Greenland (KALAALLIT NUNNAT)
 

 
 
                     c.985  Colonized by Norse migrants as a dependency of Iceland.
                      1261  Norwegian colony.
               11 Sep 1380  Under Danish rule (attached to the Jarldom of Orkney).
                    c.1480  Colony ceases to exist (remains a possession of
                             Danish-Norwegian union in name).
               03 Jul 1721  Possession of Denmark.
 03 Jul 1721 - 06 Mar 1775  Administered as part of Iceland.
                      1775  Danish colony (administered by the Royal Greenland
                             Trade Co. [Den Kongelige Grønlandske Handel]).
               24 Jan 1814  Formally recognized as Danish possession by the Treaty of
                             Kiel.
                      1912  Danish government takes over administration.
                      1924  Crown Colony of Denmark.
               27 Jun 1931  Greenland coast between 71°30 N - 75°40 N claimed for  
                             Norway by Hallvard Devold.
                             Norway settlement at Kong Oskars Fjord.
               12 Jul 1932  Norway proclaims annexation of the east coast of
                             Greenland between 71 degrees 30 minutes and 75
                             degrees 45 minutes north latitude (Eric the
                             Red's Land).
               05 Apr 1933  Permanent Court of International Justice awards
                             sovereignty over eastern coast to Denmark.
                             Norway withdraws.
 09 Apr 1941 - May 1945     U.S. protectorate.
    Mar 1942 - 16 Oct 1944  Sporadic German weather stations on the east coast
                             repeatedly found and destroyed by Allied forces.
               05 Jun 1953  Danish province.
               01 May 1979  Self-government. Home Rule Act.
               21 Jun 1985  Flag Adopted.
               21 Jun 2009  Expanded autonomy enacted. Act on Self-Government.
 

 
Greenland (Kalaallisut: Kalaallit Nunaat) is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe (specifically Norway and later Denmark) for more than a millennium. In 2008, the people of Greenland supported a referendum on greater autonomy by 75%. Greenland by area is the world's largest island, consisting almost entirely of an ice-shelf, miles thick in some places. Capital and largest city: Nuuk (formerly Godthåb).
Territorial Dispute: Managed dispute between Canada and Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Canada's Ellesmere Island and Greenland.
 

  • Settled by freeholders from Iceland and Norway, c. 985-1261
  • Eiríkr [Eirik] "the Red" Thorvaldsson............c. 983 - c. 1010
  • Leifr [Leif] Eiríksson the Lucky................c. 1010 - c. 1020
  • Thórgils [Thorgills] Leifsson.............................c. 1020's
  • Skaldhelgi................................................fl. 1050's
  • unknown rulers
  • Eirik Gnupasson...........................................fl. 1110's
  • Sokki Thorisson...........................................fl. 1120's
  • unknown rulers
  • Norway.............................................1261 - 1380
  • Governors
  • Ivarr Bardarsson..........................................fl. 1340's
  • Sigurd Kolbeinsson........................................fl. 1370's
  • Denmark............................................1380 - 1410
  • Attached to the Jarldom of Orkney..................1394 - 1410
  • The weather shifted dramatically during the 14th century, becoming much colder. The European settlement there was gradually cut off from contact owing to increasingly dangerous seas; additionally, the communities came under attack from nomadic Inuit, travelling southward off the polar sea. 1410 was the last year that any record survives of contact with the colony. In 1500, King Manuel I of Portugal sent Gaspar Corte-Real to Greenland in search of a Northwest Passage to Asia which, according to the Treaty of Tordesillas, was part of the Portuguese area of influence. In 1501, Corte-Real returned with his brother, Miguel Corte-Real. Finding the sea frozen, they headed south and arrived in Labrador and Newfoundland. Upon the brothers' return to Portugal, the cartographic information supplied by Corte-Real was incorporated into a new map of the world which was presented to the Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara by Alberto Cantino in 1502. The Cantino planisphere, made in Lisbon, accurately depicts the southern coastline of Greenland. When the weather moderated again, and Europeans once more discovered the place (in the 16th century), the only humans present were scattered bands of Inuit. King Christian IV's Expeditions to Greenland was a series of expeditions in the years 1605–1607 to Greenland and Arctic waterways in order to locate the lost eastern Norse settlement and assert Danish sovereignty over Greenland. The expeditions were mostly unsuccessful, partly due to leaders who lacked experience with the difficult arctic ice and weather conditions.
  • Denmark.....................................03 Jul 1721 - date with...
  • Organized into two separate colonies, North Greenland and South Greenland, 1782-1950. In 1910 a third region, Thule, or Northwest Greenland was established as a semi-autonomous district - it became a fully dependent colony in 1931 (effective from 1933), but was absorbed into North Greenland in 1937.
  • Norway......................................12 Jul 1932 - 05 Apr 1933 and with..
  • In 1921 a fourth region, East Greenland emerged - it was briefly occupied by Norway 1932-1933. Norway claimed it constituted terra nullius before returning to Danish authority through Permanent Court of International Justice.
    • Governor (sysselmann) of Eric the Red's Land
    • Helge Marcus Ingstad...................12 Jul 1932 - 05 Apr 1933
  • United States of America....................09 Apr 1941 - May 1945
  • The entire island was occupied by the United States military 1941-1945 as a Protectorate, during German occupation of European Denmark by Nazi Germany.
    • U.S. consul-general
    • James Kedzie Penfield...................09 Apr 1941 - May 1945
  • In 1950 North, South, and East Greenland were amalgamated into a single administration, and in 1953 the island was integrated fully as a province of Denmark. In 1979, it was granted self-rule, while still remaining Danish.
    • Governors
    • Poul Hugo Lundsteen.....................01 Jun 1950 - 01 Sep 1960
    • Finn C. Nielsen.........................01 Sep 1960 - 01 Jun 1963
    • Niels Otto Christensen..................01 Jun 1963 - 01 Jan 1973
    • Hans Lassen.............................01 Jan 1973 - 1979
    • High commissioners (Rigsombudsmand)
    • Torben Hede Pedersen....................01 May 1979 - 13 Jul 1992
    • Steen Spore.............................01 Aug 1992 - 01 Jul 1995
    • Gunnar Martens..........................01 Aug 1992 - 01 Jul 1995
    • Peter Lauritzen.........................01 Apr 2002 - 31 Mar 2005
    • Søren Hald Møller.......................01 Apr 2005 - 31 Mar 2011
    • Mikaela Engell (female).................01 Apr 2011 - date
 
 
Monetary standard: Danish Krone = 100 Øre.
The Danish Krone (plural: kroner; Sign: kr.; Code: DKK) has been the official currency of Denmark, Greenland and the Faeroe Islands, since 01 January 1875.
 
During 1863 to 1932 the following companies produced token coinage in Greenland:
  • TOKEN ISSUES as ØST GRØNLAND by A. GIBBS & SONS (British trading and mining company located in eastern Greenland). Denomination of Skilling, 6 Skilling, 12 Skilling and 1 Daler, all in Brass were produced dated 1863.
  • ØRESUND (Danish company for mining cryolite located in Ivigtut, southwest Greenland). Denomination of Skilling, 4 Skilling, 16 Skilling, 48 Skilling and 1 Rigsdaler, all in zinc were produced undated (1859-1865).
  • IVIGTUT CRYOLITE MINING & TRADING CO. The Cryolite Mining and Trading Company at Ivigtut at the southwest coast of Greenland issued its own tokens since 1873. The uncommon mineral Cryolite (Na3AIF6, Sodium Aluminum Fluoride) was used in the aluminum industry. In large quantities it was only found on the west coast of Greenland.
    • Series I, 1875-1882: Ore, 5 Ore, 10 Ore, 70 Ore, 85 Ore and 100 Ore, all in Zinc undated.
    • Series II, pre 1882: Ore, 5 Ore (two types), 10 Ore, 50 Ore, 85 Ore and 100 Ore, all in Zinc undated.
    • Series III, 1892: Ore, 5 Ore, 10 Ore, 50 Ore, 100 Ore (two types), 500 Ore, 1000 Ore and 20 Kroner, all in Zinc undated.
    • Series IV, 1922: 10 Ore, 50 Ore, 2 Kroner and 10 Kroner (two types) in Copper-Nickel dated 1922.
  • ROYAL GREENLAND TRADE (COMPANY) - (Den Kongelige Grønlandske Handel). Located on Angmagssalik Island off the east coast of Greenland just below the Arctic Circle. Denomination of Ore, 5 Ore, 10 Ore, 25 Ore, 50 Ore (two types), 100 Ore (two types) and 500 Ore (two types) produced, all in Zinc undated (probably 1890-1900). Another 500 Ore Aluminum coin was issued undated in 1905.
  • GREENLAND MINING LTD at Josva (Innatsiaq). A place in southwest Greenland, where the Grønlandsk Minedrifts Aktieselskab ran a copper mine from 1907-1914 yielding little more than 60 tons of copper. As a minor bonus, it got over 50 kg of silver and half a kg of gold. Denomination of 10 Ore, 25 Ore and 100 Ore, all in Nickel plated Zinc were produced in 1911.
  • THULE-KAP YORK. Trading station founded by Knud Rasmussen in 1910. The money circulated from 1914 to 1937, but they bear the date of the founding year. They were produced by L. Chr. Lauer, Nürnberg, Germany in 1913. 5 Kroner (two types) dated 1932 were struck at H. Th. Neergaard Gravør-og Stempelfabrik, engraving and stamp factory. Denomination of 5 Ore (with and without hole in center), 25 Ore, 100 Ore and 500 Ore dated 1910. 5 Kroner (two types) dated 1932. All coin were produced in Aluminum.
In 1926, cupronickel 25 øre (with and without hole in center), aluminum-bronze 50 øre and aluminum-bronze 1 Krone were issued. The coins were the same size and composition as the corresponding Danish coins. However, the 25 øre was not holed, although some were withdrawn from circulation, holed and then reissued. In 1944, brass 5 kroner coins were produced by the Philadelphia Mint in the United States. Coins produced in 1926 and 1944 are known as Danish Colony coins. A second issue of aluminum-bronze 1 Krone was made in 1957 by Royal Greenland Trade Company, followed by cupronickel versions in 1960 and 1964. The later issues are known as Danish State coins. The last Greenlandic coins were withdrawn on July 01, 1967, and since then, Danish coins have been used.
 
 
GREENLAND MINING LTD at Josva (Innatsiaq)
 

KM#Tn2 25 Ore. Year: 1911. Weight: 2.24g. Metal: Nickel Plated Zinc. Edge: Plain. Diameter: 20.50 mm. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "GRØNLANDSK MINEDRIFTS" written above. Year in the center. "AKTIESELSKAB" written at the bottom. Reverse: Crossed hammers over denomination. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.
 
THULE-KAP YORK
 

KM#Tn7 100 Ore. Year: 1910. Weight: 1.34g. Metal: Aluminum. Edge: Plain. Diameter: 25.00 mm; hole in the center. Alignment: Medal. Mint: L. Chr. Lauer, Nürnberg, Germany. Obverse: Denomination at the top and Year at the bottom. Reverse: "THULE" written at the top. One star on each side. "KAP YORK" written at the bottom. Mintage: 2,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
DANISH CROWN COLONY (1924-1953)
 

KM#8 1 Krone. Year: 1926. Weight: 7.18g. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Edge: Reeded. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Copenhagen (Kobenhavn) indicated by heart symbol. Obverse: Denomination "1 KRONE" at the top. Polar bear walking left. Mintmarks (H.C.N.) left clockwise and (♥.G.J) right clockwise. Date and initials "19·G·S·26" at the bottom.
Reverse: Crowned shield bearing three lions in centre. "GRØNLANDS" (Greenland's) written on left side clockwise and "STYRELSE" (Administration/Governing) written on right side clockwise. Mintage: 286,982. Minted Years: One year type. Designers: "HCN": Hans Christian Nielsen (1919-1927) and "GJ": Knud Gunnar Jensen (1901-1933).
 
DANISH PROVINCE (1953-1979)
 

KM#10a 1 Krone. Year: 1960. Weight: 7.46g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Edge: Reeded. Diameter: 27.30 mm. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Copenhagen (Kobenhavn) indicated by heart symbol. Obverse: Crowned arms of Denmark and Greenland in the center. "DEN KONGELIGE GRØNLANDSKE HANDEL" (The Royal Greenland Trading) written around. Year at the bottom. Reverse: Denomination "1 KRONE" in the center surrounded by floral wreath. "C♥S" at the bottom.
Mintage: 108,500. Minted Years: 1960 and 1964. Issuer: Royal Greenland Trade Company. Designers: "C" for Alfred Kristian Frederik Christiansen (1956-1971) and "S" for Harald Salomon (1933-1968).
 
 
Greenland Rigsdaler Banknotes: The rigsdaler was the currency of Greenland until 1874. It was equal to the Danish rigsdaler which circulated in Greenland alongside distinct banknotes from 1803. Before 1813, the rigsdaler courant was subdivided into 96 skilling. In 1813, the rigsdaler courant was replaced by the rigsbanksdaler at a rate of 6 rigsdaler courant = 1 rigsbanksdaler, with the rigsbanksdaler subdivided into 96 rigsbank skilling. In 1854, the names were changed to the rigsdaler and skilling rigsmønt. In 1874, the kroner was introduced, at a rate of 2 kroner = 1 rigsdaler. Grønlandske Handel introduced notes in denominations of 12 and 24 skilling, ½ and 1 rigsdaler courant. The next year, the Handelsstederne i Grønland took over the issuance of paper money and introduced notes for 6 and 12 skilling, ¼, ½, 1 and 5 rigsdaler courant. In 1819, following the currency reform, notes were introduced in denominations of 6, 12 and 24 skilling and 1 rigsbankdaler. These were replaced in 1856 by notes for the same amounts but in the new denominations of skilling rigsmønt and rigsdaler.
Greenland Krone Banknotes: In 1874, Handelsstederne i Grønland issued 50 øre and 1 krone notes, followed by 25 øre notes the next year. In 1887, 5 kroner notes were introduced. The Handelsstederne continued to issue notes until 1905. In 1911, the Kongelige Grønlandske Handel began issuing paper money, with notes in denominations of 25 and 50 øre, 1 and 5 kroner. In 1913, colonial notes (marked Styrelse af Kolonierne i Grønland) were introduced in denominations of 25 and 50 øre, 1 and 5 kroner. From 1926, colonial notes were marked Grønlands Styrelse, the denominations below 5 kroner ceased production and 10 and 50 kroner notes were introduced. In 1953, the Kongelige Grønlandske Handel resumed note production with 5, 10 and 50 kroner notes, whilst credit notes (Kreditsedler) for 100 kroner were also issued. These notes were produced until 1967. Greenland adopted the Act on Banknotes in Greenland in 2006 with a view to introducing separate Greenlandic banknotes. The Act entered into force on 1 June 2007. In the autumn of 2010, a new Greenlandic government indicated that it did not wish to introduce separate Greenlandic bank­notes and Danmarks Nationalbank ceased the project to develop a Greenlandic series. Still, Greenland continues to use Danish kroner as sole official currency. Historically, Greenland under the colonial administration issued distinct banknotes between 1803 and 1968, together with coins between 1926 and 1964.
 
 
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