Guadeloupe
 

 
               14 Nov 1493  Discovered and claimed for Spain by Columbus, named
                             Isla de Santa María de Guadalupe de Extremadura.
               28 Jun 1635  French colony (under the Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique to
                             1649).
        1635 - Apr 1759     Part of the French Antilles colony (Martinique)
        1664 - 1674         Administered by the Compagnie des Indies Occidentales.
               1674         French crown colony.
 22 Apr 1759 - Jun 1763     British occupation.
        1768 - 1775         Part of the French Antilles colony (Martinique
 20 Apr 1794 - 07 Jun 1794  British occupation.
 25 Oct 1797 - 19 Apr 1801  Organized as a département of France.
 06 Feb 1810 - 07 Dec 1814  British occupation.
 03 Mar 1813 - 30 May 1814  Ceded to Sweden by France.
 10 Aug 1815 - 25 Jul 1816  British occupation.
 14 Sep 1939 - 1943         Subordinated to High Commissioner and Commander of the Theater
                             Atlantic West (Martinique).
 16 Jun 1940 - 14 Jul 1943  Administration loyal to Vichy France (from 14 Jul 1943,
                             under Free French).
               19 Mar 1946  French overseas département.
               28 Mar 2003  French overseas region.
               07 Dec 2003  Referendum on status change to collectivité territoriale
                             defeated by 72.98%.
               22 Feb 2007  Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin separate overseas
                             collectivités.
 

The French Overseas Department of Guadeloupe, located in the Leeward Islands of the West Indies about 300 miles (493 km.) southeast of Puerto Rico, has an area of 687 sq. km (1,780 sq. km.) and a population of 306,000. Guadeloupe is lying between Antigua and Montserrat to the north, and Dominica to the south. Actually it is two islands separated by a narrow saltwater stream: volcanic Basse-Terre to the west and the flatter limestone formation of Grande-Terre to the east. Capital: Basse-Terre (Le Moule 1635-1643), on the island of that name. The principal industries are agriculture, the distillation of liquors, and tourism. Sugar, bananas, and rum are exported. Guadeloupe was discovered by Columbus in 1493 and settled in 1635 by two Frenchmen, L'Olive and Duplessis, who took possession in the name of the French Company of the Islands of America. When repeated efforts by private companies to colonize the island failed, it was relinquished to the French crown in 1674, and established as a dependency of Martinique. The British occupied the island on two occasions, 1759-63 and 1810-16, before it passed permanently to France.
A colony until 1946 Guadeloupe was then made an overseas territory of the French Union. In 1958 it voted to become an Overseas Department within the new French Community.
 
  • Claimed by Spain................................14 Nov 1493 - 1626
  • France.................................................1626 - Apr 1759
  • Great Britain...................................22 Apr 1759 - Jun 1763
  • France.............................................Jun 1763 - 20 Apr 1794
  • Great Britain...................................20 Apr 1794 - 07 Jun 1794
  • France..........................................07 Jun 1794 - 06 Feb 1810
  • Great Britain...................................06 Feb 1810 - 25 Jul 1816
    • Ceded to Sweden by France..................03 Mar 1813 - 30 May 1814
    • French occupation..........................07 Dec 1814 - 10 Aug 1915
  • France..........................................25 Jul 1816 - date
 

Marie-Galante

 
An island lying some 10 miles (16 km.) southeast of Guadeloupe, in the Leeward Islands. The name is a French transcription of the one was given to the place by Columbus on his second voyage, after his flagship.
 
               03 Nov 1493  Discovered and claimed for Spain by Christopher Columbus,
                             named Santa Maria la Galante.
               08 Nov 1648  Annexed by France, incorporated into Guadeloupe.
 04 Sep 1649 - 1653         Leased by the King of France to Jacques de Boisseret;
                             de Boisseret's widow formally cedes family's claim in 1660.
        1691 - 1696         Abandoned.
 26 May 1759 - 1763         British occupation.
               01 Nov 1792  Republican inhabitants of Marie-Galante proclaim their
                             independence from still royalist Guadeloupe while affirming
                             their attachment to the new French republic.
               20 Apr 1794  Self-government ended by British occupation.
 
  • Claimed by Spain................................03 Nov 1493 - 08 Nov 1648
  • France..........................................08 Nov 1648 - Apr 1759
  • Governors
  • Jacques de Boisseret............................04 Sep 1649 - 1653
  • Rented by French authorities to Jacques de Boisseret as an autonomous possession, 1649-1653.
  • marquis de Témericourt.................................1670 - 1677
  • Charles-François d'Angennes, marquis de Maintenon......1679 - 1686
  • Charles Auger..........................................1686 - 1695
  • de Lauriére............................................1695 - 1696
  • Bonaventure-François de Boisfermé......................1696 - 1702
  • Royal Lieutenant
  • Charles de Brunier, marquis de Larnage..........23 Aug 1714 - 1723
    Ravary.............................................Jun 1723 - 1724
  • Governors
  • Robert Philippe de Longvilliers de Poincy (1st time - acting)...1724 - 1725
    La Chassagne (
    acting)...........................................1725 - 1726
    Pierre Le Bègue.............................................Mar 1726 - 1729
    Robert Philippe de Longvilliers de Poincy (
    2nd time)............1729 - 1748
  • Royal Lieutenant
  • Joseph de Jarrier de La Chassaigne (1st time)..........1748 - 1751 ?
  • Governors
  • Jean Louis Nicolas des Merliers de Longueville.........1751 - 1759
  • Joseph de Jarrier de La Chassaigne (2nd time - acting).1759 - 26 May 1759
  • British occupation..............................26 May 1759 - 1763
    • Governor
    • Francis Maclean...................................1759 - 1763
  • France.................................................1763 - 1792
  • Governors-particular
  • Marc Étienne de Joubert................................1763 - 1776
  • Pierre-Joseph de Neyon de Villiers.....................1777 - Aug 1779
  • Auguste Lescuiller Descoudrelles.......................1779 - 27 Jun 1785
  • Jean-Etienne marquis de Ségur d'Aguesseau............1785 ? - 1790
  • Emmanuel-Joseph Desnoyers..............................1790 - 01 Nov 1792
  • Provisional Republic............................01 Nov 1792 - 20 Apr 1794
  • President of the Commission (Comité des Douze or République des Douze)
  • Deshayes (or Deshaies)..........................01 Nov 1792 - 20 Apr 1794 with...
  • Dominique Murat.................................01 Nov 1792 - 20 Apr 1794
  • British occupation..............................20 Apr 1794 - 1794
  • France.................................................1794 - 1810
  • British occupation.....................................1810 - 1816
  • France.................................................1816 - date
 
 
Currency: Euro is used on this Island. Before Euro, French Franc was used. The well-known R.F. in garland oval countermark of the French Government is only legitimate on a French Colonies C#4 12 deniers 1767. Two other similar but incuse RF countermarks are on cut pieces in the values of 1 and 4 escalins. Contemporary and modern counterfeits are known of both these types. French Colonies coins as Franc = 100 centimes were also later produced. Coins have been made on Guadeloupe and Dependencies with Franc = 100 centimes standard, dated 1903 and 1921 as modern coinage.
 
The coins catalogued under the heading "French Colonies" were not issued for use in any particular colony but were intended for general use in the West Indies, particularly Guadeloupe, Martinique and Saint-Dominique (western Hispaniola, until it attained independence as Haiti in 1804).
 
1825-1844 French Colonies coins
The following years indicate the destinations where these French Colonies coins were produced to be used.

1825: Guyane & Sénégal.
1827: Guadeloupe & Martinique.
1828, 1829 and 1830: Guyane.
1839 and 1841: Guadeloupe.
1843 and 1844: Îles Marquises (Marquesas Islands), French Polynesia.
 

KM#10.2 5 centimes. Year: 1827. Weight: 9.92g [10.25g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Center Graining Right. Alignment: Coin. Mint: La Rochelle (mintmark: H on right side of date). Obverse: 5 CENT. in center within the wreath. "COLONIES" on top left side and "FRANÇAISE" on top right side. Date at the bottom outside the wreath with mintmarks; Trident on its left side and "H" on the right side. Reverse: "CHARLES X ROI" written on the left side clockwise and  "DE FRANCE" written on the right side clockwise. Charles X portrait in center facing left. Designer's symbol at the bottom. Mintage: 600,000. Minted Years: One year type by this mint. 1827 destination of use: Guadeloupe & Martinique.
 
Note: Other notable coins of French Colonies under Charles X are:
  • KM#10.1 5 centimes of Charles X. Metal: Bronze. Mint: Paris (mint mark: A). Dated: 1825, 1828, 1829 and 1830.
  • KM#11.1 10 centimes of Charles X. Metal: Bronze. Mint: Paris (mint mark: A). Dated: 1825, 1828 and 1829.
  • KM#11.2 10 centimes of Charles X. Metal: Bronze. Mint: La Rochelle (mint mark: H). Dated: 1827.
 

KM#12 5 centimes. Year: 1839. Weight: 9.63g [10.25g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris (mintmark: A on right side of date). Obverse: 5 CENT. in center within the wreath. "COLONIES FRANÇAISE" at the top. Date at the bottom outside the wreath with mintmark; "A" on its left side and Anchor on the right side.
Reverse: "LOUIS PHILIPPE I" written on the left side clockwise and  "ROI DES FRANÇAIS" written on the right side clockwise. Louis Philippe I portrait in center facing left. "TIOLIER BARRE" written below the head. Mintage: 600,000. Minted Years: 1939, 1841, 1843 and 1844.

1839 destination of use: Guadeloupe.

KM#13 10 centimes. Year: 1843. Weight: 20.42g [20.50g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 31.00 mm. Thickness: 3 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris (mintmark: A on right side of date). Obverse: 10 CENT. in center within the wreath. "COLONIES FRANÇAISE" at the top. Date at the bottom outside the wreath with mintmark; "A" on its left side and unknown privy mark on the right side.
Reverse: "LOUIS PHILIPPE I" written on the left side clockwise and  "ROI DES FRANÇAIS" written on the right side clockwise. Louis Philippe I portrait  in center facing left. "TIOLIER BARRE" written below the head. Mintage: 101,000. Minted Years: 1939, 1841, 1843 and 1844.

1843 destination of use: Îles Marquises (Marquesas Islands), French Polynesia.

 
Note: Other notable ESSAIS (patterns) coins of French Colonies are:
  • 5 cents 1824 (Bronze and silver) of  Louis XVIII
  • 10 centimes 1824 (Bronze and silver) of  Louis XVIII
  • 5 cents in 1839 bronze of  Louis Philippe I
  • 10 cents 1839 bronze of  Louis Philippe I
  • undated one Decime of  Louis Philippe I bust facing right.
 
 
1903 & 1921 Guadeloupe and Dependencies (including Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin) Coinage.
 

KM#45 50 centimes. Year: 1921. Weight: 3.56g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Plain - 18 sided. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: BON POUR. 50 CMES. 1921. CONTRE.VALEUR.DÉPOSÉE.AU.TRÉSOR. Sugar cane stalk divides date and denomination. Reverse: RÉPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE. GUADELOUPE ET DÉPENDANCES. A. PATEY written below bust. Armored head left within circle. Mintage: 600,000. Minted Years: 1903 (Mintage: 600,000) and 1921.

KM#46 1 Franc. Year: 1903. Weight: 5.41g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 26.50 mm. Edge: Plain - 20 sided. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: BON POUR. 1 F. 1903. CONTRE.VALEUR.DÉPOSÉE.AU.TRÉSOR. Sugar cane stalk divides date and denomination. Reverse: RÉPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE. GUADELOUPE ET DÉPENDANCES. A. PATEY written below bust. Armored head left within circle. Mintage: 700,000. Minted Years: 1903 and 1921 (Mintage: 700,000).
 
 
Guadeloupe dependencies consisted of Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin, but in 2007, each of them became a separate French overseas collectivité.
 

Saint-Barthélemy

 
               1493         Discovered and claimed for Spain by Christopher Columbus
                             named Isla de San Bartolomeo.
               1648         French colony (Saint Barthélemy).
        1653 - 1667         Possession of the Knights of Malta (abandoned 1656 - 1659).
               1667         French colony.
        1674 - 1785         Saint Barthélemy a dependency of Guadeloupe.
        1690 - 1698         Abandoned.
        1744 - 1748         British occupation averted when islanders sign a declaration
                             of neutrality.
    Jan 1779 - 28 Feb 1779  British raids destroy French defenses.
 03 Feb 1781 - 26 Nov 1781  British occupation.
 01 Jul 1784 - 16 Mar 1878  Swedish colony (from 1812, possession of the king of Sweden).
               16 Mar 1878  French possession, part of Guadeloupe.
 16 Jun 1940 - 14 Jul 1943  Administration loyal to Vichy France
                             (from 14 Jul 1943, under Free French).
 01 Feb 1963 - 21 Feb 2007  Saint-Barthélemy within Guadeloupe as an arrondissement of
                             Saint-Martin et Saint-Barthélemy (under Saint-Martin).
               07 Dec 2003  Saint-Barthélemy votes to become a separate overseas
                             collectivité by 95.5%.
               21 Feb 2007  Saint-Barthélemy a separate French overseas collectivité.
 
An island in the Leeward Islands group of the eastern Caribbean, adjacent to St. Martin. Capital: Gustavia (Carénage to 1785).
 
  • France.................................................1648 - 1653
  • The Knights of St. John of Malta.......................1653 - 1667
  • France.................................................1667 - 1744
  • Great Britain..........................................1744 - 1748
  • France.................................................1748 - 1781
  • Commandants
  • Jacques Gente..........................................1648 - 1656
  • Legrand.......................................................c. 1687
  • Henri-Charles de Vaultier, sieur de Moyencourt.........1687 - 1690
  • abandoned 1690-1698.
  • de la Hogue...................................................31 Mar 1698
  • He was officially for one day but held title to 19 Dec 1700.
  • Alexandre Vaultier de Moyencourt, comte de Moyencourt..1713 - 1719 ?
  • Jacques Gréaux......................................c. 1720 - c. 1730 ?
  • Christophe Mahieu.............................................c. 1732
  • Jacques Gréaux, Jr.....................................17.. - 1744
  • Véret (acting).........................................1744 - c. 1746
  • Gréaux........................................................c. 1750
  • abandoned 1757-1763.
  • Alexis Brin (acting)...................................1763 - 1764
  • René Camille, comte de Carné de Trécesson..............1764 - 1771
  • Pierre Bernier.........................................1771 - c.1774
  • Alexandre-René d'Agneau-Douville................06 Jun 1775 - Jan 1784
  • Great Britain...................................03 Feb 1781 - 26 Nov 1781
  • France..........................................26 Nov 1781 - 01 Jul 1784
  • Commandant
  • Isnard (acting)......................................1784 ? - Mar 1785
  • Sweden..........................................01 Jul 1784 - 16 Mar 1878
  • Governors
  • Salomon Mauritz von Rajalin........................Mar 1785 - 1787
  • Pehr Herman von Rosenstein.............................1787 - 1790
  • Carl Fredrik Bagge af Söderby..........................1790 - 1795
  • Georg Henrik af Trolle.................................1795 - 1800
  • Hans Henrik Anckarheim.................................1800 - 1812
  • Bernt Robert Gustaf Stackelberg........................1812 - 1816
  • Johan Samuel Rosensvärd................................1816 - 1818
  • Johan Norderling................................27 Mar 1818 - 02 May 1826
  • James Harlev Haasum....................................1826 - 1860
  • Fredrik Carl Ulrich....................................1860 - 1868
  • Bror Ludvig Ulrich.....................................1868 - 16 Mar 1878
  • France..........................................16 Mar 1878 - date
    • Under Guadeloupe...........................16 Mar 1878 - 21 Feb 2007
    • Various Mayors served from 1878 to 2007.
    • Separate French Overseas collectivité......21 Feb 2007 - date
    • President of the Territorial Council
    • Bruno Magras...............................15 Jul 2007 - date
    • He was served as the Mayor from Jun 1995 to 15 Jul 2007.
 

Saint-Martin

Saint Martin (French: Saint-Martin; Dutch: Sint Maarten) is an island in the northeast Caribbean, approximately 300 km (190 mi) east of Puerto Rico. The 87 km2 island is divided roughly 60/40 between France (53 km2) and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (34 km2); however, the Dutch side has the larger population. It is one of the smallest sea islands divided between two nations, a division dating to 1648. The southern Dutch part comprises Sint Maarten. Since October 10, 2010 Sint Maarten is a special municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Together with Bonaire and Saba it forms the BES-islands. The northern French part comprises the Collectivité de Saint-Martin (Collectivity of St. Martin) and is an overseas collectivity of France. French Capital: Marigot.
 
       Circa AD 800         Settled by Arawak Indians who arrived from South America; The
                             Kalinago followed later and gave the island the name
                             Soualiga, or Land of Salt.
               11 Nov 1493  Discovered and claimed for Spain by Columbus named Isla de
                             San Martin.
               1624         Some French cultivate tobacco in French Quarter.
        1625 - 1633         French settlement in the northeast.
        1631 - 1633         Dutch colony (on Dutch Sint Maarten) on Groot Baai ("Great
                             Bay") to collect salt.
        1638 - 1647         Spanish settlement.
               17 Feb 1648  French settlers arrive from St. Christophe.
               23 Mar 1648  Divided into French (Saint-Martin)(north) and Dutch Sint
                             Maarten (south); French zone under the Compagnie des Îles
                             del'Amérique (to 1651), French zone comes to be part of
                             Saint-Christophe. Treaty of Concordia.
        1651 - 1665         French Saint-Martin a seigneury of the Knights of Malta.
        1665 - 1703         French Saint-Martin a dependency of Saint-Christophe
        1672 - 1679         British occupy French zone.
               1674         French zone a crown colony.
        1679 - 1689         French occupy entire island.
        1690 - 1699         English occupy entire island.
        1699 - 1702         French occupy entire island.
               1702         British occupy French zone.
        1703 - 1713         Dutch occupy French zone.
        1713 - 21 Feb 2007  French Saint-Martin a dependency of Guadeloupe.
        1744 - 1748         British from Anguilla occupy French zone.
        1759 - 1763         British occupy French zone.
    Jan 1779 - 24 Feb 1779  British occupy French zone.
 24 Feb 1779 - 03 Feb 1781  French occupy entire island.
 03 Feb 1781 - 26 Nov 1781  British occupy entire island.
 26 Nov 1781 - 1784         British occupy French zone.
 18 May 1793 - 05 Apr 1794  Dutch administer entire island.
        1794 - 1795         British occupy French zone.
 29 Apr 1795 - 24 Mar 1801  French occupy entire island.
 24 Mar 1801 - 01 Dec 1802  British occupy entire island.
        1810 - 1816         British occupy entire island.
              1816         French and Dutch zones resumed.
 16 Jun 1940 - 14 Jul 1943  Administration loyal to Vichy France (from 14 Jul 1943,
                            under Free French).
        1946 - 01 Feb 1963  French Saint-Martin made a canton of Guadeloupe arrondissement
                             Basse-Terre.
               04 Sep 1960  Hurricane Donna hits the island causing extensive damage.
 01 Feb 1963 - 21 Feb 2007  Saint-Martin together with Saint-Barthélémy made separate
                            arrondissement of Guadeloupe as Saint-Martin et
                            Saint-Barthélémy.
              05 Sep 1995  Hurricane Luis devastates the island.
              20 Nov 1999  Hurricane Lenny slams the island causing catastrophic damage
                            and claims 3 lives.
              07 Dec 2003  Saint-Martin votes to become a separate overseas collectivité
                            by 76.17%
              21 Feb 2007  Saint-Martin a separate French overseas collectivité.
 

 
  • Claimed by Spain.................................11 Nov 1493 - 1632
  • Netherlands.............................................1631 - 1633
  • Spain...................................................1633 - 1638
  • Occupied by French Pirates..............................1638 - 1640
  • Spain...................................................1640 - 1648
  • When the Spanish abandoned the island in 1648, they left behind them a group of prisoners-of-war, Dutch and French in nationality. These castaways divided the island between them in an amicable fashion on 23 March 1648. From the history, it is known that both portions merged together at some point in time as indicated below.
  • France...........................................17 Feb 1648 - 1651
  • The Knights of Malta....................................1651 - 1665
  • France..................................................1665 - 1672
  • Great Britain...........................................1672 - 1679
  • France (complete Island)................................1679 - 1689
  • France..................................................1689 - 1690
  • Great Britain (complete Island).........................1690 - 1699
  • France (complete Island)................................1699 - 1702
  • Great Britain..................................................1702
  • Netherlands (complete Island)...........................1703 - 1713
  • France..................................................1713 - 1744
  • Great Britain...........................................1744 - 1748
  • France..................................................1748 - 1759
  • Great Britain...........................................1759 - 1763
  • France..................................................1763 - Jan 1779
  • Great Britain.......................................Jan 1779 - 24 Feb 1779
  • France (complete Island).........................24 Feb 1779 - 03 Feb 1781
  • Great Britain (complete Island)..................03 Feb 1781 - 26 Nov 1781
  • Great Britain....................................26 Nov 1781 - 1784
  • France..................................................1784 - 18 May 1793
  • Netherlands (complete Island)....................18 May 1793 - 05 Apr 1794
  • Great Britain....................................05 Apr 1794 - 29 Apr 1795
  • France (complete Island).........................29 Apr 1795 - 24 Mar 1801
  • Great Britain (complete Island)..................24 Mar 1801 - 01 Dec 1802
  • France...........................................01 Dec 1802 - 1810
  • Great Britain (complete Island).........................1810 - 1816
  • France..................................................1816 - date
    • Under Guadeloupe...................................1816 - 21 Feb 2007
    • Various Mayors served from 1816 to 2007.
    • Separate French Overseas collectivité.......21 Feb 2007 - date
    • President of the Territorial Council
    • Louis Constant Fleming .....................15 Jul 2007 - 25 Jul 2008
    • Marthe Ogoundélé-Tessi (female -acting).... 25 Jul 2008 - 07 Aug 2008
    • Frantz R. Gumbs (1st time) .................07 Aug 2008 - 14 Apr 2009
    • Daniel Gibbs (acting).......................14 Apr 2009 - 05 May 2009
    • Frantz R. Gumbs (2nd time)..................05 May 2009 - 01 Apr 2012
    • Alain Richardson............................01 Apr 2012 - 17 Apr 2013
    • Aline Hanson (female).......................17 Apr 2013 - date
 
 
 
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