region lying just to the northeast of Albania, in central Yugoslavia. Of old
the site of some of the earliest settlements by the Slavic people who became
the Serb nation, the district has had a chequered and often violent history.
It is currently inhabited largely by ethnic Albanians, a situation brought
about by the mass migrations of native Serbs out of the area in 1691 and
1737, owing to pressures from the Ottomans.
Unilateral declaration of independence was done on 17th Feb 2008 through UN
Capital: Pristina (Prishtina, Pritina).
Kosovo is a
district lying to the northeast of Albania and the northwest of Macedonia. A
Roman district, it passed to the Byzantine Empire, but was overrun by
migrating Slavic peoples in the 7th century. Out of these settlers emerged
the state of Rascia, the earliest recognizable Serbian polity. It fell to
outland conquerors, but was always inhabited by, and fairly often ruled by
Serbians. It passed to the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, and remained
under Turkish authority until 1912. In the first half of the 20th century
the district fairly often changed hands, but from 1945 to 1999 it was
Yugoslavian. It still is, as a technicality, but it is currently
administered by the UN, which is trying to reach a peaceful settlement of
c.1092 Part of Serbia.
1396 Kosovo begins to come under Ottoman administration
15 Jun 1389 Battle of Kosovo Field; Ottoman victory over Serbia
28 Jun 1389 Part of Ottoman Empire (part of vilayet of Skopje
1868 Separate vilayet (province) of Prizren created.
1877 Separate vilayet of Kosovo created.
10 Jun 1878 - Apr 1881 Albanian rebellion under the
League of Prizren.
1912 conquered by Serbia.
21 Nov 1912 - 10 Apr 1913 Part of independent Albania.
10 Apr 1913 Incorporated into Serbia (then from 01 Dec 1918
07 Sep 1913 annexed by Serbia
1918 - 1924 Ethnic Albanians
organize a resistance movement
(Committee for the National Defense of Kosova).
04 Oct 1929 Part of Banovina of Vardar (under Macedonia).
17 Apr 1941 Occupied by Italy.
29 Jun 1941 - 19 Nov 1944 Annexed to Italian administered Albania.
11 Sep 1943 - 19 Nov 1944 Occupied by Germany.
19 Nov 1944 Re-incorporated into Yugoslavia.
Jul 1945 Autonomous Kosovo-Metohija District.
07 Apr 1963 Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija
Dec 1968 Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo
Jan 1969 Administrative autonomy.
21 Feb 1974 Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo
05 Jul 1989 Serbian government revokes autonomy.
15 Jul 1990 Kosovo declares separation from Serbia, but not Yugoslavia
07 Sep 1990 Self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo within Yugoslavia but
separate from Serbia (not recognized).
28 Sep 1990 Autonomous Province of Kosovo-Metohija
19 Oct 1991 - 01 Feb 2000 Kosovo declares independence (Republic of
12 Jun 1999 Kosovo under foreign occupation and United Nations
17 Feb 2008 Independence declared (Republic of Kosovo) winning partial
international recognition (not recognized by Serbia or
10 Sep 2012 international supervision officially ended.
06 Feb 2013 Serbian president Tomislav Nikolić and Kosovar President
Atifete Jahjaga sat at the same table for the first time to
19 Apr 2013 Kosovo and Serbia completed an agreement as a major step
towards normalizing relations, and would allow both of them
to apply for EU membership.
core of the Serbian heartland, Kosovo has from the 15th century onward been
increasingly populated by Muslim migrants, Albanians for the most part.
Today, the population is overwhelmingly Albanian. In the days of the Cold
War, this was not an issue, but since the death of Marshal Tito and the
disruption of Yugoslavia, the demands of the Albanian majority have become
increasingly powerful. Kosovo had been granted considerable autonomy under
the old constitution, but that was removed in 1989. Agitation for it's
reinstallation led to Albanian recognition of Kosovar independence in 1991.
A concerted attempt to set up a government was quashed by Yugoslavia in
1998, which led to open warfare. The international community generally
supported the Kosovars, and eventually a limited air war on the part of NATO
was instituted against Yugoslavia, which led to the collapse of the
Milosevic government and the imposition of a United Nations peacekeeping
force inside Kosovo. Just recently, the Kosovar Albanians have once more
voted for an independent government, and have begun agitating for
Kosovar position: The Kosovo Albanians want independence from
Yugoslavia. Whether that means a separate state, or union with Albania is
uncertain. The fact remains though, that the Kosovars have zero regard for
and trust of Serbian Yugoslavs. They were subject to severe persecution in
the days between 1989 and 1999, and have no wish to repeat the experience.
The Serbian position: Serbia regards Kosovo as an integral part
of the nation, and would regard its secession as intolerable. Apart from it
being yet another province breaking away from Yugoslavia, the emotional cost
of Kosovo as such being lost would be extreme despite of different language,
culture and religion.
As of 01 June
2012, the Republic of Kosovo has received 93 diplomatic recognitions as an
independent state. Notably, 91 out of 193 (47.2%) United Nations (UN) member
states and the other two are Taiwan (Republic of China) and
Order of Malta, 22 out of 27 (81%) European
Union (EU) member states, 24 out of 28 (86%) NATO member states, and 30 out
of 57 (53%) Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) member states have
recognized Kosovo. Serbia refuses to recognize it. On 08 October 2008, upon
the request of Serbia, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution asking
the International Court of Justice for an advisory opinion on the issue of
Kosovo's declaration of independence. On 22 July 2010, the ICJ ruled that
Kosovo's declaration of independence did not violate general international
law because international law contains no 'prohibition on declarations of
independence': nor did the declaration of independence violate UN Security
Council Resolution 1244, since this did not describe Kosovo's final status,
nor had the Security Council reserved for itself the decision on final
status. Ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border
challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led
KFOR peacekeepers under UNMIK authority continue to keep the peace within
Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo;
Kosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in Sep 2008.
were struck to commemorate the Sultan's visit to the city of Kosovo dated AH
1327 year 3 (1911 CE).
2 Kurush. Year:
AH1327-RY3 (1911 CE). Weight:
2.42g [2.4055g]. Metal:
18.00 mm. Edge:
Constantinople (Istanbul). Obverse:
"عز نصره" (May his victory be
Glorious) at the top "ضرب في" (Struck at) in the center and "قوصوه"
(Kosovo) below. AH accession year at the bottom. 12 stars around.
Toughra of Mehmed V Reshad in the center with
"Reshad" written to the right. Reignal year "3" at the bottom. 12 stars
One year type.