Estonia
 
 
Officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipsi and the Russian Federation (338.6 km). Across the Baltic Sea lies Sweden in the west and Finland in the north. The territory of Estonia covers 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), and is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. The Estonians are a Finnic people, and the official language, Estonian, is closely related to Finnish. Estonia is a democratic parliamentary republic divided into 15 counties. The capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of 1.34 million, it is one of the least-populous members of the European Union, Eurozone and NATO. Estonia has the highest GDP per person among former Soviet republics. The United Nations lists Estonia as a developed country with a Human Development Index of "Very High". The country is also ranked highly for press freedom, economic freedom, democracy and political freedom and education.
 
      1030 - 1061           Russian occupation of Dorpat (Tartu).
                      1211  Estonian Bishopric, also called Bishopric of Leal (Lihula)
                             (after the nominal seat of the bishop) established by the
                             Bishop of Riga (confirmed by the Holy See 31 Oct 1213),
                             originally without any temporal authority.
                      1216  Southern part of present-day Estonia invaded by the
                             Swordbrothers Order, who establish a standing presence there
                             (occasional raids started from 1208, occupation of Estonian 
                             lands completed by Feb 1227).
                  Jun 1219  Danish rule (Estonian Duchy) in Reval (Tallinn) and northern
                             part of present-day Estonia.
               21 Jul 1224  Estonian bishop takes temporal authority over the southern
                             part of present-day Estonia as a sovereign prince-bishop of
                             the Holy Roman Empire (formally from 06 Nov 1225), Bishop
                             gives part of his possessions as a fief to the Swordbrothers
                             Order, and cedes the western part of the Estonian mainland
                             (including Leal) to the bishop of Riga (24 Jul 1224) and
                             chooses Dorpat (Tartu) as his new capital (Aug 1224). The
                             Estonian Bishopric thereafter renamed as Bishopric of Dorpat,
                             but bishops continues to use the style of bishop of Leal to
                             08 Jan 1235.
                  Feb 1227  Danish duchy of (N-) Estonia was conquered by Swordbrothers.
               12 May 1237  Swordbrothers Order incorporated into the Teutonic Order as a
                             separate branch or province, informally known as the
                             Livonian Order.
               07 Jun 1238  After joining the Teutonic Order, lands of Revalia, Hargia
                             (Harjumaa) and Wironia (Virumaa) were retroceded to Denmark,
                             but "Gierwia" (a landlocked area in central Estonia, now
                             Järvamaa) remained possession of the Teutonic Order until
                             29 Aug 1346.
                      1285  City of Reval (Tallinn) becomes a member of the Hanseatic
                             League and is later joined by 3 other cities in present-day
                             Estonia: Dorpat (Tartu), Pernau (Pärnu), and Fellin
                             (Viljandi).
               01 Nov 1346  Estonian Duchy, having been sold by Denmark (on 29 Aug 1346),
                             is handed over to the Grand Master of Teutonic Order and by
                             the later (on 07 Jun 1347) given up in a pledge and
                             administration to the Land-Master of the Livonian Order
                             (Grand Master relinquishes rights 14 Jan 1525).
               06 Jun 1561  City of Reval and vassals of the Order in (04 Jun 1561) make
                             an oath to Sweden (on 15 Jun 1561) these territories are
                             annexed by Sweden, but annexation is not recognized by the
                             Livonian Order or the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until
                             13 Dec 1570. This part of Estonia, controlled by Sweden
                             (until 1584) called Swedish Livonia.
               05 Mar 1562  Territories of the Livonian Order become part of the
                             Lithuanian principality of Livonia.
               15 Jan 1582  Russia withdraws from Dorpat (occupied in 1558) and transfers
                             it to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
               20 Mar 1584  Territories annexed by Sweden are organized as the Duchy or
                             Province of Estonia (Estland in Swedish and German),
                             originally (to the 17th cent.) formally Estonian Duchy.
                             The King of Sweden takes the style of "Duke of Estonia", 
                             originally "Estonian Duke" (Hertig af Esthen).
               10 Oct 1710  Estonia is annexed by Russia and autonomous province or
                             government of Revel (Russian: Namestichestvo Revel'skaya)
                             is established (formally from in 8 Aug 1713). Estonia called
                             thereafter in semi-official local use Duchy (rendered
                             Principality in Russian) of Estonia (until 1783), the Russian
                             Tsar uses the style of "Prince of Estonia" until 1917.
               10 Sep 1721  Duchy of Estonia formally ceded by Sweden to Russia by the
                              Treaty of Nystad.
        1775 - Nov 1917     Subordinated, with some interruptions, to governors-general,
                             or other overall administrations, of the Baltic Provinces
                             under Latvia. 
               14 Jul 1783  Province of Estonia, local autonomy is abolished.
               28 Nov 1796  Limited local autonomy for Estonia restored (confirmed by all
                             successive Emperors of Russia on their accession before
                             1881, thereafter gradually extinguished). 
                  Nov 1917  Bolshevik government abolishes autonomy.
               28 Nov 1917  Estonian Provisional Province Assembly proclaimed itself as
                             supreme power in Estonia and authorized its Council of Elders
                             to act as emergency body (this meeting of Province Assembly
                             was dismissed by communists). The Council of Elders
                             authorized, in 19 Feb 1918, the Estonian Liberation Committee
                             to act as temporary supreme power. 
               23 Feb 1918  Declaration of independence proclaimed on behalf of the
                             Estonian National Council in Pärnu (Republic of Estonia).
               24 Feb 1918  National government takes office and independence manifesto
                             is distributed in Tallinn.
 25 Feb 1918 - 11 Nov 1918  Occupied by Germany, part of the Baltic State (Apr-Nov 1918;
                             German occupation of the islands of Hiiumaa, Muhu, and
                             Saaremaa from 12 Oct 1917); for Baltic State under Latvia.
               11 Nov 1918  Provisional government of Estonia founded on
               28 Feb 1918  is restored (Republic of Estonia [restored]).
 29 Nov 1918 - 24 May 1919  Estonian Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic (in Russian-occupied
                             territory [from 1 Feb 1919 in name only]).
               17 Jun 1940  Occupied by the Soviet Union.
               21 Jul 1940  Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
               06 Aug 1940  Incorporation into the Soviet Union (not internationally
                             recognized).
 07 Jul 1941 - 18 Sep 1944  Occupied by Germany, part of Reichskommissariat of Ostland
                            (under Latvia)- (on Hiiumaa, Muhu, and Saaremaa Islands to
                             24 Nov 1944).
 18 Sep 1944 - 22 Sep 1944  Brief restoration of the Republic of Estonia.
               22 Sep 1944  Re-incorporation into the Soviet Union (not internationally
                             recognized).
               16 Nov 1988  Declaration of state sovereignty.
               08 May 1990  Republic of Estonia
               20 Aug 1991  Independence declared.
               06 Sep 1991  Independence recognized by Soviet Union.
 
 
 
Territorial Disputes: Russia recalled its signature to the 1996 technical border agreement with Estonia in 2005, rather than concede to Estonia's appending prepared a unilateral declaration referencing Soviet occupation and territorial losses; Russia demands better accommodation of Russian-speaking population in Estonia; Estonian citizen groups continue to press for realignment of the boundary based on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people and parts of the Narva region within Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Estonia must implement the strict Schengen border rules with Russia.
 
 
DORPAT (modern Tartu)
  • A city in eastern Estonia, near Lake Peipus; the site of a Teutonic ecclesiastic establishment in the era of Baltic Crusades.
                      1211  Estonian Bishopric, also called Bishopric of Leal (Lihula)
                             (after the nominal seat of the bishop) established by
                             the Bishop of Riga (confirmed by the Holy See 31 Oct 1213),
                             originally without any temporal authority.
               21 Jul 1224  Estonian bishop takes temporal authority over the southern
                             part of present-day Estonia as a sovereign prince-bishop of
                             the Holy Roman Empire (formally from 6 Nov 1225), Bishop
                             gives part of his possessions as a fief to the Swordbrothers
                             Order, and cedes the western part of the Estonian mainland
                             (including Leal) to the bishop of Riga (24 Jul 1224) and 
                             chooses Dorpat (Tartu) as his new capital (Aug 1224). The 
                             Estonian Bishopric thereafter renamed as Bishopric of Dorpat,
                             but bishops continues to use the style of bishop of Leal to
                             08 Jan 1235.
                18 Jul 1558  City of Dorpat surrenders to Russian forces.
  18 Jul 1558 - 15 Jan 1582  Russian occupation of the former bishopric.
                15 Jan 1582  Russia withdraws from Dorpat and transfers it to the
                             Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Former bishopric is made part
                             of Duchy of Livonia (the southern part of present-day
                             Estonia remains part of Livonia [Latvia] until 12 Apr 1917).
         1704 - 1710         Russians controlled only inland parts of Livonia and Estonia.
 
  • Local Finno-Estonian tribes
  • Teutonic Knights from the early 13th century.
  • Bishops of Leal
  • Theodoric (= Dietrich I)................................1211 - 15 Jun 1219
  • Hermann I von Buxhöwden..........................10 Apr 1220 - 21 Jul 1224
  • Prince-Bishops of Dorpat
  • Hermann I von Buxhöwden (continued)..............21 Jul 1224 - 1245
  • Approved on 18 Apr 1220.
  • Bernhard I..............................................1245 - 1250 ?
  • Alexander.............................................1250 ? - 10 Sep 1268
  • Friedrich von Haseldorf.................................1268 - 04 Dec 1288
  • Bernhard II.............................................1289 - 1299
  • Dietrich II Viffhusen...................................1303 - 1312
  • Nikolaus (acting)................................14 Jan 1313 - 1323
  • Engelbert von Dolen..............................26 Nov 1323 - 18 Oct 1341
  • Wescelus.........................................27 Sep 1342 - 1344
  • Johannes I Viffhusen.............................23 Oct 1346 - 1373
  • Heinrich I von der Velde.........................05 Sep 1373 - 1377
  • Dietrich III Damerow.............................05 Aug 1379 - 02 Jul 1400
  • Heinrich II Wrangel..............................15 Dec 1400 - 1410
  • Bernhard III von Bülow...........................07 Jan 1411 - 1413
  • Dietrich IV Retzler..............................14 Apr 1413 - Mar 1440
  • Bartholomäus Sawijerwe...........................17 Mar 1442 - 1459
  • Helmich von Mallinkrodt..........................10 Dec 1459 - 23 Mar 1468
  • Andreas Peper....................................05 Dec 1468 - Feb 1473
  • Johannes III Bertkow.............................06 Jun 1473 - Feb 1485
  • Dietrich V Hake..................................18 Jul 1485 - 1498
  • Johannes IV von der Rope.........................20 Mar 1499 - 1505
  • Gerhard Schrove..................................22 Dec 1505 - 1513
  • Johannes V Duisburg............................................1514
  • Approved before 04 May 1514.
  • Christian Bomhower...............................30 Oct 1514 - 15 Apr 1518
  • Johannes VI Blankenfeld..........................14 Jun 1518 - 09 Sep 1527
  • Also Archbishop of Riga.
  • Johannes VII Bey.................................16 Aug 1527 - 1528
  • Johannes VIII Gellingshausen............................1529 - May 1543
  • Jodokus (Jobst) von der Recke....................21 Apr 1544 - 18 Apr 1551
  • Abanoned Dorpat on 18 Apr 1551, in opposition to 22 Oct 1553.
  • Hermann II Bey..........................................1551 - 1553
  • Hermann III Wesel................................25 Jun 1554 - 18 Jul 1558
  • Deported to Russia on 23 Aug 1558.
  • Russia..................................................1558 - 1582
  • Sweden..................................................1582 - 1721
    • Count Boris Sheremetev (Russian)...................1702 - 1710
  • Russia..................................................1721 - 1918
  • Baltikum Confederation.........................................1918
  • Estonia.................................................1918 - 1940
  • Soviet Union............................................1940 - 1941
  • Germany.................................................1941 - 1944
  • Soviet Union............................................1944 - 1991
  • Estonia.................................................1991 - date
 
 
ÖSEL (Saaremaa)
  • An island off the coast of western Estonia. The smaller island of Dagö (Hiiumaa), immediately to the north, and Wiek (Läänemaa) on the mainland to the east, have also been closely associated with this district. Capital: Arensburg (Kuressare) [Leal to c.1251; Perona c.1251-c.1263; Hapsal c.1263- c.1381].
 
                  Aug 1228  Bishopric of Ösel (Ösel-Wiek) established, covering the 
                            islands of Ösel (Saaremaa), Dagö (Hiiumaa) and Moon (Muhu), 
                            and Wiek (Läänemaa) western part of the Estonian mainland, as 
                            a sovereign principality (prince-bishopric) of the Holy Roman 
                            Empire (formally from 1 Oct 1228). Some parts of bishop's 
                            possessions (on the islands and mainland) given as a fief to
                            the Swordbrothers Order (later Livonian Order)(approved by
                            Holy See 08 Jan 1235).
        1229 - 1234         Ruled by the Bishop of Riga and the Swordbrothers Order.
        1241 - 1343         Ösel (Saaremaa) Island an autonomous part of Ösel-Wiek
                            (autonomy renewed 27 Aug 1255).
               15 Apr 1560  Bishopric, sold by the last prince-bishop to Denmark, given as
                             an appanage to the brother of the King of Denmark, Magnus 
                             Herzog von Holstein (elected to bishop 13 May 1560).
               05 Mar 1562  Territories of the Livonian Order a part of the Lithuanian
                             principality of Livonia.
                      1563  Sweden occupies Wiek and the island of Dagö (not recognized by
                             Denmark). Denmark cedes Wiek to Lithuania in exchange for the
                             Livonian territories on the islands, including Soneburg.
               13 Dec 1570  Denmark and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth recognize 
                             Swedish sovereignty over Wiek and the island of Dagö (made 
                            part of the Swedish Duchy of Estonia on 1584).
               09 May 1572  Former prince-bishopric, now covering only the islands of Ösel
                             and Moon, transferred to direct administration of Denmark as
                             a Danish fiefdom.
               13 Sep 1572  Holy Roman Empire recognized Danish rule of Ösel. Denmark
                             reciprocally recognized suzerainty of Empire over the island,
                             which thus remained a nominal part of Empire.
               23 Aug 1645  Ösel ceded by Denmark to Sweden and subordinated to the 
                             Swedish governors-general of Livonia. The King of Sweden 
                             adopts the style of "Prince of Ösel".
               26 Sep 1710  City of Arensburg (Kuressaare), the capital of Ösel,
                             surrenders to Russian forces. Occupation of Ösel (Ezel' in 
                             Russian) completed (formally ceded by Sweden to Russia 10 Sep
                             1721).
               08 Aug 1713  An autonomous part of the province of Livonia, directly

                             administered by the governor-general of Livonia to 1781.
               14 Jul 1783  Autonomy abolished, remains part of Livonia to 12 Apr 1917.
               28 Nov 1796  Limited local autonomy for Ösel restored (confirmed by all
                             successive Emperors of Russia on their accession before 1881,
                             thereafter gradually extinguished).
 
  • The Osilians, a Finnish tribe, to 1206.
  • During the early Middle Ages, Saaremaa was a base for Estonian pirates. Whether these were native Estonians or Norse vikings is unclear, but modern scholarship tends towards the former view. In the last years of the 1100's the pirates of Saarema were powerful enough to launch a sixteen ship, 500-man raid on Danish Scania. Note also the presence of the following Norse intruders...
  • Ingvar Eysteinsson (King of Uppsala/Sweden)....................fl. 7th c. CE
  • Olaf Haraldsson (later King of Norway).........................1008
  • Freygeirr of Sweden............................................c. 1030 with...
  • Ulf (Uleb) of Novgorod.........................................1032
  • Omeljan Pritsak has put forward the hypothesis that Ulf and Freygeirr were part of a joint Swedish-Kievan expedition to subdue the pirates of Saaremaa.
  • Denmark........................................................1206
  • Garrisoned by a Danish force, but they refused to stay - they destroyed their fortifications and retired back to Denmark.
  • The Osilians............................................1206 - 1227
  • The Livonian Swordbrothers Order........................1227 - 1561
  • The Swordbrothers became a secondary order attached to the Teutonic Knights, 1237. Meanwhile, much of the island was assigned to the...
  • Prince-Bishops of Ösel-Wiek
  • Gottfrid.........................................01 Oct 1228 - 26 Jul 1229 d. af.1257
  • He was elected on 29 Jun 1228; approved in Aug 1228.
  • vacant 1229-1234
  • Heinrich I (Pr.-Bps. Ösel-Wiek from 1235)........10 Sep 1234 - 10 Mar 1260
  • A native rebellion in 1239
  • Hermann I Buxhoevden (de Bekeshoevede)..............Sep 1262 - 1285 ?
  • Heinrich II...........................................1290 ? - 1294
  • probably vacant
  • Konrad I..............................................1297 ? - 1307 ?
  • vacant
  • Hartung (Garttungus)....................................1310 - 23 Mar 1321 d.1323
  • Jakob............................................03 Mar 1322 - 1337
  • Hermann II Osenbrügge............................23 Feb 1338 - 1362
  • Konrad II........................................24 Jul 1363 - 1374
  • Heinrich III.....................................23 Oct 1374 - 1381
  • vacant 1381-1385.
  • Winrich von Kniprode....................................1385 - 06 Nov 1419
  • Kaspar Schuwenflug...............................08 Jan 1420 - 10 Aug 1423
  • Christian Kuband.................................05 Sep 1423 - 21 Jul 1432
  • Johannes I Schutte...............................22 Oct 1432 - 12 Sep 1438
  • Ludolf Grove (in Ösel and Dagö 1449-1457)...............1439 - 11 Mar 1458 with...
  • to 01 Dec 1449 in opposition to Pope; then on Oesel and Dagö styled Elder Bishop 01 Dec 1449 - 1457.
  • Johannes II Creul (in Wiek 1449-1457)............20 Mar 1439 - Feb 1457
  • Appointed by Pope, to 09 Mar 1449 in exile; then at Wiek styled Younger Bishop.
  • vacant 1458-1460.
  • Jodokus Hoenstein................................23 Aug 1460 - 17 Jan 1471
  • He was in exile till 1469.
  • Peter Wetberg (Wetberch).........................17 Jan 1471 - 1491
  • Johannes III Orgas...............................26 Mar 1491 - 19 Mar 1515
  • Johannes IV Kievel (Kyvel).......................19 Mar 1515 - 22 Apr 1527
  • Georg von Tiesenhausen...........................04 May 1527 - 02 Oct 1530
  • vacant 1530-1532.
  • Reinhold Buxhoevden..............................03 Aug 1532 - 13 Jul 1541 d.1557
  • Johannes V von Münchhausen (administrator).......09 Jan 1542 - 1560 d.c. 1583
  • Protestant Bishop [Prince-Bishop of Ösel-Wiek]
  • Magnus, Duke von Holstein........................13 May 1560 - 09 May 1572 d.1583
  • Wiek and Dagö to Sweden in 1563. Magnus became Lord of Ösel (style Stieffte Ozel und Wieck Herr) from 20 Mar 1567.
  • Denmark.................................................1572 - 1645
  • Sweden..................................................1645 - 1721
  • Russia..................................................1721 - 1917
  • Occupied by Germany.....................................1917 - 1918
  • The Baltikum Confederation.....................................1918
  • Estonia.................................................1918 - 1940
  • Soviet Union............................................1940 - 1941
  • Germany.................................................1941 - 1944
  • Soviet Union............................................1944 - 1991
  • Estonia.................................................1991 - date
 
 
ESTONIA
  • Occupied by a people closely related to the Finns, this land has usually been fragmented between competing powers, though often enough one power is clearly paramount at any given time.
  • Legendary kings of Revalia
  • Kalev
  • Kalevipoeg
  • unknown rulers
  • Chieftains of Virumaa (Vironia) - northeastern Estonia
  • Kyriavan.............................................c. 1210 - 1217 with...
  • Thabelin of Pudiviru (Tabelinus)..................fl. 1210's - c. 1221
  • Chieftains of Sakala
  • Lembitu..............................................c. 1210 - 21 Sep 1217
  • Lembitu was a chieftain from Lehola (modern Suure-Jaani) who attempted to unite the Estonian tribes against the encroachments of the Livonian Order and other crusaders. He raised an army of sevaral thousand and even raided as far as Pskov. In 1215 he was defeated and imprisoned but ultimately released; he raised another army of 6000 Estonian warriors but was defeated again and killed in the Battle of St. Matthew's Day (21 September 1217).
  • Meme..................................................c. 1212 - 21 Sep 1217 and...
  • Wottele...............................................c. 1212 - 21 Sep 1217 and...
  • Maniwalde.............................................c. 1212 - 21 Sep 1217 and...
  • Unnepewe..........................................21 Sep 1217 - ?
  • What is now modern Estonia was divided during the thirteenth century. The northern part, centered on the town of Reval (modern Talinn, Estonia's capital) and extending eastward to Narva, was made the Duchy of Estonia, normally a possession of the Danish crown with notable exceptions listed below. The southern part of the country was occupied by the Livonian Order and the Bishopric of Dorpat, while the west largely fell under the dominion of the Bishops of Osel.
  • Much of this region to Denmark..........................1216 - 1346
    • DUCHY of ESTONIA (Danish possession)
    • Knut (in Reval; Duke of Blekinge 1242-60)..........1219 - 1223 d. 1260
    • As a note: Blekinge is a narrow coastal district in far southeastern Sweden - a Danish possession (a portion of Scania) from c. 1100 to 1658.
  • The Livonian Order......................................1227 - 1236
  • Returned to the Danish crown............................1236 - 1266
    • Margrete Sambiria (fem.: Dowager Queen of Denmark).1266 - 1282
    • Knud Porse (Duke of Halland).......................1329 - 1330 with...
    • Ingeborg Haakonardottir (fem.: Reg. Norw., Dss. Sodermanland & Halland).1329-32
    • Otto (son of Christopher II of Denmark)............1332 - 1338
  • To the Danish crown.....................................1338 - 1346
  • To the Teutonic Knights (Latvia)........................1346 - 1560
  • Portions to Russia......................................1558 - 1582 and...
  • OLDENBURG-HOLSTEIN
  • Magnus was crowned "King of Livonia" by Tsar Ivan IV during the Livonian War in an effort to bring Denmark into the war on the side of Muscovy. Ivan and Magnus fell out in 1577 and Magnus called upon the Livonian nobility to rally against Russian overlordship. He was captured by Russian forces and taken prisoner. Renouncing his royal titles on his release, he ended his days in Courland as a pensioner of the Polish crown.
  • Magnus (Duke of Holstein)...............................1560 - 1583 and...
  • Sweden..................................................1561 - 1721
  • Swedish rule was originally confined to the immediate environs of Reval, but in 1582 most of the old Duchy of Estonia fell under Swedish rule.
    • Swedish Governors of the Realm of Estland
    • Noble titles: Greve/Graf = Count, Friherre/Freiherr = Baron, Herzog = Duke.
    • Lars Ivarsson Fleming zu Sundholm, friherre af Nynäs..02 Aug 1561 - 27 Feb 1562
      • Klaus Christiern Horn friherre of Amyne (acting).....Aug 1562
    • Henrik Klasson Horn zu Kanas (1st time).....27 Feb 1562 - Jun 1562 d. 1595
    • Swante Stenson Sture........................30 Jun 1562 - 27 Jul 1564 d. 1567
    • Hermann Pederson Fleming zu Lechtis................1564 - 1565 d. 1583
    • Henrik Klasson Horn zu Kanas (2nd time).....30 Jan 1565 - 1568
    • Gabriel Kistiernsson, friherre Oxenstierna af Mörby......Nov 1568 - 1570
    • Hans Björnson zu Lepas......................09 Oct 1570 - 1572
    • Claes Åkeson Tott...........................06 Nov 1572 - 1574 d. 1590
    • Pontus friherre de la Gardie (1st time).....04 Jun 1574 - Dec 1575 d. 1585
    • Karl Henriksson Horn zu Kankas (1st time)......Jan 1576 - May 1578 d. 1601
      • Hans Eriksson Finne till Brinkkalas (acting).....19 Apr 1576 - 1577
    • Göran Boije of Gennäs (1st time)............01 Aug 1577 - 1579 d. 1615
    • Svante Eriksson Stålarm............................1579 - 1581
    • Göran Boije of Gennäs (2nd time)............25 Apr 1582 – 1583
    • Pontus friherre de la Gardie (2nd time)............1583 - 05 Nov 1585
    • Gustaf Gabrielsson Oxenstierna..............08 Nov 1585 – 1588
      • Hans Wachtmeister (acting)................Jul 1588 - 13 Oct 1588
    • Gustaf Axelsson Banér of Djurshom...........13 Oct 1588 - 1590
    • Erik Gabrielsson Oxenstierna of Lindö..............1590 - Jul 1592
    • Göran Boije of Gennäs (3rd time)...................1592 - Jun 1600
    • Karl Henriksson Horn zu Kankas (2nd time - acting).1600 - 30 Jan 1601
    • Moritz Stensson Leijonhufvud greve Raseborg........1601 - Oct 1602
    • Anders Larsson Botilast (1st time - acting)....Oct 1602 - May 1605
    • Nils Turesson Bielke........................10 May 1605 - Jun 1605
    • Axel Nilsson Ryning................................1605 - 1608
    • Anders Larsson Botilast (2nd time - acting)........1608 - 1611
    • Gabriel Bengtsson Oxenstierna......................1611 - 1617
    • Anders Eriksson Hästehufvud........................1617 - 1619
    • Jakob Pontusso de la Gardie....................Jul 1619 - 1622
    • Per Gustafsson Banér of Tussa......................1622 - 1626
    • Johan de la Gardie, Friherre af Eckholm............1626 - 1628
    • Philipp Scheiding of Arnö...................03 Mar 1628 - 17 Jul 1642
    • Gustaf Gabrielsson Oxenstierna, Friherre of Kimito.....26 Jul 1642 - 1646
    • Erik Axelsson Oxenstierna, C. of Södermöre..09 Sep 1646 - 1653
      • Wilhelm Ulrich (1st time - acting)........May 1653 - 16 Aug 1653
    • Heinrich, Graf von Thurn-Valsassina.........16 Aug 1653 - 1655
      • Wilhelm Ulrich (2nd time - acting)............1655 - Aug 1655
    • Bengt Skytte af Duderhof...........................1655 – 1656
      • Wilhelm Ulrich (3rd time - acting)............1655 – 02 Aug 1656
    • Bengt Klasson Horn..........................02 Aug 1656 - Nov 1674
      • Wilhelm Ulrich (4th time - acting)............1656 - 1659
      • Jakob Staël von Holstein (acting)....................1673
      • Johan Christoph Scheiding (acting)...................1674
    • Governors-General
    • Andreas Lennartson Torstensson.....................1674 - 1681
    • Robert Johannson Lichton.......................Apr 1681 - 1687
    • Nils Turesson Bielke........................20 Jan 1687 - 19 Apr 1687
    • Axel Julius greve de la Gardie af Lidköping/Leckö..1687 - Dec 1704
    • Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach.................Dec 1704 - 06 Jul 1706
    • Nils Jönsson greve Stromberg af Clastorp....06 Jul 1706 - 23 Oct 1709
    • Carl Gustaf greve Nieroth...................23 Oct 1709 - 10 Oct 1710
  • Disputed between Sweden and Russia...............10 Oct 1710 - 10 Sep 1721
  • Russia...........................................10 Sep 1721 - 24 Feb 1918
    • Province Commissioner
    • Jaan Poska..................................19 Mar 1917 - 09 Nov 1917
    • Chairman of the Military Revolutionary (Communist) Committee
    • Ivan Vasilyevich Rabchinsky.................09 Nov 1917 - 25 Jan 1918
    • Chairman of the Executive Committee Estonian Workers' and Soldiers' Soviet
    • Jaan Anvelt.................................25 Jan 1918 - 24 Feb 1918
  • The Baltic Confederation.........................08 Nov 1918 - 28 Nov 1918
  • In April of 1918, various ethnic Germans living in Latvia and Estonia attempted to set up a Duchy in personal union with the German Crown. The offer to Kaiser William was graciously received, but never acted upon. On Nov 08, a Grand Duchy was created, with Adolf Friedrich of Mecklenburg-Schwerin nominated as ruler, but this, too, collapsed, and separate republics was declared in Estonia and Latvia.
  • MECKLENBURG-SCHWERIN
  • Adolph Frederick.................................08 Nov 1918 - 28 Nov 1918
  • Adolph Constantine Jacob, Baron Pilar von Pilchau, 1st as Chairman, Joint Council of Livonia, Estonia, Riga, and Ösel, Apr-Nov 1918. then regent 08-28 Nov 1918.
    • Estonian Salvation Committee
    • Konstantin Päts.............................19 Feb 1918 - 24 Feb 1918 with...
    • Konstantin Konik............................19 Feb 1918 - 24 Feb 1918 and...
    • Jüri Vilms..................................19 Feb 1918 - 24 Feb 1918
  • Chairman of the Council of Ministers
  • Konstantin Päts..................................24 Feb 1918 - 25 Feb 1918
  • German Military Governor
  • Franz Adolf Freiherr von Seckendorff.............25 Feb 1918 - 11 Nov 1918
  • From 12 Oct 1917, on Hiiumaa, Muhu and Saaremaa islands.
    • Estonian Liberation Committee
    • Konstantin Päts.............................24 Feb 1918 - 24 Apr 1919 with...
    • Konstantin Konik............................24 Feb 1918 - 24 Apr 1919 and...
    • Jüri Vilms..................................24 Feb 1918 - 13 Apr 1918
  • Provisional Government (present in Tallinn)
  • Jaan Poska.......................................11 Nov 1918 - 12 Nov 1918 with...
  • Jaan Raamot......................................11 Nov 1918 - 12 Nov 1918 and...
  • Juhan (Johannes) Kukk............................11 Nov 1918 - 12 Nov 1918 and...
  • Ferdinand Peterson...............................11 Nov 1918 - 12 Nov 1918
  • Head of State
  • Konstantin Päts (Prime Minister).................12 Nov 1918 - 23 Apr 1919
  • Jaan Poska (acting for Päts) from 12 Nov - 20 Nov 1918. Konstantin became German prisoner from 11 Jun 1918.
  • Chairman Council of Estonian Workers' Commune
  • Jaan Anvelt......................................29 Nov 1918 - 24 May 1919
  • In Narva; in rebellion to 05 Jun 1919.
  • Chairman Constituent Assembly
  • August Rei (1st time)............................24 Apr 1919 - 21 Dec 1920
  • State elders
  • Ants (Hans) Piip.................................21 Dec 1920 - 25 Jan 1921
  • Konstantin Päts (1st time).......................25 Jan 1921 - 21 Nov 1922
  • Juhan (Johannes) Kukk............................21 Nov 1922 - 02 Aug 1923
  • Konstantin Päts (2nd time).......................02 Aug 1923 - 26 Mar 1924
  • Friedrich Karl Akel..............................26 Mar 1924 - 16 Dec 1924
  • Jüri Jaakson.....................................16 Dec 1924 - 15 Dec 1925
  • Jaan Teemant (1st time)..........................15 Dec 1925 - 09 Dec 1927
  • Jaan Tõnisson (1st time).........................09 Dec 1927 - 04 Dec 1928
  • August Rei (2nd time)............................04 Dec 1928 - 09 Jul 1929
  • Otto August Strandman............................09 Jul 1929 - 12 Feb 1931
  • Konstantin Päts (3rd time).......................12 Feb 1931 - 19 Feb 1932
  • Jaan Teemant (2nd time)..........................19 Feb 1932 - 19 Jul 1932
  • Karl August Einbund..............................19 Jul 1932 - 01 Nov 1932
  • He was from 22 Feb 1935 known as Kaarel August Eenpalu.
  • Konstantin Päts (4th time).......................01 Nov 1932 - 18 May 1933
  • Jaan Tõnisson (2nd time).........................18 May 1933 - 21 Oct 1933
  • Konstantin Päts (5th time).......................21 Oct 1933 - 24 Jan 1934
  • Head of State
  • Konstantin Päts (continued)......................24 Jan 1934 - 03 Sep 1937
  • State protector / President-Regent [riigihoidja]
  • Konstantin Päts (continued)......................03 Sep 1937 - 24 Apr 1938
  • President
  • Konstantin Päts (continued)......................24 Apr 1938 - 23 Jul 1940
  • Johannes Vares "Barbarus" (acting)...............23 Jul 1940 - 25 Aug 1940
  • He was not recognized internationally or by Estonian diplomats abroad.
 
Currency: Mark
The tradition of striking and minting Estonian coins extends far back into history. As early as the middle of the 13th century, coins were minted in Tallinn, then under the rule of Danish invaders. Coins were minted by the master of Livonian Order from 1361 to 1681. Coins were also struck at various stages from 1265 up to 1672 in different regions of Estonia by bishops and regents. In the early 1920s when Estonia emerged as an independent nation, a new coinage was required. The first coins were struck at Berlin in 1922, but minting operations were then commenced at the State Printing Office in Tallinn, with new coin sets of coins in 1924-1928 (Marks) and later in 1929-1939 (Kroon = 100 senti) .
 
1922
 

KM#1 1 Mark. Year: 1922. Weight: 2.59g [2.60g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Berlin. Obverse: Three Czech lions left divide date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top and denomination below. Mintage: 5,025,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#3 5 Marka. Year: 1922. Weight: 4.84g [5.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Berlin. Obverse: Three Czech lions left divide date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top and denomination below. Mintage: 3,983,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1924
 

KM#1a 1 Mark. Year: 1924. Weight: 2.56g [2.60g]. Metal: Nickel-Bronze. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Tallinn. Obverse: Three Czech lions left divide date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top and denomination below. Mintage: 1,985,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1925
 

KM#4 10 Marka. Year: 1925. Weight: 6.20g [6.00g]. Metal: Nickel-Bronze. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Tallinn. Obverse: Three Czech lions left divide date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top and denomination below. Mintage: 2,200,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
 
Currency: Kroon = 100 senti
 
1929
 

KM#10 1 sent. Year: 1929. Weight: 1.85g [2.00g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 16.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Tallinn. Obverse: Three Czech lions and date below. Reverse: "EESTI" at the top and denomination below with oak leaves in background. Mintage: 23,553,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1930
 

KM#20 2 Krooni. Year: 1930. Weight: 11.86g [12.00g]. Metal: 0.500 silver. Diameter: 30.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Tallinn. Obverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top. Three Czech lions within shield, wreath surrounds, date below. Reverse: Toompea Fortress at Tallinn and denomination "2 KROONI" below. Mintage: 1,276,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1931
 

KM#11 5 senti. Year: 1931. Weight: 4.95g [5.00g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 23.25 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Tallinn. Obverse: Three Czech lions and date below. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination "5" in the center and "VIIS SENTI" written at the bottom. Mintage: 11,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#12 10 senti. Year: 1931. Weight: 2.53g [2.50g]. Metal: Nickel-Bronze. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Tallinn. Obverse: Three Czech lions and date below. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination "10" in the center and "SENTI" written at the bottom. Mintage: 4,089,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1932
 

KM#13 2 Krooni. Year: 1932. Weight: 12.02g [12.00g]. Metal: 0.500 silver. Diameter: 30.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Tallinn. Obverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top. Three Czech lions within shield, wreath surrounds, date below. Reverse: "UNIVERSITAS TARTUENSIS 1632-1932" at the top. Tartu University's main entrance in the center and denomination "2 KROONI" below. Mintage: 100,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1934
 

KM#15 2 senti. Year: 1934. Weight: 3.44g [3.50g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Tallinn. Obverse: Three Czech lions and date below. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "KAKS SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 5,838,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#16 1 Kroon. Year: 1934. Weight: 5.96g [6.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Tallinn. Obverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top. Three Czech lions within shield, wreath surrounds, date below. Reverse: Ship of Vikings, denomination "1 KROON" below. Mintage: 5,838,000. Minted Years: One year type.

Note: 1990 restrikes with different leaves structure and lions in the shield, exist as private issues, shown at the bottom of this webpage.

 
1935
 

KM#17 20 senti. Year: 1935. Weight: 3.98g [4.00g]. Metal: Nickel-Bronze. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Tallinn. Obverse: Three Czech lions and date below. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination "10" in the center and "SENTI" written at the bottom. Mintage: 4,250,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1939
 

KM#19.1 1 sent. Year: 1939. Weight: 1.81g [2.00g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 16.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Thickness: 1.00 mm. Mint: Tallinn. Obverse: Three Czech lions and date below. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "ÜKS SENT" at the bottom. Mintage: 5,000,000 (including KM#19.2 which has divided date with 0.90 mm thicknerss). Minted Years: One year type.
 
 
  • Soviet Union.....................................25 Aug 1940 - 07 Jul 1941
  • First secretaries of the Estonian Communist Party (EKP)
  • Karl Jaanovich Säre..............................28 Aug 1940 - 1943
  • From 1941, in Russian SFSR exile.
  • Commander of the Estonian Partisan Units
  • Nikolai Georgievich Karotamm............................1941 - 1943
  • Soviet resistance, consisting mainly of straggling party-members and soldiers, and organized into partisan units subordinated to the Central Staff of the Partisan Units in Moscow.
  • Germany..........................................07 Jul 1941 - 18 Sep 1944
  • German Military Governor
  • Franz von Roques.................................07 Jul 1941 - 05 Dec 1944
  • Acting President
  • Jüri Uluots......................................18 Sep 1944 - 22 Sep 1944
  • Soviet Union.....................................22 Sep 1944 - 06 Sep 1991
  • First secretaries of the Estonian Communist Party (EKP)
  • Nikolai Georgievich Karotamm (continued)................1943 - Apr 1950
  • He was acting till 28 Sep 1944, in Russian SFSR exile.
  • Johannes Gustavovich Käbin..........................Apr 1950 - 26 Jul 1978
  • Karl Genrikhovich Vaino..........................26 Jul 1978 - 16 Jun 1988
  • Vaino Iosipovich Väljas..........................16 Jun 1988 - 25 Mar 1990
  • Chairman of the Estonian Communist Party
  • Vaino Iosipovich Väljas (continued)..............25 Mar 1990 - 1992
  • leading role of the party was abolished in Feb 1990.
  • Chairman of the Supreme Council
  • Arnold Rüütel....................................29 Mar 1990 - 06 Oct 1992
  • Independence declared on 20 Aug 1991 and recognized by Soviet Union on 06 Sep 1991.
  • President
  • Lennart-Georg Meri...............................06 Oct 1992 - 08 Oct 2001
  • Arnold Rüütel....................................08 Oct 2001 – 09 Oct 2006
  • Toomas Hendrik Ilves.............................09 Oct 2006 - 10 Oct 2016
  • Kersti Kaljulaid (female)........................10 Oct 2016 - date
  • Kaljulaid is a former state official, serving as Estonia's representative in the European Court of Auditors from 2004 until 2016. After several rounds of Estonian presidential elections in 2016 ended without success, she was brought as a "dark horse" and on 30 September 2016 she was nominated by the majority of parliamentary parties as a joint candidate for President of Estonia, she was the only nominated candidate in that round. She was voted President of Estonia on 03 October 2016, by 81 votes with 17 blank/invalid votes and 3 abstainers.
 
Currency: Kroon = 100 senti
The Republic of Estonia was established in 1918 , although the nation's independence was brutally suspended for over five decades of bitter oppression by the Soviet occupation in 1940. On 20th Aug 1991, the Republic of Estonia declared its regained independence, paving the way for full realization of its destiny as a proud nation. Naturally enthusiastic about the new coinage, which will obviously have more appeal to its citizens than the Rouble had during Soviet occupation.
 
1991
 

KM#21 5 senti. Year: 1991. Weight: 1.27g [1.29g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 15.90 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Vedbaek, Denmark. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 38,790,000 (including 1992 issue). Minted Years: 1991, 1992 and 1995.

KM#22 10 senti. Year: 1991. Weight: 1.85g [1.87g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 17.20 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Vedbaek, Denmark. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 31,280,000 (including 1992 issue). Minted Years: 1991, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2008.
 
1992
The new minting, which was implemented on 20th June 1992, features five coins: 1 Kroon, 50 senti, 20 senti, 10 senti and 5 senti, production and marketing by JPbureau, DK-2950, Vedbaek, Denmark; Phone: +45-42-890244.
 

KM#21 5 senti. Year: 1992. Weight: 1.31g [1.29g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 15.90 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Vedbaek, Denmark. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 38,790,000 (including 1991 issue). Minted Years: 1991, 1992 and 1995.

KM#22 10 senti. Year: 1992. Weight: 1.87g [1.87g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 17.20 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Vedbaek, Denmark. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 31,280,000 (including 1991 issue). Minted Years: 1991, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2008.

KM#23 20 senti. Year: 1992. Weight: 2.29g [2.27g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 18.90 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Vedbaek, Denmark. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 31,540,000. Minted Years: 1992 and 1996.

KM#24 50 senti. Year: 1992. Weight: 2.99g [2.99g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Vedbaek, Denmark. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 31,200,000. Minted Years: 1992, 2004, 2006 and 2007.

Note: Issues with small rotated "M" mintmark right of lower lion's raised claw.

KM#28 1 Kroon. Year: 1992. Weight: 5.41g [5.40g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel (Copper: 75%, and Nickel: 25%). Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Vedbaek, Denmark. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "KROON" at the bottom. Mintage: 20,000. Minted Years: 1992, 1993 and 1995.

Note: Only available in sets. This coin was taken from set# 10,082.

 
1993
 

KM#28 1 Kroon. Year: 1993. Weight: 5.40g [5.40g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel (Copper: 75%, and Nickel: 25%). Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "KROON" at the bottom. Mintage: 10,260,000. Minted Years: 1992, 1993 and 1995.

KM#29 5 Krooni. Year: 1993. Weight: 7.04g [7.10g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 26.20 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK 75" on the left side clockwise. Small deer facing right. Denomination "5 KROONI" anti-clockwise at right. Mintage: 1,510,000 (without mint mark and with small mintmark "M" right of lower lion's raised claw). Minted Years: One year type. Subject: 75th Anniversary - Declaration of Independence.

Note: My coin has small mintmark "M" between lower lion's right raised claw and his face.

 
1994
 

KM#22 10 senti. Year: 1994. Weight: 1.85g [1.87g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 17.20 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 10,020,000. Minted Years: 1991, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2008.

KM#30 5 Krooni. Year: 1994. Weight: 7.03g [7.10g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 26.10 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI PANK 75" on the top. Design in center and denomination "5 KROONI" below. Mintage: 10,180,000. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: 75th Anniversary - Estonian National Bank.
 
1995
 

KM#21 5 senti. Year: 1995. Weight: 1.29g [1.29g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 15.90 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 5,000,000. Minted Years: 1991, 1992 and 1995.

KM#28 1 Kroon. Year: 1995. Weight: 5.21g [5.40g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel (Copper: 75%, and Nickel: 25%). Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "KROON" at the bottom. Mintage: 19,920,000. Minted Years: 1992, 1993 and 1995.
 
1996
 

KM#22 10 senti. Year: 1996. Weight: 1.86g [1.87g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 17.20 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 10,110,000. Minted Years: 1991, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2008.

KM#23 20 senti. Year: 1996. Weight: 2.26g [2.27g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 18.90 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 10,740,000. Minted Years: 1992 and 1996.
 
1997
 

KM#22 10 senti. Year: 1997. Weight: 1.90g [1.87g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 17.20 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 15,000,000. Minted Years: 1991, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2008.

KM#23a 20 senti. Year: 1997. Weight: 1.99g [2.00g]. Metal: Nickel plated Steel. Diameter: 18.90 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 10,500,000. Minted Years: 1997, 1999, 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2008.
 
1998
 

KM#22 10 senti. Year: 1998. Weight: 1.87g [1.87g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 17.20 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 30,980,000. Minted Years: 1991, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2008.

KM#35 1 Kroon. Year: 1998. Weight: 4.98g [5.00g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Plain and Reeded; three patches each. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "KROON" at the bottom. Mintage: 15,000,000. Minted Years: 1998, 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2006.
 
1999
 

KM#23a 20 senti. Year: 1999. Weight: 1.99g [2.00g]. Metal: Nickel plated Steel. Diameter: 18.90 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 20,330,000. Minted Years: 1997, 1999, 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2008.

KM#35 1 Kroon. Year: 1999. Weight: 5.00g [5.00g]. Metal: Brass (Cu: 89%, Al: 5%, Zn: 5% and Sn: 1%). Diameter: 23.25 mm. Edge: Plain and Reeded; three patches each. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Lithuania. Obverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top. Bird diving downwards with large date below. Reverse: Tallinn Song Festival Grounds in the center and "1 KROON" at the bottom. Mintage: 100,000. Minted Years: One year type.

For 130 years Estonian have sung in the Song Festivals - for sorrow and joy and for freedom. Let us be together, free and singing. Vahur Kraft (President of Eesti Pank). This coin is designed by sculptor Mati Karmin on XXIII Estonian song contest.

In 1869 Johann Voldemar Jannsen established the Estonian Song Festival while the nation was still a province of the Russian Empire. This festival was considered responsible for fostering an Estonian national awakening. After that, the new tradition was born and the Song Festivals are still held every five years. The Tallinn Song Stage was built in 1959 for the Estonian Song Festival. In 1988 Estonians gathered here – at the Tallinn Song Festival Grounds (in Estonian: Lauluväljak) – to sing patriotic hymns in what became known as the Singing Revolution that led to the overthrow of Soviet rule. Today, Tallinn's Song Festival Grounds are also used for hosting international acts, dances and Music events.

 
2000
 

KM#35 1 Kroon. Year: 2000. Weight: 4.97g [5.00g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Plain and Reeded; three patches each. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "KROON" at the bottom. Mintage: 15,000,000. Minted Years: 1998, 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2006.
 
2001
 

KM#35 1 Kroon. Year: 2001. Weight: 4.97g [5.00g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Plain and Reeded; three patches each. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "KROON" at the bottom. Mintage: 15,000,000. Minted Years: 1998, 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2006.
 
2002
 

KM#22 10 senti. Year: 2002. Weight: 1.80g [1.87g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 17.20 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 30,000,000. Minted Years: 1991, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2008.
 
2003
 

KM#23a 20 senti. Year: 2003. Weight: 1.96g [2.00g]. Metal: Nickel plated Steel. Diameter: 18.90 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 11,100,000. Minted Years: 1997, 1999, 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2008.

KM#35 1 Kroon. Year: 2003. Weight: 5.04g [5.00g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Plain and Reeded; three patches each. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "KROON" at the bottom. Mintage: 15,000,000. Minted Years: 1998, 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2006.
 
2004
 

KM#23a 20 senti. Year: 2004. Weight: 2.05g [2.00g]. Metal: Nickel plated Steel. Diameter: 18.90 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 20,000,000. Minted Years: 1997, 1999, 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2008.

KM#24 50 senti. Year: 2004. Weight: 2.99g [2.99g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: UK. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 10,000,000. Minted Years: 1992, 2004, 2006 and 2007.
 
2006
 

KM#22 10 senti. Year: 2006. Weight: 1.86g [1.87g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 17.20 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 31,000,000. Minted Years: 1991, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2008.

KM#23a 20 senti. Year: 2006. Weight: 1.99g [2.00g]. Metal: Nickel plated Steel. Diameter: 18.90 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Germany. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 35,000,000 (large date struck by Germany). Minted Years: 1997, 1999, 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2008.

Same as below coin, but...

Weight: 2.02g [2.00g]. Mint: Finland. Mintage:  2,000,000 (small date struck by Finland).

KM#24 50 senti. Year: 2006. Weight: 2.96g [2.99g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Finland. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 7,000,000. Minted Years: 1992, 2004, 2006 and 2007.

Note: Issues with small rotated "M" mintmark right of lower lion's raised claw.

KM#35 1 Kroon. Year: 2006. Weight: 5.03g [5.00g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Plain and Reeded; three patches each. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "KROON" at the bottom. Mintage: 15,170,000. Minted Years: 1998, 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2006.
 
2007
 

KM#24 50 senti. Year: 2007. Weight: 2.99g [2.99g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: France. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 17,000,000. Minted Years: 1992, 2004, 2006 and 2007.
 
2008
 

KM#22 10 senti. Year: 2008. Weight: 1.86g [1.87g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 17.20 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 15,000,000. Minted Years: 1991, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2008.

KM#23a 20 senti. Year: 2008. Weight: 2.01g [2.00g]. Metal: Nickel plated Steel. Diameter: 18.90 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, numeral denomination in the center and "SENTI" at the bottom. Mintage: 12,000,000. Minted Years: 1997, 1999, 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2008.

KM#35 1 Kroon. Year: 2008. Weight: 4.90g [5.00g]. Metal: Brass (Copper: 93%, Aluminum: 5% and Nickel: 2%). Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Plain and Reeded; three patches each. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Three Czech lions with divided date. Reverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top, design in the center and "1 KROON" at the bottom. Mintage: 20,000,000. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: 90th Anniversary of the Republic of Estonia.
 
Currency: Euro = 100 euro cents
 
Estonian euro coins entered circulation on 01 January 2011. Estonia is the fifth of ten states that joined the EU in 2004, and the first ex-Soviet republic, to join the eurozone. Of the ten new member states, Estonia was the first to unveil its design. It originally planned to adopt the euro on 01 January 2007; however, it did not formally apply when Slovenia did, and officially changed its target date to 01 January 2008, and later, to 01 January 2011. On 12 May 2010 the European Commission announced that Estonia had met all criteria to join the eurozone. On 08 June 2010, the EU finance ministers agreed that Estonia would be able to join the euro on 01 January 2011. On 13 July 2010, Estonia received the final approval from the ECOFIN to adopt the euro as from 01 January 2011. On the same date the exchange rate at which the kroon would be exchanged for the euro (€1 = 15.6466 krooni) was also announced. On 20 July 2010, mass production of Estonian euro coins began in the mint of Finland. Ethnic Setos have protested the design of the coin, claiming that the outline of the map of Estonia does not include the former south eastern region of Estonia that constituted a part of the Seto homeland annexed by Stalin during the occupation of the Baltic states. On the other hand, a Russian lawyer Sergei Seredenko claimed that the outline included Russian controlled areas. The Russian embassy was prompted to issue a statement that the euro coins do indeed depict the current borders of the country's territory.

Designer: Lembit Lõhmus (obverse) and Luc Luycx (reverse by Belgian artist)

 
2011
 

KM#61 1 euro cents. Year: 2011. Weight: 2.30g. Metal: Copper plated steel. Diameter: 16.25 mm. Thickness: 1.67 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Finland. Obverse: Geographical image of Estonia and the word “Eesti”, which means “Estonia”. The twelve stars in outer circle, symbols of the EU, are surrounding the map. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 32,702,600 + 3,500 Proof + 50,000 in sets. Minted Years: 2011-2012 and 2015.

KM#62 2 euro cents. Year: 2011. Weight: 3.06g. Metal: Copper plated steel. Diameter: 18.75 mm. Thickness: 1.67 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Finland. Obverse: Geographical image of Estonia and the word “Eesti”, which means “Estonia”. The twelve stars in outer circle, symbols of the EU, are surrounding the map. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 26,753,100 + 3,500 Proof + 50,000 in sets. Minted Years: 2011-2012 and 2015.

KM#63 5 euro cents. Year: 2011. Weight: 3.92g. Metal: Copper plated steel. Diameter: 21.25 mm. Thickness: 1.67 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Finland. Obverse: Geographical image of Estonia and the word “Eesti”, which means “Estonia”. The twelve stars in outer circle, symbols of the EU, are surrounding the map. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 28,933,700 + 3,500 Proof + 50,000 in sets. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#64 10 euro cents. Year: 2011. Weight: 4.10g. Metal: Nordic gold. Diameter: 19.75 mm. Thickness: 1.93 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Finland. Obverse: Geographical image of Estonia and the word “Eesti”, which means “Estonia”. The twelve stars in outer circle, symbols of the EU, are surrounding the map. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 30,454,700 + 3,500 Proof + 50,000 in sets. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#65 20 euro cents. Year: 2011. Weight: 5.74g. Metal: Nordic gold. Diameter: 22.25 mm. Thickness: 2.14 mm. Edge: Plain with seven indentations from the coin's "Spanish flower" shape. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Finland. Obverse: Geographical image of Estonia and the word “Eesti”, which means “Estonia”. The twelve stars in outer circle, symbols of the EU, are surrounding the map. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 25,071,500 + 3,500 Proof + 50,000 in sets. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#66 50 euro cents. Year: 2011. Weight: 7.80g. Metal: Nordic gold. Diameter: 24.25 mm. Thickness: 2.38 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Finland. Obverse: Geographical image of Estonia and the word “Eesti”, which means “Estonia”. The twelve stars in outer circle, symbols of the EU, are surrounding the map. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 20,201,300 + 3,500 Proof + 50,000 in sets. Minted Years: One year type.

Nordic Gold: 89% copper, 5% aluminium, 5% zinc, and 1% tin.

KM#67 1 Euro. Year: 2011. Weight: 7.50g. Metal: Bi-Metallic; Copper-nickel center in Brass ring. Diameter: 23.25 mm. Thickness: 2.33 mm. Edge: Alternating segments, three smooth, three finely ribbed. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Finland. Obverse: Geographical image of Estonia and the word “Eesti”, which means “Estonia”. The twelve stars in outer circle, symbols of the EU, are surrounding the map. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 15,847,600 + 3,500 Proof + 50,000 in sets. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#68 2 Euros. Year: 2011. Weight: 8.50g. Metal: Bi-Metallic; Brass center in Copper-nickel ring. Diameter: 25.75 mm. Thickness: 2.20 mm. Edge: Reeded and lettering: "EESTI O" (ESTONIA in Estonian) upright and inverted. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Finland. Obverse: Geographical image of Estonia and the word “Eesti”, which means “Estonia”. The twelve stars in outer circle, symbols of the EU, are surrounding the map. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 11,131,800 + 3,500 Proof + 50,000 in sets. Minted Years: One year type.
 
2012
 

KM#61 1 euro cents. Year: 2012. Weight: 2.30g. Metal: Copper plated steel. Diameter: 16.25 mm. Thickness: 1.67 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Finland. Obverse: Geographical image of Estonia and the word “Eesti”, which means “Estonia”. The twelve stars in outer circle, symbols of the EU, are surrounding the map. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 25,000,000. Minted Years: 2011-2012 and 2015.

KM#62 2 euro cents. Year: 2012. Weight: 3.04g. Metal: Copper plated steel. Diameter: 18.75 mm. Thickness: 1.67 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Finland. Obverse: Geographical image of Estonia and the word “Eesti”, which means “Estonia”. The twelve stars in outer circle, symbols of the EU, are surrounding the map. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 25,000,000. Minted Years: 2011-2012 and 2015.

KM#70 2 Euros. Year: 2012. Weight: 8.48g. Metal: Bi-Metallic; Brass center in Copper-nickel ring. Diameter: 25.75 mm. Thickness: 2.20 mm. Edge: Reeded and lettering: "EESTI O" (ESTONIA in Estonian) upright and inverted. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Finland.
Obverse: The euro sign in the centre of the coin's design symbolizes that the euro has become an element of particular importance in Europe as well as all over the world as it evolved into a global player in the international monetary system in the last ten years. The design elements around the euro sign express the importance of the euro to the people, to the financial world (ECB tower), to trading (ships), to industry (factories), to the energy sector and research and development (wind power stations). The design was created by Helmut Andexlinger (designer at the Austrian Mint). The artist's initials AH appear below the image of the ECB tower. The name of the issuing country in the national language appears at the top "EESTI", while the years 2002–2012 appear at the bottom. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 2,000,000. Minted Years: One year type. Issue date: 02nd Jan 2012.
 
2015
 

KM#61 1 euro cents. Year: 2015. Weight: 2.29g. Metal: Copper plated steel. Diameter: 16.25 mm. Thickness: 1.67 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Finland. Obverse: Geographical image of Estonia and the word “Eesti”, which means “Estonia”. The twelve stars in outer circle, symbols of the EU, are surrounding the map. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 14,000,000. Minted Years: 2011-2012 and 2015.

KM#62 2 euro cents. Year: 2015. Weight: 3.04g. Metal: Copper plated steel. Diameter: 18.75 mm. Thickness: 1.67 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Finland. Obverse: Geographical image of Estonia and the word “Eesti”, which means “Estonia”. The twelve stars in outer circle, symbols of the EU, are surrounding the map. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 17,100,000. Minted Years: 2011-2012 and 2015.

2 Euros. Year: 2015. Weight: 8.50g. Metal: Bi-Metallic; Brass center in Copper-nickel ring. Diameter: 25.75 mm. Thickness: 2.20 mm. Edge: Reeded and lettering: "EESTI O" (ESTONIA in Estonian) upright and inverted. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Finland.
Obverse: The design shows the 30 years of EU flag as a symbol that unites people and cultures with shared visions and ideals for a better common future. Twelve stars that morph into human figures are embracing the birth of a new Europe. At the top right, in semi-circle, are the issuing country ‘EESTI’ and the years ‘1985-2015’. At the bottom right are the initials of the artist (Georgios Stamatopoulos). The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 350,000. Minted Years: One year type. Issue date: 10th Dec 2015.
 
2016
 

2 Euros. Year: 2016. Weight: 8.42g. Metal: Bi-Metallic; Brass center in Copper-nickel ring. Diameter: 25.75 mm. Thickness: 2.20 mm. Edge: Reeded and lettering: "EESTI O" (ESTONIA in Estonian) upright and inverted. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Finland.
Obverse: 100 Years since the Birth of Paul Keres. "PAUL KERES" is written on the top left side within the inner circle. "EESTI 2016" on the left side within the inner circle. Paul Keres portrait facing left on the right side within the inner circle. Chess components are shown at the bottom within the inner circle. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 500,000. Minted Years: One year type. Engraver: Riho Luuse Issue date: 07th Jan 2016.

Note: Paul Keres was an Estonian chess grandmaster, and a renowned chess writer. He was among the world's top players from the mid-1930s to the mid-1960s. Keres narrowly missed a chance at a world championship match on five occasions. He won the 1938 AVRO tournament, which led to negotiations for a title match against champion Alexander Alekhine, but the match never took place due to World War II. After the war Keres was runner-up in the Candidates' Tournament on four consecutive occasions. Due to these and other strong results, many chess historians consider Keres the strongest player never to become world champion and one of the greatest players in history. He was nicknamed "Paul the Second", "The Eternal Second" and "The Crown Prince of Chess".

 
 
Estonian Representatives in Exile
 
  • Envoy
  • August Torma (in London exile)...................17 Jun 1940 - 12 Mar 1971
  • Consul-general in Charge of Legation
  • Ernst Jaakson (in Washington DC exile)...........12 Mar 1971 - 20 Aug 1991
 
Republic of Estonia in Exile (alternative administration, not internationally recognized)
 
  • President
  • Konstantin Päts..................................21 Jun 1940 - 18 Jan 1956
  • from 30 Jul 1940, Soviet prisoner.
  • Prime ministers acting as Presidents
  • Jüri Uluots......................................21 Jun 1940 - 09 Jan 1945
  • from 22 Sep 1944 in Stockholm, Sweden.
  • August Rei.......................................09 Jan 1945 - 29 Mar 1963 with...
  • in Stockholm, Sweden; from 12 Jan 1953 in Oslo, Norway; then in Lund, Sweden; from 01 Jan 1962 in Stockholm.
  • Alfred Maurer....................................03 Mar 1953 - 20 Sep 1954
  • in dissidence; in Germany, later Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Aleksander Warma.................................29 Mar 1963 - 23 Dec 1970
  • Tõnis Kint.......................................23 Dec 1970 - 01 Mar 1990
  • Heinrich Mark....................................01 Mar 1990 - 08 Oct 1992
  • The exile government gave its mandate to the constitutionally elected government in Tallinn.
  • Mihkel Mathiesen.................................15 Sep 1992 - 28 Nov 2003
  • The new exile government was set up on 15 Sep 1992 declared its intent to "continue to preserve constitutional continuity until the actual end of the occupation," referring to the large number of Russians living in Estonia. Russian troops were present in Estonia until 31 Aug 1994. This new exile government is however is not recognized by any nation. Mihkel resided in Enebyberg (near Stockholm), Sweden.
  • Kalev Ots (in Nõmme, Estonia)....................28 Nov 2003 - date
 

1 Kroon. Year: 1990. Weight: 6.27g [6.30g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "EESTI VABARIIK" at the top. Three Czech lions within shield, wreath surrounds, date below. Reverse: Ship of Vikings, denomination "1 KROON" below. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

Note: This is known as KM#16 restrikes issue with different leaves structure and lions in the shield. Could be fantasy or exile government issue.

 
 
 
 
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