to Coin Collection with a blend of Urdu poetry as: Chiefa's love for a Coin.
Ishrath quathra hai darya
main fana hona
Happiness is like raindrops which are lost in sea
Dard ka had sae guzarna hai dava ho jana
Pain when over reaches the limit becomes its own medicine
There lived a person called
Chiefa near the empty quarter of Arabian desert.
Very hot winds in summer and very cold season in winter with dust partials,
hitting on his face used to hurt him throughout the year. Wandering on the
heaps, plains and mountains of this desert was his aimless life. One day he
saw a rock on which there was a strange language written on it. After a
great efforts he managed to decode it and found out the value and
importance of coins. His interest in coins got much deeper that eventually,
started collecting them. This gave him a purpose of life, as Muhammad Iqbal
Arise, and soar with the sun's new-born rays, To breathe
new life into dying nights and days
To obtain coins of various
places was indeed a difficult task. He starved, faced many burdens, misery
and pain during this hunt. He did not cared much about these problems and
carried out his mission with zeal. He remembered what Muhammad Iqbal once
Sitharon se aage jahan aur
Beyond the stars there are Other worlds of light
Abhi ishq ke imthihan aur bhi hain
There are more trials of love, Besides those on earth
Tayhe, zindage se nahi ye fizaein
These spheres are not Empty of the pulse of life
Yahan sainkadoun karwaan aur bhi hain
There are a hundred forms of life, Latent in these spheres
Khanath na kar aalam rang va bu par
Be not content with this earth, Though it has a myriad colours
Chaman aur bhi, aashiyaan aur bhi hain
There are rose-embowered gardens, Ethereal abodes for thee
Agar kho gaya ek nash-e-man tou kia gham
Grieve not if thou losest This abode of sorrow
Maqamat-e-ahh o faughaan aur bhi hain
There are other abodes for thee, For the sighs of yearning and grief
Thu shaahin hai, parwaaz hai kaam theara
Thou art of eagle breed, Born for ethereal flights
Therae samne aasmaan aur bhi hain
Thou hast, beyond those narrowing skies, Loftier heavens to roam
Isi roze shub main, ulajh kar na rah jaa
Do not get entangled In these deceptive days and nights
Ki therae zamaan voh makaan aur bhi hain
Thou has other worlds, Beyond linear time and space
Gaye din ke thanha thaa main anjuman main
Those days are gone when I was lonely in the assembly
Yahan ab mera raazdaan aur bhi hain
Here now, my confidants are some more
Chiefa during his coin
collection, learned few tips and information, that he likes to share:
Coins are little pieces of
history. Beyond tracing dynastic lines, coins also provide insights into
the idiosyncratic personalities of the rulers (for example by looking at
their titles that are more self-aggrandizing, elevating themselves to the
status of God) and are a testimony to the highly evolved art form of a
certain periods in history. Coins proclaim the triumphs and collapses of
past nations and civilizations. They show their nation's emblems,
landmarks, personalities and commemorating various events of history. In
fact there is always an history behind each coin. In general, it has been
noticed that currently coins are seldom returned as change and are replaced
by cheap candies and bubble (chewing) gums, which are readily accepted.
The form of Money was Barley in
9000 BCE, Salt in 2200 BCE, Cowry Shell in 1200 BCE, Silver and Gold in 500
BCE, Paper Currency in 1700 CE and now Credit Cards are commonly used since
Today when regimes change, the media bring
the news to the people. In early days coin did the job of the media. When
one King died or was killed and a new King came to power, he immediately
issued a coin to declare that he was the new monarch. This is how we have
traced entire dynasties of Kings and Queens, who were otherwise not
mentioned in any historical texts.
The first coins in the world
around seventh century BC came into use, independently in three parts of
the world and amazingly in three different forms. In Lydia (now Turkey) lumps of electrum (a
natural mixture of gold and silver) were stamped with a single punch
affirming its weight and purity. This form of coins are still used
with different mint marks. Approximately at the same time coinage
developed in the Indus Valley (now Pakistan), consisting of
of silver of a standard weight stamped with multiple punches. This
form of currency continued to be used in much of India until the
"western" style of coins were introduced by Alexander the Great
in the fourth century BC. In China coins evolved from barter
implements sometime between the eighth and seventh centuries BC. The
earliest coins took the form of familiar trade implements, the spade and
the knife, yet lacked their functionality. The Chinese coins were made from
Bronze. It is fascinating that these three separate economies developed the
need for coins at approximately the same time, yet took separate paths to
meet the needs.
There are many ways to collect
coins. Two broad categories of collecting are known which are called
"closed end" and "open end". A "closed end"
collection is a definite series, such as US cents from 1909 to the present,
or one coin from each type from a particular country. It is clear what
coins belong in the collection, and you know when you have finished the
collection. This style is very popular with American collectors. Another
approach is the "open end" collection, which is more
traditional approach for collecting, in where one tries to collect a
representative sample of coins in an area of interest, rather than each
coin in a particular series. An example of an open end collection might be
crown sized coins of the world, or coins of the Indian States from 1800 to
1947, or just modern world coin. One does not try to get one of everything
in a series, but rather whatever is of interest within a fairly broad
theme. This style of collecting can more easily accommodate changes in ones
collecting interest. It can also be easier on ones budget since there are
no "key coin" holes to fill. Many collectors combine some aspects
of both, such as collecting a few representative coins and a definite
series of each era. You might have given some thought to how you want to
organize your collecting style.
There are different calendars
used by various nations during the 19th and 20th century. Almost all Arabic
speaking countries use the Islamic calendar which started on 16th July
622AD since Mohammad (P.B.U.H) migrated from Makkah to Medina. This calendar is based on lunar
months, therefore it is 3% (approx. 10 days) shorter than the common era
calendar. Some mints made minor differences in the style of the
characters on Cash coins, which allowed the coins to be dated to the exact
year they were made even though they did not carry a visible
date. They are just represented by the characters of a particular
range of years. Today, most of the coin carry the common era (CE) or AD
date. Both Japan
date their coins by the number of years the emperor or government has been
in power. This style of coins are also seen on Ottoman Empire coins of Turkey and Egypt. Thailand coins
are dated using the Buddhist Era (BE) started in 543BC. Iran used a Solar Calendar, represented by
SH, which was also used in Afghanistan
for some time. In 1976 Iran
started to use another calendar Monarchic Solar era (MS) based on the
foundation of Iranian monarchy in 559BC. The first year was observed on
March 20, 1976 as MS2535. Israel
uses Jewish Calendar represented by JE, although they use only the last
three digits of the year and skip the first digit on their coins. This is
the oldest calendar currently going on. It is more than 5000 years old,
started on Oct 07, 3761BC. Hinduism have their own calendar, represented by
Vikrama Samvat (VS). This calendar was started on Oct 18, 58BC. Nepal is
currently using this calendar on its coins. Various Indian States in
British rule with Hindus rulers used the same calendar, like Kutch (Bhuj mint). Similarly there are other
calendars in the world like Ethiopia
using Ethiopian era (EE) which started 7 years and 8 months after AD dating
and Myanmar (Burma) using
Chula-Sakarat (CS) calendar which started in 638AD. Recently Libya
introduced a new calendar on their 1/4 Dinar 1369 P.D. (2001AD) coin. This
P.D. calendar started on Muhammad's (P.B.U.H) death in 632AD based on AD
calendar instead of AH calendar, as indicated on this coin 2001-1369 = 632.
As a continuation based on this calendar Libya introduced a 1/2 Dinar
coin dated 1372 P.D in 2004 AD. A very interesting website on date
conversion can be viewed at:
Somewhere there developed the
idea that collecting coins is an investment. This is wrong. Collecting
coins is entertainment. Many people who bought coins as an investment are
unhappy because they did not turn a profit. On the other hand, those bought
coins for their entertainment tend to be much happier. They now own a piece
of history, and get enjoyment from admiring, studying and showing others
their purchase. If that piece of history goes up in value, so much the
better. If it does not, at least they have something to show for their
money, which is more than can be said for many other forms of
entertainment. After all, the pleasure one gains from watching a movie,
going to a bar or playing golf is short-lived, and rarely shows a profit.
However the pleasure one gains from studying or showing ones coins can be
repeated many times, and who knows, maybe they will show a profit when it
comes time to sell.
Besides the above strict
definition, others extend it to include non-coins which may or may not be
legal tenders such as cheques, credit cards and similar paper. These can
also be considered notaphily or scripophily.
Notaphily is the study of paper money or banknotes. Scripophily is the
study and collection of stocks and Bonds.
Philately is the study of revenue and postage stamps.
Exonumia is the study of
coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in
place of legal currency or for commemoration. This includes elongated
coins, encased coins, souvenir medallions, tags, badges, counterstamped
coins, wooden nickels and other similar items. It is related to numismatics
proper (concerned with coins which have been legal tender), and many coin
collectors are also exonumists. The words exonumist and exonumia were
coined in July 1960 by Russell Rulau, a recognized authority and author on
the subject, and accepted by Webster's dictionary in 1965.
Usually people ask the value of a coin they
own. People or coin collector beginners usually think that the coin is
costly if it is very old. Well this is not the case. It depends on many
∑† The supply of the item, or how many are are around.
∑† The demand for the item, or how many collectors want it.
∑† The condition of an item. For many coins this is
the most important!
∑† Bullion or exchange value. A gold or silver coin usually
does not sell for a great deal less than its melt value.
1000 year old Chinese coins often sell for a
dollar or two, because there are a lot of them around and there are not a
lot of collectors for them. Coins of Ancient Rome in bronze or copper can
be purchase for less than $10. On the other hand a 1913 Liberty Head
Nickel is sold for over $1,000,000 because there are only five
known. The demand is also important. A 1909-S VDB Lincoln cent has a
mintage of 484,000 and sells for hundreds of dollars. Yet there are
coins of many countries like Belize, Seychelles, Jamaica, etc with mintages
of less than a tenth of that, yet the coins are sold for only a few dollars
each, if that. Why? Because there are a lot of collectors for
United States Lincoln Cents, well over 484,000, so there is a strong demand
for the coin that bids the price up. On the other hand there are very
few collectors for coins of many smaller nations such as Belize or Seychelles, so there is a much
larger supply of the coin than demand, so the coins go for relatively
little, even though they are quite scarce. An Uncirculated coin that
is absolutely flawless under magnification might bring 1000 times more than
one which is Uncirculated, but shows some bag marks or cabinet
friction. For other, less avidly series, collectors are not as
concerned with quality, so there is a perfect coin brings little if any
premium. Therefore it is recommended to keep your costly and rare coin
capsulated, so that they do not get damage for what so ever reasons. Please
also remember not to clean your coins as a naturally toned coin worth more
than a cleaned one, as under magnification buyers will notice the hairlines
and the valued will be dropped substantially.
When determining the face value
of a foreign coin, remember many countries will no longer exchange their
old coins for a variety of reasons. Sometimes inflation has eroded the
value of the original coin and though they may be using the same monetary
unit, the old money is no longer accepted. This is true in countries such
as Brazil, France, Germany. Other countries will
from time to time refuse to exchange certain coins, because of
counterfeiting or because of a change in governments. This is true of
certain recent French coins. Some countries make it extremely
difficult, if not impossible to exchange their money. This true of the
coins of the Marshall
Islands. Though the coins have a
"legal tender" equivalent to United
States coins, the coins are not accepted in the Marshall Islands
and are almost impossible to exchange. Even if you do have a coin that
is exchangeable, do not expect to face value for it, unless the person
buying it is about to dash off there and wants to spending some money. Some
coins have multi-lingual like Yugoslavia,
Palestine and pre 1971 Pakistan in the past and Cyprus, Sri
Lanka, etc. in today's use. You will need to get the right book to
determine the value of your coins. Sorry, but there is no on-line source
that lists the value of coins. There are a few books written on world coin
especially by Krause publication but the problem in these books is that
coins pictures are overlapping (reverse and obverse sides on the coin), it
mostly do not mention the edge lettering description, weight and purity of
silver and gold coins from 1600 to 1900. Before buying particularly old
coin, always study about the exact description, weight, diameter and
approximately value in the market, as there are many forged / fake /
replica coins circulating with the original ones.
Coin collecting needs a lot of
patience and devoted time. It really make to scratch your head and also
becomes a test to see your resistance in finding an original coin by
comparing various sources. Ghalib Mirza Asadullah Khan once truly said:
Aah ko chaahiye ik 'umr asar
It takes an age for sign to bear fruit,
Kaun jeeta hai teree zulf ke sar hone tak ?
Who lives long enough to vanquish your locks?
Daam har mauj mein hai halqa-e-sad-kaam-e-nahang,
A hundred crocodiles lie coiled in the web of every wave,
Dekhain kya guzre hai qatre pe guhar hone tak.
See what happens to the droplet ere it becomes a pearl.
Aashiqee sabr talab aur tamanna betaab,
Love demands patience, desires will not wait.
Dil ka kya rang karoon khoon-e-jigar hone tak ?
What hues should my heart reflect, till it bleeds to death?
Ham ne maana ke taghaful na karoge, lekin,
True, youíd respond without least delay,
Khaak ho jaayenge ham tumko khabar hone tak.
But by the time you come to know, Iíd be no more.
Partav-e-khur se hai shabnam ko fana'a ki taaleem,
The reflections of the sun heralds the dew drops doom,
Main bhee hoon ik inaayat ki nazar hone tak.
I too await your kindly glance.
Yak_nazar besh naheen fursat-e-hastee ghaafil,
Short is our span, as twinkling of an eye,
Garmi-e-bazm hai ik raqs-e-sharar hone tak.
I too await your kindly glance.
Gham-e-hastee ka 'Asad' kis'se ho juz marg ilaaz,
Who but death can cure, Asad, the sorrow of life,
Shamma'a har rang mein jaltee hai sahar hone tak.
A taper always shall burn, right till the dawn.
Old and rare coins usually
worth 10% to 50% more certified than uncertified. Certified coins also sell
much faster. If an uncertified coin will actually achieve a certain grade
at PCGS or NGC, why didnít the selling dealer send it there himself and
pocket the difference? Four times out of five, dealer-assessed grades are
optimistic. Today, most coin buyers just starting out are well-informed
enough to stick with PCGS or NGC graded coins Ė for a year or two. But then
there is a tendency to feel confident, to feel that they have a good handle
on grading. Never buy a coin certified by a service that is unfamiliar to
you. For most buyers the best advice is to invest in coins that are scarce,
but not so esoteric as to be difficult to evaluate. Unless you are a proven
expert in the issue, avoid better date coins from 19th century series, and
all patterns, colonials, error coins, etc. Stick with Type (common) coins,
or series coins that trade widely by date. Experts are usually rare coin dealers
as well. All rare coin dealers have biases. There are no exceptions.
Dealers want your business. It doesn't matter if you just met the dealer or
if you have known him for twenty years. Asking him what he thinks of a coin
you have on approval from another dealer is like asking your local Ford
dealer what he thinks of the Chevy you're test driving. Any person that
actively buys and sells coins is prone to find fault with any coin deal
that doesn't directly involve him. Any person that does not actively buy
and sell coins probably does not have enough numismatic knowledge for their
opinion to carry much validity. Where can you turn for an informed,
The most expensive US coins
Gold $20 Saint-Gaudens 1933 for 7.6 million USD, Gold $10 Liberty Cap 1804
for 5 million USD, Silver Dollar 1804 for approx. 4.2 million, Nickel 5
cents 1913 for approx. 4 million USD and Gold $10 Coronet Head 1838 approx
There is only one genuinely
unbiased faction in all of rare coins: the grading services. PCGS and NGC
grade coins for a living. Their only concern is accuracy. They know more
about coins than dealers do and they are completely impartial. Rely on the
judgment of PCGS or NGC. Consider refusing to do business with any dealer
that is not a member of PNG. Although rare coin investment is far safer
than it was before guaranteed third party grading, there is no reason to
take unnecessary risks. Stick with companies that have achieved membership
PQ (premium quality) coins are
those that fall at the top of a grade; they often just miss the next grade
up. Premium quality coins are more attractive than standard quality coins
and can bring premium prices on occasion. However, since premium quality is
a determination made by the owner of the coin and not the third party
grading service, PQ is subjective. Although most dealers use restraint, a
few coin sellers out there tend to call every coin they own premium quality
and use the designation to get higher prices for run of the mill coins.
Your best defense is your own eye. By comparing coin after coin, you can
develop a taste for what is average quality for a grade and what is premium
quality .On the price side, try not to pay more than 10% -15% extra for a
PQ coin. This might preclude buying a few good deals, but it will save you
enough in downside risk to more than make up for it. Some PCGS and NGC
coins have become so generic as to be thought of as commodities,
interchangeable with any other piece. Obviously, there isn't much incentive
to buy PQ coins in an area of the market that has become generic. A PQ MS64
1881-S Morgan, for example, isn't going to bring a premium upon resale
because the coin is too common for buyers to care much about individual quality.
Simple enough just concentrate
on scarcity. Look at the truly scarce issues recommended by experts, latest
catalogues or in the coin market. If you are now holding coins that are not
sufficiently scarce to provide maximum appreciation, trade up immediately.
Don't leave money meandering in common coins when it could possibly be
earning much more in scarce coins. There
are thousands of desire but not all are fulfilled in this world. As Ghalib's
sadly expresses his life by saying:
Hazaaron khwahishain 'eisee
ke har khwahish pe dam nikle
Thousands of desires, tantalizing one and all,
Bohot nikle mere armaan lekin fir bhee kam nikle
Many a wishes have I realized; yet I yearn for more
Dare kyoon mera qaatil kya rahega uskee gardan par
Why should my killer (lover) be afraid? No one will hold to her nape
Wo khoon, jo chashm-e-tar se 'umr bhar yoon
The blood which will drip continuously through my eyes, all my life
Nikalna Khuld se aadam ka sunte aayain hain
Often we have heard about Adams exile from Eden
Bohot beaabru hokar tere kooche se ham nikle
Humiliating much more was my exit from your door
Bharam khul jaaye zaalim tere qaamat ki daraazee
Tyrant, your true personality will become known to all
Agar is turra-e-pur-pech-o-kham ka pech-o-Kham
If the curls of my hair slip through my turban!
Magar likhwaaye koee usko Khat, to hamse
Who wants a letter written out to her, me he should approach
Huee subah aur ghar se kaan par rakhkar qalam
Every morning I step out of my home, sticking a pen behind my ear.
Huee is daur mein mansoob mujhse baada-aashaamee
That was the time, I turned to drinking
Fir aaya wo zamaana, jo jahaan se jaam-e-jam nikle
And then came the time, when my entire world was drinking
Huee jinse tavaqqo khastagee kee daad paane kee
Those from whom I expected, praise my wretched state (of being in love)
Wo hamse bhee ziyaada khasta-e-tegh-e-sitam nikle
Turned out to be victims, more injured with the same cruel sword (of love).
Mohabbat mein naheen hai farq jeene aur marne
There is little difference in life and death when we are in love,
Usee ko dekh kar jeete hain jis kaafir pe dam
The same infidel sustains our life, for whom we pine to die.
Zara kar jor seene par ki teer-e-pursitam nikle
Stamp my heart to remove the cruel arrow of her love
Jo wo nikle to dil nikle, jo dil nikle to dam
For if the arrow comes out, with it will come my heart, and with my heart,
comes out my life.
Khuda ke waaste parda na kaabe se uthaa zaalim
For god's sake, don't lift the cover off any secrets you tyrant
Kaheen 'eisa na ho yaan bhee wohee kaafir sanam
As it might happen that the same infidel turns out to be my love!
Kahaan maikhaane ka darwaaza 'Ghalib' aur kahaan
The preacher and the taverns doors are things wide apart
Par itana jaante hain kal wo jaata tha ke ham
Yet yesterday I saw him enter, as I was coming out
It has been proven by dealer
sales records that three out of four coin buyers buy near the top and sell
near the bottom of cycles. Why? Because most buyers are influenced more by
the prevailing attitudes in the market than by detached, value-oriented
reasoning. In 1983, MS65 Morgan dollars cost $175. A coin dealer sold about
fifty of them each month. Two years later they cost $650 and investors
tripped over themselves to get their hands on them. The same coin dealer
sold two hundred pieces each month! That is the nature of markets. When Krugerrands cost $225 no one was interested in them. At $850, everybody and
their brother had to own them. To a great extent, the perceived value of a
coin is determined by its cost. When cheap, itís out of favor. Itís quiet,
so buyers ignore it. When expensive, it becomes the hottest thing going. In
reality, of course, the opposite is true. A coin is a good value when it is
uninteresting and cheap, a poor one when hot. But it takes real fortitude
to be a contrarian. Always adopt the donít lose philosophy. When you read
about how well a coin has been performing, donít feel like you have to get
your hands on one. Become that one-in-four buyer that realizes that most of
the money has already been made when a coin is in vogue. Face the fact that
you missed that one. So what? It didnít cost you anything out of pocket and
there are always other coins to profit from. Buying a hot item too late can
be much worse than not buying it at all. Donít buy whatís hot, buy whatís
quiet and has potential to get hot. Timing is more important than ever before
in coins. To maximize your profits, it is imperative that you buy at or
near cyclical lows. Think of it this way: You canít buy low and sell high
if you donít buy low first. Be alert and careful. Good luck in your hunt !
It is still believed that some
of you might still ignore and go for coins without consulting the books and
experts. For those Mirza Ghalib once prayed
to God and requested, not to give him so much strength to speak that does
not effect the hearts of the listeners. Here is the complete sonnet in
Roman Urdu which Chiefa likes to share:
Hai baski her ek un ke ishare
mein nishan aur
Kerte hain muhabbat to guzarta hai giran aur
Yaarab! woh na samjhe hain na samjhenge meri bat
De aur dil un ko, jo na de mujh ko zaban aur
Abro se hai kaya us nigahe naaz ko paiwand
Hai teer muqarrer magar uski hai kman aur
Tum shaer mein ho to hamein kaya gum, jab uthenge
Le ayenge bazaar se jaker dil-o-jaan aur
Her chand subuk dast huai but shikani mein
Hum hain to abhi rah mein hai sunge geran aur
Hai khoone jigar josh main, dil khol ke rota
Hote jo koi dedai khoon nabah fishan aur
Merta hon is awaz pe, her chand ki ser ud jaai
Jallad ko lakin woh kahe jaien ki "han' aur"
Logon ko hai khurshide jahan tab ka dhoka
Her roz dikhata hon ek dage nihan aur
Laita na agar dil tumhien daita, koi dam chain
Keta jo na merta koi din, aah-o-fugan aur
Pate nahin jab rah, to chud jate hain nale
Rukti hai mei taba to hoti hai rawan aur
Hain aur bhi duniya mein sukhanwer bahut achche
Kahte hain ki Ghalib ka andaze bayan aur
ANA grading standards recognize 11 grades for
circulated coins (listed here with brief, generic descriptions):
- AU-58, very choice about
uncirculated: just traces of wear on a coin with nearly full luster
and no major detracting contact marks
- AU-55, choice about
uncirculated: small traces of wear visible on the highest points
- AU-50, about uncirculated:
very light wear on the highest points; still has at least half of the
original mint luster
- EF-45 or XF-45, choice
extremely fine: all design details are sharp; some mint luster
remains, though perhaps only in "protected areas"
- EF-40 or XF-40, extremely
fine: slightly more wear than a "45"; traces of mint luster may show
- VF-30, choice very fine:
light even wear on high points, all lettering and design details are
- VF-20, very fine:
most details are still well defined; high points are smooth
- F-12, fine: major
elements are still clear but details are worn away
- VG-8, very good:
major design elements, letters and numerals are worn but clear
- G-4, good: major
design elements are outlined but details are gone; for some series the
date may not be sharp and the rim may not be complete.
- AG-3, about good:
heavily worn; date may be barely discernable
While coins more worn than AG are rarely collected,
two additional grades are nevertheless used to characterize them:
- F-2, fair -- very
heavily worn; major portions may be completely smooth
- P-1, poor, filler or cull
-- barely recognizable
While not included in the ANA standards,
intermediate grades like AU-53, VF-35, F-15 and G-6 are used by some dealers
and grading services. When a grader believes a coin is better than the
minimum requirements but not nice enough for the next higher grade "+" or
"PQ" may be included (e.g. MS64PQ or VG+) or a range may be given (e.g.
F-VF). When there are significant differences between the obverse and
reverse sides, a split grade may be assigned. Split grades are denoted with
a "/". For example, "F/VF" means that the obverse is F and the reverse is
overall grade is often determined by the obverse. An intermediate value may
be appropriate when the difference is significant, especially if the reverse
is lower. A coin graded MS-60/61 would be considered to have an overall
grade of MS-60.
The letter grading system beginning with the lowest
grade Ė Basal State (also Poor (PO)), then continuing Fair (Fr), About or
Almost Good (AG), Good (G), Very Good (VG), Fine (F), Very Fine (VF), Extra
Fine (EF or XF), Almost or About Uncirculated (AU), Uncirculated (Unc) and
up to Brilliant or Beautiful Uncirculated (BU). Gem Uncirculated was roughly
equivalent in usage to BU at that time.
In 1986, PCGS (Professional Coin Grading Service)
was incorporated. They authenticated, graded and encapsulated coins in a
protective hard plastic shell. They used a combination of the two older
systems putting letters and numbers together so that the grades became BS-1
(or PO-1), FR-2, AG-3, G-4, G-6, VG-8, VG-10, F-12, F-15, VF-20, VF-25,
VF-30, VF-35, XF-40, XF-45, AU-50, AU-53, AU-55, AU-58, MS-60, MS-61, MS-62,
MS-63, MS-64, MS-65, MS-66, MS-67, MS-68, MS-69 and MS-70. They also issued
limited guarantees for the value of coins they had graded.
Chiefa read so much in details
about coins that he decided to give up his entire collection to purchase
the only Coin of his dream and love. Chiefa in the below poetry tries to
express the true feelings for his love that, his love has no comparison
with the paradise.
ba_hangaam-e-kamaal achcha hai
us'se mera mah-e-khursheed-e-jamaal achcha hai
bosa dete naheen aur dil pe hai har lahja nigaah
jee mein kehte hain, muft aaye to maal achcha hai
aur baazaar se le aaye agar toot gaya
saaghar-e-jam se mera jaam-e-sifaal achcha hai
be_talab dain to maza usme siwa milta hai
woh gada jisko na ho khoo-e-sawaal achcha hai
unke dekhe se jo aa jaatee hai munh par raunaq
woh samajhte hain ke beemaar ka haal achcha hai
dekhiye paate hain ushshaaq butoon se kya faiz ?
ik birahaman ne kaha hai, ke yeh saal achcha hai
ham_sukhan teshe ne farhaad ko sheereen se kiya
jis tarah ka bhee kisee mein ho kamaal achcha hai
qatra dariya mein jo mil jaaye to dariya ho jaaye
kaam achchaa hai woh, jiska ma'aal achcha hai
khijr sultaan ko rakhe khaaliq-e-akbar sar_sabz
shaah ke baagh mein yeh taaza nihaal achcha hai
hamko ma'aloom hai jannat ki haqeeqat lekin
dil ke khush rakhne ko, 'Ghalib' yeh khayaal achcha hai
Cleaning Coins: In general,
collectible coins should be handled carefully to avoid the possibility of
causing wear or introducing substances that may lead to spots or color
changes. Many holders will provide adequate protection for ordinary
handling. Before removing a coin from its holder, consider whether it's
really necessary. Never touch an uncirculated or Proof coin anywhere but the
edge. Fingerprints alone may reduce the coin's grade and consequently its
value. Handling on the edge only is mandatory when examining another
person's coins, regardless of grade. Get in the habit of picking up
collectible coins by their edges, and it will soon become routine. Avoid
holding numismatic items in front of your mouth. Small particles of moisture
may eventually cause spots. When setting a coin down outside of a holder is
necessary, place it on a clean, soft surface. A velvet pad is an ideal
surface and essential for regular handling of valuable material. A clean
soft cloth or clean piece of blank paper may be sufficient for less valuable
items. Do not drag coins across any surfaces. If you are handling very
valuable coins or lots of uncirculated and/or higher grade circulated coins,
wearing clean white cloth or surgical gloves and a mask may be advisable. In
most cases, the best answer is DO NOT CLEAN OR POLISH COINS. While
you might think they'll look nicer if shiny, collectors prefer
coins with an original appearance. Cleaning a coin may reduce its
collector value by half or more. Even wiping with a soft cloth will cause
small but undesirable scratches, which will reduce the coin's value.
After searching a lot for this
coin, bearing lots of difficulties in life and passion, he managed to go an
auction house to purchase it. He took with him his 15 years of coins
collection. Before the auction started, Chiefa looked at the coin, which
welcomed him proudly by:
In Aaankhoon Kii Mastii Ke
Mastaane Hazaaron Hain
In Aaankhoon Se Vaabastaa Afasaane Hazaaron Hain
Ik Tum Hii Nahii Tanhaa, Ulafat Mein Merii Rusavaa
Is Shahar Mein Tum Jaise Diivaane Hazaaron Hain
Ik Sirf Ham Hii May Ko Aaankhoon Se Pilaate Hain
Kahane Ko To Duniyaa Mein Mayakhaane Hazaaron Hain
Is Shamm-E-Farozaan Ko Aaandhii Se Daraate Ho
Is Shamm-E-Farozaan Ke Paravaane Hazaaron Hain
In short the Coin wanted to
explain Chiefa that you are not the only one is this city alone who is
after my love. On hearing this Chiefa smiled on the strange behavior and
character from the Coin and explained the difficulties he took to see it.
Mirza Ghalib's famous couplets:
har ek baat pe kehte ho tum
ke 'too kya hai' ?
tumhee kaho ke yeh andaaz-e-guftgoo kya hai ?
na shole mein yeh karishma na barq mein yeh ada
koee batao ki woh shokh-e-tund_khoo kya hai ?
yeh rashk hai ki wo hota hai ham_sukhan tumse
wagarna khauf-e-bad_aamozi-e-adoo kya hai ?
chipak raha hai badan par lahoo se pairaahan
hamaaree jeb ko ab haajat-e-rafoo kya hai ?
jalaa hai jicm jahaan dil bhee jal gaya
kuredate ho jo ab raakh, justjoo kya hai ?
ragoon mein daudte firne ke ham nahee qaayal
jab aankh hee se na tapka to fir lahoo kya hai ?
woh cheez jiske liye hamko ho bahisht azeez
siwaay baada-e-gul_faam-e-mushkaboo kya hai ?
piyoon sharaab agar khum bhee dekh loon do chaar
yeh sheesha-o-qadah-o-kooza-o-suboo kya hai ?
rahee na taaqat-e-guftaar, aur agar ho bhee
to kis ummeed pe kahiye ke aarzoo kya hai ?
huaa hai shaah ka musaahib, fire hai itaraata
wagarna shehar mein 'Ghalib' kee aabroo kya hai ?
Some terminology used in Coin collection:
||Marks caused by filing a
planchet before striking to reduce its weight to the standard, as was
sometimes done for early U.S. coinage.
||A book-like holder with slots
for storing coins.
||Intentionally modified after
the minting process, such as by changing the date or by adding or removing a
mintmark, usually in an attempt to deceive collectors (example: 1944-D
Lincoln cent altered to appear to be a much more valuable 1914-D).
||A coin produced prior to about 500 CE.
||coloration added to a coin by
treatment with chemicals or other "doctoring".
||n. A characteristic of
v. To identify a coin by determining the country of origin,
denomination, series, date, mintmark and (if applicable) variety.
||An offering to sell an
individual item or group of items in which the price is determined by the
highest bidder, sometimes with a reserve (minimum) price.
|authentic / authentication
||An original, non-counterfeit
coin; determination by an expert on whether or not a coin is authentic.
||Small scratches and nicks
resulting from movement of coins in the same bag (also known as contact
marks or keg marks).
||Paper money issued by a bank.
||A non-numismatic form of
precious metal bullion.
||Design elements are raised
within depressions in the field.
||An alloy of silver and another
metal, usually copper, which is less than 50% silver.
||A coin or coin-like object combining parts composed of two
different metal alloys, such as the Canadian two dollar, Euro and
two Euro coins.
||pieces of eight (also known as Spanish Dollar) were physically
cut into eighths; each piece is one bit.
||A piece of metal being
prepared for coinage before the rims have been raised by passing through the
||A location where dealers buy
and sell coins with each other and the public, such as at a coin show.
||A mirror image of the design
from one side of a coin impressed on the opposite side - occasionally, a
newly struck coin "sticks" to a die, causing the next coin struck to have a
First Strike Mirror Brockage of the coin stuck to the die; by the second
strike the mirror is distorted, and later strikes are termed Struck Through
A Capped Die .
||A coin or other object
composed primarily of a precious metal, with little or no value beyond that
of the metal.
|Bureau of Engraving and Printing
||An agency of the U.S. Treasury
Department responsible for production of paper money.
||A coin struck for circulation.
||Post confederation Canadian
||A coin, usually struck as a
Proof, with a frosted or satiny central device surrounded by a mirrorlike
- The pattern of light reflected by flow lines of mint state
coins, resembling spokes of a wheel.
- Name given to the British pennies and two pence of 1797 due to their
unusually broad rims.
- A U.S. silver dollar.
||A coin authenticated and
graded by a professional service.
||To find and purchase a coin
worth a premium over the seller's asking price (generally a rare die variety
priced as a more common variety).
||A symbol added to money by
someone like money exchangers, other than the government which issued it to indicate authenticity.
||A commemorative coin issued on a particular event, through the usual distribution channels as regular money.
In this cases it circulates side by side with the normal issues.
Non-circulating commemoratives are not released into circulation, but rather
sold directly to collectors.
||Denotes money that is no
longer in mint state, generally as a result of normal handling and exchange.
||Composed of more than one
layer, such as the copper-nickel over copper composition of U.S. dimes,
quarters, and halves minted presently.
||Outlines and/or traces of
designs from the opposite side of a coin resulting from die clash.
||any process that removes
foreign substances, corrosion or toning, e.g. application of solvents,
dipping, and rubbing with abrasive materials or substances.
||while any coin subjected to a
cleaning process could technically be considered cleaned, this term most
commonly refers to those which have been abrasively cleaned (a coin which
has been abrasively cleaned generally has a lower numismatic value than an
otherwise comparable uncleaned specimen).
||A coin, planchet or blank
missing a portion of metal, caused by an error during blank production;
types of clips include curved (most common), ragged, straight, eliptical,
bowtie, disk and assay.
||Deliberate shearing or shaving
from the edge of gold and silver coins; patterns and mottos are included on
edges to discourage the practice.
||Certificate of Authentication, usually a
paper signed from the mint or grading societies as a guarantee that
the coin is original with or without further details about the coin.
||A piece of metal with a
distinctive stamp and of a fixed value and weight issued by a government and
used as money (source: Webster's New World Dictionary).
||An event where numismatic
items are bought, sold, traded and often exhibited.
||A device present in a coining
press to restrict the outward flow of metal during striking and to put the
design, if any, on the edge of the coin.
||The numismatic holdings of an
individual in total or of a particular type.
- In general, a coin or token used in a colony.
- In the United States, the term refers to coins and tokens
struck during the colonial era by some of the colonies and by
private manufacturers, as well as by the states during the first
several years following the Declaration of Independence.
||indicates that paint, enamel
or a color sticker has been applied after the minting process.
||A coin with a design honoring
or as a reminder of a specific person, place or event. Commemorative coins
are normally struck for a limited period of time (several weeks to several
||A list of the finest known
specimens of a particular coin date and/or variety.
||Small surface scratches or
nicks resulting from movement of coins in the same bag or bin.
- An imitation of a coin or note made to circulate as if
- An altered or non-genuine coin made to deceive collectors,
usually a more valuable date or variety.
||A raised lump of metal on a
coin. Results from metal flow during striking into the space created when a
piece of a die has broken off.
||A coin that is extremely worn
|cupro-nickel (or copper-nickel)
||Composed of an alloy of copper
and nickel, as for example U.S. 5 cent coins (other than half dimes) and
Canadian 5 cent coins produced since 1982.
||Physical change to a
numismatic item, such as a scratch, nick, ding, cleaning, hole or pitting.
||The year(s) shown on a coin,
usually the same as the year it was minted.
||A person or company that
regularly buys and sells numismatic collectibles.
|deep mirror prooflike (DMPL)
||Having highly reflective
mirrorlike fields, similar to a coin struck as a Proof.
||Metal missing or retained but
peeling from the surface due to incomplete bonding or impurities in the
||An ancient Roman silver coin
weighing about 3 grams, roughly the same size as a U.S. dime but thicker.
||The face value of a coin.
||Tooth like raised features
just inside the rim of some coins (also known as dentils).
||The devices, lettering, etc.
appearing on a coin and their arrangement with respect to each other.
||The creator of a coin design.
||A major design element, such
as the bust of a person.
||A usually cylindrical piece of
steel bearing at one end the incuse design of one side of a coin (except for
coins with incuse detail, where the die details are in relief).
||A small fragment broken off
from a die; metal flowing into the resulting hole during striking results in
a small raised lump on the surface of the coin.
||Upper and lower dies coming
together in a coin press without a planchet between them; design details may
be partially impressed in the opposite dies and subsequently as mirror
images on coins struck from the clashed dies.
||A narrow fissure in the
surface of a die; coins struck with such a die have a narrow raised line
corresponding to the crack.
||Wear on a die from use in the
|die flow lines
||see flow lines explaining below.
||The condition of a die at a
particular point in its life.
||Cleaning by immersion in a
liquid capable of removing molecules from the surface, such as a solution
containing thiourea. Dipping is a chemical process of removing toning. There
are no abrasives in proper dipping, just chemical action to remove
oxidation. This is opposed to scrubbing with an abrasive, leaving
the coin "cleaned" or "harshly cleaned".
||The original spelling of dime,
1/10 of a dollar.
||A rare error in which a
previously struck coin is restruck by the die pair of another denomination.
||A dubious term sometimes
intended to mean a doubled die coin and sometimes indicating machine
doubling (because there is often a substantial difference in value between
the two, a savvy buyer will be sure to determine which case is true for any
coin described as such).
- A die with doubled device details, letters and/or numerals
resulting from any of several possible differences between the
multiple hub impressions during its manufacture.
- A coin struck from such a die.
||A U.S. gold coin with a face
value of $20, first minted in 1849 and last minted in 1933.
||An ancient Greek silver coin
weighing about 3 grams, roughly the same size as U.S. dime but thicker.
- A U.S. gold coin with a face value of
$10, first minted in 1795 and last minted in 1933.
- The U.S. $50 face value gold bullion
coin minted from 1986 to present.
||The "third side" of a coin,
encompassing the perimeter.
|E Pluribus Unum
||"Out of many, one"; the motto
on many U.S. coins.
||A person responsible for
creating dies with specific designs.
- Any unintentional deviation in the
minting process resulting in one or more coins with different
characteristics than intended.
- A coin produced by such an
|Essai / Essay
||Pattern coins of France and of
French-speaking countries. They are also known to be written in
various languages as proba, probe or prova.
||The lower part of a coin or
medal, usually divided from the field by a line and often containing the
date, mintmark or engraver's initial(s).
||Tokens, medals and other non-monetary
||Overall attractiveness (beauty
is in the eye of the beholder).
||The ordinary monetary worth of
a coin or note at the time of issue.
||Rare standard die strikes in gold without
official permission. Someone who owns a number of fakes. Named after
Baron Philipp La Renotiere Von Ferrary, a great collector who also
owned a number of fakes and forgeries.
||The flat background on a coin,
medal or token.
- Canadian 5 cents silver coin.
- U.S. 3 cent silver coin.
||British term for a planchet.
||A pliable clear plastic holder
normally used for a single coin.
||Microscopic lines in the
surface of a coin resulting from the outward flow of metal during striking.
||Money that is not backed by
specie and is legal tender by decree.
||Paper money with a face value of less than
one dollar in USA and similarly elsewhere.
||The first coin issued by
authority of the United States, produced by contractors in 1787.
||An epoxy coated plaster relief
model of a coin, token or medal created by electrodeposition (much larger
than the dies later created from it).
||A term summarizing the overall
condition of a coin or other numismatic item.
||The process of evaluation
leading to assignment of a grade.
||The Coin Dealer Newsletter,
a price guide for U.S. coins reflecting typical market prices for
dealer-to-dealer sight seen transactions.
||Light scratches in the surface
of a coin.
||A U.S. coin with a face value
of 1/200th of a dollar first minted in 1793 and last minted in 1857.
||A U.S. coin with a face value
of 5 cents issued with dates between 1794 and 1873; originally called a half
||A U.S. gold coin with a face
value of $5 first minted in 1795 and last minted in 1929.
||A coin (usually a U.S. Buffalo
nickel) carved or otherwise modified into a substantially different design.
||Having a hole drilled or
punched through it, often so that it may be used for jewelry.
||Any device designed for
storage and sometimes display of numismatic items.
||A steel bar used to make dies
having the same raised design on one end as one side of the coins ultimately
||A proof coin with wear or
damage resulting from circulation or other handling.
||The opposite of relief --
design elements are impressed into the surface.
|Indian Peace Medals
||Medals presented to native
Americans by European governments, fur trading companies, Quakers, and,
later, by US government representatives, as a show of friendship and peace.
||Among the scarcest (and
therefore most expensive) members of a coin series, e.g. the 1909-S VDB
Lincoln cent or 1916-D Mercury dime.
||A numismatic publishing
company (Krause Publications); this company's Standard Catalog of World
||See above delamination.
- A U.S. coin with a value of 1 cent,
minted from 1793 to 1857, composed primarily of copper and
larger in diameter than the current U.S. quarter.
- A similar Canadian one cent coin
issued from 1858 to 1920.
||Money that may be legally
offered in payment of an obligation and that a creditor must accept (source:
Webster's New World Dictionary).
||Lettering on a coin other than
the denomination or nation which issued it.
||Popular name for the Canadian
loon (one) dollar coin; first issued in 1987.
||A type of magnifying glass
used by numismatists and jewelers.
||The brilliance of a coin,
resulting from reflection of light off die flow lines.
||Doubling of details resulting
from loose dies during the minting process (generally considered to have no
||An auction format in which
bids are submitted by mail; the highest offer for each lot received by the
closing date wins the lot (several other rules usually apply).
||A proof coin with a granular
(rather than mirrorlike) surface produced by dies treated to obtain a
minutely etched surface.
||A coin-like object struck to
honor one or more persons or events depicted or mentioned in its design; an
object awarded to persons in recognition of service or other accomplishment.
||The worth of precious metal in
a coin, determined by multiplying the amount of the metal it contains by the
spot price of the metal.
||A facility for manufacturing
||The quantity of a denomination
of coins produced at a mint during a period of time (usually one year).
||Some letter(s) or symbol designating
the mint which produced the item bearing it.
||The original surface of a
newly minted coin.
||A specially packaged group of
uncirculated coins from one or more mints of the same nation containing at
least one coin for most or all of the denominations issued during a
||In the same condition as when
delivered from the mint (natural toning excepted); uncirculated.
||One or more digits of a date
punched away from the intended location, such as in the denticles or in the
||A phrase imprinted on a coin,
for most U.S. coins "E PLURIBUS UNUM".
||A coin struck from two dies
not intended to be used together.
||A coin struck more than once
as a result of not being properly ejected from the coining press.
||Coloration resulting from
chemical change on the surface during normal environmental exposure over a
||A term signifying that the
seller is unwilling to sell for less than the price marked.
||The collection and study of
coins, tokens, medals, paper money and other objects exchanged for goods and
services or manufactured by similar methods.
||A person who collects and/or
studies numismatic items.
||A small silver coin of ancient
Greece, originally a day's wages for a rower on a galley or a citizen on
||The front or "heads" side of a
coin, often bearing a portrait and date.
||Incorrectly centered during
striking, resulting in part of the design missing (off the edge, sometimes
referred as off flan).
|original / original toning
||Having natural surfaces
resulting from long exposure to ordinary environmental conditions; uncleaned.
||A coin struck from a die with
at least one digit of the date repunched over a different digit, e.g. 1809/6
||Designated with a higher grade
||One mintmark on top of a
different mintmark, such as a 'D' over an 'S' (denoted D/S).
||Paper notes with standardized
characteristics issued as money.
||British term for exonumia.
||A thin layer of naturally
oxidized metal on the surface of a coin acquired with age (sometimes also
referred as natural patina).
||A test piece for a new design,
sometimes without a date.
|pick up point
||An area where a feature, such
as die doubling, is most evident.
|piece of eight
||A former Spanish coin with a
face value of eight reales; the U.S. dollar was originally valued at and
tied to eight reales.
|piedfort / piedforte
||A coin usually having same diameter but
double thickness and weight than the normal version. The word "piedfort"
is French and combines the two words "pied", meaning weight, and
"fort", meaning strong or heavy; thus a piedfort is literally a
||Having a rough surface due to
loss of metal by corrosion.
||A piece of metal prepared for
coinage with raised rims but as yet unstruck.
||Tiny laminations or other natural
imperfections in the planchet due to poor annealing or poor metal
mix. This planchet condition existed before the strike, so is called
"as struck" vs. after strike damage.
||Denotes that a holed coin has
||Having a granular surface as
the result of oxidation, most frequently found with older copper coins.
||A set of coins produced by the
U.S. Mint from 1983-84 and 1986-97 containing one or more proof
commemorative coins released in the same year, as well as a proof cent,
nickel, dime, quarter dollar and half dollar.
||Any coin that has been cleaned
or damaged or has other undesirable characteristics.
||A coin specially manufactured
to have extra sharp detail, mirrorlike fields and sometimes frosted or
"cameo" devices, produced for sale to collectors at a premium or for
exhibition or presentation.
||Having mirrorlike fields, similar to a
coin struck as a Proof.
||A coin specially manufactured
by the Royal Canadian Mint with mirror fields.
||A specially packaged group of coins
containing at least one of most or all of the denominations of proof
coins struck by a nation in a particular year.
||A U.S. gold coin with a face
value of $2.50 first minted in 1796 and last minted in 1929.
- An infrequently encountered or
- The number of known surviving
specimens of a particular issue, as may be indicated by a rarity
- A system for designating the
relative number of specimens known to exist. The two most commonly used in
numismatics are Sheldon's scale (ranging from R1 for common pieces to R8 for
those that are unique or nearly so) and the Universal Rarity Scale developed
by Q. David Bowers (with the lower designations, such as URS1, indicating
greater rarity and higher numbers for more common items).
- In general (like in Stephen Album's
book) a commonly used scale is also in place from common to
greater rarity coins as A = Abundant, C = Common, S = Scarce, R
= Rare, RR = very Rare and RRR = extremely very Rare.
||Not certified as authentic,
graded and encapsulated in a sealed hard plastic holder by an independent
||A former basic monetary unit
of Spain and Spanish colonies in the Americas.
||A Guide Book of U.S. Coins,
a retail price guide for U.S. coins published annually, originally written
by R.S. Yeoman.
||An edge with raised parallel
lines, also commonly known as grained, milled or segmented.
||Features rising above the
||A date with one or more of the
digits punched more than once in different locations and/or orientations.
|repunched mintmark (RPM)
||A mintmark punched more than
once in different locations and/or orientations.
||A coin struck with authentic
dies later than the date it bears.
||The back or "tails" side of a
||careful mechanical abrasion / manipulation
of the metal in the fields to remove scratched, graffiti (images or
lettering scratched, scrawled, painted or marked in any manner),
||The outer edge of a coin,
often raised to avoid premature wear.
||A disc shaped piece of
precious metal bullion.
||indicated as reignal number of year(s) of
a person / government ruling with or without a frozen year. The
frozen year indicated the year the person / government start ruling,
e.g. AH 1327 RY 3 on Ottoman Coins or RY 31 on Japan and Taiwan
||A note issued by and
redeemable at a merchant or group of merchants.
||Coins of the same major design
and denomination, including every combination of date and mintmark minted,
e.g. Morgan dollars of USA.
||A numerical grading system
ranging from 1 to 70 created by Dr. William H. Sheldon to denote
proportional values of large cents minted from 1793 to 1814 and subsequently
adapted as a general grading scale.
||Canadian fractional banknotes.
||Available for examination to a
potential buyer before a purchase decision is made.
||Not available for examination
to a potential buyer before a purchase decision is made, as is usually the
case with mail order transactions.
||A note (paper money) once
redeemable for its face value in silver.
||A clad coin with one layer
containing silver, such as U.S. halves struck from 1965 to 1970.
||A coin produced by the U.S.
mint beginning in 1986 containing one ounce of silver and having a nominal
face value of $1 (not released for circulation).
||A coin certified by a
professional grading service as authentic and encapsulated in a sealed hard
plastic holder also containing a label bearing the service's opinion of its
grade and other information.
||A coin with very slight traces
of wear, such that it almost passes for an uncirculated specimen.
||A slug is a counterfeit coin that is used
to make illegal purchases from a coin-operated device, such as a
vending machine, pay phone, parking meter, transit farebox, copy
machine, coin laundry, gaming machine or arcade game. By resembling
various features of a genuine coin, including the weight, size and
shape, a slug is designed to trick the machine into accepting it
like a real coin. In some cases, a slug can be a genuine coin used
in another country, with or without knowledge of the user. Washers
were common slugs before the 1980's.
||Precious metal (usually gold
||Different grades for the
obverse and reverse sides.
- Short for spot price.
- A small area of corrosion or foreign
||The market price for immediate
delivery of a commodity, such as a precious metal.
- The difference between buy and sell
prices for the same item(s) of a dealer, broker, etc.
- The extent of separation between
impressions on a doubled die.
||A U.S. gold coin pattern with
a face value of $4 minted in 1879 and 1880.
||Incuse marks caused by rolling bars during planchet production.
- The process of impressing the design
from a die into a planchet to make a coin, token or medal.
- The degree to which details are
transferred during this process (as in weak
strike, full strike, etc.)
||See above machine doubling.
|territorial gold coins
||pieces of various shapes,
denominations and intrinsic worth privately struck in the general area of
recently discovered gold deposits for the needs of local commerce.
||An ancient Greek silver coin
weighing about 13 to 17 grams, roughly the same size as a U.S. quarter but
three times thicker.
||The rubbing of skin oil onto a
coin in an attempt to hide contact marks.
- A coin-like object redeemable for a
particular product or service, such as transportation on a bus
- An unofficial coin issued by a
business or local government to be used as small change, e.g.,
in 17th-19th century Britain, and in France during the 20th
||Color acquired from chemical
change on the surface.
- A U.S. coin with a face value of $1
minted from 1873 through 1885 specifically for commerce in the
- A U.K. coin with a face value of $1
minted from 1895 through 1935 specifically for commerce in the
||A U.S. coin with a face value
of 3 cents minted in predominantly silver alloys from 1851-1873.
||A plastic or cardboard container designed
for storing a roll or other quantity of coins of the same size.
||Any coin of a particular
design and denomination, usually one of the more common dates.
||A collection of coins of
various designs; rather than try to complete the series, the goal of the
type collector is to obtain at least one example of several different types.
||Never circulated; without any
||Any variety of U.S. silver
dollar described in the book Morgan and Peace Dollars by Van Allen
||Any coin struck from a die
pair that differs from others with the same date and mintmark, such as one
exhibiting die doubling, different style letters or numerals, or a repunched
is a green or greenish blue deposit patina of copper carbonates on
copper, brass, and bronze that is caused by atmospheric corrosion.
Green colour deposit also appears on coins due to acid tests to
check if they are having silver contents (only silver coin turns
black on acid tests).
||A tabulation of collectibles
sought by a collector, often including requirements for condition and/or
||A design put into paper at the
manufacuring stage by pressing it while wet between rollers bearing the
||Metal lost during handling and
contact with other objects.
||Alteration by mechanical
polishing to produce a shiny surface.
||Coins issued by various
nations, as in a collection comprised of coins thereof.
As the auction started on this
coin, Chiefs's expected value was no where near the final price of this
coin. Chiefa's entire collection was just 1% of the final auctioned value.
Chiefa was extremely disappointed as he wanted to have his love: the Coin.
Anyhow what more he could do, his deeply mediocrity can be described by
Ghalib's excellent compilation of well structured couplets.
Yeh na thi hamari khismath
ke vissaale yaar hotha
It was not my destiny to have a confidential companion
Agar aur jeethe rahthae yahi inthezaar hotha
Were I to live longer this would still be a longing
Therae vaade per jiyae ham, thoe yeh jaan jhoot
If I am living based on your promises, then consider it as lie.
Ke khushi se mar na jaathae agar aethibaar hotha?
How gleefully we would have died, were you be worthy of trust.
Theri nazuki sae jaana ke bandha tha ahad
From your tenderness we observed, how unique is existence.
Kabhi thu na thoad saktha. Agar usthuvaar hotha
You could not have ravaged it. If only were it to be stronger.
Koyi maera dil se poochae thaere theer neem-kash
Only some one were to ask my heart about your semi deadly invading looks.
Yeh khalish kahan se hoathi jo jigar ke paar hotha
Where they had the intensity that they could pass through my heart?
Yeh kahan ki dosthi hai ke banae hain dosth nasseh
What kind of friendship is this, that my companions have turned preachers.
Koyi charah saaz hotha, koyi gamgasar hotha
I wish some were curers or some were to be comforters
Rage sang sae tapaktha voh lahu ke phir na thamtha
From the hardened vein the blood were to flow unceasingly
Jise gum samajh rahe ho yeh agar sharaar hotha
What do you think is sorrow were it to be a spark of fire
Gam agarche jaan gusal hai. Pa bachain kahan keh
If misery is destroyer of life were heart is tranquil.
Gham ishq agar na hotha. Ghame rozgaar hotha
Were love not to lead to affliction grief would be the daily earnings.
Kahun jis se mai ke kya hai shabe gam buri bala
To whom do I tell that nights of lamentations are a curse
Mujhe kya bura tha marna. Agar yek baar hotha
What was so difficult for me to die, were it to be only once.
Huve mur ke hum jo ruswa huve kyun na garke darya
My death became my infamy, why did I not drown in sea.
Na kabhi janaza uttha na kahin mazaar hotha
No bier to carry my corpse, nor cost of a grave to be build.
Use kaun dekh saktha ke yagana hai who yaktha
Who could have seen whether it is singular or unique.
Jo duvi ki boo bhi hothi tho kahin do chaar hotha
Were it to be fragrance of mating still it would a couple or guardable.
Yeh masaile thassauuf yeh thera bayaan Ghalib
These mystic propositions your testimony of Ghalib
Thujhe hum vali samajhthe jo na baada-kwaar hotha
A prophet we would honour were you not be inebriate
Chiefa's life after this
incident came to a halt. He stood there in grief. He though of
himself, why is this life and world for ? He exclaimed in sorrow with pain
and misery, the most famous Ghalib's couplets.
Na thaa kuchh to Khudaa
thaa, kuchh na hotaa to Khudaa hotaa
God was, when it was aught, God would still be, even if it might have been
Duboyaa mujh ko hone ne, na hotaa main to kyaa
Drowned I am in my ego, What would have happened if "I" was not
huaa jab Gam se yuuon behis to Gam kyaa sar ke
Laden with distraught and feeling apathetic, do I have to worry about the
head being severed
na hotaa gar judaa tan se to zaano par dharaa
If it did not severe from the body, The head would have simply reposed on
huii muddat ke 'Ghalib' mar gayaa par yaad aataa
It has been ages that "Ghalib" died, Yet the memories linger on
wo har ek baat pe kahanaa ke yuuon hotaa to kyaa
His saying this on every occasion, If it was "like this" then
what it would be !
When dealing with coins, a reference is
usually used to avoid discussing basic details and attributes. It makes it
easy for the coin collectors to focus on a particular type of coin. Below is
a list of various book reference that are known by many coin collectors.
Some of these books have even cross-reference of other books as well.
William D. Craig for "Coins of the World" of 1750-1850 period,
generally 3rd edition.
John S. Davenport for "European Crowns" published by Spink & Son
Robert Friedberg for "Gold Coins of the World" or/and "Coins of the
||HMZ Katalog -
Schweiz & Liechtenstein. Author: Ruedi Kunzmann / JŁrg
Richter. Published by Jost-Druck AG and
it is written in German. It is arranged alphabetically by canton,
chronologically by century and denomination in descending order.
E. Kann for Catalog of Chinese Coins and coins issued under the
Chinese sphere of influence.
Chester L. Krause, Clifford Mishler and Colin R. Bruce II for
"Standard Catalog of World Coins" Publisher: Krause publication,
mainly available in five volumes from 1600 to present.
Major Fred Pridmore for "Studies of British Colonial Coinage".
Stephen Album for "A Checklist of Islamic Coins", generally 2nd
J. P. Goenka and
Michael Robinson for "The Coins of the Indian Sultanates: Covering
the Area of Present-Day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh". Publisher: Munshirm Manoharlal Pub Pvt
|| Author: T.S.
Hsu for Catalog of Chinese Coins
|| Author: W.H.
Valentine for "References on the Modern copper coins of the Muhammadan
Russell Rulau for "Latin American Tokens" and "Standard Catalog of
Hard Times Token 1832-1844".
Colin R. Bruce
II, edited by Tom Michael & George Cuhaj for "Unusual World Coins".
Publisher: Krause publication.
World coins and Current Coins of the world.
Chiefa then turned to his love,
the Coin, and compared Mirza's Ghalib's sufferings with his and left the
auction house. Enjoy Ghalib's "Guzarishe Musannif Ba Huzoore Shah
(Petition of a composer to your sovereign Highness".
Ay shahen shahe aasman aurang
Oh, your Highness, Adorner of this skies
Ay jahandare aafthab aasar
Oh, Ruler of Sunís domain
Tha mai yek be navaye gosha nashin
I was a destitute recluse
Tha mai ek dardmand seena fagaar
a miserable afflicted
Thumne mujh ko jo aabaroo bakshi
You did confer on me grace
Huvi meri vok garmi baazar
That made my ware marketable
Ke huva mujh sa zarra naacheez
It made a non-entity like me
Roshnaaso savabith vassyyar
Shining star to the traveler
Garcha uz rooye nanga be hunari
Though I am a noted soul unskilled
Hoon khud apni nazar mae ithna quwar
I am in my own estimation very wretched
Ke gar apne ko mai kahoon khaki
If I say that I am just dust
Jaantha hoon ke aaye khak ku aar
I know even dust will feel disgrace
Shaad hoon lakin apne jee mae kah loon
Happy I am but in my own heart I know
Baadshah ka gulame kaar guzra
Your majestyís devout and servile servant
Khana saad aur mureed aur muddah
Child of a slave, a diciple and an eulogist
Tha hamesha se yeh araseena nigaar
I was ever a humble petitioner
Baare naukar bhi hogaya sad shukar
In short, servant that I am, hundred times grateful
Nishathen ho gayin musshqqas chaar
Relationship became a distinguished path
Na kahun aap se tho kis se kahoon
If I do not tell you who do I tell
Muddaye sunrori alizhar
I am an accused self proclaimed
Piro murshid ! Agarche mujh ko nahin
A saint or a teacher, if I do not have
Zaukh aaraishe saro dasthaar
Taste for beauty is the turban on my head
Kuch tho jaade mae chahiye aakhir
At least something is necessary for winter
Thaana de baade zamhareer aazar
Till then some spirits to bear extreme cold and ailments
Kyun darkaar ho mujhe poshish
Why not provide me with wearing apparel
Jism rakhta hun, hai agarche nazaar
The body I possess is so lean
Kuch kharee da nahin hai ab ke saal
I have not bought anything for this year
Kuch banaya nahin hai ab ke baar
I have not got anything stitched this year
Raath ko aag aur din ko dhoop
Night so hot and days so warm
Bhaad mae jaaye aysi lailo nahaar
Oh damnation these nights and days
Aag thaape kahan talak insaan
Fire, how long can man endure
Dhoop khavay thalak insaan
How long the living can fry in the sun
Dhoop ki thaabish, aag ki garmi?
Scorching of the sun, heat of fire?
Vakhina rabbana azabul alannkaar!
The fire works of day of reckoning!
Meri thankhwah jo mukharrar
My wages which are fixed
Us ki milne ka hai ajab hanjaar
The receipt of which has strange short-cut
Rasm hai murde ki chhe maahi yek
Tradition is the dead have six monthly account
Khalak ka hai is chalan pe madaar
The entire creation follows this rule
Mujh ko dekhoon tho, hum yeh khaide hayaath
When I look at myself, I am imprisoned for life
Aur che maahi ho saal men do baar!
And six months appear in a year only twice!
Baska letha hun har mahine kharaz
Every month do I contract debts
Aur rahthi hai sood ki thakraar
There is always the dispute of interest
Meri thankwah main thakhai ka
My wages when distributed
Hogaya hai shareek sahukar
There is a claim ant joined, the money lender
Aaj mujh sa nahin zamaane main
Today there is none in this age
Saair naguz-goye khush gufthaar
A poet of such esteem in discourse
Razm ki daastan gar suniye
The battle tales if you listen
Hai zabaab meri thukh jowhardaar
My tongue is a sparkling blade of sword
Bazm ka ithizaam gar keejiye
The battle tales if you listen
Hai khalm meri abar goharbaar
My pen draws clouds and it rains pearls
Zulm hai gar na do sukhan ke daad
Injustice it is if my poetry is not praised
Khahar hai karo na mujh ko pyar
Punishment it is if I am loved by none
Aap ka banda aur phiroon nanga?
Your subject and I wander naked?
Aap ka naukar, aur khavun udhaar?
Your servant and live on loans?
Meri thankwah kijiye mah ba mah
My wages do pay month to month
Tha na mujhko zindagi dushwaar
Until to me life becomes unsustainable
Khatham kartha hoon ub duwa pw kalam:
End do I this petition with a prayer
Shairi se nahin mujhe sarokaar
In poetry I have no more confidence
Tum salamat raho hazar baras
You be well for thousands of years
Har baras ke ho din pachas hazar
For each year, the days be fifty thousand
Chiefa used the above Ghalib's
poetry to explain that his salary is not enough to get his love and
desires, as most of his monthly salary is taken away for the loan he
has taken to survive his life. His life is continuously going in hard
struggle and difficult crises. He does not see any improvement or hope to
overcome these burdens. As living being die and things remain in this world
for generations. His life has to end as well. In the end he says that in
poetry he has no more confidence to explain his situation and wish the Coin
to see thousands of years more of its heritage and prestigious life !
Chiefa has never revealed the
details about his love: the Coin. Some coin collectors and analysts believe
that the Coin, Chiefa loved to purchase or obtain, might be the
United States silver Dollar dated 1804. As this discussion will lead to
nowhere, so let it be a secret. The whatsoever collected Chiefa Coins are
still under mystery whether he managed to bring them back with a broken
heart, or was it was passed on to his next generation, or was it got stolen
or has it become a treasure, yet to be discovered near the empty quarter of
Arabian Desert ?