Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
 

 
Ivory Coast or Côte d'Ivoire, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (French: République de Côte d'Ivoire), is a country in West Africa. Ivory Coast's de jure capital is Yamoussoukro, and its biggest city is the port of Abidjan.
Prior to its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home to several states, including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, and Baoulé. There were two Anyi kingdoms, Indénié and Sanwi, which attempted to retain their separate identity through the French colonial period and after independence. Ivory Coast became a protectorate of France in 1843–1844 and was later formed into a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. Ivory Coast achieved independence in 1960, led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who ruled the country until 1993. It maintained close political and economic association with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close ties to the West, especially France. Since the end of Houphouët-Boigny's rule in 1993, Ivory Coast has experienced one coup d'état, in 1999, and two religiously-grounded civil wars. The first took place between 2002-2007 and the second during 2010-2011.
Ivory Coast is a republic with a strong executive power invested in its president. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. Ivory Coast went through an economic crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. The 21st-century Ivorian economy is largely market-based and still relies heavily on agriculture, with smallholder cash-crop production being dominant.
Motto: "Union – Discipline – Travail" (French); translation: Unity – Discipline – Work.

The official language is French, with local indigenous languages also widely used, including Baoulé, Dioula, Dan, Anyin and Cebaara Senufo. The main religions are Islam, Christianity (primarily Roman Catholicism) and various indigenous religions.

 
 
Territorial Disputes: Disputed maritime border between Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana.
 
 24 Jun 1701 - 1703         French trading post at Assinie (Fort Saint-Louis).
               10 Feb 1842  Grand Bassam king agrees to a French protectorate proposed
                             by Charles Philippe de Kerhallet allowing France to build a
                             fort (Ft. Nemours).
               26 Jun 1843  Assinie and Sanwi kings agree to to French protectorate signed
                             with Fleuriot de Laugle allowing France to build a fort
                             (Ft. Joinville); and from 14 Sep 1853, Fort Dabou, part of
                             the Colony of Gorée and Dependencies (under Senegal)
                             (Établissements Français dela Côte d'Or [French Gold Coast]).
               04 Oct 1860  Ivory Coast territory of the Ivory Coast-Gabon colony
                      1871  France surrenders administration to private traders, but
                             maintains the protectorates. The major trader was Arthur
                             Verdier & Company.
 10 Nov 1878 - 1886         Administration under A. Verdier & Company (Établissements 
                             Français de la Côte d'Ivoire).
               16 Dec 1883  Ivory Coast subordinate to French Guinea (under Guinea).
                      1886  Direct French rule restored.
               10 Jan 1889  French protectorate of Ivory Coast.
               10 Mar 1893  French colony (Ivory Coast).
               16 Jun 1895  Part of French West Africa (under Senegal).
 26 Jul 1940 - 1945         Administration loyal to Free French.
               27 Oct 1946  Ivory Coast overseas territory of France.
               04 Dec 1958  Autonomy (Republic of Ivory Coast).
               03 Dec 1959  Flag adopted.
               07 Aug 1960  Independence.
               12 Oct 1985  Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (French name no longer translated).
 19 Sep 2002 - 04 Mar 2007  Civil war between government, MPCI, MPIGO and MPJ
                             (in 2003  rebel groups merge as the FNCI).
  • Party abbreviations:
  • MPCI = Mouvement Patriotique de Côte d'Ivoire (Patriotic Movement of Ivory Coast, militant to 2005, northern regionalist, mainly Muslim, est.2002)
  • MPIGO = Mouvement Populaire Ivoirien du Grand Ouest (Ivorian Popular Movement of the Great West, western regionalist est.2002)
  • FNCI = Forces Nouvelles de Côte d'Ivoire (New Forces of Côte d'Ivoire, alliance of MPJ, MPCI and MPIGO, anti-Gbagbo, est.2003).
 
 
  • Commandants-particulier at Assinie
  • Dufour de Mont-Louis....................................1843 - 1844
  • Boyer...................................................1844 - c.1845
  • Tessa..........................................................1846
  • de Thévenard (1st time)........................................1847
  • Brochard................................................1848 - 1849
  • Lemaire.................................................1850 - 1851
  • Coquet..................................................1851 - 1853
  • de Thévenard (2nd time).................................1853 - 1855
  • Pierre Alexandre Mailhetard....................................1855
  • Denis...................................................1856 - 1858
  • unknown ruler
  • Darré............................................04 Jan 1862 - 1863
  • Viard............................................29 Apr 1863 - c.1864
  • Antoine-Marius Aime-Dieu................................1865 - 1866
  • Charles Bour............................................1866 - 1868
  • Jean Auguste Martin.....................................1868 - 1870
  • Commandants-particulier at Dabou
  • Benech..................................................1853 - 1854
  • Durban..................................................1854 - 1855
  • Pierre Alexandre Mailhetard....................................1855
  • He was Commandants-particulier at Assinie and Dabou.
  • Gindre.........................................................1856
  • Guéden..................................................1856 - 1857
  • Denis...................................................1857 - 1858
  • Noël Bruyas......................................21 Dec 1861 - c.1867
  • F.E. Bouyer.............................................1867 - 1868
  • Munier.........................................................c.1870
  • Commandants-superior at Grand Bassam
  • Charles Marie Philippe de Kerhallet............................1843
  • Thomas Jules Séraphin Besson............................1843 - 1844
  • Joseph Pellegrin........................................1844 - 1845
  • Conjard.................................................1845 - 1847
  • Camille Adolphe Pigeon (or Pijeon)......................1847 - 1848
  • Jean Jules Charles Boulay...............................1849 - 1850
  • Charles Gabriel Felicité Martin des Pallières...........1851 - 1853
  • François Chirat.........................................1853 - 1854
  • Pierre Alexandre Mailhetard (1st time)..................1854 - 1855
  • Noël Bruyas.............................................1855 - 1856
  • Charles Brossard de Corbigny...................................1857
  • Pierre Alexandre Mailhetard (2nd time)..................1858 - 1860
  • Charles René Gabriel Liébault....................10 Nov 1860 - Jul 1862
  • Joseph Alem......................................28 Aug 1862 - 14 Jan 1863
  • Jean Antoine Léonard Eudore Noyer................29 Apr 1863 - 1863
  • Jacques Bertrand Oscar Desnouy(s).......................1863 - 1864
  • Jean Auguste Martin.....................................1864 - 1866
  • Léon Noël...............................................1866 - 1867
  • Alfred Pouzols..........................................1867 - 1869
  • Jean Louis Vernet.......................................1869 - 1871
  • Residents (from 1881 subordinated to the Superior Commandant of Gabon and the Gulf of Guinea Settlements; from 1886 subordinated to the Lieutenant governors of Guinea)
  • Arthur Verdier..........................................1871 - 1885
  • He was to 1878 Warden of the French Flag.
  • Charles Bour (Commandant-particulier)...................1885 - 1886
  • Marcel Treich-Laplène...................................1886 - 09 Mar 1890
  • Jean Joseph Étienne Octave Péan (acting).........09 Mar 1890 - 14 Jun 1890
  • Jean Auguste Henri Desaille......................14 Jun 1890 - 1892
  • Eloi Bricard (acting)..........................................1892
  • Julien Voisin (acting)..................................1892 - 12 Nov 1892
  • Paul Alphonse Frédéric Marie de Beckman..........12 Nov 1892 - 20 Mar 1893
  • Governors
  • Louis Gustave Binger.............................20 Mar 1893 - 28 Aug 1895
    • Acting for Binger
    • Paul Jean François Cousturier.............................1895
    • Jean Baptiste Philémon Lemaire............................1895
  • Pierre Hubert Auguste Pascal (acting)...................1895 - 25 Feb 1896
  • Théodule Charles Eugène Bertin (acting)..........25 Feb 1896 - 13 May 1896
  • Jean Baptiste Castaing (acting)..................13 May 1896 - 14 May 1896
  • Louis Mouttet (acting to 19 Mar 1897)............14 May 1896 - 11 Sep 1898
    • Acting for Mouttet
    • Adrien Jules Jean Bonhoure................................1898
    • Antoine Julien Oscar Penel................................1898
    • Pierre Paul Marie Capest..................................1898
    • Jean Napoléon Ribes................................1898 - 11 Sep 1898
  • Henri Charles Victor Amédée Roberdeau............11 Sep 1898 - 05 Nov 1902
  • Albert Anatole Nebout (1st time - acting)........05 Nov 1902 - 25 Nov 1902
  • Marie François Joseph Clozel.....................25 Nov 1902 - 25 Aug 1907
  • He was acting to 04 May 1903.
    • Acting for Clozel
    • Émile Joseph Merwart........................17 Jul 1904 - 06 Jan 1905
    • Albert Anatole Nebout (2nd time)............19 Nov 1905 - 27 Oct 1906
  • Albert Anatole Nebout (3rd time - acting)........25 Aug 1907 - 25 Apr 1908
  • Gabriel Louis Angoulvant.........................25 Apr 1908 - 27 Dec 1916
    • Acting for Angoulvant
    • Pierre Brun.................................28 Apr 1909 - Aug 1909
    • Marie Casimir Joseph Guyon (1st time).......12 May 1911 - 09 Mar 1912
    • Marie Casimir Joseph Guyon (2nd time).......22 Mar 1913 - 29 Oct 1913
    • Gustave Jacques Henri Julien................29 Oct 1913 - 04 Sep 1914
    • Maurice Pierre Lapalud (1st time)...........16 Jun 1916 - 27 Dec 1916
  • Maurice Pierre Lapalud (continued)...............27 Dec 1916 - Jan 1918
  • Raphaël Valentin Marius Antonetti...................Jan 1918 - 02 Apr 1924
    • Acting for Antonetti
    • Maurice Beurnier...............................Jun 1919 - 22 Sep 1919
    • Pierre Aimable Chapon-Baissac...............24 Jan 1922 - 28 Sep 1922
  • Richard Édmond Maurice Édouard Brunot (acting)...02 Apr 1924 - 02 Jul 1925
  • Maurice Pierre Lapalud (2nd time)................02 Jul 1925 - 25 Aug 1930
    • Acting for Lapalud
    • Maurice Léon Bourgine.......................20 May 1927 - Mar 1928
  • Joseph Jules Brévié..............................25 Aug 1930 - 28 Oct 1930
  • Jean Paul Boutonnet (acting).....................28 Oct 1930 - 16 Jan 1931
  • Dieudonné François Joseph Marie Reste............16 Jan 1931 - 07 May 1935
    • Acting for Reste
    • Raoul Joseph Bourgine.......................03 Mar 1931 - 28 Dec 1932
  • Marie Alphonse Flottes de Pouzols (acting).......07 May 1935 - 28 Jun 1935
  • Adolphe Deitte...................................28 Jun 1935 - 07 Mar 1936
  • Georges Julien Lamy (acting).....................07 Mar 1936 - 28 Nov 1936
  • Gaston Charles Julien Mondon.....................28 Nov 1936 - 16 Jul 1938
  • Louis Henri François Denis Bressolles (acting)...16 Jul 1938 - 27 Jan 1939
  • Horace Valentin Crocicchia.......................27 Jan 1939 - 01 Jan 1941
  • He was acting to 05 Mar 1940.
  • Hubert Jules Deschamps...........................01 Jan 1941 - 29 Sep 1942
  • Georges Pierre Rey...............................29 Sep 1942 - 03 Aug 1943
  • Jean François Toby...............................03 Aug 1943 - 26 Aug 1943
  • André Jean Gaston Latrille (1st time)............26 Aug 1943 - 16 Aug 1945
  • Henry Jean Marie de Mauduit......................16 Aug 1945 - Apr 1946
  • André Jean Gaston Latrille (2nd time)...............Apr 1946 - 20 Feb 1947
  • Oswald Marcellin Maurice Maruis Durand...........20 Feb 1947 - 29 Jan 1948
  • He was acting to 20 May 1947.
  • Georges Louis Joseph Orselli.....................29 Jan 1948 - 10 Nov 1948
  • Laurent Élisée Péchoux...........................10 Nov 1948 - 25 Apr 1952
  • Pierre François Pélieu...........................25 Apr 1952 - 10 Jul 1952
  • Camille Victor Bailly............................10 Jul 1952 - 19 Feb 1954
  • Pierre Joseph Auguste Messmer....................19 Feb 1954 - 18 Feb 1956
  • Pierre Auguste Michel Marie Lami.................18 Feb 1956 - 23 Feb 1957
  • He was acting to 28 May 1956.
  • Ernest Maurice de Nattes.........................23 Feb 1957 - 04 Dec 1958
  • High Commissioners
  • Ernest Maurice de Nattes (continued).............04 Dec 1958 - 15 Jul 1960
  • Yves René Henri Guéna............................15 Jul 1960 - 07 Aug 1960
    • Vice President of the Government Council
    • Marcel Auguste Denise.......................17 May 1957 - 26 Jul 1958
    • President of the Government Council
    • Marcel Auguste Denise (continued)...........26 Jul 1958 - 30 Apr 1959
    • He was president of the provisional government from 04 Dec 1958.
    • Chief of State
    • Félix Houphouët-Boigny......................30 Apr 1959 - 07 Aug 1960
    • He was acting to 30 Jul 1960. He was Head of State and Prime Minister to 03 Nov 1960.
  • Presidents
  • Félix Houphouët-Boigny (continued)...............07 Aug 1960 - 07 Dec 1993
  • Aimé Henri Konan Bédié...........................07 Dec 1993 - 24 Dec 1999
  • Bédié was overthrown in a coup on Christmas Eve, 1999. Although Guéï had no role in the coup, the popular general was encouraged out of retirement to head the junta until the next elections.
  • Robert Guéï......................................24 Dec 1999 - 26 Oct 2000
  • He was president of National Public Salvation Committee to 04 Jan 2000. Guéï stood in the October 2000 presidential election as an independent. He only allowed one opposition candidate, Laurent Gbagbo of the Ivorian Popular Front, to run against him. Guéï was soundly defeated by Gbagbo, but refused to recognize the result. Guéï withdrew from the forum agreement in September 2002, but was killed along with his wife and children on September 19, 2002, in the Cocody district of Abidjan at the first hours of the civil war. Circumstances of his death remain mysterious, although generally attributed to forces loyal to Laurent Gbagbo. Following Guéï's death, his body stayed in a morgue until a funeral was held for him in Abidjan on August 18, 2006, nearly four years after his death.
  • Laurent Koudou Gbagbo............................26 Oct 2000 - 04 Dec 2010
  • He continues in dissidence to 11 Apr 2011.
  • Alassane Dramane Ouattara........................04 Dec 2010 - date
  • He was Prime Minister from 07 Nov 1990 to 11 Dec 1993.
 
  • Leader of the Patriotic Movement of Ivory Coast
  • Guillaume Kigbafori Soro (in rebellion at Bouake).....19 Sep 2002 - Jul 2003
 
Currency:
The West African CFA Franc (ISO 4217 code: XOF) is the currency of eight independent states spanning over 1,350,000 square miles (3,500,000 km2) in West Africa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Sénégal and Togo. The acroynym CFA stands for Communauté financière d'Afrique ("Financial Community of Africa"). The currency is issued by the BCEAO (Banque Centrale des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, "Central Bank of the West African States"), located in Dakar, Senegal, for the members of the UEMOA (Union Économique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine, "West African Economic and Monetary Union"). The Franc is nominally subdivided into 100 centimes but no centime denominations have been issued.
The CFA franc, in general is a currency used in fourteen countries: twelve formerly French-ruled African countries, as well as in Guinea-Bissau (a former Portuguese colony) and in Equatorial Guinea (a former Spanish colony). The ISO currency codes are XAF for the Central African CFA franc and XOF for the West African CFA franc. It has a fixed exchange rate to the euro: 100 CFA francs = 1 French (nouveau) franc = 0.152449 euro; or 1 euro = 655.957 CFA francs. Although Central African CFA francs and West African CFA francs have the same monetary value against other currencies, West African CFA coins and banknotes are not accepted in countries using Central African CFA francs and vice versa.
Despite Côte d'Ivoire using West CFA Francs in general daily transactions. It has has produced some silver and gold commemorative coins in 1966. Two medallic issue were produced in 2003 by Africa Mint.
 
1966
 

KM#1 10 Francs. Year: 1966. Weight: 24.97 [25.00]g. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 34.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Thickness: 3.50 mm. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Bare head of President Felix Houphouet Boigny facing right in the center. "* PRESIDENT FELIX HOUPHOUET BOIGNY *" written around his head. Date "1966" at the bottom. Reverse: Elephant standing straight in front and value "10 FRS" within the center wreath. "* REPUBLIQUE DE CÔTE D'IVOIRE *" written at the top section. "UNION · DISCIPLINE · TRAVAIL" at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

Note: Varieties exist in 2.90 mm and 3.50 mm planchets.

 
2003 IDAO - Bureau Africain d'Emission issues
 

1500 CFA Francs or 1 Africa. Year: 2003. Weight: 5.74g. Metal: Nickel plated Steel. Diameter: 25.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Africa Mint. Obverse: "· 1500 CFA · AFRIQUE DE L'OUEST 2003 · EMISSION IVOIRIENNE ·" written in the top section. Two elephants fighting in the center. "LF" initials of the engraver at the bottom. Reverse: "· IDAO · EMISSION MONETAIRE DE L'INSTITUT DE DEVELOPPEMENT DE L'AFRIQUE DE L'OUEST" (clockwise). Elephant face on West African Map (in center). Value "1 AFRICA" written below the map. Mintage: 1,200. Minted Years: One year type.

Note: A bi-metallic of 6000 CFA has also been produced in 2003 featuring President Laurent Koudou Gbagbo.

 
 
 
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