Kosovo
 

 
A fertile region lying just to the northeast of Albania, in central Yugoslavia. Of old the site of some of the earliest settlements by the Slavic people who became the Serb nation, the district has had a chequered and often violent history. It is currently inhabited largely by ethnic Albanians, a situation brought about by the mass migrations of native Serbs out of the area in 1691 and 1737, owing to pressures from the Ottomans. Unilateral declaration of independence was done on 17th Feb 2008 through UN forces. Capital: Pristina (Prishtina, Priština).
Kosovo is a district lying to the northeast of Albania and the northwest of Macedonia. A Roman district, it passed to the Byzantine Empire, but was overrun by migrating Slavic peoples in the 7th century. Out of these settlers emerged the state of Rascia, the earliest recognizable Serbian polity. It fell to outland conquerors, but was always inhabited by, and fairly often ruled by Serbians. It passed to the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, and remained under Turkish authority until 1912. In the first half of the 20th century the district fairly often changed hands, but from 1945 to 1999 it was Yugoslavian. It still is, as a technicality, but it is currently administered by the UN, which is trying to reach a peaceful settlement of the problem.
 
                    c.1092  Part of Serbia.
                      1396  Kosovo begins to come under Ottoman administration
               15 Jun 1389  Battle of Kosovo Field; Ottoman victory over Serbia
               28 Jun 1389  Part of Ottoman Empire (part of vilayet of Skopje
[under Macedonia]).
               1868         Separate vilayet (province) of Prizren created.
               1877         Separate vilayet of Kosovo created.
 10 Jun 1878 - Apr 1881     Albanian rebellion under the League of Prizren.
 21 Nov 1912 - 10 Apr 1913  Part of independent Albania.
               10 Apr 1913  Incorporated into Serbia (then from 01 Dec 1918 Yugoslavia).
               07 Sep 1913  annexed by Serbia
        1918 - 1924         Ethnic Albanians organize a resistance movement
                             (Committee for the National Defense of Kosova).
               04 Oct 1929  Part of Banovina of Vardar (under Macedonia).
               17 Apr 1941  Occupied by Italy.
 29 Jun 1941 - 19 Nov 1944  Annexed to Italian administered Albania.
 11 Sep 1943 - 19 Nov 1944  Occupied by Germany.
               19 Nov 1944  Re-incorporated into Yugoslavia.
                  Jul 1945  Autonomous Kosovo-Metohija District.
               07 Apr 1963  Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija
                      1968  Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo
                  Jan 1969  Administrative autonomy.
               21 Feb 1974  Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo
               05 Jul 1989  Serbian government revokes autonomy.
               15 Jul 1990  Kosovo declares separation from Serbia, but not Yugoslavia
                             (not recognized).
               07 Sep 1990  Self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo within Yugoslavia but
                             separate from Serbia (not recognized).
               28 Sep 1990  Autonomous Province of Kosovo-Metohija
 19 Oct 1991 - 01 Feb 2000  Kosovo declares independence (Republic of Kosova) not
                             internationally recognized.
 12 Jun 1999 - date         Kosovo under foreign occupation and United Nations
                             administration.
               17 Feb 2008  Independence declared (Republic of Kosovo) winning partial
                             international recognition (not recognized by Serbia or
                             Russia).
               06 Feb 2013  Serbian president Tomislav Nikolić and Kosovar President
                             Atifete Jahjaga sat at the same table for the first time to
                             discuss issues.
               19 Apr 2013  Kosovo and Serbia completed an agreement as a major step
                             towards normalizing relations, and would allow both of them
                             to apply for EU membership.
 
Although the core of the Serbian heartland, Kosovo has from the 15th century onward been increasingly populated by Muslim migrants, Albanians for the most part. Today, the population is overwhelmingly Albanian. In the days of the Cold War, this was not an issue, but since the death of Marshal Tito and the disruption of Yugoslavia, the demands of the Albanian majority have become increasingly powerful. Kosovo had been granted considerable autonomy under the old constitution, but that was removed in 1989. Agitation for it's reinstallation led to Albanian recognition of Kosovar independence in 1991. A concerted attempt to set up a government was quashed by Yugoslavia in 1998, which led to open warfare. The international community generally supported the Kosovars, and eventually a limited air war on the part of NATO was instituted against Yugoslavia, which led to the collapse of the Milosevic government and the imposition of a United Nations peacekeeping force inside Kosovo. Just recently, the Kosovar Albanians have once more voted for an independent government, and have begun agitating for international recognition.
    The Kosovar position: The Kosovo Albanians want independence from Yugoslavia. Whether that means a separate state, or union with Albania is uncertain. The fact remains though, that the Kosovars have zero regard for and trust of Serbian Yugoslavs. They were subject to severe persecution in the days between 1989 and 1999, and have no wish to repeat the experience.
    The Serbian position: Serbia regards Kosovo as an integral part of the nation, and would regard its secession as intolerable. Apart from it being yet another province breaking away from Yugoslavia, the emotional cost of Kosovo as such being lost would be extreme despite of different language, culture and religion.
As of 01 June 2012, the Republic of Kosovo has received 93 diplomatic recognitions as an independent state. Notably, 91 out of 193 (47.2%) United Nations (UN) member states and the other two are Taiwan (Republic of China) and Order of Malta, 22 out of 27 (81%) European Union (EU) member states, 24 out of 28 (86%) NATO member states, and 30 out of 57 (53%) Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) member states have recognized Kosovo. Serbia refuses to recognize it. On 08 October 2008, upon the request of Serbia, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution asking the International Court of Justice for an advisory opinion on the issue of Kosovo's declaration of independence. On 22 July 2010, the ICJ ruled that Kosovo's declaration of independence did not violate general international law because international law contains no 'prohibition on declarations of independence': nor did the declaration of independence violate UN Security Council Resolution 1244, since this did not describe Kosovo's final status, nor had the Security Council reserved for itself the decision on final status. Ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led KFOR peacekeepers under UNMIK authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Kosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in Sep 2008.
 
 
  • Illyrian Dardani..........................................? - 169 BCE
  • Roman Republic..........................................169 - 27
  • Roman Empire.........................................27 BCE - 395 CE
  • Byzantine Empire........................................395 - 7th cent.
  • Slavic occupation, from which emerges Rascia.........7th c. - c. 920
  • VLASTIMIROVIC - Zhupanate of Rascia
  • Central Serbia, roughly where Kosovo province is today. The earliest recognizable Serbian state.
  • Viseslav.............................................c. 750 - c. 800
  • Radoslav I....................................................aft. 800
  • Prosigoj......................................................bfr. 835
  • Vlastimir...............................................836 - 860
  • Strojimir...............................................860 - 882 with...
  • Goinik..................................................860 - 882
  • Mutimir.................................................882 - 892
  • Pribislav...............................................892 - 893
  • Peter...................................................893 - 917
  • Paul....................................................917 - 921 d. 923
  • Zachary.................................................921 - 924
  • Bulgaria................................................924 - 927
  • Caslav (Core territory of Rascia).......................927 - 949
  • Byzantine Empire........................................949 - 988
  • Bulgaria................................................988 - 1018
  • Byzantine Empire.......................................1018 - 1180
  • Serbia.................................................1180 - 1444
    • BRANKOVIC (Also Lords of Skopje)
    • Vuk (I)...........................................1371 - 1396
    • Gregory...........................................1396 - 1408 with...
    • George (Despot of Serbia 1427-1456)...............1396 - 1427 d. 1456; and...
    • Lazar.............................................1396 - 1410
  • Ottoman Empire.........................................1444 - 1912
    • Walis (governors) of Prizren
    • Ismail Rahmi Pasha Tepedelenlizade............Jul 1869 - Jan 1871
    • Safvet Pasha Tatar............................Jan 1871 - Nov 1871
    • Galib Pasha Sari..............................Nov 1871 - Aug 1872
    • Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha....................Aug 1872 - Apr 1873
    • Mehmed Akif Pasha Arnavud Kalkandelenli.......Apr 1873 - May 1873
    • Hüseyin Hüsnü Pasha...........................May 1873 - Apr 1874
    • Ferik Ahmet Hamdi Pasha...........................1874 - 04 Sep 1875
    • Akif Mehmet Pasha.................................1875 - 1878
    • Ottoman Walis of Kosovo
    • Halil Rifat Pasha.............................Feb 1877 - Jun 1878
    • Mehmed Nazif Pasha Manastirli.................Jun 1878 - Dec 1879
    • Hüseyin Fikri Pasha...........................Dec 1879 - Aug 1880
    • Osman Nuri Pasha Potirikli....................Aug 1880 - Jun 1881
    • Ahmed Hifzi Pasha.............................Jun 1881 - Jul 1883
    • Abdi Pasha....................................Jul 1883 - Oct 1885
    • Mehmed Faik Pasha Selanikli...................Oct 1885 - Oct 1889
    • Ahmed Eyyub Pasha.............................Oct 1889 - Dec 1890
    • Abdülkadir Kemali Pasha.......................Dec 1890 - Jun 1891
    • Mehmed Shakir Pasha...........................Jun 1891 - Jul 1892
    • Edhem Pasha...................................Jul 1892 - Dec 1893
    • Hafiz Mehmed Pasha Erzurumlu (1st time).......Dec 1893 - Apr 1900
    • Mehmed Reshad Bey.............................Apr 1900 - Jan 1903
    • Hafiz Mehmed Pasha Erzurumlu (2nd time).......Jan 1903 - Apr 1903
    • Shakir Pasha..................................Apr 1903 - Apr 1905
    • Mahmud Shevket [Shefket] Pasha................Apr 1905 - Aug 1908
    • Mehmed Hadi Pasha Bagdadli....................Aug 1908 - May 1909
    • Hüseyin Hüsnü Pasha...........................May 1909 - Aug 1909
    • Ali Mazhar Bey................................Aug 1909 - Nov 1910
    • Halil Bey.....................................Nov 1910 - Nov 1911
    • Mazhar Bey....................................Nov 1911 - Aug 1912
    • Ali Galib Pasha Müstedami................................Aug 1912
 
Coinage under Ottoman ruler Muhammad V:
Currency: Lira (Pound) = 100 piastres = 4000 para.
 
AH1327 - RY3 (1911 CE).
These issues were struck to commemorate the Sultan's visit to the city of Kosovo dated AH 1327 year 3 (1911 CE).

Turkey KM#796 2 Kurush. Year: AH1327-RY3 (1911 CE). Weight: 2.42g [2.4055g]. Metal: 0.830 Silver. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Constantinople (Istanbul). Obverse: "عز نصره" (May his victory be Glorious) at the top "ضرب في" (Struck at) in the center and "قوصوه" (Kosovo) below. AH accession year at the bottom. 12 stars around.. Reverse: Toughra of Mehmed V Reshad in the center with "Reshad" to the right. Reignal year "3" at the bottom. 12 stars around. Mintage: 13,000. Minted Years: One year type.

Other coins in this set are:

  • Turkey KM#797: 5 KURUSH. 6.0130 g., 0.8300 Silver. Mintage: 3,000.

  • Turkey KM#798: 10 KURUSH. 12.0270 g., 0.8300 Silver. Mintage: 1,500.

  • Turkey KM#799: 50 KURUSH. 3.6080 g., 0.9170 Gold. Mintage: 1,200.

  • Turkey KM#800: 100 KURUSH. 7.2160 g., 0.9170 Gold. Mintage: 750.

  • Turkey KM#801: 500 KURUSH 36.0800 g., 0.9170 Gold. Mintage: 20.

 
  • Serbia.................................................1912 - 1915
  • Occupied by Austria....................................1915 - 1918
  • Yugoslavia.............................................1918 - 1941
  • Italian controlled Albania.............................1941 - 1944
    • President of the Second League of Prizren
    • Xhafer Deva...................................Sep 1943 - 1944
  • Serbia.................................................1944 - 1945
    • Chairman of the People's Liberation Committee
    • Mehmet Hoxha...............................01 Jan 1944 - 11 Jul 1945
  • Yugoslavia.............................................1945 - 2003 but...
    • Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (from 1952, League of Communists)
    • Miladin Popovic...............................Sep 1944 - Mar 1945
    • Djordjije "Djoka" Pajkovic....................Mar 1945 - Feb 1956
    • Dusan Mugosa..................................Feb 1956 - 1965
    • Velli Deva (1st time).............................1965 - 28 Jun 1971
    • Mahmut Bakalli.............................28 Jun 1971 - 06 May 1981
    • Velli Deva (2nd time)......................06 May 1981 - Jun 1982
    • Sinan Hasani..................................Jun 1982 - May 1983
    • Ilaz Kurteshi.................................May 1983 - Mar 1984
    • Svetislav Dolasevic...........................Mar 1984 - May 1985
    • Kolë Shiroka..................................May 1985 - May 1986
    • Azem Vllasi...................................May 1986 - 1988
    • Kaqusha Jashari (female)......................... 1988 - 17 Nov 1988
    • Remzi Kolgeci (acting).....................17 Nov 1988 - 27 Jan 1989
    • Rahman Morina..............................27 Jan 1989 - 12 Oct 1990
    • Provincial Coordinator
    • Momcilo Trajkovic..........................11 Apr 1990 - 1991
    • Mayors of Pristina
    • Zivojin Mitrovic..................................1991 - 1992
    • Novica Sojevic...........................................1992
    • Prefects of Kosovo district
    • Milos Simovic.....................................1992 - 1994
    • Aleksa Jokic......................................1994 - 1996
    • Milos Nesovic.....................................1996 - 1998
    • Veljko Odalovic (1st time)........................1998 - 1999
    • Andreja Milosavljevic.............................1999 - 2000
    • Veljko Odalovic (2nd time)........................2000 - 2001
    • Jovica Filipovic...........................12 Apr 2001 - 06 Dec 2001
    • Dragan Velic...............................06 Dec 2001 - 28 Sep 2004
    • Srdjan Vasic...............................28 Sep 2004 - 08 Dec 2007
    • Goran Arsic................................13 Dec 2007 - date
    • Republic of Kosovo
    • Ibrahim Rugova.............................25 May 1992 - 01 Feb 2000
    • From 05 May to 30 Jul 1999 in Italian exile.
    • Chairman of the Temporary Executive Council
    • Zoran Andjelkovic..........................28 Sep 1998 - 07 Mar 2002
  • UN zone of occupation...........................12 Jun 1999 - 17 Feb 2008
    • Within Serbia-Montenegro..........................2003 - 2006
    • Within Serbia.....................................2006 - 17 Feb 2008
  • Republic........................................17 Feb 2008 - date
    • Speaker of the Parliament
    • Nexhat Daci................................10 Dec 2001 - 04 Mar 2002
    • Presidents
    • Ibrahim Rugova.............................04 Mar 2002 - 21 Jan 2006
    • Nexhat Daci (acting).......................21 Jan 2006 - 10 Feb 2006
  • Fatmir Sejdiu...................................10 Feb 2006 - 27 Sep 2010
  • Jakup Krasniqi (1st time - acting)..............27 Sep 2010 - 22 Feb 2011
  • Behgjet Pacolli.................................22 Feb 2011 - 30 Mar 2011
  • Jakup Krasniqi (2nd time - acting)..............30 Mar 2011 - 07 Apr 2011
  • Atifete Jahjaga (female)........................07 Apr 2011 - date
Currency: At the moment Euro (€) and Serbian Dinar are used in Kosovo.
 
 
 
  • Serbian National Council of Kosovo and Metohija (Alternative government)
  • On 24 Oct 1999 Serbian National Council of Kosovo and Metohija formed in opposition to NATO 'occupation' and local Albanian government.
  • Presidents of the Council
  • Bishop Artemije.................................24 Oct 1999 - 03 Mar 2004
  • Rada Trajkovic (female - acting)................03 Mar 2004 - 03 Sep 2006
  • Dragan Velic....................................03 Sep 2006 - date
  • On 15 Feb 2011, 99.74% of voters in Serb northern Kosovo reject Kosovo state institutions; referendum is not recognized by Kosovo or Serbia.
 
  • UN International and independent administration
  • Administrator heads of United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo [UNMIK] and 15 Dec 1999 - 2002 Presidents of Temporary Administrative Council of Kosovo.
  • Sérgio Vieira de Mello (Brazil - acting)...............13 Jun 1999 - 15 Jul 1999
  • Bernard Kouchner (France)..............................15 Jul 1999 - 15 Jan 2001
  • Hans Hĉkkerup (Denmark)................................15 Jan 2001 - 31 Dec 2001
  • Charles H. Brayshaw (U.S. - 1st time acting)...........01 Jan 2002 - 14 Feb 2002
  • Michael Steiner (Germany)..............................14 Feb 2002 - 08 Jul 2003
  • Charles H. Brayshaw (U.S. - 2nd time acting)...........08 Jul 2003 - 25 Aug 2003
  • Harri Holkeri (Finland)................................25 Aug 2003 - 11 Jun 2004
  • Charles H. Brayshaw (U.S. - 3rd time acting)...........11 Jun 2004 - 16 Aug 2004
  • Sĝren Jessen-Petersen (Denmark)........................16 Aug 2004 - 30 Jun 2006
  • Steven Paul Schook (U.S. - acting) ....................30 Jun 2006 - 31 Aug 2006
  • Joachim Rücker (Germany)...............................01 Sep 2006 - 20 Jun 2008
  • Lamberto Zannier (Italy)...............................20 Jun 2008 - 30 Jun 2011
  • Robert E. Sorenson (U.S. - acting).....................01 Jul 2011 - 03 Aug 2011
  • Farid Zarif (Afghanistan - acting to 11 Oct 2011)......03 Aug 2011 - date
  • Military Commanders of the NATO Kosovo Force (KFOR)
  • Sir Michael Jackson (U.K.).............................12 Jun 1999 - 08 Oct 1999
  • Klaus Reinhardt (Germany)..............................08 Oct 1999 - 18 Apr 2000
  • Juan Ortuño Such (Spain)...............................18 Apr 2000 - 16 Oct 2000
  • Carlo Cabigiosu (Italy)................................16 Oct 2000 - 06 Apr 2001
  • Thorsten Skiaker (Norway)..............................06 Apr 2001 - 03 Oct 2001
  • Marcel M. Valentin (France)............................03 Oct 2001 - 04 Oct 2002
  • Fabio Minni (Italy)....................................04 Oct 2002 - 05 Oct 2003
  • Holger Kammerhorf (Germany)............................05 Oct 2003 - 01 Sep 2004
  • Yves de Kermabon (France)..............................01 Sep 2004 - 01 Sep 2005
  • Giuseppe Valotto (Italy)...............................01 Sep 2005 - 01 Sep 2006
  • Roland Kather (Germany)................................01 Sep 2006 - 31 Aug 2007
  • Xavier Bout de Marnhac (France)........................31 Aug 2007 - 29 Aug 2008
  • Giuseppe Emilio Gay (Italy)............................29 Aug 2008 - 08 Sep 2009
  • Markus J. Bentler (Germany)............................08 Sep 2009 - 01 Sep 2010
  • Erhard Bühler (Germany)................................01 Sep 2010 - 09 Sep 2011
  • Erhard Drews (Germany).................................09 Sep 2011 - 07 Sep 2012
  • Volker R. Halbauer (Germany)...........................07 Sep 2012 - date
  • European Union Special Envoys
  • Pieter C. Feith (Netherlands)..........................20 Feb 2008 - 29 Apr 2011
  • International Civil Representative 28 Feb 2008 - Sep 2012.
  • Fernando Gentilini (Italy).............................01 May 2011 - 30 Sep 2011
  • Khaldoun Sinno (Germany - acting)......................01 Oct 2011 - 01 Feb 2012
  • Samuel Zbogar (Slovenia)...............................01 Feb 2012 - date
 
 
 
 
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins