c.985 Colonized by Norse migrants as a dependency of Iceland.
1261 Norwegian colony.
11 Sep 1380 Under Danish rule (attached to the Jarldom of Orkney).
c.1480 Colony ceases to exist (remains a possession of
Danish-Norwegian union in name).
03 Jul 1721 Possession of Denmark.
03 Jul 1721 - 06 Mar 1775 Administered as part of Iceland.
1775 Danish colony (administered by the Royal Greenland
Trade Co. [Den Kongelige Grønlandske Handel]).
24 Jan 1814 Formally recognized as Danish possession by the Treaty of
1912 Danish government takes over administration.
Crown Colony of Denmark.
27 Jun 1931 Greenland coast between 71°30 N - 75°40 N claimed for
Norway by Hallvard Devold.
Norway settlement at Kong Oskars Fjord.
12 Jul 1932 Norway proclaims annexation of the east coast of
Greenland between 71 degrees 30 minutes and 75
degrees 45 minutes north latitude (Eric the
05 Apr 1933 Permanent Court of International Justice awards
sovereignty over eastern coast to Denmark.
09 Apr 1941 - May 1945 U.S. protectorate.
Mar 1942 - 16 Oct 1944 Sporadic German weather stations
on the east coast
repeatedly found and destroyed by Allied forces.
05 Jun 1953 Danish province.
01 May 1979 Self-government. Home Rule Act.
21 Jun 1985 Flag Adopted.
21 Jun 2009 Expanded autonomy enacted. Act on Self-Government.
Kalaallit Nunaat) is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark,
located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic
Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North
America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with
Europe (specifically Norway and later Denmark) for more than a millennium.
In 2008, the people of Greenland supported a referendum on greater autonomy
by 75%. Greenland by area is the world's largest island, consisting almost
entirely of an ice-shelf, miles thick in some places.
Capital and largest city:
Nuuk (formerly Godthåb).
Dispute: Managed dispute between Canada and
Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Canada's Ellesmere
Island and Greenland.
Settled by freeholders from Iceland and Norway, c.
Eiríkr [Eirik] "the Red" Thorvaldsson............c.
983 - c. 1010
Lucky................c. 1010 - c. 1020
Attached to the
Jarldom of Orkney..................1394 - 1410
The weather shifted dramatically during the 14th
century, becoming much colder. The European settlement there was gradually
cut off from contact owing to increasingly dangerous seas; additionally, the
communities came under attack from nomadic Inuit, travelling southward off
the polar sea. 1410 was the last year that any record survives of contact
with the colony. In 1500, King Manuel I of Portugal sent Gaspar Corte-Real
to Greenland in search of a Northwest Passage to Asia which, according to
the Treaty of Tordesillas, was part of the Portuguese area of influence. In
1501, Corte-Real returned with his brother, Miguel Corte-Real. Finding the
sea frozen, they headed south and arrived in Labrador and Newfoundland. Upon
the brothers' return to Portugal, the cartographic information supplied by
Corte-Real was incorporated into a new map of the world which was presented
to the Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara by Alberto Cantino in 1502. The
Cantino planisphere, made in Lisbon, accurately depicts the southern
coastline of Greenland. When the weather moderated again, and Europeans once
more discovered the place (in the 16th century), the only humans present
were scattered bands of Inuit. King Christian IV's Expeditions to Greenland
was a series of expeditions in the years 1605–1607 to Greenland and Arctic
waterways in order to locate the lost eastern Norse settlement and assert
Danish sovereignty over Greenland. The expeditions were mostly unsuccessful,
partly due to leaders who lacked experience with the difficult arctic ice
and weather conditions.
Denmark.....................................03 Jul 1721 - date with...
Organized into two separate colonies, North Greenland
and South Greenland, 1782-1950. In 1910 a third region, Thule, or Northwest
Greenland was established as a semi-autonomous district - it became a fully
dependent colony in 1931 (effective from 1933), but was absorbed into North
Greenland in 1937.
Norway......................................12 Jul 1932 - 05 Apr 1933 and
In 1921 a fourth region, East
Greenland emerged - it was briefly occupied by Norway 1932-1933. Norway
claimed it constituted terra nullius before returning to Danish authority
through Permanent Court of International Justice.
of Eric the Red's Land
Helge Marcus Ingstad...................12
Jul 1932 - 05 Apr 1933
United States of
America....................09 Apr 1941 - May 1945
The entire island was occupied by the United States
military 1941-1945 as a Protectorate, during German occupation of European
Denmark by Nazi Germany.
Penfield...................09 Apr 1941 - May 1945
In 1950 North, South, and East Greenland were
amalgamated into a single administration, and in 1953 the island was
integrated fully as a province of Denmark. In 1979, it was granted
self-rule, while still remaining Danish.
Poul Hugo Lundsteen.....................01
Jun 1950 - 01 Sep 1960
Nielsen.........................01 Sep 1960 - 01 Jun 1963
Christensen..................01 Jun 1963 - 01 Jan 1973
Lassen.............................01 Jan 1973 - 1979
Pedersen....................01 May 1979 - 13 Jul 1992
Spore.............................01 Aug 1992 - 01 Jul 1995
Martens..........................01 Aug 1992 - 01 Jul 1995
Apr 2002 - 31 Mar 2005
Søren Hald Møller.......................01
Apr 2005 - 31 Mar 2011
Mikaela Engell (female).................01
Apr 2011 - date
Danish Krone = 100 Øre.
Krone (plural: kroner; Sign: kr.; Code: DKK) has been the official currency
of Denmark, Greenland and the Faeroe Islands, since 01 January 1875.
During 1863 to
1932 the following companies produced token coinage in Greenland:
TOKEN ISSUES as ØST GRØNLAND by A. GIBBS &
SONS (British trading and mining company
located in eastern Greenland). Denomination of Skilling, 6
Skilling, 12 Skilling and 1 Daler, all in Brass were produced dated
company for mining cryolite located in Ivigtut, southwest Greenland).
Denomination of Skilling, 4 Skilling, 16 Skilling, 48 Skilling
and 1 Rigsdaler, all in zinc were produced undated (1859-1865).
IVIGTUT CRYOLITE MINING & TRADING CO.
The Cryolite Mining and Trading Company at Ivigtut at the southwest
coast of Greenland issued its own tokens since 1873. The uncommon
mineral Cryolite (Na3AIF6, Sodium Aluminum Fluoride) was used in the
aluminum industry. In large quantities it was only found on the west
coast of Greenland.
Series I, 1875-1882: Ore, 5 Ore, 10 Ore, 70 Ore, 85 Ore and 100
Ore, all in Zinc undated.
Series II, pre 1882: Ore, 5 Ore (two types), 10 Ore, 50 Ore, 85
Ore and 100 Ore, all in Zinc undated.
Series III, 1892: Ore, 5 Ore, 10 Ore, 50 Ore, 100 Ore (two
types), 500 Ore, 1000 Ore and 20 Kroner, all in Zinc undated.
Series IV, 1922: 10 Ore, 50 Ore, 2 Kroner and 10 Kroner (two
types) in Copper-Nickel dated 1922.
ROYAL GREENLAND TRADE (COMPANY)
- (Den Kongelige Grønlandske Handel). Located on
Angmagssalik Island off the east coast of Greenland just below the
Arctic Circle. Denomination of Ore, 5 Ore, 10 Ore, 25 Ore, 50 Ore
(two types), 100 Ore (two types) and 500 Ore (two types) produced, all
in Zinc undated (probably 1890-1900). Another 500 Ore Aluminum coin was
issued undated in 1905.
GREENLAND MINING LTD at Josva (Innatsiaq).
A place in southwest Greenland, where the
Grønlandsk Minedrifts Aktieselskab ran a copper mine from 1907-1914
yielding little more than 60 tons of copper. As a minor bonus, it got over 50
kg of silver and half a kg of gold. Denomination of 10 Ore, 25
Ore and 100 Ore, all in Nickel plated Zinc were produced in 1911.
Trading station founded by Knud Rasmussen in 1910. The money circulated
from 1914 to 1937, but they bear the date of the founding year. They
were produced by L. Chr. Lauer, Nürnberg, Germany in 1913. 5 Kroner (two
types) dated 1932 were struck at H. Th. Neergaard Gravør-og
Stempelfabrik, engraving and stamp factory. Denomination of 5 Ore
(with and without hole in center), 25 Ore, 100 Ore and 500 Ore dated
1910. 5 Kroner (two types) dated 1932. All coin were produced in
cupronickel 25 øre (with and without hole in center), aluminum-bronze 50 øre
and aluminum-bronze 1 Krone were issued. The coins were the same size and
composition as the corresponding Danish coins. However, the 25 øre was not
holed, although some were withdrawn from circulation, holed and then
reissued. In 1944, brass 5 kroner coins were produced by the Philadelphia
Mint in the United States. Coins produced in 1926 and 1944 are known as
Danish Colony coins. A second issue of aluminum-bronze 1 Krone was made in
1957 by Royal Greenland Trade Company, followed by cupronickel versions in
1960 and 1964. The later issues are known as Danish State coins. The last
Greenlandic coins were withdrawn on July 01, 1967, and since then, Danish
coins have been used.
GREENLAND MINING LTD at Josva (Innatsiaq)
KM#Tn2 25 Ore. Year:
Nickel Plated Zinc. Edge:
"GRØNLANDSK MINEDRIFTS" written above. Year in the center. "AKTIESELSKAB" written
at the bottom.
Crossed hammers over denomination.
Minted Years: One year
KM#Tn7 100 Ore. Year:
25.00 mm; hole in the center.
L. Chr. Lauer, Nürnberg, Germany.
Obverse: Denomination at the top and Year at
"THULE" written at the top. One star on each side. "KAP YORK"
written at the bottom.
Minted Years: One year
DANISH CROWN COLONY
KM#8 1 Krone. Year:
Copenhagen (Kobenhavn) indicated by heart
Denomination "1 KRONE" at the top. Polar bear walking left.
Mintmarks (H.C.N.) left clockwise and (♥.G.J) right clockwise. Date
and initials "19·G·S·26" at the bottom.
Crowned shield bearing three lions in centre. "GRØNLANDS"
(Greenland's) written on left side clockwise and "STYRELSE"
(Administration/Governing) written on right side clockwise.
Minted Years: One year
Designers: "HCN": Hans Christian
Nielsen (1919-1927) and "GJ": Knud Gunnar Jensen (1901-1933).
DANISH PROVINCE (1953-1979)
KM#10a 1 Krone. Year:
Copenhagen (Kobenhavn) indicated by heart
Obverse: Crowned arms of Denmark and Greenland
in the center. "DEN KONGELIGE GRØNLANDSKE HANDEL" (The
Royal Greenland Trading) written around. Year at
Denomination "1 KRONE" in the center surrounded by floral wreath.
"C♥S" at the bottom.
Minted Years: 1960 and
Royal Greenland Trade Company.
Designers: "C" for Alfred Kristian
Frederik Christiansen (1956-1971) and "S" for Harald Salomon
Rigsdaler Banknotes: The rigsdaler was the
currency of Greenland until 1874. It was equal to the Danish rigsdaler which
circulated in Greenland alongside distinct banknotes from 1803. Before 1813,
the rigsdaler courant was subdivided into 96 skilling. In 1813, the
rigsdaler courant was replaced by the rigsbanksdaler at a rate of 6
rigsdaler courant = 1 rigsbanksdaler, with the rigsbanksdaler subdivided
into 96 rigsbank skilling. In 1854, the names were changed to the rigsdaler
and skilling rigsmønt. In 1874, the kroner was introduced, at a rate of 2
kroner = 1 rigsdaler. Grønlandske Handel introduced notes in denominations
of 12 and 24 skilling, ½ and 1 rigsdaler courant. The next year, the
Handelsstederne i Grønland took over the issuance of paper money and
introduced notes for 6 and 12 skilling, ¼, ½, 1 and 5 rigsdaler courant. In
1819, following the currency reform, notes were introduced in denominations
of 6, 12 and 24 skilling and 1 rigsbankdaler. These were replaced in 1856 by
notes for the same amounts but in the new denominations of skilling rigsmønt
Krone Banknotes: In 1874, Handelsstederne i
Grønland issued 50 øre and 1 krone notes, followed by 25 øre notes the next
year. In 1887, 5 kroner notes were introduced. The Handelsstederne continued
to issue notes until 1905. In 1911, the Kongelige Grønlandske Handel began
issuing paper money, with notes in denominations of 25 and 50 øre, 1 and 5
kroner. In 1913, colonial notes (marked Styrelse af Kolonierne i Grønland)
were introduced in denominations of 25 and 50 øre, 1 and 5 kroner. From
1926, colonial notes were marked Grønlands Styrelse, the denominations below
5 kroner ceased production and 10 and 50 kroner notes were introduced. In
1953, the Kongelige Grønlandske Handel resumed note production with 5, 10
and 50 kroner notes, whilst credit notes (Kreditsedler) for 100 kroner were
also issued. These notes were produced until 1967. Greenland adopted the Act
on Banknotes in Greenland in 2006 with a view to introducing separate
Greenlandic banknotes. The Act entered into force on 1 June 2007. In the
autumn of 2010, a new Greenlandic government indicated that it did not wish
to introduce separate Greenlandic banknotes and Danmarks Nationalbank
ceased the project to develop a Greenlandic series. Still, Greenland
continues to use Danish kroner as sole official currency. Historically,
Greenland under the colonial administration issued distinct banknotes
between 1803 and 1968, together with coins between 1926 and 1964.