki (Gilzhai) dynasty at Qandahar and became Shah of Persia from 23 Oct 1722 to 25 Apr 1725.

Obverse Persian legends: "سکه زداز مشرق ایران چو قرص آفتاب" (Coin strike from Eastern Iran rumored as Sun pellet) written at top two lines. "شاه محمود جهانگیر سیادت إنتساب" (King Mahmoud world conqueror, lordship of custody) written in middle two lines. "ضرب قندهار" (Struck at Qandahar) written at the bottom line which is off flan. Reverse Persian legends: Kalima in the center square. Four caliph names outside the center square, "Abu Bakar" written at the left side, "Umar" written at the top, "Usman" written at the right side and "Ali" at the bottom.

SA#2721. Abbasi. type D. Year: AH 1137 (1725). Weight: 4.16g. Metal: 0.900 Silver. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Isfahan. Ruler: Ashraf Shah ibn Mir Mahmud Shah (1725-1729). Scarce type.

He belonged to Hotaki (Gilzhai) dynasty at Qandahar and was Shah of Persia from 26 Apr 1725 to 13 Nov 1729. This coin has a hole, probably used as a part of jewelry in the past.

Obverse Persian legends: "جلوس میمنت مانوس در دار السلطنة اصفهان" (julus maimanat manus dar dar-es-sultanate Isfahan / 1137) [struck at Dar es-Sultanate Isfahan in the year 1137 of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity]. Reverse Persian legends: "دست زد بر جلالة اشرف شاه" (Hand Strike with glory Ashraf Shah) written at the top and bottom lines. "بود تعبیر سکه دار گناه" (The Coin was interpretation for House of Sins) written in the middle two lines.

 
  • AFSHARID EMPIRE of Persia
  • Nader Shah (Nadhar / Tahmasp Qoli Khan Afshar)...........1738 - 20 June 1747
  • He was King of Persia since 22 January 1736 and son Emam Qoli. Nader evidenced in numerous martial encounters throughout his campaigns, such as the battles of Herat, Mihmandust, Murche-Khort, Kirkuk, Yeghevard, Khyber Pass, Karnal and Kars. Some historians have described him as the Napoleon of Persia, Sword of Persia or the Second Alexander. Nader rose to power during a period of chaos in Iran after a rebellion by the Hotaki Pashtuns had overthrown the weak Shah Sultan Husayn, while the arch-enemy of the Safavids, the Ottomans, as well as the Russians had seized Persian territory for themselves. Nader reunited the Persian realm and removed the invaders. He became so powerful that he decided to depose the last members of the Safavid dynasty, which had ruled Iran for over 200 years, and become Shah himself in 1736. His numerous campaigns created a great empire that, at its greatest extent, briefly encompassed what is now part of or includes Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the North Caucasus, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Pakistan, Oman and the Persian Gulf, but his military spending had a ruinous effect on the Persian economy.
  • In 1738, Nader Shah conquered Kandahar, the last outpost of the Hotaki dynasty. His thoughts now turned to the Mughal Empire based in Delhi. Despite being outnumbered by six to one, Nader Shah crushed the Mughal army in less than three hours at the huge Battle of Karnal on 13 February 1739. After this spectacular victory, Nader captured Mohammad Shah and entered Delhi. When a rumour broke out that Nader had been assassinated, some of the Indians attacked and killed Persian troops. Nader, furious, reacted by ordering his soldiers to plunder and sack the city. During the course of one day (March 22) 20,000 to 30,000 Indians were killed by the Persian troops, forcing Mohammad Shah to beg Nader for mercy. In response, Nader Shah agreed to withdraw, but Mohammad Shah paid the consequence in handing over the keys of his royal treasury, and losing even the fabled Peacock Throne to the Persian emperor. The Peacock Throne, thereafter, served as a symbol of Persian imperial might. It is estimated that Nader took away with him treasures worth as much as seven hundred million rupees. Among a trove of other fabulous jewels, Nader also looted the Koh-i-Noor (meaning "Mountain of Light" in Persian) and Darya-ye Noor (meaning "Sea of Light") diamonds. The Persian troops left Delhi at the beginning of May 1739, but before they left, he ceded back to Muhammad Shah all territories to the east of the Indus which he had overrun. Nader's soldiers also took with them thousands of elephants, horses and camels, loaded with the booty they had collected. The plunder seized from India was so much that Nader stopped taxation in Iran for a period of three years following his return. Later Nadir became increasingly cruel as a result of his illness and his desire to extort more and more tax money to pay for his military campaigns. New revolts broke out and Nader crushed them ruthlessly, building towers from his victims' skulls in imitation of his hero Timur. In 1747, Nader set off for Khorasan, where he intended to punish Kurdish rebels. Some of his officers feared he was about to execute them and plotted against him. Nader Shah was assassinated on 20 June 1747, at Quchan in Khorasan. He was surprised in his sleep by Salah Bey, captain of the guards, and stabbed with a sword. Nader was able to kill two of the assassins before he died.
  • After his death, he was succeeded by his nephew Ali Qoli, who renamed himself Adil Shah ("righteous king"). Adil Shah was probably involved in the assassination plot. Adil Shah was deposed within a year by his brother Ibrahim Shah. During the struggle between Adil Shah, his brother Ibrahim Khan and Nader's grandson Shah Rukh and almost all provincial governors declared independence, established their own states, and the entire Empire of Nader Shah fell into anarchy. Oman and the Uzbek khanates of Bukhara and Khiva regained independence, while the Ottoman Empire regained the lost territories in Western Armenia and Mesopotamia. Finally, Karim Khan founded the Zand dynasty and became ruler of Iran by 1760. Erekle II and Teimuraz II, who, in 1744, had been made the kings of Kakheti and Kartli respectively by Nader himself for their loyal service, capitalized on the eruption of instability, and declared de facto independence. Erekle II assumed control over Kartli after Teimuraz II's death, thus unifying the two as the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, becoming the first Georgian ruler in three centuries to preside over a politically unified eastern Georgia, and due to the frantic turn of events in mainland Iran he would be able to maintain its autonomy until the advent of the Iranian Qajar dynasty. The rest of the Iranian territories in the Caucasus, comprising modern-day Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Dagestan broke away into various khanates. Until the advent of the Zands and Qajars, its rulers had various forms of autonomy, but stayed vassals and subjects to the Iranian king. In the far east, Ahmad Shah Durrani had already proclaimed independence, marking the foundation of modern Afghanistan. Iran finally lost Bahrain to House of Khalifa during Invasion of Bani Utbah in 1783.
  • DURRANI at Safa - Safa, a tiny village in eastern Afghanistan, some 46 miles (74 km.) south of Kabul and about 38 miles (61 km.) west of the nearest point on the Pakistani frontier. Formerly, it was a base for the Durrani clan, the chiefs of the Alus Abdali, who eventually mastered all Afghanistan.
    • Governors within Mughal Empire to c. 1650 at Safa
    • Malik Saddu.........................................1598 - 1627
    • Amir-i-Afghan (Commander of the Afghan forces); Governor of Qandahar for the Mughals from 1622 to 1626.
    • Khwaja Khizr Khan....................................Mar - Sept 1627
    • Maudad Khan.........................................1627 - 1643
    • Shah Husain Khan....................................1643 - 1649 d. c. 1655/9
  • Sultan Khuda Dad Khan (1st sultan of Safa)...............1649 - 1665
  • Sultan Qalandar Khan......................................Aug - Nov 1665
  • Sultan Inayat Khan.......................................1665 - 1667
  • Sultan Hayat Khan Khudakka...............................1667 - 1680 d. 1729
  • Ja'afar Sultan...........................................1680 - 1695
  • Sultan Abdullah Khan (in Herat from 1712-1721)...........1695 - 1721
  • Safa became under Herat from 1712 to 1730 and then under Persia from 1730 to 1747. A protracted succession crisis in Persia permitted a number of outlying provinces to break away, and Afghanistan was no exception. Ahmad Shah, a scion of the Durranids, son of the governor of Herat and later governor of Mazandaram in his own right, united the afghan tribes and was crowned the first Afghan sovereign in 1747.
  • DURRANI
  • Ahmad Shah "Dorr-e Dorran" Abdali....................Jul 1747 - 16 Oct 1772
  • Multan was annexed by Ahmad Shah in AH1165 (1752) and was held under Afghan rule, except for an interval of Maratha control in AH1173 (1759) and Sikh control from AH1185 to AH1194 (1771 to 1780). Ahmad Shah occupied Lahore briefly in 1750 and again in 1755. Shahjahanabad (Delhi), was twice seized by Ahmad Shah; few months in AH 1170/winter (1756-1757 CE) and again in AH 1173-1174 (1760-1761 CE) for thirteen months.
  • Taimur Shah ibn Ahmad Shah........................16 Oct 1772 - 18 May 1793
  • Ruler of Herat under his father reign from 1751 to 1772. Minted coins on his name as Nizam (Governor) at Bhakhar (1759-1772 CE), Dera (1757-1758 CE), Lahore (1756-1760 CE) and Multan (1757-1772 CE). He is also known to mint coins at Mashhad (1784-1793 CE). Sind (Haidarabad) and Sirhind, both were feudatories of Taimur Shah.
  • Sulayman Shah ibn Ahmad Shah (Qandahar)...........16 Oct 1772 - 1772
  • Ahmad Shah died in 1772 leaving four sons: Sulaiman, Taimur, Sikandar and Parwez. Taimur had been chosen to succeed, but as Sulaiman was both the eldest and the son-in-law of the prime-minister, Shah Wali Khan, there was an attempt to enthrone him. This resulted in the single-year issue of coinage on Sulaiman name in AH1186 (1772). Taimur Shah put down this rebellion and moved his capital to Kabul. Taimur did not attempt to expand the empire and withdrew as much power as possible from his kinsmen the Sadozais and the other Durrani chiefs who he mistrusted. Although some marginal territories were lost, this was a prosperous time, as the many issues of Kabul, Herat, Peshawar and Qandahar attest.
  • Humayun Shah ibn Taimur Shah (Qandahar)...........18 May 1793 - 19 Jun 1793
  • Zaman Shah ibn Taimur Shah........................23 May 1793 - 1801
  • Unfortunately when Taimur Shah died in 1793 he gave no instructions as to who of his many sons should succeed him. Humayun was the eldest and he struck coins at Qandahar in 1793 which are extremely rare. The fifth son Shah Zaman appears to have had a larger following as he succeeded in ruling for seven years between 1793 and 1801. However battles between the brothers continued throughout his reign. When he tried to retake Sindh his brother Mahmud, then governor of Herat, aided a Persian revolt in Khorasan which diverted his troops away. Mahmud finally defeated and blinded Shah Zaman in 1800. However he himself was defeated and imprisoned by another brother, Shah Shuja in 1803. In 1809 Mahmud seized power again, exiling Shuja to India, from where he returned in 1839 to rule briefly until 1842. The constant battling between the princes of this line and that of a rival Durrani tribe, the Barakzais, was to continue throughout the 19th century.
  • Mahmud Shah ibn Taimur Shah (Herat)................................1797
  • Shoja al-Mulk Muhammad Shah ibn Taimur Shah (Peshawar)..Aug 1801 - Sep 1801

KM#233. Rupee. Year: ND - RY19 (1765). Weight: 11.21g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 22.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Attock.

This coin should be dated AH 1179.

Obverse couplet: "حکم شد ازقادربیجون باحمد بادشاه سکه زن برسیم وزرازا وجماهی تابماه" (hukm shud za qadir-i bu-chun ba Ahmad padshah sikka zan bar sim wa zar az awj-i mahi ta ba mah) [The order came from the Peerless Powerful One to King Ahmad to strike coin on gold and silver from the ascension of Fish to the Moon]. Reverse: "zarb Attock sanat 19 julus maimanat manus" (struck at Attock in the year 19 of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Minted Years: AH116x//9 (1755), AH1170//11 (1756), AH1170//12 (1757), AH1171//11 (1757), AH1172//12 (1758), AH1173//13 (1759), AH1174//14 (1760), AH1177//81 (1764) Error for 18, AH1179//19 (1765), AH11xx//20 (1766), AH1180//21 (1767), AH1181//21 (1767) and AH1182//22 (1768). Ruler: Ahmad Shah Abdali [Durrani] (1747-1772).

Note: Other coins mints in his reign include: Ahmadshahi (Qandahar), Ahmadnagar-Farrukhabad, Anwala (Anola), Balkh, Bareli, Bhakhar, Dera (Dera Ghazi Khan), Derajat (Dera Ismail Khan), Herat, Kabul, Kashmir, Lahore, Mashhad, Multan, Muradabad, Najibabad, Peshawar, Sarhind, Shanjahanabad (Delhi) and Tatta.

KM#623. Rupee. Year: AHxx76 - RY15 (1762). Weight: 11.22g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 22.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Lahore.

This coin should be dated AH 1176. Unpublished Date/RY combination in Krause publication. Therefore seems to be a sic (mismatch Date and RY combination) coin.

Obverse couplet: "حکم شد ازقادربیجون باحمد بادشاه سکه زن برسیم وزرازا وجماهی تابماه" (hukm shud za qadir-i bu-chun ba Ahmad padshah sikka zan bar sim wa zar az awj-i mahi ta ba mah) [The order came from the Peerless Powerful One to King Ahmad to strike coin on gold and silver from the ascension of Fish to the Moon]. Reverse: "zarb Dar-es-Sultanate Lahore sanat 15 julus maimanat manus" (struck at seat of the Kingdom Lahore in the year 15 of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Minted Years: AH1165//5 (1751), AH1170//10 (1756), AH1170//11 (1756), AH1172//13 (1758), AH1173//13 (1759), AH1173//14 (1759), AH1174//14 (1760), AH1173//15 (1760), AH1174//15 (1761), AH1175//15 (1761), AH1175//16 (1762), AH1176//16 (1762), AH1176//17 (1763), AH1177//17 (1763), AH1177//18 (1764), AH1178//18 (1764), AH1178//19 (1765), AH1179//19 (1765) and AH1180//21 (1767). Ruler: Ahmad Shah Abdali [Durrani] (1747-1772).

KM#638. Rupee. Year: ND - RY9 (1755). Weight: 11.22g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 22.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Mashhad.
Obverse couplet: "حکم شد ازقادربیجون باحمد بادشاه سکه زن برسیم وزرازا وجماهی تابماه" (hukm shud za qadir-i bu-chun ba Ahmad padshah sikka zan bar sim wa zar az awj-i mahi ta ba mah) [The order came from the Peerless Powerful One to King Ahmad to strike coin on gold and silver from the ascension of Fish to the Moon]. Reverse: "zarb Muqaddas Mashhad sanat 9" [struck at Sanctified (Holy) Mashhad in the year 9]. Minted Years: AH1168//8 (1754), AH116x//9 (1755), AH1170//10 (1756), AH1171//11 (1757) and AH1186 (1772). Ruler: Ahmad Shah Abdali [Durrani] (1747-1772).

Note: Mashhad (Persian: مشهد‎, Mašhad) also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province. It is located in the northeast of the country, near the borders with Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. It includes the areas of Mashhad Taman and Torqabeh. It was a major oasis along the ancient Silk Road connecting with Merv to the east. The city is named after the "shrine" of Imam Reza, the eighth Shia Imam. The Imam was buried in a village in Khorasan, which afterwards gained the name Mashhad, meaning the place of martyrdom. Every year, millions of pilgrims visit the Imam Reza shrine. The Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid is also buried within the shrine.

KM#643. Rupee. Year: AH1167 - RY7 (1753). Weight: 11.45g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 22.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Multan.

Border of rays between two linear circles on both sides.

Obverse couplet: "حکم شد ازقادربیجون باحمد بادشاه سکه زن برسیم وزرازا وجماهی تابماه" (hukm shud za qadir-i bu-chun ba Ahmad padshah sikka zan bar sim wa zar az awj-i mahi ta ba mah) [The order came from the Peerless Powerful One to King Ahmad to strike coin on gold and silver from the ascension of Fish to the Moon]. Reverse: "zarb Multan sanat 7 julus maimanat manus" (struck at Multan in the year 7 of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Minted Years: AH1165//5 (1751), AH1166//5 (1752), AH1166//6 (1752), AH1167//6 (1753), AH1167//7 (1753), AH1168//7 (1754), AH1168//8 (1754) and AH1170//10 (1756). Ruler: Ahmad Shah Abdali [Durrani] (1747-1772).

KM#318 Rupee. Year: AH 1170 - Ahad (one) [1757]. Weight: 11.54g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 20.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Dera (Dera Ghazi Khan).

Taimur Shah Abdali [Durrani] was Nizam (Governor) AH1170-1186 (1757-1772) at Dera during his father Ahmad Shah Abdali's rule. Later Taimur became King of Afghanistan from 16 Oct 1772 to 18 May 1793.

Obverse couplet: "بعالم یافت سکه تیمورشاه نظام بحکم خداورسول انام" (Ba-alam yaft sikkah-i-Taimur Shah Nizam Ba-hukm-i-khuda-o-Rasul-i-anam) [The stamp of Taimur Shah gained rule in the world by command of God and of the Prophet of Mankind] // 1170. Reverse: "Zarb Dera sanat Ahad" (Struck at Dera, in year First). Minted Years: AH1170//1 (1757), ND//2 (1757) and ND//3 (1758). Ruler: Taimur Shah.

Note: The mint of Dera was located at Dera Ghazi Khan. It was taken by the Sikhs in AH1235 (1819AD) and now within Pakistan.

KM#628 Rupee. Year: AH xxx1 - Ahad (one) [1757]. Weight: 11.34g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 20.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Lahore.

This coin likes to be dated AH 1171.

Taimur Shah Abdali [Durrani] was Nizam (Governor) AH1170-1186 (1757-1772) at Lahore during his father Ahmad Shah Abdali's rule. Later Taimur became King of Afghanistan from 16 Oct 1772 to 18 May 1793.

Obverse couplet: "بعالم یافت سکه تیمورشاه نظام بحکم خداورسول انام" (Ba-alam yaft sikkah-i-Taimur Shah Nizam Ba-hukm-i-khuda-o-Rasul-i-anam) [The stamp of Taimur Shah gained rule in the world by command of God and of the Prophet of Mankind]. Reverse: "Zarb Dar-es-Sultanate Lahore sanat Ahad julus maimanat manus" (Struck at Lahore, the Seat of Sovereignty, in year First of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Minted Years: AH1170//1 (1756), AH1171//1 (1757), AH1172//1 (1758), AH1173//3 (1759) and AH1174//4 (1760). Ruler: Taimur Shah.

KM#652.4 Rupee. Year: AH 1183 - RY14 (1770). Weight: 11.50g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Almost coin. Mint: Multan.

Unlisted date in Krause and Mishler's book.

Taimur Shah Abdali [Durrani] was Nizam (Governor) AH1170-1186 (1757-1772) at Multan during his father Ahmad Shah Abdali's rule. Later Taimur became King of Afghanistan from 16 Oct 1772 to 18 May 1793.

Obverse couplet: "بعالم یافت سکه تیمورشاه نظام بحکم خداورسول انام" (Ba-alam yaft sikkah-i-Taimur Shah Nizam Ba-hukm-i-khuda-o-Rasul-i-anam) [The stamp of Taimur Shah gained rule in the world by command of God and of the Prophet of Mankind]. The date (AH 1183) is in the middle line at right. Reverse: "Zarb Dar-ul-Aman Multan sanat 14" (Struck at Multan, the Seat of Safety, in year 14). Mark: diamond or rhombus in frame in the N of Multan. Mintage Years: AH1181//11 (1767) and AH1182 (1769). Ruler: Taimur Shah ibn Ahmad Shah (1772-1793).

KM#270 Falus with single sword. Year: AH 1202 (1787). Mint: Balkh. Weight: 7.68g [7.00 - 10.50g]. Metal: Copper. Alignment: Medal, slightly rotated. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Obverse: Zarb Balkh 1202. Reverse: Falus Taimur Shah. Minted Years: AH1197 (1782), AH1202 (1787), AH1205 (1790) and AH1206 (1791). Ruler: Taimur Shah ibn Ahmad Shah (1772-1793).

Note: AH1202 coin is ordinary found written as AH1220.

KM#124 Rupee. Year: AH 1025 error = AH 1205 [1790]. Weight: 11.56g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Mint: Ahmadshahi (Qandahar). Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Obverse: "Zarb Ashraf al-Bilad Ahmadshahi / 1025".

Reverse couplet: "چرخ مي آرد طلا و نقره از خورشید ماه تازید برچهره نقش سکه تیمور شاه" (The heaven brings in gold and silver from the sun and moon, so that it may receive the impression of the stamp of Timur Shah). Minted Years: AH1204//18 (1788), AH1205//19 (1789), AH1025 (1789) error for 1205, AH1206//19 (1790), AH1206//20 (1791), AH1026 (1791) error for 1206, AH1207//20 (1792), AH1027//21 (1792) error for 1207 and AH1207//12 (1792) error for year 21. Ruler: Taimur Shah ibn Ahmad Shah (1772-1793).

KM#353. Rupee. Year: AH 1194 - RY7 (1780). Weight: 11.00g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Mint: Derajat (Dera Ismail Khan). Obverse: Zarb Sikka Derajat AH 1194 - RY7.
Reverse couplet: "چرخ مي آرد طلا و نقره از خورشید ماه تازید برچهره نقش سکه تیمور شاه" (The heaven brings in gold and silver from the sun and moon, so that it may receive the impression of the stamp of Timur Shah). Minted Years: AH1187 (1773), AH1192//6 (1778), AH-//8 (1779), AH1194//7 (1780), AH1196//10 (1781), AH1197//11 (1782), AH1198//12 (1783), AH1199//13 (1784), AH1199//14 (1784), AH1199 (sic)//15 (1785), AH1200//15 (1785), AH1201//16 (1786), AH1202//17 (1787), AH1202 (sic)//18 (1788), AH1203//18 (1788), AH1204//18 (1789), AH1205//19 (1790), AH1206//19 (1790), AH1206//20 (1791), AH120x//21 (1791), AH1207//20 (1792), AH1207//22 (1792), AH-//23 (1793), AH1208 (1793) Posthumous and AH1209 (1794) Posthumous [Posthumous issues, bearing no regnal year]. Ruler: Taimur Shah ibn Ahmad Shah (1772-1793).

Note: Other coins mints in his reign include: Ahmadshahi (Qandahar), Attock, Balkh, Bhakhar, Dera (Dera Ghazi Khan), Herat, Kabul, Kashmir, Multan, Peshawar, Rakib 'Mubarak' (Camp Mint), Sind and Tatta. Posthumous issues has also been struck at various mints in AH 1208 - 1209 (1793-1794).

KM#383.1 Rupee. Year: AH 1189 (1775). Weight: 11.36g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Diameter: 21.50 mm. Mint: Herat.

Note: Date on both sides.

Obverse couplet: "چرخ مي آرد طلا و نقره از خورشید ماه تازید برچهره نقش سکه تیمور شاه" (The heaven brings in gold and silver from the sun and moon, so that it may receive the impression of the stamp of Timur Shah) / AH 1189. Reverse: "Zarb Herat Sanah 1189 julus maimanat manus" (Struck at Herat, in year AH 1189 of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Minted Years: AH1184 (1770), AH1187 (1773), AH1188 (1774), AH1189 (1775), AH1190 (1776), AH1191 (1777), AH1192 (1778), AH1193 (1779), AH1194 (1780), AH1195 (1780), AH1196 (1781),
AH1197 (1782), AH1198 (1783), AH1199 (1784) and AH1200 (1785).
Ruler: Taimur Shah ibn Ahmad Shah (1772-1793).

KM#563. Rupee Year: AH 1199 - RY12 (1784). Weight: 10.40g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Mint: Kashmir
Obverse couplet: "چرخ مي آرد طلا و نقره از خورشید ماه تازید برچهره نقش سکه تیمور شاه" (The heaven brings in gold and silver from the sun and moon, so that it may receive the impression of the stamp of Timur Shah) / AH 1199. Reverse: "Zarb Kashmir Sanah 12 julus maimanat manus" (Struck at Kashmir, in year 12 of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Minted Years: AH1187//1 (1773), AH118x//3 (1774), AH1190//4 (1776), AH1191//5 (1777), AH1192//5 (1778), AH1193//6 (1779), AH1194//7 (1780), AH1195//7 (1780), AH1195//8 (1780), AH1196//9 (1781) different arrangement of the reverse legend, AH1197//9 (1782) different arrangement of the reverse legend, AH1197//10 (1782), AH1198//6 (1783), AH1198//7 (1783), AH1198//10 (1784), AH1198//11 (1784), AH1199//12 (1784) different arrangement of the reverse legend, AH1200//12 (1785) different arrangement of the reverse legend, AH1200//13 (1786), AH1201//13 (1786), AH1201//14 (1787), AH1202//14 (1787), AH1202//15 (1788), AH1203//15 (1788), AH1203//16 (1789), AH1204//16 (1789), AH1204//17 (1790), AH1205//17 (1790), AH1206//19 (1791), AH1207//19 (1792), AH1207//20 (1793) and AH1208//20 (1793). Ruler: Taimur Shah ibn Ahmad Shah (1772-1793).

KM#703 Rupee. Year: AH x187 - RY2 (1773). Weight: 11.26g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Diameter: 21.50 mm. Mint: Peshawar.

Obverse couplet: "چرخ مي آرد طلا و نقره از خورشید ماه تازید برچهره نقش سکه تیمور شاه" (The heaven brings in gold and silver from the sun and moon, so that it may receive the impression of the stamp of Timur Shah) / AH x187. Reverse: "Zarb Peshawar Sanah 2 julus maimanat manus" (Struck at Peshawar, in year 2 of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Minted Years: AH1186//1 (1772), AH1187//1 (1773), AH1187//2 (1773), AH1188//2 (1774), AH1188//3 (1774), AH1189//4 (1775), AH1190//5 (1776), AH1191 (1777), AH1193//8 (1779), AH1194//8 (1780), AH1195//10 (1780), AH1195//9 (1780), AH1196//10 (1781), AH1196//11 (1781), AH1197//10 (1782) Muling, AH1197//11 (1782), AH1197//12 (1782), AH1198//12 (1783), AH1199//12 (1783), AH1199//13 (1784), AH1200//13 (1785), AH1201//15 (1786) and AH1203//17 (1788). Ruler: Taimur Shah ibn Ahmad Shah (1772-1793).

KM#133. Rupee. Year: AH 1208 (1793). Weight: 11.50g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Diameter: 23.50 mm. Mint: Ahmadshahi (Qandahar).

Obverse: "Zarb Ashraful-bilad Ahmad Shahi / AH 1208" (Struck at Ahmadshahi, the Most Noble of the Cities / AH 1208). Reverse couplet: "قراریافت بحکم خدای هردوجهان رواج سکه دولت بنام شاه زمان" (Obtained permanency by command of the Lord of both Worlds, Current coin of the realm through the name of Shah Zaman). Mintage Years: AH1207 (1792), AH1208 (1793), AH1209//2 (1794), AH1210//3 (1795), AH1201// (1795) error for 1210, AH1211//2 (1796), AH1211//4 (1796), AH1212//5 (1797) and AH1213//6 (1798). Ruler: Zaman Shah [fifth son of Timur Shah] (1793-1801).

Other coins, mints during Zaman Shah's reign include: Ahmadshahi (Qandahar), Bhakhar, Dera (Dera Ghazi Khan), Herat, Kabul, Kashmir, Lahore, Multan, Peshawar and Qandahar.

Note: In the battle of Panipat, in 1626, the Rajah of Gwalior was slain and his most precious jewel, the Koh i Nur, valued ‘at half the daily expense of the whole world’, came to Humayun, son of Babur. Two centuries later the wonderful store of gems belonging to Humayun’s descendants was carried off to Afghanistan. The treasures of Nadir were looted by the Durranis. The Koh i Nur was taken from Shah Zaman when he was dethroned and blinded by his half brother Mahmud but was later recovered by Zaman’s full brother Shuja, together with a famous ruby called Fakhr. Shuja in his turn was driven out of Kabul; he fell into the hands of the Sikhs and was constrained to deliver up the Koh i Nur diamond to Ranjit Singh. After the Sikh Wars the priceless stone came to the British Crown.

KM#358. Rupee. Year: AH 1210 - RY2 (1795). Weight: 10.85g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Mint: Derajat (Dera Ismail Khan).

Obverse couplet: "قراریافت بحکم خدای هردوجهان رواج سکه دولت بنام شاه زمان" (Obtained permanency by command of the Lord of both Worlds, Current coin of the realm through the name of Shah Zaman) / AH 1210. Reverse: "Zarb Derajat Sanah 2" (Struck at Derajat in the year 2). Mintage Years: AH1207//1, AH1208//1, AH1209//2, AH1210//2, AH1211//2, AH1212//2, AH1212//6, AH1213//7, AH1214//7 and AH1214//8 (1793-1800) [The reignal year 2 was retained for four years, for reasons unknown today]. Ruler: Zaman Shah [fifth son of Timur Shah] (1793-1801).

Same as above coin KM#358, but...

Year: AH 1212 (1798). Weight: 10.80g. Mint: Derhojat (Dera Ismail Khan).

"Derhojat" is unpublished spelling mint name mentioned in "Catalogue of Durrani coins Lahore Museum" by Whitehead and also under KM#358 in Krause publication (18th century, 3rd edition). The correct spelling is "Derajat".

KM#A713. Rupee. Year: AH 1214 - RY8 (1799). Weight: 11.61g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Diameter: 22.00 mm. Mint: Peshawar.

Obverse couplet: "قراریافت بحکم خدای هردوجهان رواج سکه دولت بنام شاه زمان" (Obtained permanency by command of the Lord of both Worlds, Current coin of the realm through the name of Shah Zaman) / AH 1214. Reverse: "Zarb Peshawar Sanah 8 julus maimanat manus" (Struck at Peshawar in the year 8 of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Mintage Years: AH1211//4 (1796), AH1211//5 (1797), AH1212//5 (1797), AH1213//6 (1798), AH1214//6 (1799), AH1214//8 (1800) and AH1215//8 (1800). Ruler: Zaman Shah [fifth son of Timur Shah] (1793-1801).

 
  • BARAKZAI
  • Mahmud Shah (1st time)............................25 Jul 1801 - Jul 1803
  • Minted coins at Bahawalpur, Bhakhar (Bhakkar), Dera Ghazi Khan, Dera Ismail Khan, Herat, Qandahar, Kabul, Kashmir, Mashhad [it was seized by Fath Ali Shah and permanently annexed to Iran in AH1218 (1803)], Multan and Peshawar.
  • Qaisar Shah (rebel at Kabul & Qandahar).........................1803
  • He also ruled Kashmir from 1807 to 1808.
  • Mahmud Shah (2nd time and also in Kashmir)........03 May 1809 - 1818
  • Son of Taimur Shah and was King at Qandahar in 1808 and again from 1809 to 1818. Captured Kabul and ruled Herat from 03 May 1809 to 1818. Minted coins at Dera Ismail Khan, Multan and Peshawar from 1808 to 1817.
    • Muhammad Azim Khan (Kashmir Governor)...............1813 - 1819
    • Minted coins in the name of Mahmud Shah.
  • Mahmud Shah (2nd time at Herat)..........................1818 - 1819
  • Shirdil Khan Mohammadzai brief ruled Herat in 1819.
  • Mahmud Shah (3rd time at Herat)..........................1819 - 1826
  • Dost Muhammad Khan Mohammadzai (1st time)................1824 - 02 Aug 1839
  • Regent at Kabul till 1836, then as Emir from 1836 to 1839. British Prisoner from 1840 to 1842.
  • Kamran Shah ibn Mahmud Shah (Herat)......................1826 - Mar 1842
  • Purdil Khan Mohammadzai (regent at Qandahar).............1826 - 1829
  • He was son of Payinda (Sarafraz) Khan.
  • Kohandil Khan Mohammadzai (1st time regent at Qandahar)..1829 - 1839
  • He was son of Payinda (Sarafraz) Khan.
  • Sultan Muhammad Tilai Barakzai (Peshawar)................1831 - 1834

KM#244. Two Rupees. Year: AH 1217 - RY1 (1802). Weight: 22.69g [23.00g]. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 26.50 mm. Edge: Oblique milling (Grained right). Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Bahawalpur. Mintage Years: One year type. Ruler: Mahmud Shah ibn Taimur Shah (1st reign: 1801-1803).

Note: Regnal year written as numeral, instead of "Ahad.

KM#719. Rupee. Year: AH 1217 - RY2 (1802). Weight: 11.42g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Peshawar. Reverse: "Zarb Peshawar Sanah 2" (Struck at Peshawar in the year 2). Minted Years: AH1217//2 and AH1218//3 (1802-1803). Ruler: Mahmud Shah ibn Taimur Shah (1st reign: 1801-1803).

KM#157. Rupee. Year: AH 1224 (1809). Weight: 11.50g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Diameter: 19.50 mm. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Ahmadshahi (also known as Ashraf al-Bilad, later from AH 1271 as Qandahar). Obverse: Zarb Ashraf al-Bilad Ahmadshahi / 1224. Minted Years: AH1223, AH1224, AH1225, AH1226, AH1227, AH1228, AH1229, AH1230 and AH1232. (1808-1814 and 1816). Ruler: Mahmud Shah ibn Taimur Shah (2nd reign: 1809-1818).

KM#158.1. Rupee. Year: AH 1231 (1816). Weight: 11.36g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Diameter: 20.50 mm. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Ahmadshahi (Qandahar). Obverse: Zarb Ahmadshahi / 1231. Minted Years: AH1229, AH1230, AH1231 and AH1232 (1814-1817). Ruler: Mahmud Shah ibn Taimur Shah (2nd reign: 1809-1818).

KM#727.2. Rupee. Year: AH 1230 - RY7 (1815). Weight: 10.47g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Peshawar. Reverse: "Zarb Peshawar Sanah 7 julus maimanat manus" (Struck at Peshawar in the year 7 of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Minted Years: AH1224//1, AH1227//3, AH1227//4, AH1228//4, AH1228//5, AH1229//5, AH1229//6, AH1230//6, AH1230//7, AH1231//7 and AH1231//8 (1809-1816). Ruler: Mahmud Shah ibn Taimur Shah (2nd reign: 1809-1818).

KM#728. Rupee. Year: AH 1233 - RY10 (1818). Weight: 10.44g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Diameter: 22.50 mm. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Peshawar. Obverse: "Sultan Muhmud" with Date in the quatrefoil center. Reverse: "Zarb Peshawar Sanah 10 julus maimanat manus" (Struck at Peshawar in the year 10 of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Minted Years: AH1231//8, AH1232//8, AH1232//9, AH1233//6 error for reign year 9, AH1233//9 and AH1233//10 (1816-1818). Ruler: Mahmud Shah ibn Taimur Shah (2nd reign: 1809-1818).
Note: This coin was produced under Sikh rule (Sikh occupation of Peshawar). Sikh effective rule in Peshawar commenced in AH1231 (1816), but all coinage cites only the Durrani ruler, Mahmud Shah until about AH1234 (1819) and then Ayyub Shah until AH1246 (1830).

KM#398.3. Rupee. Year: AH 1243 (1827). Weight: 10.17g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Herat. Obverse: Zarb Dar es-Sultanate Herat / 1243. Minted Years: AH1242, AH1243, AH1244 and AH1254 error for 1245 (1826-1829). Ruler: Mahmud Shah ibn Taimur Shah (3rd reign at Herat: 1818-1826). Posthumous issues.

KM#478. Rupee. Year: AH 1241 (1825). Weight: 9.71g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Diameter: 22.50 mm. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Kabul. Obverse: Zarb Dar es-Sultanate Kabul / 1241. Reverse: "Sahib al-Zaman" written in center cartouche. Date AH 1241 written at the bottom right side. Minted Years: AH1241, AH1242, AH1243 and AH1244 (1825-1828). Ruler: Dost Muhammad Khan ibn Payinda (Sarafraz) Khan Muhammadzai ibn Jamal Khan [1st reign] (1824-1839).

KM#479. Rupee. Year: AH 1245 (1829). Weight: 9.62g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Diameter: 22.50 mm. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Kabul. Obverse: Zarb Dar es-Sultanate Kabul / 1245. Reverse: "Sahib al-Zaman" written at the top. Minted Years: AH1244 and AH1245 (1828-1829). Ruler: Dost Muhammad Khan ibn Payinda (Sarafraz) Khan Muhammadzai ibn Jamal Khan [1st reign] (1824-1839).

KM#480.1. Rupee. Year: AH 1249 (1833). Weight: 9.43g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Diameter: 22.50 mm. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Kabul. Obverse: Zarb Dar es-Sultanate Kabul / 1249. Minted Years: AH1245, AH1246, AH1247, AH1248, AH1249 and AH1250 (1829-1834). Ruler: Dost Muhammad Khan ibn Payinda (Sarafraz) Khan Muhammadzai ibn Jamal Khan [1st reign] (1824-1839).

Note: Issued in the name of Payinda Khan. Various borders on Reverse side and various arrangements of couplet on obverse side exists.

KM#481. Rupee. Year: AH 1251 (1835). Weight: 9.46g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Diameter: 23.50 mm. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Kabul. Obverse: Zarb Dar es-Sultanate Kabul / 1251. Reverse: "Dost Muhammad" written in the middle line at the left side. Minted Years: AH1250, AH1251, AH1252, AH1253, AH1254 and AH1255 (1834-1839). Ruler: Dost Muhammad Khan ibn Payinda (Sarafraz) Khan Muhammadzai ibn Jamal Khan [1st reign] (1824-1839).

KM#403. Rupee. Year: AH 1254 (1838). Weight: 10.26g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 21.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Herat. Obverse: Zarb Dar as-Sultanat - Herat. Minted Years: AH1244, AH1245, AH1246, AH1248, AH1249, AH1251, AH1252, AH1254 and AH1255 (1829-1839). Ruler: Kamran Shah ibn Mahmud Shah (1829-1842).

KM#739. Rupee. Year: AH 1247 (1831). Weight: 9.31g. Metal: .925 Silver. Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Peshawar. Minted Years: AH1247, AH1248 and AH1249 (1831-1833). Ruler: Sultan Muhammad Tilai Barakzai (1831-1834).

Also note that a very similar design as anonymous coinage, KM#738 exists. Minted Years: AH 1246-1249, having date on both sides.

 
  • DURRANI
  • Shoja al-Mulk Muhammad Shah (2nd time)............13 Jul 1803 - 1809
  • Son of Taimur and minted coins at Bahawalpur, Bhakhar (Bhakkar), Dera Ghazi Khan, Dera Ismail Khan, Herat, Qandahar, Kabul, Kashmir and Multan. In Peshawar he minted coins as a local ruler.
  • Kamran Shah (Qandahar)...................................1804 - 1805
  • Ata Muhammad Bamizai Khan (Rebel Governor of Kashmir)....1808 - 1813
  • Used the name of Shah Nur al-Din; the patron Saint of Kashmir, on his coinage.
  • Ayyub Shah ibn Taimur Shah (Peshawar & Qandahar).........1817 - 1829
  • He is also known as a puppet of Dost Muhammad from 1817 to 1823 and ruled Kashmir from 1818 to 1829. Peshawar from 1818 briefly then again from 1818 to 1829. Kabul from 1817 to 1826. A regent, Purdil Khan was also governing under his rule at Qandahar from 1826 to 1829. Sikhs captured Dera Ghazi Khan in AH 1235 (1819), Dera Ismail Khan in AH1236 (1820-1821) and Multan in AH1233 (1818) and later these areas were permanently incorporated into Punjab. Period of disorder started from about 1817 to around 1880, Afghanistan was usually divided mainly in four regions Herat, Kabul, Peshawar and Qandahar with extremely complex authority among themselves. During this period most of these regions were somehow united under Dost Mohammed's second reign (1842-1863). British Occupation of Peshawar incorporated into Punjab in 1823, officially in May 1834.
  • Shoja al-Mulk Muhammad Shah (2nd time at Peshawar)..............1818
  • Sultan Ali Shah (only at Kabul)..........................1818 - 1819
  • Shirdil Khan Mohammadzai (regent at Qandahar)............1819 - 1826
  • He was son of Payinda (Sarafraz) Khan. Briefly ruled Herat in 1819.
  • Habibollah Shah Mohammadzai (only at Kabul).....................1823
  • Sultan Yar Mohammad Khan Mohammadzai (regent at Kabul)...1823 - 1826

KM#368. Rupee. Year: ND [AH x22x] (1805-1808)]. Weight: 10.98g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Derajat (Dera Ismail Khan).

This coin is cut from the edges all around.

Obverse Shorter couplet: "Sikka zad bar Seem wa Zar chun Mihr wa Mah / Shah-i deen Parwar Shuja'a ul-Mulk Shah". Reverse: "zarb Derajat sanah x julus maimanat manus" (Struck at Derajat in the year x associated with tranquil prosperity). Mintage Years: AH1218//1, AH1219//2, AH1218//2, AH1220//2, AH1220//3, AH1221//3, AH1221//4, AH1221//5, AH122x//6 and AH1223 (1803-1808). Ruler: Shuja al-Mulk Muhammad Shah ibn Taimur Shah (1803-1809).

KM#722. Rupee. Year: ND [AH 1218-1224 (1803-1808)]. Weight: 11.00g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Mint: Peshawar.

Shuja al-Mulk minted this coin as a local rule at Peshawar.

Obverse couplet: "سکه زد برسیم وزر روشنتراز خورشید وماه نور چشم دّردّران شه شجاع المللك شاه" (The light of the eyes, the preal of the Durrani tribe, the King Shuja ul-Mulk put his stamp on gold and silver more brightly than sun and the moon). Reverse: "zarb Peshawar julus maimanat manus" (Struck at Peshawar associated with tranquil prosperity). Mintage Years: AH1218//1, AH1219//2, AH1219//3, AH1220//3, AH1221//4, AH1222//5, AH1223//6 and AH1224//7 (1803-1808). Ruler: Shuja al-Mulk Muhammad Shah ibn Taimur Shah (1803-1809).

KM#254. Two Rupees. Year: AH 1218 - RY Ahad (1) [1803]. Weight: 22.71g [23.00g]. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Oblique milling (Grained right). Alignment: Medal. Mint: Bahawalpur. Obverse: "sikka zad bar sim az fazal khas kardegar khusru giti sitan shah shuja' namdar". Reverse: "zarb Bahawalpur sanah Ahad julus maimanat manus" (Struck at Bahawalpur in the year First associated with tranquil prosperity). Mintage Years: AH1218//1 and  AH1219 (1803-1804). Ruler: Shuja al-Mulk Muhammad Shah ibn Taimur Shah (1803-1809).

KM#162. Rupee. Year: AH 1235 (1820). Weight: 10.21g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 21.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Ahmadshahi (Qandahar). Obverse: "Zarb Ahmadshahi / AH 1235" written in proper round circle. Sunni Kalima is circled around the mint name. Minted Years: AH1234 and AH1235 (1819-1820). Ruler: Ayyub Shah ibn Taimur Shah (1817-1829). Scarce type.

Same as above coin KM#162 Rupee, but...

Year: AH 1234 (1819). Weight: 9.71g. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Alignment: Coin.

Unpublished style as mint Ahmadshahi is written within cartouche. KM#162 Obverse indicates mint: Ahmadshahi in center with proper round circle for AH 1234-1235. Sunni Kalimah is circled around the mint name in both dates.

KM#468. Rupee. Year: AH 1236 - RY2 (1821). Weight: 10.66g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 21.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Kabul. Obverse: "Zarb Dar-es-Sultanate Kabul / AH 1234 / RY2". Minted Years: AH1234, AH1234//1, AH1235//1-2, AH1235//2, AH1236//2, AH1237//2, AH1237//3, AH1238//1237/2, AH1238//3 and AH1239//4 (1819-1823). Ruler: Ayyub Shah ibn Taimur Shah (1817-1829).

KM#614. Rupee. Year: AH 1234 - RY2 (1819). Weight: 10.96g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 21.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Kashmir. Reverse: "Zarb Kashmir Sanah 2 julus maimanat manus" (Struck at Kashmir in year 2, associated with tranquil prosperity). Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Ayyub Shah ibn Taimur Shah (1817-1829).

Note: Kashmir fell to the Sikhs in AH1234 (1819) and ended the Durrani rule, but they still cite Ayyub Shah Durrani on their coins. It was conquered by the Sikh Army under the command of Misr Diwan Chand, Ranjit Singh's most capable Indian General and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu. The first Sikh Rupees from Kashmir were struck in the name of Ayyub Shah Durrani, until Hari Singh Nalwa introduced a new "Chota" Rupiya as replacement (source: Herrli).

 
  • Great Britain........................................Apr 1839 - 06 Jan 1842
  • First Anglo-Afghan War: An army of British and Indian troops under the command of Sir John Keane (subsequently replaced by Sir Willoughby Cotten and then by the spectacularly incompetent Major-General William George Keith Elphinstone) set out from the Punjab in December 1838. With them was William Hay Macnaghten, the former chief secretary of the Calcutta government who had been selected as Britain's chief representative to Kabul. They reached Quetta by late March 1839 and a month later took Kandahar without a battle. In July, after a two-month delay in Kandahar, the British attacked the fortress of Ghazni, overlooking a plain leading to eastward into the North West Frontier Province, and achieved a decisive victory over Dost Mohammad's troops led by one of his sons. Dost Mohammad fled with his loyal followers across the passes to Bamian, and ultimately to Bukhara. In August 1839, after almost thirty years, Shuja was again enthroned in Kabul. Some British troops returned to India, but it soon became clear that Shuja's rule could only be maintained with the presence of British forces. The Afghans resented the British presence and Shah Shuja. As the occupation dragged on, MacNaghten allowed his soldiers to bring in their families to improve morale; this further infuriated the Afghans, as it appeared the British were settling into a permanent occupation. After he unsuccessfully attacked the British and their Afghan protégé, Dost Mohammad surrendered to them and was exiled in India in late 1840.
    By October 1841, however, disaffected Afghan tribes were flocking to support Dost Mohammad's son, Mohammad Akbar Khan, in Bamian. In November 1841 a senior British officer, Sir Alexander 'Sekundar' Burnes, and his aides were killed by a mob in Kabul. The substantial remaining British forces in their cantonment just outside Kabul did nothing immediately. In the following weeks the British commanders tried to negotiate with Mohammad Akbar. In a secret meeting, MacNaghten offered to make Akbar Afghanistan's vizier in exchange for allowing the British to stay. Rather than betray his countrymen, Akbar ordered MacNaghten thrown in prison. Along the way to prison, an angry mob killed MacNaghten and his dismembered corpse was paraded through Kabul. In this war known as the First Anglo-Afghan War, placed in command of the British garrison in Kabul, numbering around 4500 troops, of whom 690 were European and the rest Indian. As they struggled through the snowbound passes, the British were attacked by Ghilzai warriors. The evacuees were harassed down the 30 miles (48 km) of treacherous gorges and passes lying along the Kabul River between Kabul and Gandamak, and massacred at the Gandamak pass before reaching the besieged garrison at Jalalabad. The force had been reduced to fewer than forty men by a retreat from Kabul that had become, towards the end, a running battle through two feet of snow. The ground was frozen, the men had no shelter and had little food for weeks. Only a dozen of the men had working muskets, the officers their pistols and a few unbroken swords. The only Briton known to have escaped was Dr. William Brydon, who reached Jalalabad, though a few others were captured. Elphinstone died as a captive in Afghanistan some months later on 23 April 1842.
    • DURRANI  (Kings - Saddozai segment)
    • Shoja al-Mulk Muhammad Shah (4th time).......08 May 1839 - 05 Apr 1842
    • Ruler at Kabul. Qandahar from Apr 1839.
    • Mohammad Zaman Khan Mohammadzai.....................1841 - Apr 1842
    • Rebel regent at Kabul.
  • DURRANI (Emirs - Saddozai segment)
  • Safdar Jang Khan Saddozai (regent at Qandahar)......May 1842 - 1842
  • Fath Jang Khan (Kabul & Qandahar)................29 Jun 1842 - 12 Oct 1842
  • Shahpur Khan (Kabul).............................12 Oct 1842 - Dec 1842

KM#484.1 Rupee. Year: AH 1256 (1840). Weight: 9.35g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Kabul. Obverse: "Sultan Shoja Shah Al-Mulk" / AH 1256. Reverse: "Zarb Dar-es-Sultanate Kabul / AH 1256". Ruler: Shoja al-Mulk Muhammad Shah. Minted Years: AH1255, AH1256, AH1257 and AH1258 (1839-1842).

This coin was made during First Anglo-Afghan War by British but citing Shuja al-Mulk Muhammad Shah.

KM#486 Rupee. Year: AH 1258 (1842). Weight: 9.47g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Kabul. Obverse: "Zarb Dar-es-Sultanate Kabul / AH 1258". Ruler: Mohammad Zaman Khan (rebel at Kabul during 1841-1842). Minted Years: One year type.

This coin is mistakenly listed under Shuja al-Mulk in Krause publications.

KM#488.1 Rupee. Year: AH 1258 (1842). Weight: 9.00g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Kabul. Obverse: Couplet, name Fath Jang at top. Reverse: "Zarb Dar-es-Sultanate Kabul / AH 1258". Ruler: Fath Jang Khan (1842). Minted Years: One year type.

KM#488.2 also exists as one year type, having the name "Fath Jang" in center. This type is more scarce than the displayed one.

 
  • BARAKZAI - Continued fragmentation as Emirs, 1842 to 1878.
  • Yar Muhammad Khan Alikozai (Herat)...................Mar 1842 - 01 Jun 1851
  • Minister-regent at Herat. He served as Vizier of Herat from 1829 to 1842 and son of Payinda (Sarafraz) Khan.
  • Kohandil Khan Mohammadzai (2nd time regent at Qandahar)..1842 - Aug 1855
  • He was son of Payinda (Sarafraz) Khan. Qandahar was captured by Dost Muhammad in 1851.
  • Dost Muhammad Khan Mohammadzai (2nd time)............Dec 1842 - 09 Jun 1863
  • He ruled Kabul and Balkh from 1842, Sar-I-Pul from 1850, Qandahar from July 1858. Herat was ruled briefly under his reign from 26 May 1863. He was the son of Payinda (Sarafraz) Khan. He also issued coins in the name of Amir-e Kabir and his late son Akbar Khan.
  • After Dost Mohammad Khan established himself in Kabul he began to extend his rule throughout Afghanistan. He took Gaznī and defeated Shah Shoja-al-Dawla Sadozī in Qandahar but failed to restore Afghan sovereignty over Peshawar in AH1250 (1834) and again in AH1253 (1837). He adopted the title amīr-al-mumenin (commander of the faithful) in AH1254 (1838) and waged what he claimed was jehad (holy war) against the Sikhs. He inscribed on the first coinage that he issued, in AH1254 (1838): “Amīr Dost Mohammad resolved to wage jehad / And to mint coins, may God grant him victory.” From that time on he was known as Amir-e Kabir, despite a three-year interruption in his rule. In AH1255 (1839), with the help of British forces, he was ousted from Kabul, and Shah Shoja-al-Dawla was installed as ruler. After some attempts to regain his throne Dost Mohammad Khan surrendered to the British government and was exiled to India. It was during his second reign that Dost Mohammad Khan was able to bring all of Afghanistan under his direct control, with the exception of Peshawar and Kashmir, which have remained separate. He conquered Bamīan and Hazarajat in AH1266 (1849), naming his son Mohammad Akram Khan as governor. During an expedition to Turkestan in AH1271 (1854) Balḵ, Maymana, and Sebergan were subjugated, and Prince Mohammad Afzal Khan was appointed governor there. The amir extended his rule over Qandahar after the death, in AH1272 (1855) of his brother Sardar Kohandel Khan, ruler of that region. Dost Mohammad Khan’s last campaign resulted in the conquest of Herat, but he died there of natural causes in AH1279 (1863). At the time of his death he had sixteen wives. The result of these alliances was a great number of offspring, twenty-seven sons and twenty-five daughters at his death, the cause of much discord among the Mohammadzī. Three of his sons ruled in Afghanistan as amirs: Sher Alī Khan (AH1280-82/1863-65, AH1285-97/1868-79), Mohammad Afżal Khan (AH1283-84/1866-67), and Mohammad Azam Khan (AH1284-85/1867-68). Other noteworthy sons were Mohammad Akbar Khan, Gholam Ḥaydar Khan and Mohammad Amīn Khan.
  • Sayyed Mohammad Khan Alikozai (Herat).............01 Jun 1851 - 15 Sep 1855
  • He was son of Yar Muhammad Khan and minister-regent at Herat. Herat was occupied by Persia (Iran) from 1852 to 1853.
  • Muhammad Yusuf Khan Saddozai (regent at Herat)....15 Sep 1851 - Jun 1856
  • Rahamdil Khan (Qandahar).................................1855 - 1856
    • Mohammad Sadeq Khan Mohammadzai (regent)........Aug 1855 - Nov 1855
    • Gholam Haydar Khan Mohammadzai (regent).........Nov 1855 - Jul 1858
  • Isa Khan Bardorani (minister-regent at Herat)........Jun 1856 - Oct 1856
  • Herat was occupied by Iran from Oct 1856 to 27 Jul 1857 and coins were issued in the name of Nasir al-Din Shah [AH1272 to AH1280 (1856 to 1863)].
  • Sultan Ahmad Khan Mohammadzai (Herat)............27 Jul 1857 - 26 May 1863
  • Sher Ali Khan Mohammadzai (1st time)....................1863 - May 1866
  • Emir of Kabul and Qandahar. Continued ruling Herat from 09 Jun 1863 to 21 Feb 1879 and Qandahar from 1865 to Jan 1867.
  • Mohammad Amin Khan Mohammadzai (Qandahar)...............1863 - 1865
  • Muhammad Afzal Khan Mohammadzai.................... May 1866 - 07 Oct 1867
  • Emir of Balkh, Herat, Kabul & Qandahar. Qandahar from Jan 1867.
  • Muhammad Azam Khan Mohammadzai...................07 Oct 1867 - 08 Sep 1868
  • Emir of Balkh, Herat, Kabul and Qandahar. Qanadar till Apr 1868.
  • Sher Ali Khan Mohammadzai (2nd time).............08 Sep 1868 - 21 Sep 1879
  • Emir of Balkh, Herat, Kabul & Qandahar. Qandahar from Apr 1868 and Maimana from 1876.

KM#405.1 Half Rupee. Year: AH 1263 (1847). Weight: 5.24g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: almost Medal. Mint: Herat. Obverse: Zarb Dar as-Sultanat - Herat. Reverse: Shahada "Kalimah. Minted Years: AH 1260-1266 (1844-1850). Ruler: Yar Mohammad Khan (Alikozai) Saddozai [minister-regent at Herat] (1842-1851).

KM#182.1 Half Rupee. Year: AH 1260 (1844). Weight: 5.71g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Ahmadshahi (Qandahar). Obverse: Zarb Ahmadshahi / 1161. Reverse: "Sultan Haqiqi" (Real Sultan) written at the top line.
Minted Years: AH1260, AH1261, AH1262, AH1263, AH1264, AH1265, AH1264//1266, AH1267, AH1268, AH1269, AH1270, AH1271 and AH1272 (1844-1855). Ruler: Kohandil Khan Mohammadzai [regent at Qandahar] (1842-1855).

Note: Both obverse and reverse have legends differently arranged in different years. For example in the above coin the mint name "Ahamdshahi" end with "ے" while in the below coin it ends with "ی".

Year: AH 1261 (1845). Weight: 5.61g. Alignment: Rotated.

Same as above coin KM# 182.1, Half Rupee but...

Year: AH 126x (1844-1853). Weight: 5.71g. Alignment: Rotated.

Note: Mint name "Ahamdshahi" end with "ے".

KM#186. Half Rupee. Year: AH 1272 (1855). Weight: 5.47g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Alignment: almost Medal. Mint: Kabul. Obverse: "Amir-e Kabir, Akbar Khan / x272". Reverse: "Zarb Ahmadshahi" with Date AH 1272 written within jar. Minted Years: AH1272, AH1273, AH1273//1272 (Date on both sides) [1855-1856]. Ruler: Dost Muhammad Khan ibn Payinda (Sarafraz) Khan Muhammadzai ibn Jamal Khan [2nd reign] (1842-1863).
Note: "Amir-e Kabir" was the title Dost Muhammad Khan gave himself in 1838 after the Battle of Jamrud. "Akbar Khan" was his brave son who led an army of well trained and equipped men in this battle. Mohammad Akbar Khan was born in 1816 to Emir Dost Mohammad Barakzai of Afghanistan and Mermən Khadija Popalzai. Mohammad Akbar Khan fame began on 30 April 1837 at the Battle of Jamrud, while attempting to regain Afghanistan's second capital Peshawar from the Sikh Empire. In this battle Sikh General Hari Singh Nalwa was killed and this was considered a big achievement by Afghans. Mohammad Akbar Khan is known for his conquest of Bala Bagh and of Jalalabad during first Anglo-Afghan war (1839-1842). He is very well known by the British for the massacre of Elphinstone's army (British retreat from Kabul during January 1842) at the Gandamak pass (06–13 January 1842).  before the only survivor, the assistant surgeon William Brydon, reached the besieged garrison at Jalalabad on 13 January 1842. Major-General William George Keith Elphinstone died in captive on 23rd April 1842. His body was dispatched with a small guard of Afghan soldiers to the British garrison at Jalalabad and was buried in an unmarked grave. Mohammad Akbar Khan died in 1845.

KM#493. Rupee. Year: AH 1258 (1842). Weight: 9.24g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Edge: Plain. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Alignment: almost Coin. Mint: Kabul. Obverse: Zarb Dar es-Sultanate Kabul / 1258. Reverse: Kalima. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Dost Muhammad Khan ibn Payinda (Sarafraz) Khan Muhammadzai ibn Jamal Khan [2nd reign] (1842-1863).

KM#497.1 Rupee. Year: AH 1278 on both sides (1862). Weight: 9.30g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Kabul.
Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH1259, AH1262, AH1263, AH1264, AH1265, AH1266 Five-pointed star on obverse, AH1266 Five-pointed star on reverse, AH1266 Five-pointed star on both sides, AH1267//1266 Five-pointed star on reverse, AH1267 Five-pointed star on reverse, AH1268, AH1269, AH1270, AH1271, AH1272, AH1273, AH1274, AH1275, AH1276, AH1277, AH1278, AH1279 and AH1280 (1842-1863). Ruler: Dost Muhammad Khan ibn Payinda (Sarafraz) Khan Muhammadzai ibn Jamal Khan [2nd reign] (1842-1863).

Note: couplet ending "Khaliq-i-Akbar" on Obverse side having many varieties. Mulings exist with different dates on obverse and reverse.

Same as above coin KM#497.1 Rupee, but...

Year: AH 1279 on both sides (1863). Weight: 9.20g.

KM#407 Half Rupee. Year: AH 1271 (1855). Weight: 5.20g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint in square: Dar as-Sultanat - Herat. Mint Years: One year type. Ruler: Sayyed Mohammad Khan Alikozai [minister-regent at Herat] (1851-1855). Scarce type.

KM#507 Rupee. Year: AH 1283 (1866). Weight: 9.09g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Dar as-Sultanat - Kabul. Minted Obverse: Muhammad Afzal / 1283. Reverse: Zarb Dar as-Sultanat - Kabul. Years: AH 1283-1284 (1866-1867). Ruler: Muhammad Afzal Khan Barakzai [eldest son of Dost Muhammad Khan] (1866-1867).

Note: Two varieties are known, minted in AH 1283.

KM#508.1 Rupee. Year: AH 1284 (1867). Weight: 9.11g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Dar as-Sultanat - Kabul. Obverse: Zarb Dar as-Sultanat - Kabul. Reverse: Azam above Amir and below Muhammad. Minted Years: AH 1284-1285 (1867-1868). Ruler: Muhammad Azam Khan Barakzai (1867-1868).

Note: KM#508.2, dated AH 1284 has Muhammad above Amir and below Azam.

KM#519 Rupee. Year: AH 1294 (1877). Weight: 9.15g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Dar as-Sultanat - Kabul. Obverse: "Emir Sher Ali" and Date at the bottom. Reverse: "Zarb Dar as-Sultanat - Kabul" and Date at the bottom. Minted Years: AH1287, AH1288, AH1289, AH1290, AH1291, AH1292, AH1293, AH1294, AH1295, AH1295//1296 and AH1296 (1870-1879). Ruler: Sher Ali Khan Barakzai (2nd time) [third son of Dost Mohammed Khan] (1868-1879).

KM#521 Rupee. Year: AH 1294 (1877). Weight: 9.13g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Mint: Dar as-Sultanat - Kabul. Obverse: "Ek Rupiya" (One Rupee) written in the center. "Zarb Dar as-Sultanat - Kabul" written around. Reverse: "Emir Sher Ali" written in the center and Kalima around in circular form. Minted Years: AH 1293-1295 (1876-1878). Ruler: Sher Ali Khan Barakzai (2nd time) [third son of Dost Mohammed Khan] (1868-1879). Coarse style.
 
  • To Great Britain........................................1878 - 1880
  • Second Anglo-Afghan War: After tension between Russia and Britain in Europe ended with the June 1878 Congress of Berlin, Russia turned its attention to Central Asia. That same summer, Russia sent an uninvited diplomatic mission to Kabul. Sher Ali tried, but failed, to keep them out. Russian envoys arrived in Kabul on 22 July 1878 and on 14 August, the British demanded that Sher Ali accept a British mission too. The amir not only refused to receive a British mission but threatened to stop it if it were dispatched. Lord Lytton, the viceroy, ordered a diplomatic mission to set out for Kabul in September 1878 but the mission was turned back as it approached the eastern entrance of the Khyber Pass, triggering the Second Anglo-Afghan War. A British force of about 40,000 fighting men was distributed into military columns which penetrated Afghanistan at three different points. An alarmed Sher Ali attempted to appeal in person to the tsar for assistance, but unable to do so, he returned to Mazari Sharif, where he died on 21 February 1879.
    With British forces occupying much of the country, Sher Ali's son and successor, Mohammad Yaqub Khan, signed the Treaty of Gandamak in May 1879 to prevent a British invasion of the rest of the country. According to this agreement and in return for an annual subsidy and vague assurances of assistance in case of foreign aggression, Yaqub relinquished control of Afghan foreign affairs to the British. British representatives were installed in Kabul and other locations, British control was extended to the Khyber and Michni passes, and Afghanistan ceded various frontier areas and Quetta to Britain. The British army then withdrew. Soon afterwards, an uprising in Kabul led to the slaughter of Britain’s Resident in Kabul, Sir Pierre Cavagnari and his guards and staff on 3 September 1879, provoking the second phase of the Second Afghan War. Major General Sir Frederick Roberts led the Kabul Field Force over the Shutargardan Pass into central Afghanistan, defeated the Afghan Army at Char Asiab on 6 October 1879 and occupied Kabul. Ghazi Mohammad Jan Khan Wardak staged an uprising and attacked British forces near Kabul in the Siege of the Sherpur Cantonment in December 1879, but his defeat there resulted in the collapse of this rebellion.
    Yaqub Khan, suspected of complicity in the massacre of Cavagnari and his staff, was obliged to abdicate. The British considered a number of possible political settlements, including partitioning Afghanistan between multiple rulers or placing Yaqub's brother Ayyub Khan on the throne, but ultimately decided to install his cousin Abdur Rahman Khan as emir instead. Ayyub Khan, who had been serving as governor of Herat, rose in revolt, defeated a British detachment at the Battle of Maiwand in July 1880 and besieged Kandahar. Roberts then led the main British force from Kabul and decisively defeated Ayyub Khan in September at the Battle of Kandahar, bringing his rebellion to an end. Abdur Rahman had confirmed the Treaty of Gandamak, leaving the British in control of the territories ceded by Yaqub Khan and ensuring British control of Afghanistan's foreign policy in exchange for protection and a subsidy. Abandoning the provocative policy of maintaining a British resident in Kabul, but having achieved all their other objectives, the British withdrew.
  • Uzbek Khanate of Badakhshan - Capital in Fayzabad.
  • Mir Yari Beg............................................1657 - 1708
  • Sulaiman Beg............................................1708 - 1713
  • Yusuf Ali...............................................1713 - 1718
  • Diya' ad-Din............................................1718 - 1730
  • Mir Nabat...............................................1730 - ?
  • Mirza Kalan I............................................. ? - 1748
  • Mir Sultan Shah I.......................................1748 - 1765
  • Burhan ad-Din...........................................1765 - ?
  • Mirza Kalan II
  • Ahmad Shah Khan
  • Mirza Kalan III
  • Zaman ad-Din............................................. ? - 1792
  • Mir Mohammed Shah......................................1792 - 1822
  • Tributary to Qonduz....................................1822 - 1859
    • Mirza Kalan IV....................................1822 - 1828
    • Mirza Abd al-Ghaful...............................1828 - 1829
    • Murad Beg.........................................1829 - 1832
    • Mirza Sulaiman....................................1832 - 1838
    • Sultan Shah II....................................1838 - 1847 with...
  • Tributary to Afghanistan...............................1859 - 1873
    • Mir Shah Nizam ad-Din.............................1844 - ?
    • Jan Khan..........................................1847 - 1848
    • Shah Ghahan..............................................1848
    • Saman ad-Din......................................1848 - 1864
    • Ghahandar Shah (1st time).........................1864 - 1867 d. 1869
    • Mir Mohammed Shah.................................1867 - 1868
    • Mizrab Shah..............................................1868
    • Ghahandar Shah (2nd time).........................1868 - 1869
    • Mahmud Shah.......................................1869 - 1873
    • Shah Zade Hasan...................................1873 - 1880
    • Alim Khan.........................................1880 - 1881
Civic / Civil war / Anonymous Copper Coins of Afghanistan
 

MM#2014 Central Asia "Bar" Fals with Arabic stamped inscription. Weight: 3.00g. Metal: Copper. Length: 24.00 mm.

These irregular copper coins emanating from Central Asia and normally procured in Afghanistan and have not yet been attributed to a particular issuing dynasty or locality.

This coin is numbered as 2014 in "Oriental Coins and their values - The World of Islam" by Michael Mitchiner, Hawkins publication 1977 at page# 287.

Anonymous Fulus. Date: ND (1689-1696). Weight: 5.07g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 17.50 mm. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Herat.

Note: Perhaps issued by Abdullah Khan Abdali, who served as Persian governor of Herat 1695-1708. Later he became Shah of Herat 1709-1712.

Anonymous Fulus. Weight: 5.26g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 16.15 mm x 18.00 mm. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Balkh.

Not listed in Krause publication.

Anonymous Fulus. Weight: 5.90g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 17.50 mm x 18.50 mm. Alignment: Medal.

Not listed in Krause publication.

KM#35 Rupee. Year: AH 1267 (1851). Mint: Balkh. Weight: 9.20g. Metal: Copper. Alignment: Medal. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Minted Years: One year type.

Anonymous Fulus. Year: AH 1271 (1854). Weight: 4.16g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 15.00 x 15.00 mm. Alignment: Medal. Mint: probably Ghazni.

Not listed in Krause publication.

KM#39 Fulus. Year: ND (ca. 1860-1880). Mint: Ghazni. Weight: 4.56g. Metal: Copper. Alignment: Coin. Diameter: 16.00 mm. Minted Years: One year type.
 
     02 Oct 1881            State of Afghanistan
     09 Jun 1926            Kingdom of Afghanistan
     17 Jul 1973            Republic of Afghanistan
     30 Apr 1978            Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
     30 Nov 1987            Republic of Afghanistan
     28 Apr 1992            Islamic State of Afghanistan
     26 Oct 1997            Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
     13 Nov 2001            Islamic State of Afghanistan
     19 Jun 2002            Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan
     26 Jan 2004            Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
 
  • BARAKZAI (Emirs - Mohammadzai segment)
  • Muhammad Yaqub Khan Mohammadzai..................21 Feb 1879 - 12 Oct 1879
  • Known as unified Emir of Aghan (Balkh, Herat, Kabul & Qandahar). He also severed as the governor of Herat from 1871 to 1874 under his father, Sher Ali Khan's rule.
  • Mohammad Jan (minister-regent at Kabul).................1879 - 31 Mar 1880
  • Musa Jan Khan Mohammadzai (Ghazni)...............24 Dec 1879 - 21 Apr 1880
  • Muhammad Ayyub Khan Mohammadzai.....................Mar 1880 - 02 Oct 1881
  • Ruled Herat & Qandahar. Qandahar briefly from 20 Jul 1881 to 22 Sep 1881.
  • Wali Sher Ali (Qandahar)................................1879 - 1880
  • Wali Muhammad (Kabul)..........................................1880
  • Sher Ali Khan Barakzai (minister-regent at Qandahar)....1880 - 21 Apr 1881
  • Abdur Rahman Khan Mohammadzai....................22 Jul 1880 - 03 Oct 1901
  • Ruled Qandahar briefly from 21 Apr 1881 to 20 Jul 1881 and then ruled Qandahar again from 22 Sep 1881.
  • Timur Shah (Herat).............................................1887
  • Muhammad Ishaq (rebel at Balkh & Kabul)........................1889
  • Habibullah Khan ibn Abdur Rehman Khan............03 Oct 1901 - 20 Feb 1919
  • Nasrullah Khan ibn Abdur Rehman Khan.............21 Feb 1919 - 28 Feb 1919 d.1921
  • Amanullah Khan ibn Habibullah Khan...............28 Feb 1919 - 09 Jun 1926
  • Amanullah Khan was 3rd son of Habibullah Khan. He helped assassinate his father. As the governor of Kabul and was in control of the army and the treasury. He quickly seized power, imprisoned any relatives with competing claims to the Kingship, and gained the allegiance of most of the tribal leaders. Amanullah's ten years of reign initiated a period of dramatic change in Afghanistan in both foreign and domestic politics. He declared full independence and sparked the Third Anglo-Afghan War. Britain virtually dictated the terms of the 1919 Rawalpindi Agreement, a temporary armistice that provided, somewhat ambiguously, for Afghan self-determination in foreign affairs. Before final negotiations were concluded in 1921, however, Afghanistan had already begun to establish its own foreign policy, including diplomatic relations with the new government in the Soviet Union in 1919. During the 1920s, Afghanistan established diplomatic relations with most major countries.
  • BARAKZAI - Kings - Mohammadzai segment
  • Amanullah Shah (Continued as King)...............09 Jun 1926 - 14 Jan 1929 d.1960
  • Inayatullah Shah ibn Habibullah Khan.............14 Jan 1929 - 17 Jan 1929 d.1946
  • Emir
  • Habibullah [Kalakani] Ghazi......................17 Jan 1929 - 13 Oct 1929
  • He named himself Habibullah 'Khadem e Deen e Rasulullah' (The servant of the religion of messenger of God). Habibullāh succeeded Inayatullah, who abdicated on January 17, 1929. As an ethnic Tajik, he was and is considered an usurper by the Pashtuns of Afghanistan, since he interrupted the Pashtun Barakzai Dynasty (which resumed upon his death). Among the Pashtuns, as a derogatory term he is commonly referred to as "Bacha-ye Saqqow" or "Bachchayi Saqqa" (in Persian "son of the water-carrier") because his father was at one point a water-carrier in the Afghan army. Among the Tajiks, however, he is still remembered and respected as a rightful king. Additionally, he is also celebrated by the famous poet Khalilollah Khalili in his masterpiece Hero of Khorasan. After nine months in power, Nader Shah's troops surrounded Kabul and took over. Kalakani and his brother and aides were shot by a firing squad on 01 November 1929. His remains were laid below a hilltop mausoleum at an undisclosed location for 87 years, until a campaign in 2016 by some Tajiks and scholars who wanted him to be reburied in a better place. Persians and religious scholars, who consider Kalakani to have been a devout Muslim, wanted him to be buried at the Shahrara hill and asked President Ashraf Ghani to plan a state burial. Opponents to Kalakani, mostly Pashtuns and secularists, were against this plan, including vice-president Abdul Rashid Dostum who claimed that he could not be buried at a hilltop important to Uzbek heritage.[7] He was eventually buried at the hill on 02 September 2016, with four injuries and one death in clashes between his supporters and pro-Dostum soldiers.
  • BARAKZAI (Emirs - Mohammadzai segment)
  • Amanullah Shah (in rebellion, at Qandahar).......21 Jan 1929 - 23 May 1929
  • Sardar Ali Ahmad Khan............................28 Jan 1929 - 15 Jul 1929
  • in rebellion at Jalalabad till 29 Mar 1929, then continue rebellion at Qandahar
  • Mohammad Nadir Khan (in rebellion, at Khost)............1929 - 17 Oct 1929
  • BARAKZAI (Kings - Mohammadzai segment)
  • Mohammad Nadir Shah (Continued as King)..........17 Oct 1929 - 08 Nov 1933
  • Mohammed Nadir Khan was born in Dehra Dun (north of Delhi), India, on April 9, 1883 to Sardar Mohammad Yusuf Khan and his first wife Sharaf Sultana. His paternal grandfather was Yahya Khan and his great grandfather was Sultan Muhammad Khan Telai, the brother of Dost Mohammed Khan, who sold Peshawar to the Sikhs.
  • Mohammad Nadir Shahs's  great grandfather Mohammad Yahya Khan was responsible for the mediation between Yaqub Khan and the British leading to the Gandamak Treaty. After the British invasion following the killing of Sir Louis Cavagnari in 1879, Yaqub Khan and Yahya Khan were seized by the British and transferred under custody to India, where they forcibly remained until invited back to Afghanistan by Emir Abdur Rahman Khan in the last year of his reign in 1901.
  • Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.....08 Nov 1933 - 17 Jul 1973 d.2007
  • He was ousted in a coup by his cousin Mohammed Daoud Khan while in Italy undergoing eye surgery.
 
Wali Sher Ali coinage at Qandahar: 1879-1880.
 

KM#221 Rupee. Year: AH 1297 (1880). Weight: 5.41g. Metal: 0.800 Silver. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Qandahar. Obverse: "Al-Mulk Lillah" with Date 1297 at the bottom. Reverse: "Zarb Qandahar" with Date 1297 at the bottom. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Wali Sher Ali (at Qandahar 1879-1880).
Note: It is not known under whose authority this type was struck as no ruler's name is mentioned on the coin. Anyhow this coin is listed under ruler: Wali Sher Ali in Krause Publications.
 
Muhammad Yaqub Khan coinage: 1879.
 

KM#533 Rupee. Year: AH 1296 (1879). Weight: 9.04g. Metal: 0.800 Silver. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: almost Coin. Mint: Dar as-Sultanat - Kabul. Obverse: Dar as-Sultanat - Kabul. Reverse: Emir Muhammad Yaqub. Minted Years: AH 1296-1297 (1879). Ruler: Muhammad Yaqub Khan Barakzai ibn Sher Ali Khan (1879).

AH1297 dated coins are reported, but not confirmed.

 
Abdur Rahman Khan coinage: 1880 - 1901
 

KM#419 Qiran (Half Rupee). Year: AH 1304 (1886). Weight: 4.56g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 16.50 mm. Mint: Herat. Edge: Reeded. Obverse: .Alignment: Coin. Obverse: "Emir Abdur Rahman" with Date. Reverse: "Zarb Dar as-Sultanat - Herat" with Date. Minted Years: AH1297, AH1298, AH1299, AH1300, AH1301, AH1302, AH1303, AH1304, AH1305, AH1306, AH1307//1306, AH1307, AH1308//1307 and AH1308 (1880-1890). Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan.
Note: Many coins of this type KM#419 are found with blundered dates. Such coins are worth the same as normal dates. Mulings of dates exist.

KM#544.1 Rupee. Year: AH 1307 (1890). Weight: 8.98g. Metal: 0.800 Silver. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Mint: Kabul. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal, but slightly rotated. Obverse:  "Emir Abdur Rahman" with date written at the bottom left side. Reverse: Dar as-Sultanat - Kabul. Minted Years: AH1297, AH1298, AH1299, AH1300, AH1301, AH1302, AH1303, AH1304, AH1305, AH1306, AH1307 and AH1308 (1880-1890). Ruler: Emir Abdur Rahman Khan ibn Muhammad Afzal Khan ibn Dost Muhammad Khan.
Note:  Date AH1297 has been observed struck over an British India 1876 1/4 Rupee, probably a mint sport.

Same as above coin KM#544.1 Rupee, but...

Year: AH 1310 (1892). Weight: 9.07g. Alignment: Medal, but slightly rotated.

 
Monetary standard: [Kabuli] Rupee = 2 Qiran = 3 Abbasi = 6 Sanar = 12 Shahi = 60 Paise = 600 Dinar. (Tilla or Amani = 10 Kabuli Rupee; Habibi = 30 Rupees).
 

KM#802 1 paisa. Year: AH 1309 (1892). Weight: 3.83g. Metal: Bronze Or Brass. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Mint: Kabul. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Date below text denomination (one paisa) below the Mosque gate. Reverse: "Dar as-Sultanat - Kabul" written in the dotted circle, surrounded by circular design. Minted Years: AH1309, AH1312-1314 and AH1316-1317. Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan.

Note: Date on the left side below the Value and above wreath.

KM#827 1 paisa. Year: AH 1317 (1899). Weight: 4.62g. Metal: Bronze Or Brass. Diameter: 20.50 mm. Mint: Kabul. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal; slightly rotated. Obverse: Star at the top. "Dar as-Sultanat - Kabul" with Date at the bottom within inner dotted circle. Dotted circle near the border. Reverse: Denomination (one paisa) below the Mosque gate. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan.

KM#824 Sanar. Year: AH 1315 (1897). Weight: 1.53g [1.55g]. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 12.50 mm. Mint: Kabul. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Date below mosque gate. Minted Years: AH1315 and without Date. Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan.

KM#810 Abbasi. Year: AH 1313 (1895). Weight: 3.07g [3.11g]. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 15.50 mm. Mint: Kabul. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Date above toughra. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan.

Similar coin with date AH 1313 also exists as KM#811, having date below mosque on reverse side.

Same as above coin but thick legends on Reverse side.

Weight: 3.00g [3.11g].

Same as above coin but rotated as shown. Weight: 3.07g.

KM#804 Half Rupee. Year: AH 1308 (1891). Weight: 4.59g [4.65g]. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Mint: Kabul. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Star above mosque. "Kabul" written below Mosque gate and Date. Minted Years: AH 1308-1310 (1890-1892). Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan.

KM#806 Rupee. Year: AH 1311 (1893). Weight: 9.18g [9.20g]. Metal: 0.900 Silver. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Mint: Kabul. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Star above mosque. "Kabul" written below Mosque gate and Date. Minted Years: AH 1308-1313, AH1311/09, AH1312/1/9, AH1312/1 and AH1391 Error. Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan.

Note: Two varieties each are known for dates AH1311-1313.

KM#818 Kabuli Rupee. Year: AH 1314 (1896). Weight: 9.06g [9.20g]. Metal: 0.900 Silver. Diameter: 23.50 mm. Mint: Kabul. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: "Do Mashkal" written above the Mosque gate. "Ek Rupiya Kabuli" with Date written below the mosque gate. Wreath surrounds on both sides. Reverse: Small dotted circle at the top. Toughra in the center surrounded by wreath on both sides. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan.

KM#819.1 Rupee. Year: AH 1315 (1897). Weight: 9.10g. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Edge: Reeded. Diameter: 24.50 mm.  Mint: Kabul. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Kabul above toughra, undivided dates. Reverse: Mosque in the center with crossed swords and cannons below it. Wreath on both sides. Minted Years: AH 1314-1315. Ruler: Emir Abdur Rahman Khan ibn Muhammad Afzal Khan ibn Dost Muhammad Khan.

Divided dates; two digits on opposite sides of toughra exists as KM#819.2 in year AH 1315-1316.

Same as above coin, but thicker details on Obverse side.

Weight: 9.22g. Diameter: 24.50 mm.

KM#830 Rupee. Year: AH 1318 (1900). Weight: 9.10g. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Date on right side of toughra. Reverse: Star at the top. Stylish Mosque in the center with crossed swords and cannons below it. Wreath on both sides. Ruler: Emir Abdur Rahman Khan ibn Muhammad Afzal Khan ibn Dost Muhammad Khan. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#826 5 Kabuli Rupee. Year: AH 1316 - RY3 (1898). Weight: 45.70g. Metal: .900 Silver. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan. Minted Years: One year type.
 
Habibullah Khan coinage: 1901-1919.
 

KM#960.1 Paisa (Local Dump Coinage). Year: AH 1322 (1903). Weight: 6.29g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Mint: Qandahar. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Emir Habibullah Khan ibn Emir Abdur Rahman Khan (1901-1919).

KM#964 Paisa (Local Dump Coinage). Year: AH xxx3 = 1333 (1914). Weight: 3.50g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Mint: Qandahar. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: "Zarb Qandahar" with Date. Reverse: Mosque. Minted Years: AH1333 (1914) and AH1334 (1915). Ruler: Emir Habibullah Khan ibn Emir Abdur Rahman Khan (1901-1919).

KM#849 Paisa. Year: AH 1329 (1911). Weight: 4.73g. Metal: Brass. Diameter: 21.50 mm. Mint: Afghanistan. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Reverse: Mosque within 8-pointed star. Minted Years: AH1329 (1911), AH1331 (1912) and AH1332 (1913). Ruler: Emir Habibullah Khan ibn Emir Abdur Rahman Khan (1901-1919).

KM#842.1 Rupee. Year: AH 1321 (1903). Weight: 9.11g [9.20g]. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Mint: Afghanistan. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Reverse: "Afghanistan" written above mosque. Wreath on both sides. Crossed swords and cannons at the bottom. Minted Years: AH 1321-1322 (1903-1904). Ruler: Emir Habibullah Khan ibn Emir Abdur Rahman Khan (1901-1919).

Note: Two varieties exists for AH 1321 date.

KM#842.2 Rupee. Year: AH 1322 (1904). Weight: 9.16g. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Mint: Afghanistan. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Reverse: "Afghanistan" written above mosque. Wreath on both sides. Crossed cannons at the bottom. Minted Years: AH1322 (1904), AH1324 (1906), AH1325 (1907), AH1326//3 (1908), AH1327//6 (1909), AH1327 (1909), AH1328 (1910) and AH1329 (1911). Ruler: Emir Habibullah Khan ibn Emir Abdur Rahman Khan (1901-1919). Two varieties exist for AH1328 date.

Same as above coin, but having minor difference like the position of the baseline of both pillars.

Weight: 9.15g.

KM#853 Rupee. Year: AH 1331 (1912). Weight: 9.04g [9.20g]. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Mint: Afghanistan. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Reverse: Value "Ek Rupiya" written at the top. Mosque within 8-pointed star, all within circle. Wreath on both sides. Minted Years: AH1329 (1911), AH1330 (1911), AH1331/0 (1912), AH1331 (1912), AH1332 (1913), AH1333 (1914), AH1334 (1915), AH1335 (1916) and AH1337 (1918). Ruler: Emir Habibullah Khan ibn Emir Abdur Rahman Khan (1901-1919).
Note: Two varieties of the AH1337 date exist, with either crossed cannons or a six-pointed star below the mosque.

KM#843 5 Rupees. Year: AH 1326 (1908). Weight: 45.53g [45.60g]. Metal: 0.900 Silver. Diameter: 45.00 mm. Mint: Afghanistan. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal; slightly rotated.

Reverse: Three stars at the top. "سراج الملة والدین امیرحبیب الله" (Seraj al-Mulya wa'l Din Emir Habibullah) written in dotted circle in the center with Date. Wreath on both sides. Reverse: "افغانستان" (Afghanistan) with star in between written at the top. Mosque gate in the center dotted circle. Wreath on both sides. Minted Years: AH1322 (1904), AH1324 (1906), AH1326 (1908), AH1327/6 (1909), AH1328 (1910) and AH1329 (1911). Ruler: Emir Habibullah Khan ibn Emir Abdur Rahman Khan (1901-1919).

Note: Most dates are recut dies. Two varieties are known for each date, AH1324 and AH1327.

 
Amanullah Khan coinage: 1919-1929
 

KM#883 Abbasi (20 paisa). Year: SH 1299 (1920). Weight: 6.70g. Metal: Billon. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Mint: Afghanistan. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Tughra surrounded by 8 stars. Date below Tughra. Reverse: Value "Abbasi" written at the top. Mosque within 7-pointed star, 7 stars surrounds. Minted Years: SH1299 (1920), SH1300 (1921), SH1301 (1922) - Two varieties for date SH1301 exist, SH1302 (1923), SH2031 (1923) Error and SH1303 (1924). Ruler: Amanullah Khan ibn Emir Habibullah Khan.

KM#881 3 Shahi (15 paisa). Year: SH 1300 (1921). Weight: 5.97g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 31.50 mm. Mint: Afghanistan. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal; slightly rotated. Obverse: "al-Ghazi" written at the top. "Emir Amanullah" written in the center circle. 10 stars surrounds in outer circle. Reverse: "سہ شاهی" (Say Shahi) written in Persian at the top. Mosque within 7-pointed star, all within circle. 10 stars surrounds in outer circle. Minted Years: SH1298 (1919), SH1299 (1920) and SH1300 (1921). Ruler: Amanullah Khan (1919-1926).

Note: Four varieties for date SH1299 and three varieties for date SH1300 are known.

KM#893 3 Shahi (15 paisa). Year: SH 1300 (1921). Weight: 6.72g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 32.50 mm. Mint: Afghanistan. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal; slightly rotated. Obverse: Tughra surrounded by nine stars. Reverse: Mosque within 7-pointed star, all within circle. 10 stars surrounds. Minted Years: SH1300 (1921), SH1301 (1922), SH130x (1923) error and SH1303 (1924). Ruler: Amanullah Khan (1919-1926).

Note: Two varieties of SH1301 exist.

KM#965 Half Rupee. Year: AH 1337 (1919). Weight: 4.71g [4.75g]. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 20.50 mm. Mint: Afghanistan. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Star at the top. "Emir Amanullah" written in the center with Date below it. Wreath on both sides. Reverse: Value "Neem Rupiya" written at the top. Mosque within 8-pointed star. Wreath on both sides. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Amanullah Khan ibn Emir Habibullah Khan. Five varieties are known.

KM#984 Half Rupee. Year: SH 1300 (1921). Weight: 4.60g [4.75g]. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 20.50 mm. Mint: Afghanistan. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Star at the top. Tughra surrounded by wreath. Date below Tughra. Reverse: Value "Neem Rupiya" written at the top. Mosque within 7-pointed star. Wreath on both sides. Minted Years: SH1300 (1921), SH1301 (1922), SH1302 (1923) and SH1303 (1924). Ruler: Amanullah Khan ibn Emir Habibullah Khan.

KM#877 Rupee. Year: SH 1298 (1919). Weight: 8.98g [9.00g]. Metal: 0.900 Silver. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Mint: Afghanistan. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: "Al-Ghazi" written at the top. "Emir Amanullah" written in the center with Date below it. Wreath on both sides. Reverse: Value "Ek Rupiya" written at the top. Mosque within 8-pointed star. Wreath on both sides. Minted Years: SH 1298 (1919) and SH 1299 (1920). Ruler: Amanullah Khan ibn Emir Habibullah Khan.

Note: Four varieties are known for date SH1298 and Two varieties are known for date SH1299.

Same as above coin KM#877 Rupee, but...

Year: SH 1299 (1920). Weight: 9.15g [9.00g].

KM#885 Rupee. Year: SH 1301 (1922). Weight: 9.08g [9.00g]. Metal: 0.900 Silver. Diameter: 26.50 mm. Mint: Afghanistan. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Star at the top. Tughra surrounded by wreath. Date below Tughra. Reverse: Value "Ek Rupiya" written at the top. Mosque within 7-pointed star. Wreath on both sides. Minted Years: SH1299 (1920), SH1300 (1921), SH1301 (1922), SH1302/1 (1923), SH1302 (1923) and SH1303 (1924). Ruler: Amanullah Khan ibn Emir Habibullah Khan.

KM#888 2 Amani (20 Rupees). Year: SH 1299 (1920). Weight: 9.20g. Metal: 0.900 Gold. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Mint: Afghanistan. Edge: Reeded. Obverse: Numeral "2" at the top. Tughra above date within wreath. Reverse: "Amania" written at the top. Mosque within 7-pointed star, wreath surrounds. Alignment: Medal. Minted Years: SH 1299-1303 (1920-1924 CE). Ruler: Amanullah Khan ibn Emir Habibullah Khan.
 
Monetary standard: Afghani = 100 Pul (Amani = 20 Afghani).
 

KM#907 10 Puls. Year: SH 1304 (1925). Weight: 5.31g [6.00g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: "Afghanistan" written at the top. Tughra above date within center circle. Wreath on both sides. Reverse: "Pul" written at the top. Numeral "10" written within the center circle. Wreath on both sides. Minted Years: SH1304 (1925), SH1305 (1926) and SH1306 (1927). Ruler: Amanullah Shah ibn Emir Habibullah Khan.

KM#909 Half Afghani. Year: SH 1305 - RY8 (1926). Weight: 5.06g [5.00g]. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Minted Years: SH1304/7 (1925), SH1305/8 (1926) and SH1306/9 (1927). Ruler: Amanullah Shah ibn Emir Habibullah Khan.

Note: Two varieties are known for date SH1304/7 (1925).

KM#910 Afghani. Year: SH 1304 - RY7 (1925). Weight: 9.90g [10.00g]. Metal: 0.900 Silver. Diameter: 29.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Minted Years: SH1304/7 (1925), SH1305/8 (1926), SH1305/9 (1926) and SH1306/9 (1927). Ruler: Amanullah Shah ibn Emir Habibullah Khan.

Note: Three varieties are known for date SH1304/7 (1925).

Type2: Same as above coin, but having larger details on the Obverse side (especially thick "Afghani" written at the top left side). Reignal year a bit far from the wreath knot on the Reverse side.

Weight: 10.04g. 

KM#913 2.5 Afghani. Year: SH 1305 - RY8 (1926). Weight: 24.81g [25.00g]. Metal: .900 Silver. Diameter: 39.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Minted Years: SH 1305//8-1306//9 (1926-1927). Ruler: Amanullah Shah ibn Emir Habibullah Khan.

Note: Two varieties are known for each date.

Same as above coin, but...

Year: SH 1306 - RY9 (1927). Weight: 24.90g [25.00g]. Alignment: Medal; slightly rotated.

Type2: Same as above coin with minor differences. Reverse wreath away from the border. Weight: 24.84g [25.00g].
 
Habibullah [Kalakani] Ghazi coinage: 1928-1929
Monetary standard: [Kabuli] Rupee = 2 Qiran = 3 Abbasi = 6 Sanar = 12 Shahi = 60 Paise = 600 Dinar. (Tilla = 10 Kabuli Rupee).
Note: He issued his earlier coins in the name of "Baccha-i-Saqao" in AH1347-1348 (1928-1929). 
 

KM#901 10 paisa. Year: AH 1348 (1929). Weight: 4.09g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 21.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: "Les Paise" (10 paisa in Pashto) written on top. Clockwise in center written: "Khadem e Deen e Rasulullah" (The servant of the religion of messenger of Allah). "Emir Habibullah" written in extreme center with date. Wreath below. Reverse: Da paisa (10 paisa in Persian) on the top. Arms in the center. Wreath below. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Habibullah [Kalakani] Ghazi.

KM#895 20 paisa. Year: AH 1347 (1929). Weight: 6.17g. Metal: Bronze or Brass. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: "Shall Paise" (20 paisa in Pashto) written on top. Bottom to top in center written: "Khadem e Deen e Rasulullah Emir Habibullah" (The servant of the religion of messenger of Allah Emir Habibullah). Date above wreath. Reverse: Beseat paisa (20 paisa in Persian) on the top. Arms in the center. Wreath below. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Habibullah [Kalakani] Ghazi.

KM#896 Qiran (1/2 Rupee). Year: AH 1347 (1929). Weight: 4.44g [4.70g]. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Bottom to top in center written: "Khadem e Deen e Rasulullah Emir Habibullah" (The servant of the religion of messenger of Allah Emir Habibullah). Date above wreath. Reverse: Value (Qiran) above mosque within 8-pointed
star, wreath surrounds.
Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Habibullah [Kalakani] Ghazi.
Note: The above coin has broken circle in the center at the bottom left side.

Same as above coin but have irregular center circle at the Reverse side. This coin has traces of Reeded edge. Crude type.

Weight: 4.70g [4.70g].

 
Mohammad Nadir Shah coinage: 1929-1933
 

KM#918 10 Puls. Year: AH 1349 (1930). Weight: 5.75g [5.80g]. Metal: Copper or Brass. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: "افغانستان" (Afghanistan) written at the top. Mohammad Nadir Tughra and Date within inner circle. Wreath at the bottom section outside the inner circle. Reverse: "Pul" written at the top. Numerical "١٠" (10) denomination within inner circle. Wreath at the bottom section outside the inner circle.
Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH1348 (1929) and AH1349 (1930). Ruler: Mohammad Nadir Shah ibn Sardar Mohammad Yusuf Khan. My coin's edge is almost smooth with small traces of Reeded / Milled lines with diameter: 24.50 mm.

Note: Small or large letters exists. Weight also varies: 5.30 to 5.80.

KM#919 20 Puls. Year: AH 1348 (1929). Weight: 5.83g [5.80g]. Metal: Copper or Brass. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: "افغانستان" (Afghanistan) written at the top. Mohammad Nadir Tughra and Date within inner circle. Wreath at the bottom section outside the inner circle. Reverse: "Pul" written at the top. Numerical "٢٠" (20) denomination within inner circle. Wreath at the bottom section outside the inner circle.

Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH1348 (1929) and AH1349 (1930). Ruler: Mohammad Nadir Shah ibn Sardar Mohammad Yusuf Khan.

KM#924 25 Puls. Year: AH 1349 (1930). Weight: 5.67g [6.00g]. Metal: Bronze or Brass. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: "پنځه ویشت" (Twenty-five) written at the top. Mohammad Nadir Tughra and Date within inner circle. Wreath at the bottom section outside the inner circle. Reverse: "Pul" written at the top. Numerical "٢٥" (25) denomination within inner circle. Wreath at the bottom section outside the inner circle.
Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH1349 (1930) and 134x (1931). Ruler: Mohammad Nadir Shah ibn Sardar Mohammad Yusuf Khan.

Note: Two varieties of letters are known for issue dated AH1349.

KM#920 Half Afghani (50 pul). Year: AH 1349 - RY2 (1930). Weight: 5.09g. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Date below mosque. Wreath at the bottom section. Reverse: Value: "1/2 Afghani" written at the top. Mohammad Nadir Tughra in the center with Reign year below it. Wreath at the bottom section. Minted Years: AH1348/1 (1929), AH1349/2 (1930) and AH1350/3 (1931). Ruler: Mohammad Nadir Shah ibn Sardar Mohammad Yusuf Khan.

Same as above KM#920 Half Afghani, but...

Year: AH 1350 - RY3 (1931). Weight: 5.03g.

KM#926 Half Afghani (50 pul). Year: AH 1312 (1933). Weight: 4.67g [4.75g]. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Kabul. Obverse: "Kabul" written at the top. Date below mosque. Wreath at both sides. "Afghanistan" written within the bottom banner. Reverse: "Afghanistan" written at the top. "Badshah Muhammad Al-Ghazi" written in the center dotted circle. "Neem Afghani" written in the shield at the bottom. Wreath at both sides.

Minted Years: SH1310 (1931), SH1311 (1932) and SH1312 (1933). Ruler: Mohammad Nadir Shah ibn Sardar Mohammad Yusuf Khan. Without diamond-shaped dot beneath the wreath type.

Note: Two die varieties exist for SH1311 (1932). SH1312 (1933) exists with and without diamond-shaped dot beneath the wreath.

KM#921 Afghani. Year: AH 1349 - RY2 (1930). Weight: 9.90g. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 29.25 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Date below mosque. Minted Years: AH1348/1 (1929), AH1349/2 (1930) and AH1350/3 (1931). Ruler: Mohammad Nadir Shah ibn Sardar Mohammad Yusuf Khan.
 
Anonymous (general) coinage: 1932-1935
2, 5 and 10 Puls coins in Brass / Bronze were produced during 1932-1935 without ruler's name are considered as anonymous issues.
 

KM#929 5 Puls. Year: SH 1314 (1935). Weight: 2.90g [3.00g]. Metal: Brass / Bronze. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Kabul. Obverse: "Kabul" written at the top. "Afghanistan" with Date written within the dotted center circle. Wreath at the bottom. Reverse: "Pul" written at the top. Numeral "5" written within the dotted center circle. Wreath at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: SH1311 (1932), SH1312 (1933), SH1313 (1934) and SH1314 (1935).

KM#930 10 Puls. Year: SH 1312 (1933). Weight: 5.83g. Metal: Brass / Bronze. Diameter: 22.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Kabul. Obverse: "Kabul" written at the top. "Afghanistan" with Date written within the dotted center circle. Wreath at the bottom. Reverse: "Pul" written at the top. Numeral "10" written within the dotted center circle. Wreath at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: SH1311 (1932), SH1312 (1933), SH1313 (1934) and SH1314 (1935).

Same as above coin, KM#930, 10 Puls, but...

Year: SH 1313 (1934). Weight: 5.00g.

 
Mohammad Zahir Shah coinage: 1933-1973
 

KM#936 2 Puls. Year: SH 1316 (1937). Weight: 1.96g [2.00g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 15.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Numerical denomination within inner circle, wreath surrounds. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah. It has radiant background.

KM#937 3 Puls. Year: SH 1316 (1937). Weight: 2.50g [2.50g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 16.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Numerical denomination within inner circle, wreath surrounds. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah. It has radiant background.

KM#938 5 Puls. Year: SH 1316 (1937). Weight: 3.02g [3.00g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 17.10 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Numerical denomination within inner circle, wreath surrounds. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah. It has radiant background.

KM#939 10 Puls. Year: SH 1316 (1937). Weight: 2.53g [2.50g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Numerical denomination within inner circle, wreath surrounds. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

KM#931 25 Puls. Year: SH 1313 (1934). Weight: 6.64g. Metal: Bronze or Brass. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Al-Mutawakil-illah Mohammad Zahir Shah written within beaded inner circle. Reverse: Numerical denomination within beaded inner circle, wreath surrounds. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH1312-1314 and 1316 (1933-1935 and 1937). Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

Same as above coin as KM#931 25 Puls, but...

Year: SH 1314 (1935). Weight: 6.83g.

KM#940 25 Puls. Year: SH 1316 (1937). Weight: 2.99g [3.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Denomination text within inner circle. Afghanistan written on the top and Al-Mutawakil-illah Mohammad Zahir Shah written below. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

KM#941 25 Puls. Year: SH 1330 (1951). Weight: 3.17g [3.00g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Denomination text within inner circle. Afghanistan written on the top and Al-Mutawakil-illah Mohammad Zahir Shah written below.
Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: SH1330 (1951), SH1331 (1952), SH1332 (1953) and SH1333 (1954). SH1333 (1954) requires confirmation. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

Same as above coin as KM#941 25 Puls, but...

Year: SH 1331 (1952). Weight: 3.13g [3.00g].

KM#944 25 Puls. Year: SH 1331 (1952). Weight: 2.98g [3.00g]. Metal: Nickel Clad Steel. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Denomination text within inner circle. Afghanistan written on the top and Al-Mutawakil-illah Mohammad Zahir Shah written below.
Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: SH1331 (1952), SH1332 (1953), SH1333 (1954), SH1334/2 (1955) and SH1334 (1955). Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

Note: KM#943 25 Puls Nickel Clad Steel has Reeded edge mint in SH1331 (1952) and SH1332 (1953).

Same as above coin, KM#944 25 Puls but...

Year: SH 1334/2 (1955). Weight: 2.99g [3.00g].

KM#945 25 Puls. Year: SH 1331 (1952). Weight: 2.46g. Metal: Aluminium. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Denomination text within inner circle. Afghanistan written on the top and Al-Mutawakil-illah Mohammad Zahir Shah written below. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.
Note: Struck on oversize 2 Afghani KM#949 planchets in 1970.

KM#932.2 Half Afgani (50 puls). Year: SH 1316 (1937). Weight: 5.01g. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath with Kabul wriiten on top. Reverse: Afghanistan written on the top and Al-Mutawakil-illah Mohammad Zahir Shah written within 40 dotted circle. Wreath below. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: SH 1313-1316 (1934-1937). Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

Note: No denomination mentioned on this coin.

KM#942.1 50 puls. Year: SH 1330 (1951). Weight: 4.80g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 22.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Afghanistan written on the top, numerical denomination written within circle and Al-Mutawakil-illah Mohammad Zahir Shah written below. Mintage: N/A. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

Same as above coin, but the last digit "zero" is above and far from the remaining digits. The "zero" digit is near the base of the mosque.

Weight: 5.53g [4.80g]. Edge: Reeded.

Same as above coin, but last digit missing in the date.

Year: SH 133x (1951). Weight: 5.16g [4.80g]. Edge: Reeded.

KM#947 50 puls. Year: SH 1331 (1952). Weight: 4.96g. Metal: Nickel clad Steel. Diameter: 22.30 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Afghanistan written on the top, Text denomination written within circle and Al-Mutawakil-illah Mohammad Zahir Shah written below. Mintage: N/A. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

Note: AH133x (1953) also exists.

KM#946 50 Puls. Year: SH 1332 (1953). Weight: 5.00g. Metal: Nickel clad Steel. Diameter: 22.30 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Denomination within inner circle. Afghanistan written on the top and Al-Mutawakil-illah Mohammad Zahir Shah written below. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: SH 1331-1334 (1952-1955). Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

Same as above coin, but the date size digits are decreasing from left to right while in the above coin the date digits are increasing from left to right.

Weight: 5.05g.

KM#953 Afghani (100 Puls). Year: SH 1340 (1961). Weight: 4.00g. Metal: Nickel clad Steel. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Three wheat sprigs. Reverse: Denomination with five stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

KM#949 2 Afghanis. Year: SH 1337 (1958). Weight: 2.50g. Metal: Aluminum. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Numerical denomination within dotted inner circle. Reverse: Arms within wreath, circle surrounds. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

Note: This issue was withdrawn and demonetized due to extensive counterfeiting.

KM#954.1 2 Afghanis. Year: SH 1340 (1961). Weight: 5.30g. Metal: Nickel clad Steel. Diameter: 25.10 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Radiant eagle
statue, with wings spread.
Reverse: Wheat sprig left of denomination with three stars on the right. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

Note: KM#954.2 with medal alignment also exists. Some evidence indicates that the medal alignment variety was the first Republican issue struck in 1973.

KM#950 5 Afghanis. Year: SH 1337 (1958). Weight: 2.98g [3.00g]. Metal: Aluminum. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Kabul written on the top. Tughra within beaded circle. Reverse: Arms within beaded circle, denomination below. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

Note: This issue was withdrawn and demonetized due to extensive counterfeiting.

KM#955 5 Afghani. Year: SH 1340 - AH 1381 (1961). Weight: 8.02g. Metal: Nickel clad Steel. Diameter: 28.80 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Bust 3/4 right divides dates. Reverse: Wheat sprigs flank denomination. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.
 
  • Presidents - Republic
  • Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan .......................17 Jul 1973 - 27 Apr 1978
  • Daoud and most of his family were assassinated during a coup by the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan. The coup happened in the presidential palace on 28 April 1978. On June 28, 2008, the body of President Daoud and those of his family were found in two separate mass graves in the Pul-e-Charkhi area, District 12 of Kabul city.
  • Chairman of Military Council
  • Abdul Qadir Dagarwal..............................27 Apr 1978 - 30 Apr 1978
  • At 7:00 P.M. on April 27, Qadir made an announcement over Radio Afghanistan, in the Dari language, "For the first time in the history of Afghanistan, the last remnants of monarchy, tyranny, despotism ... has ended, and all powers of the state are in the hands of the people of Afghanistan". He added that a Revolutionary Council of the Armed Forces had been established, with himself as its head.
  • Presidents of the Revolutionary Council - Democratic Republic
  • Nur Mohammad Taraki..............................30 Apr 1978 - 16 Sep 1979
  • Hafizullah Amin..................................16 Sep 1979 - 27 Dec 1979
  • He came to power by ordering the death of his predecessor Nur Muhammad Taraki. The revolt against communist rule which had begun under Taraki worsened under Amin, and was a problem that his government was unable to solve. The Soviet Union, which alleged that Amin was an agent of the CIA, intervened in Afghanistan on behalf of the Twenty-Year Treaty of Friendship between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union. Amin was assassinated by the Soviets in December 1979 as part of Operation Storm-333, having ruled for slightly longer than three months.
  • Babrak Karmal....................................27 Dec 1979 - 24 Nov 1986
  • He was also General secretary of the People's Democratic (Communist) party till 04 May 1986.
  • Haji Mohammad Chamkani...........................24 Nov 1986 - 30 Sep 1987
  • Mohammad Najibullah..............................30 Sep 1987 - 16 Apr 1992
  • General secretary of the People's Democratic (Communist) party from 04 May 1986 to 28 Jun 1990. President from 30 Nov 1987. The Hizb-e Wahdat (Hazara militia) rule at Bamiyan from 1990 to 1998.
 
Republic issue coinage:
 

KM#975 25 Puls. Year: SH 1352 (1973). Weight: 2.43g. Metal: Brass clad Steel. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination with six stars. Mintage: 45,950,000. Minted Years: One year type. Republic issue.

KM#976 50 Puls. Year: SH 1352 (1973). Weight: 3.45g. Metal: Copper clad Steel. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination with six stars. Mintage: 24,750,000. Minted Years: One year type. Republic issue.

KM#977 5 Afghani. Year: SH 1352 (1973). Weight: 7.02g. Metal: Nickel clad Steel. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within stylized grain sprig wreath. Mintage: 34,750,000. Minted Years: One year type. Republic issue.
 
Democratic Republic Issues:
 

KM#990 25 Puls. Year: SH 1357 (1978). Weight: 2.30g. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within four stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#992 50 Puls. Year: SH 1357 (1978). Weight: 3.10g. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within four stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#993 1 Afghani. Year: SH 1357 (1978). Weight: 4.55g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within four stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#994 2 Afghanis. Year: SH 1357 (1978). Weight: 5.90g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within four stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: SH1357 and SH1358.

KM#995 5 Afghanis. Year: SH 1357 (1978). Weight: 7.66g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 26.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within four stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#996 25 Puls. Year: SH 1359 (1980). Weight: 2.23g. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within four stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#997 50 Puls. Year: SH 1359 (1980). Weight: 3.11g. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within four stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#998 1 Afghani. Year: SH 1359 (1980). Weight: 4.36g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within four stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#999 2 Afghanis. Year: SH 1359 (1980). Weight: 6.31g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within four stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#1000 5 Afghanis. Year: SH 1359 (1980). Weight: 7.70g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 26.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within four stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#1001 5 Afghanis. Year: SH 1360 (1981). Weight: 7.00g. Metal: Brass. Diameter: 26.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: FAO logo. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#1004 500 Afghanis. Year: ND (1986). Weight: 12.00g. Metal: 0.999Ag. Diameter: 29.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Ice Dancers (Skaters). Reverse: National arms. Mintage: 10,000. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: 15th Winter Olympics Games - Galgary 1988.

KM#1011 500 Afghanis. Year: 1989. Weight: 16.00g. Metal: 0.999Ag. Diameter: 39.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: 10,000. Obverse: Two players playing soccer. Reverse: National arms. Mintage: 10,000. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: World Football (Soccer) Championship - Italy 1990.

Note: Afghanistan became Republic on 30 Nov 1987, but still this coin have the legends of Democratic Republic.

KM#1022 500 Afghanis. Year: 1992. Weight: 20.00g. Metal: 0.999Ag. Diameter: 39.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: 10,000. Obverse: USA map behind soccer player. Reverse: National arms. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: 15th World Cup Soccer Games 1994 - U.S.A.

Note: Afghanistan became Republic on 30 Nov 1987, but still this coin have the legends of Democratic Republic.

 
  • Presidents
  • Abdul Rahim Hatef (acting).......................16 Apr 1992 - 28 Apr 1992
  • Sibghatullah Mojadedi (interim)..................28 Apr 1992 - 28 Jun 1992
  • Burhanuddin Rabbani (1st time)...................28 Jun 1992 - 27 Sep 1996
  • continues in rebellion after 27 Sep 1996, largely retaining international recognition.
  • Head of Supreme Council (Taliban Rule)
  • Mullah Mohammad Umar.............................27 Sep 1996 - 16 Apr 2001
  • Mawlawi Abdul Kabir (acting).....................16 Apr 2001 - 13 Nov 2001
  • Presidents
  • Burhanuddin Rabbani (2nd time)...................13 Nov 2001 - 22 Dec 2001
  • return to Kabul on 17 Nov 2001.
  • Hamid Karzai.....................................22 Dec 2001 - 29 Sep 2014
  • Chairman of the Interim Administrator to 19 Jun 2002 and then for the transitional government to 26 Jan 2004.
  • Mohammad Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai...................29 Sep 2014 - date
  • Ashraf Ghani is sworn in as president and Abdullah Abdullah as chief executive and Prime Minister.
 
Islamic State issue coinage:
 

KM#1030 50 Afghanis. Year: 1996. Weight: 25.89g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 38.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Havana, Cuba. Obverse: Zafar Gate in Paghman Valley. Reverse: National arms. Mintage: 10,000. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: World Food Summit - Rome 13-17 November 1996.

KM#1027 500 Afghanis. Year: 1996. Weight: 30.95g. Metal: 0.999Ag. Diameter: 39.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Havana, Cuba. Obverse: Soccer player going for goal. Reverse: National arms. Mintage: 100 + N/A Proofs. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: 16th World Cup Soccer Games 1998 - France.

KM#1039 500 Afghanis. Year: 1997. Weight: 15.00g. Metal: 0.999Ag. Diameter: 35.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Soccer player superimposed on ball. Reverse: National arms. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: 16th World Cup Soccer Games 1998 - France.

KM#1037 50 Afghanis. Year: 1999. Weight: 26.07g [26.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 39.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Equestrian event. Reverse: National arms. Mintage: 10,000. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: 27th Summer Olympics 2000 - Sydney.
 
Islamic Republic issue coinage:
Monetary standard: Afghani = 100 Pul = 1000 old Afghanis (Taliban) or 2000 old Afghanis (Northern Alliance).
 

KM#1044 Afghani. Year: SH 1383 (2004). Weight: 3.25g. Metal: Copper-plated Steel. Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#1045 2 Afghanis. Year: SH 1383 (2004). Weight: 4.25g. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#1046 5 Afghanis. Year: SH 1383 (2004). Weight: 5.26g. Metal: Brass. Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.
 
 


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