Moldova
 

 
Moldova officially the Republic of Moldova (Romanian: Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south. The region is situated on the Moldavian Plateau in the south eastern part of the East European Plain.
Moldova's landscape can be described as rolling steppe with a gradual slope in south towards the Black Sea. The highest elevation in the country is a hill named Bălănești with an altitude of 430 m. With an area of 33,850 km² Moldova is somewhat larger than Belgium, or slightly larger than the U.S. state of Maryland.
The capital and largest city is Chișinău (Chisinau). 1940-1990: [former city name: Kishinev (Kishinyov)] and 27 Mar 1944 - 24 Aug 1944: Kagul [Cahul].
Most of the Moldovan territory was a part of the Principality of Moldavia from the 14th century until 1812, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Ottoman Empire (to which Moldavia was a vassal state) and became known as Bessarabia. In 1856, southern Bessarabia was returned to Moldavia, which three years later united with Wallachia to form Romania, but Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878. During the 1917 Russian Revolution, Bessarabia briefly became an autonomous state within the Russian Republic, known as the Moldavian Democratic Republic. In February 1918, the Moldavian Democratic Republic declared independence and then integrated into Romania later that year following a vote of its assembly. The decision was disputed by Soviet Russia, which in 1924 established, within the Ukrainian SSR, a Moldavian autonomous republic (MASSR) on partially Moldovan-inhabited territories to the east of Bessarabia. In 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia to the Soviet Union, leading to the creation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldavian SSR), which included the greater part of Bessarabia and the westernmost strip of the former MASSR (east of the Dniester River).
On 27 August 1991, as the dissolution of the Soviet Union was underway, the Moldavian SSR declared independence and took the name Moldova. The constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994.
The strip of the Moldovan territory on the east bank of the Dniester has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990.
Due to a decrease in industrial and agricultural output following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the service sector has grown to dominate Moldova's economy and is over 60% of the nation's GDP. Its economy is the poorest in Europe in per capita terms and has the lowest Human Development Index in the continent.
Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government. It is a member state of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC).
Spoken languages are Moldovan (Romanian), recognized regional languages are Ukrainian, Russian, and Gagauz (a Turkic language).
Moldova's major rivers are the Dniester (Nistru) the Răut, a tributary of Dniester, and the Prut rive, which forms Moldova's border with Romania.
Territorial Disputes: Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops.
 
 
Chronology: Dates are given according to the New Style (Gregorian) calendar. Russia used the Old Style (Julian) calendar until 01 Feb/14 Feb 1918, as did Romania until 04 Mar/18 Mar 1920.
 
               28 May 1812  Annexed by Russia; the term "Bessarabia" (Bessarabiya)
                              appears for the first time to designate the former
                              Eastern half of Moldavia.
               11 May 1818  Establishment of the Bessarabian oblast - for the
                              first time the territory of Bessarabia is
                              organized as a separate political entity (with local
                              autonomy until 12 Mar 1828) under special By-laws
                              [Ustav])(subordinated to the Governorate-general
                              of Novorossiya and Bessarabia 12 May 1822-1874).
               30 Mar 1856  Following the Crimean war, Russia is forced to cede
                             the South-western corner of Bugeac (Ismail, Cahul
                             and Bolgrad counties) back to the Principality of
                             Moldavia.
               28 Oct 1873  Reorganized as Bessarabian guberniya (governorate).
               13 Jul 1878  Counties of Ismail, Cahul and Bolgrad returned to
                             Russia.
               15 Dec 1917  Declaration of republic is passed by the National
                             Diet (nominally in federation with Russia);
                             Moldavian Democratic Republic.
 14 Jan 1918 - 26 Jan 1918  Bolshevik Romanian Front Committee ("Rumcherod")
                             units take power in Kishinev (under Ukraine).
               26 Jan 1918  Romania occupies Kishinyov (Kishinev) (by Mar 1918
                             all of Moldova).
               06 Feb 1918  Declaration of independence is passed.
               09 Apr 1918  Incorporation into Romania as Bessarabia
                             (autonomous until 10 Dec 1918).
               23 Apr 1918  Royal decree on unification of 22 Apr 1918 is
                             promulgated in Romania.
               01 Jan 1920  Parliamentary act of unification is promulgated in
                             Romania (passed by parliament on 29 Dec 1919, and
                             signed by the king on 31 Dec 1919).
               20 Oct 1920  Romanian annexation internationally recognized.
               11 Oct 1924  Moldavian A.S.S.R. established within the
                             Ukrainian S.S.R. by the Soviet Union.
 28 Jun 1940 - 02 Aug 1940  Bessarabia occupied by Soviet Union.
               02 Aug 1940  Annexed by the Soviet Union as Moldavian Soviet
                             Socialist Republic formed from the Moldavian
                             A.S.S.R. and (formerly Romanian) Bessarabia.
               02 Jul 1941  Romanian invasion begins.
 16 Jul 1941 - 31 Jul 1941  Bessarabia occupied and annexation by Romania.
 01 Aug 1941 - 24 Aug 1944  Incorporated into Romania as Bessarabia
                             (Basarabie) governorate.
               24 Aug 1944  Re-incorporation into the Soviet Union
                             (recognized by Romania on 15 Sep 1947).
               01 Sep 1989  Moldovan/Romanian is made the state language.
               05 Jun 1990  Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova
               23 Jun 1990  Declaration of state sovereignty.
               02 Sep 1990  Transnistria declares independence from Moldova
                             (not recognized).
               06 Nov 1990  Moldova Flag adopted.
               23 May 1991  Republic of Moldova
               27 Aug 1991  Independence declared.
               26 Dec 1991  Independence effective (dissolution of U.S.S.R.).
               02 Mar 1992  Admitted to the United Nations.
               06 Mar 1994  Referendum rejects union with Romania by 97.9%.
               07 Jun 1994  National Anthem "Limba Noastră" (Our Language) adopted.
               29 Jul 1994  Constitution.
 
 

Transnistria shown as the east strip on Moldova map.
 
  • MOLDOVA
  • The Cimmerians.........................................c. 2000 - c. 700
  • The Scythians...........................................c. 700 - c. 280
  • The La Tene Celts.......................................c. 280 - c. 200
  • The Sarmatians (Iazgyian)...............................c. 200 - c. 50
  • The Kingdom of Dacia.....................................c. 50 - 40
  • The Iazgyians...........................................40 BCE - c. 50 CE
  • The Roxolanoi............................................c. 50 - c. 225
  • The Visigoths...........................................c. 225 - c. 375
  • The Huns................................................c. 375 - 455
  • The Kutrigur Huns..........................................455 - c. 580
  • The Avars...............................................c. 580 - 651
  • Bulgaria...................................................651 - 9th cent.
  • Hungary...................................................9th and 10th cent.
  • Pechenegs...........................................10th cent. - 1171
  • Cumans (Cuman-Kipchak)....................................1171 - 1241
  • Mongols...................................................1241 - 1286
  • Moldavia (The eastern flank of what is now Romania).......1286 - 1512
  • Ottoman Empire............................................1512 - 1739
  • Occupied by Russia...............................................1739
  • Ottoman Empire............................................1739 - 1769
  • Occupied by Russia........................................1769 - 1774
  • Ottoman Empire............................................1774 - 1788
  • Occupied by Russia........................................1788 - 1789
  • Occupied by Austria.......................................1789 - 1791
  • Ottoman Empire............................................1791 - 28 May 1812
  • Russia.............................................28 May 1812 - 06 Feb 1918
  • Governors-general of Novorossiya (at Odessa - in charge of Bessarabia 1812-1816)
  • Armand Emmanuel du Plessis, duc de Richelieu..............1805 - Sep 1814 d. 1822
  • He is also known as Emmanuil Osipovich de Rishel'yo,
  • Gertsog de Rishel'yo.
    Alexandre Louis Andrault, comte de Langeron...........Dec 1815 - Jul 1822 d. 1831
  • He is also known as Graf Aleksandr Fyodorovich Lanzheron.
  • Stadholders of Bessarabia
  • Aleksey Nikolayevich Bakhmetyev....................26 May 1816 - 15 Jun 1820 d. 1841
  • Ivan Nikitich Inzov................................15 Jun 1820 - 17 Jul 1822 d. 1845
  • Governors-general of Novorossiya and Bessarabia (in Odessa) [dates in OS style calendar]
  • Ivan Nikitich Inzov (continued)....................17 Jul 1822 - 07 May 1823
  • Graf Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov.................19 May 1823 - 05 Nov 1854 d. 1856
  • From 1845, he is known as Knyaz Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov.
    • Acting for Vorontsov
    • Graf Fyodor Petrovich Palen (1st time)........29 May 1826 - 01 Jan 1828 d. 1863
    • He is also known as Friedrich Alexander Graf von der Pahlen.
    • Graf Fyodor Petrovich Palen (2nd time)........15 Feb 1831 - Oct 1832
  • Nikolay Nikolayevich Annenkov.............................1854 - 17 Apr 1855 d. 1865
  • Graf Aleksandr Grigoryevich Stroganov..............17 Apr 1855 - 29 Jun 1862 d. 1891
  • Pavel Yevstafyevich Kotsebu........................02 Dec 1862 - 1874 d. 1884
  • Governors-general of Novorossiya and Bessarabia (in Odessa) / Russian Governors of Bessarabia [dates in OS style calendar]
  • Skarlat Dmitriyevich Sturdza.......................23 Jul 1812 - 17 Jun 1813 d. 1816
  • He was also known as Scarlat Dimitrie Sturdza.
  • Ivan Markovich Garting (Johann Festus Harting).....17 Jun 1813 - Oct 1817 d. 1831
  • Matvey Yegorovich Krupenskiy (acting).................Oct 1817 - 30 Dec 1817 d. 1855
  • Konstantin Antonovich Katakazi.....................30 Dec 1817 - 11 May 1818 d. 1826
  • He was also known as Constantin Catacazi.
  • Russian Governors of Bessarabia Oblast (from 1873, Guberniya) [dates in OS style calendar]
  • Konstantin Antonovich Katakazi (continued).........11 May 1818 - 26 Aug 1825
  • Vasiliy Fyodorovich Timkovskiy.....................04 Sep 1825 - 12 Jan 1828 d. 1832
  • Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Turgenev....................17 Jan 1828 - 30 Jul 1828 d. 1863
  • Yevgraf Nikiforovich Golubtsov (acting)............30 Jul 1828 - 02 Nov 1828 d. 1835
  • Nikolay Prokofyevich Prazhevskiy...................02 Nov 1828 - 24 Mar 1829 d. 1849
  • Akinfiy Ivanovich Sorokunskiy......................24 Mar 1829 - 17 Apr 1833 d. 18..
  • Pavel Ivanovich Averin.............................16 Jul 1833 - 28 Aug 1834 d. 1849
  • Pavel Ivanovich Fyodorov...........................28 Aug 1834 - 29 May 1854 d. 1855
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Ilinskiy.......................15 Jul 1854 - 10 Nov 1857 d. 1865
  • Mikhail L'vovich Fanton-de-Verrayon................10 Nov 1857 - 19 Dec 1862 d. 1887
  • Ivan Osipovich Baron Velio.........................28 Dec 1862 - 01 Aug 1863 d. 1899
  • Platon Aleksandrovich Antonovich...................01 Aug 1863 - 30 Nov 1867 d. 1883
  • Yegor Yegorovich Gangard (Gangardt)................05 Dec 1867 - 03 Jun 1871 d. 1882
  • Nikolay Ignatyevich Shebeko........................03 Jun 1871 - 27 Feb 1879 d. 1905
  • Sergey Fyodorovich Tanskiy (acting)................27 Feb 1879 - 15 May 1879 d. ?
  • Evgeniy Osipovich Yankovskiy.......................15 May 1879 - 12 Aug 1881 d. 1892
  • Modest Mavrikiyevich Koniar........................16 Aug 1881 - 30 Jun 1883 d. 1890
  • Aleksandr Petrovich Konstantinovich................30 Jun 1883 - 04 Jul 1899 d. 1903
  • Vikentiy Samoylovich fon Raaben....................10 Jul 1899 - 30 May 1903 d. af. 1917
  • He was also known as Vinzenz von Raaben.
    Knyaz' Sergey Dmitriyevich Urusov..................30 May 1903 - 31 Oct 1907 d. 1937
  • Aleksey Nikolayevich Kharuzin......................31 Oct 1904 - 11 Oct 1908 d. 1932
  • Graf Ivan Viktorovich Kankrin (Cancrin)............11 Oct 1908 - 07 May 1912 d. 1920
  • Mikhail Eduardovich Gil'khen (Hilchen).............07 May 1912 - 22 Sep 1915 d. 1945
  • Mikhail Mikhaylovich Voronovich....................22 Sep 1915 - 06 Mar 1917 d. 1918
  • Commissars of the Provisional Government in Bessarabia
  • Konstantin Aleksandrovich Mimi.....................06 Mar 1917 - Oct 1917 d. 1935
  • He was also known as Constantin Alexandru Mimi.
  • Ivan Konstantinovich Inkulec..........................Oct 1917 - 15 Dec 1917 d. 1940
  • He was also known as Ion Constantin Inculet.
  • Moldavian Democratic Republic......................15 Dec 1917 - 10 Dec 1918
  • The Moldavian Democratic Republic (Romanian: Republica Democratică Moldovenească), also known as the Moldavian Republic, was a state proclaimed on December 15 [O.S. December 2] 1917 by the Sfatul Țării (National Council) of Bessarabia, elected in October–November 1917 following the February Revolution and the start of the disintegration of the Russian Empire. The Sfatul Țării was its legislative body, while the "Council of Directors General", renamed the "Council of Ministers" after the Declaration of Independence, was its government. The Republic was proclaimed on 2/15 December 1917, as a result of the Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia. Independence declared on 06 February [O.S. 24 January] 1918 and later Unconditional union with Romania on 10 December [O.S. 27 November] 1918.
  • President of the National Diet / Bessarabian National Council
  • Ion Constantin Inculet (1st time)..................15 Dec 1917 - 14 Jan 1918 d. 1940
  • Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Soviet of the Bessarabian Governorate (subordinated to the "Rumcherod" in Odessa)
  • Yakov Denisovich Meleshin..........................14 Jan 1918 - 26 Jan 1918 d. 1918
  • Presidents of the National Diet (also known as the Assembly of the Land)
  • Ion Constantin Inculet (2nd time)..................26 Jan 1918 - 15 Apr 1918
  • Constantin Gheorghe Stere (Sterea).................15 Apr 1918 - 08 Dec 1918 d. 1936
  • Pantelimon "Pan" Nicolae Halippa...................08 Dec 1918 - 10 Dec 1918 d. 1979
  • Romania............................................09 Apr 1918 - 28 Jun 1940
  • Incorporation into Romania as Bessarabia (autonomous 09 Apr 1918 - 10 Dec 1918).
  • Soviet Union.......................................28 Jun 1940 - 17 Jul 1941
  • Soviet Commander of the Southern Front (Military)
    Georgiy Konstantinovich Zhukov.....................28 Jun 1940 - 02 Aug 1940
  • Romania............................................17 Jul 1941 - 24 Aug 1944
  • Romanian Commandant (of the 4th Army - Military)
  • The order of Battle for Operation Barbarossa is the German invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II. It was fought between the German-led Axis Forces and the Soviet Forces. The operation started on 22 June 1941, and ended on 05 December 1941, at the conclusion of Operation Typhoon.
  • Nicolae Ciuperca...................................16 Jul 1941 - 31 Jul 1941 d. 1950
  • Governors of Bessarabia (Romanian Military)
  • Constantin Gheorghe Voiculescu.....................01 Aug 1941 - 15 Apr 1943 d. 1955
  • Olimpiu Stavrat....................................15 Apr 1943 - 23 Aug 1944 d. 1968
  • Soviet Union.......................................24 Aug 1944 - 25 Dec 1991
  • Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic - First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Moldavia
  • Russian names with Moldavian/Romanian in parentheses until 01 Sep 1989, then Moldavian/Romanian names with Russian in parentheses.
  • Pyotr Grigoryevich Borodin (Piotr Borodin).........14 Aug 1940 - 27 Jan 1945 d. 1986
  • He was acting to 04 Sep 1940. He was in Russian S.F.S.R. exile: 16 Jul 1941 - 24 Aug 1944.
  • Nikita Leontyevich Salogor (acting)................27 Jan 1945 - 20 Jul 1946 d. 1981
  • Nikolay Grigoryevich Koval' (Nicolae Covali).......20 Jul 1946 - 06 Jul 1950 d. 1970
  • Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Leonid Brejnev)............06 Jul 1950 - 13 Oct 1952 d. 1982
  • First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Moldavia (from Jun 1990, Communist Party of Moldova)
  • Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (continued).................13 Oct 1952 - 25 Oct 1952
  • Dmitriy Spiridonovich Gladkiy (Dimitrie Gladki)....25 Oct 1952 - 06 Feb 1954 d. 1959
  • Zinoviy Timofeyevich Serdyuk (Zinovie Serdiuc).....06 Feb 1954 - 29 May 1961 d. 1982
  • Ivan Ivanovich Bodyul (Ion Bodiul).................29 May 1961 - 22 Dec 1980 d. 2013
  • Semyon Kuz'mich Grossu (Semion Grossu).............22 Dec 1980 - 16 Nov 1989
  • Pyotr Kirillovich Luchinskiy (Petru Lucinschi).....16 Nov 1989 - 04 Feb 1991
  • Grigore Isidor Eremei..............................04 Feb 1991 - 23 Aug 1991
  • His Russian name is: Grigoriy Isidorovich Yeremey. The "leading role" of the party was abolished on 10 May 1990.
  • Chairman of the Bessarabian Provisional Revolutionary Committee
  • Sergey Danilovich Burlachenko (Serghei Burlacenco)..28 Jun 1940 - 10 Feb 1941 d. 1962
  • Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
  • Fyodor Grigoryevich Brovko (Fedor Brovko)...........10 Feb 1941 - 28 Mar 1951 d. 1960
  • In Russian S.F.S.R. exile: 16 Jul 1941 - 27 Mar 1944.
  • Ivan Sergeyevich Koditsa (Ion Codita)...............28 Mar 1951 - 03 Apr 1963 d. 1980
  • Kirill Fyodorovich Ilyashenko (Chiril Iliasenko)....03 Apr 1963 - 10 Apr 1980 d. 1980
  • Ivan Petrovich Kalin (Ivan Calin)...................10 Apr 1980 - 24 Dec 1985 d. 2012
  • Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Mokanu (Alexandru Mocanu)..24 Dec 1985 - 12 Jul 1989
  • Ivan Konstantinovich Chyoban (Ion Ciobanu) (acting).12 Jul 1989 - 29 Jul 1989 d. 2001
  • Mircha Ivanovich Snegur (Mircea Ion Snegur).........29 Jul 1989 - 27 Apr 1990
  • Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
  • Mircea Ion Snegur (continued).......................27 Apr 1990 - 03 Sep 1990
  • President
  • Mircea Ion Snegur (continued).......................03 Sep 1990 - 27 Aug 1991
  • Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
  • Tikhon Antonovich Konstantinov (Tihon Constantinov)..02 Aug 1940 - 19 Apr 1945 d. 1957
  • In Russian S.F.S.R. exile: 16 Jul 1941 - 27 Mar 1944.
  • Nikolay Grigoryevich Koval' (Nicolae Covali).........19 Apr 1945 - 04 Apr 1946 d. 1970
  • Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
  • Nikolay Grigoryevich Koval' (continued)..............04 Apr 1946 - 19 Jul 1946
  • Gerasim Yakovlevich Rud' (Gherasim Rudi).............19 Jul 1946 - 23 Jan 1958 d. 1982
  • Aleksandr Filippovich Diorditsa (Alexandru Diordita).23 Jan 1958 - 24 Apr 1970 d. 1996
  • Pyotr Andreyevich Paskar [1st time]..................24 Apr 1970 - 01 Sep 1976
  • His Moldavian/Romanian name: Petru Andrei Pascari.
  • Semyon Kuz'mich Grossu (Semion Grossu)...............01 Sep 1976 - 31 Dec 1980
  • Ivan Grigoryevich Ustiyan (Ion Ustian)..............31 Dec 1980 - 24 Dec 1985
  • Ivan Petrovich Kalin (Ivan Petru Calin)..............24 Dec 1985 - 10 Jan 1990
  • Pyotr Andreyevich Paskar [2nd time]..................10 Jan 1990 - 24 May 1990
  • Mircha Georgiyevich Druk (Mircea Gheorghe Druc)......25 May 1990 - 05 Jun 1990
  • Prime ministers
  • Mircea Gheorghe Druc (continued).....................05 Jun 1990 - 28 May 1991
  • Valeriu Tudor Muravschi..............................28 May 1991 - 27 Aug 1991
  • His Russian name: Valeriy Fyodorovich Muravskiy.
  • Republic...........................................26 Dec 1991 - date
  • Independence was declared on 27 August 1991.
  • Presidents
  • Mircea Ion Snegur..................................27 Apr 1990 - 15 Jan 1997
  • He served as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 1989–1990 (head of state) and Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR from 27 April 1990 to 03 September 1990. In the Soviet era, he was often known in English as Mircha Ivanovich Snegur, a transliteration from the Russian Мирча Иванович Снегур. On 03 September 1991, Snegur created the National Army of Moldova. In December 1991, Snegur signed the act that made Moldova a full member of the Confederacy of Independent States (CIS), and on 02 March 1992, Moldova became a member of the United Nations. On 29 June 1994, a new Constitution of Moldova was adopted, and on 26 June 1995, Moldova was admitted as a member of the Council of Europe. In 1995, Snegur founded the Party of Rebirth and Conciliation of Moldova with former members of the Agrarian Party of Moldova. Snegur ran as the Party of Rebirth and Conciliation's candidate in the 1996 presidential election, where he won a plurality, but not a majority, of votes in the first round. However, Parliamentary speaker Petru Lucinschi surprised the nation with an upset victory over Snegur in the second round. Snegur continued as President until 15 January 1997.
  • Petru Chiril Lucinschi.............................15 Jan 1997 - 07 Apr 2001
  • He was 2nd President of the Moldovan Parliament: 04 February 1993 – 09 January 1997 and 1st Molovan Ambassador to Russia: 1992 – 04 February 1993. From 1971, Lucinschi was a member of the Executive Committee (Politburo) of the Central Committee of the Communist Party in Moldavian SSR. He was the only native Moldovan in the leadership of Communist Party of Moldova at that time, when the leadership of Moldavian SSR was almost completely in the hands of people from outside the republic or Transnistrians.
  • Vladimir Nicolae Voronin...........................07 Apr 2001 - 11 Sep 2009
  • He has been the First Secretary of the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (PCRM) since 1994. He was Europe's first democratically elected communist party head of state after the dissolution of the Eastern Bloc. He served as Member of the Moldovan Parliament: 05 April 2009 – 24 February 2019, 7th President of the Moldovan Parliament: 12 May 2009 – 28 August 2009 and Minister of Internal Affairs: 17 February 1989 – 24 May 1990.
  • Mihai Toader Ghimpu (acting).......................11 Sep 2009 - 28 Dec 2010
  • He is a Moldovan politician who served as Speaker of Parliament and Acting President of Moldova from 2009 to 2010. He was member of Parliament of Moldova: 03 September 1990 – 22 March 1998 and 05 April 2009 – 24 February 2019. Ghimpu held the position of leader of Liberal Party from 1998 to 2018. He was also 8th President of the Moldovan Parliament: 28 August 2009 – 28 December 2010, Member of the Chișinău Municipal Council: 03 June 2007 – 05 April 2009 and President of the Chișinău Municipal Council: 11 November 2007 – 06 June 2008.
  • Vladimir Vasile Filat (acting).....................28 Dec 2010 - 30 Dec 2010
  • He is a Moldovan businessman and politician, founder of Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova. He was the Prime Minister of Moldova from 25 September 2009 to 25 April 2013. He also was appointed as the Interim President of Moldova for a brief period of time in 2010. He was Member of the Moldovan Parliament: 06 March 2005 – 25 September 2009 and 30 November 2014 – 15 December 2016 and Minister of State: 12 March 1999 – 21 December 1999.
  • Marian Ilie Lupu (acting)..........................30 Dec 2010 - 23 Mar 2012
    He is a Moldovan politician who was the 6th and 9th President of the Parliament of Moldova: 24 March 2005 - 01 April 2009 and 30 December 2010 – 25 April 2013 respectively. From this position he served as Acting President of the Republic from 2010 until 2012. He was Member of the Moldovan Parliament: 06 March 2005 – 07 February 2019 and Minister of Economy: 05 August 2003 – 24 March 2005. He is currently Chairman of the Court of Accounts of Moldova since 07 February 2019.
  • Nicolae Vasile Timofti.............................23 Mar 2012 - 23 Dec 2016
  • He is a Moldovan jurist and politician. He served as head of Moldova's Supreme Magistrate Council and was elected President by parliament on 16 March 2012.
  • Igor Dodon.........................................23 Dec 2016 - date
  • Previously, he was the leader of the Party of Communists (2010–2011) and Party of Socialists (2011–2016). He was Member of the Moldovan Parliament: 29 July 2009 – 15 December 2016, First Deputy Prime Minister: 31 March 2008 – 25 September 2009 and Minister of Economy and Trade: 18 September 2006 – 25 September 2009. On 16 March 2020, in a cabinet reshuffle, Oleg Tulea becomes foreign minister and Alexandru Pânzari defense minister.
 
 
Coinage
Currency: Moldovan Leu (MDL).
  • 1991-1992: Moldovan Ruble Cupon (MDR).
  • 1992-1993: Moldovan Leu Cupon (MDC).
The cupon was the temporary currency of Moldova between 1992 and 1993. Currency changeover was done on 02 August 1993: One Russian Ruble (RUR) = One Moldovan Ruble Cupon (MDR). It replaced the Soviet ruble at par and was replaced by the leu at a rate of 1 leu = 1000 cupon. Notes issued included 50, 200, 1000, and 5000 cupon. No coins were issued.
The leu (sign: L; ISO 4217 code: MDL) is the currency of Moldova. Like the Romanian leu, the Moldovan leu (plural: lei) is subdivided into 100 bani (singular: ban). The name of the currency originates from a Romanian word which means "lion".
Between 1918 and 1940 and again between 1941 and 1944, when Moldova was part of Romania, the Romanian leu was used in what was then the eastern part of the broader Romanian region of Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian). The Moldovan leu was established on 29 November 1993, following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the creation of the independent republic of Moldova. It replaced the temporary cupon currency at a rate of 1 leu = 1000 cupon.
Since 1996 several commemorative coins for collectors have been issued.
In Transnistria, an unrecognized state claimed in whole by Moldova, the Transnistrian ruble is used instead. The currency is not honoured by Moldova or any other state. A first series of mostly small aluminum coins entered circulation in November 1993. A second series consisting of larger denomination coins was issued in 2018. Most Moldovan coins are minted at the Monetăria Statului in Romania.
 
1992
On 29 November 1993, the National Bank of Moldova (NBM) issued its first coins of 1, 5, 25 and 50 bani and 1 and 5 lei.

KM#5 / Schön# 7 Leu. Year: 1992. Weight: 3.23g [3.30 g]. Metal: Nickel clad steel. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania.
Obverse: "M" monogram at the top stands for the name of the country - Moldova. Numeral "1" in the center. Two digits of Date on each side. Currency "LEU" written at the bottom. Reverse: Coat of Arms of Moldova in the center. "REPUBLICA" (Republic) written in Romanian at the left side clockwise and "MOLDOVA" written at the right side clockwise. A pair of Oak leaves at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Issue date: 29 November 1993. Designer: Constantin Dumitrescu.

Note: The 1 leu 1992 and 5 lei 1993 coins were withdrawn from circulation in 1994. Due to their low quality and relatively high nominal value, many forgeries appeared.

 
1993
 

KM#1 / Schön# 1 Ban. Year: 1993. Weight: 0.69g [0.70 g]. Metal: Aluminium. Diameter: 14.25 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania.
Obverse: Numeral "1" and currency "BAN" written below it, in the center. Two digits of Date on each side of the Value. "M" monogram at the bottom stands for the name of the country - Moldova. Reverse: Coat of Arms of Moldova in the center. "REPUBLICA" (Republic) written in Romanian at the left side clockwise and "MOLDOVA" written at the right side clockwise. A pair of Oak leaves at the bottom. Engraver initials "C.D." written almost at 4 o'clock. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: 1993, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2013 and 2017. Issue date: 29 November 1993. Designer: Constantin Dumitrescu.

Note: Engraver initials "C.D." appears only on 1993, 1995, 1996 and 2000 issues.

The coat of arms of Moldova consists of an eagle holding a cross in its beak and a sceptre and an olive branch in its claws. According to Gheorghe Vrabie, the author of the coat of arms, the eagle symbolizes the Latin origin of the people. The chest of the eagle is protected by a shield that bears the traditional arms of Moldavia: an aurochs' head with a star between its horns. It also contains two lozenges (the ears), a five-petaled flower and a moon in a crescent phase. Everything on the shield has one of the three traditional colours: red, yellow, blue. The coat of arms appears in the centre of the flag of Moldova. It was adopted on 13 July 1990.

Constantin Dumitrescu is a famous Romanian medalist sculptor. Constantin Dumitrescu was born in Bucharest on 15 May 1950. His uncle, Ion Dumitrana, who was an engraver at the Stamp Factory, advised him to join to the State Mint in August 1965. In the beginning at the mint, he was the disciple of the engraver Haralambie Ionescu, known through the beautiful Romanian coins on which he engraved the effigies of the last two kings of Romania.
After graduating from high school, Constantin studied at the School of Arts, under the guidance of sculptor Gheorghe Adoc. Constantin Dumitrescu is passionate about making portraits. He made a lot of medals, which he portrayed Romanian personalities: Mihai Eminescu , Ion Creangă , Veronica Micle, etc. Many times, he also collaborated with other Romanian artists in the engraving projects with Nicolaie Pascu Goia, D. Zamfirescu, Gheorghe Adoc, Kruch and others.
In 1974, he made a very important contribution in engraving of the first Romanian medal, of "proof " quality, which was dedicated to Ioan Vodă cel Complit.
After 1989, he realized the projects of the Romanian coins with nominal values ​​of 5, 20, 50 and 1,000 lei. In 1994, he realized projects, not finalized by authorities, of bimetallic coins with nominal values ​​of 250 and 500 lei. In 2000, on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mihai Eminescu, through the Decree of the President of Romania Emil Constantinescu, the medalist sculptor Constantin Dumitrescu was decorated with the commemorative medal Mihai Eminescu. Constantin Dumitrescu is a member of the Fédération Internationale de la Médaille d'Art (International Art Medal Federation) [FIDEM].

KM#2 / Schön# 2 5 Bani. Year: 1993. Weight: 0.76g [0.77 g]. Metal: Aluminium. Diameter: 16.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania.
Obverse: Numeral "5" and currency "BANI" written below it, in the center. Date below Value. Wreath on both sides. "M" monogram at the bottom stands for the name of the country - Moldova. Small privy mark of the designer at 4 o'clock. Reverse: Coat of Arms of Moldova in the center. "REPUBLICA" (Republic) written in Romanian at the left side clockwise and "MOLDOVA" written at the right side clockwise. A pair of Oak leaves at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: 1993, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018. Issue date: 29 November 1993. Designer: Constantin Dumitrescu.

Note: Small privy mark of the designer at 4 o'clock on Obverse side were issued 1993-2002.

KM#6 / Schön# 8 5 Lei. Year: 1993. Weight: 3.77g [3.60 g]. Metal: Nickel clad steel. Diameter: 22.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania.

Some Earthly particles are attached on the edge of this coin, causing more weight.

Obverse: Numeral "5" in the center. "M" monogram at the left side stands for the name of the country - Moldova. Date "1993" at the right side. Currency "LEI" written at the bottom with engraver initials "C.D." written below it. Reverse: Coat of Arms of Moldova in the center. "REPUBLICA" (Republic) written in Romanian at the left side clockwise and "MOLDOVA" written at the right side clockwise. Diamond at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Issue date: 29 November 1993. Designer: Constantin Dumitrescu.

Note: The 1 leu 1992 and 5 lei 1993 coins were withdrawn from circulation in 1994. Due to their low quality and relatively high nominal value, many forgeries appeared.

 
1995
 

Same as above KM#1 Ban, but...

Year: 1995. Weight: 0.69 g [0.70g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

KM#7 / Schön# 3 10 Bani. Year: 1995. Weight: 0.83g [0.85 g]. Metal: Aluminium. Diameter: 16.60 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania.
Obverse: Numeral "10" and currency "BANI" written below it, in the center. Date below Value. "M" monogram at the bottom stands for the name of the country - Moldova. Small privy mark of the designer at 4 o'clock. Reverse: Coat of Arms of Moldova in the center. "REPUBLICA" (Republic) written in Romanian at the left side clockwise and "MOLDOVA" written at the right side clockwise. A pair of Oak leaves at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018. Designer: Constantin Dumitrescu.

Note: Small privy mark of the designer at 4 o'clock on Obverse side were issued 1995-2002.

KM#3 / Schön# 4 25 Bani. Year: 1995. Weight: 0.94g [0.95 g]. Metal: Aluminium. Diameter: 17.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania.
Obverse: Numeral "25" and currency "BANI" written below it, in the center. Date below Value. Wreath on both sides. "M" monogram at the bottom stands for the name of the country - Moldova. Small privy mark of the designer at 4 o'clock. Reverse: Coat of Arms of Moldova in the center. "REPUBLICA" (Republic) written in Romanian at the left side clockwise and "MOLDOVA" written at the right side clockwise. A pair of Oak leaves at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: 1993, 1995, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2020. Designer: Constantin Dumitrescu.

Note: Small privy mark of the designer at 4 o'clock on Obverse side were issued 1993-2002.

KM#4 / Schön# 5 50 Bani. Year: 1995. Weight: 0.97g [1.07 g]. Metal: Aluminium. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania.
Obverse: Numeral "50" and currency "BANI" written below it, in the center. Date below Value. Wreath on both sides. "M" monogram at the bottom stands for the name of the country - Moldova. Small privy mark of the designer at 4 o'clock. Reverse: Coat of Arms of Moldova in the center. "REPUBLICA" (Republic) written in Romanian at the left side clockwise and "MOLDOVA" written at the right side clockwise. A pair of Oak leaves at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Designer: Constantin Dumitrescu.

Note: This coin was discontinued from circulation on 01 January 1999.

 
1996
 

Same as above KM#1 Ban, but...

Year: 1996. Weight: 0.71 g [0.70g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

Same as above KM#2 5 Bani, but...

Year: 1996. Weight: 0.77 g [0.77g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

Same as above coin but having Thick Date.

0.77 g [0.77g].

 
1997
In 1997 the National Bank of Moldova announced that it would replace the existing aluminum 50 bani coin with a new one made from brass-plated steel with a new and improved design featuring anti-counterfeit elements such as Reeded edge. A first for modern Moldovan coins. The new 50 bani coins were put into circulation on 02 February 1998. At the same time the NBM began withdrawing old aluminum 50 bani coins and were discontinued from circulation on 01 January 1999.

KM#10 / Schön# 6 50 Bani. Year: 1997. Weight: 3.08g [3.10 g]. Metal: Brass-plated steel. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania.
Obverse: Value "50 BANI" written at the top left side. Stylized Vitis (grapevine) with grapes and leaves around Value. Date at the bottom right side. Reverse: Coat of Arms of Moldova in the center. "REPUBLICA" (Republic) written in Romanian at the left side clockwise and "MOLDOVA" written at the right side clockwise. Design at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: 1997, 2003, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012. Issued Date: 02 February 1998. Designer: Constantin Dumitrescu.

Same as above coin, but having Red colour.

Weight: 3.09 g [3.10g].

 
1998
 

Same as above KM#7 10 Bani, but...

Year: 1998. Weight: 0.82 g [0.85g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

 
1999
 

Same as above KM#3 25 Bani, but...

Year: 1999. Weight: 0.93 g [0.95g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

 
2000
 

Same as above KM#1 Ban, but...

Year: 2000. Weight: 0.69 g [0.70g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

Same as above KM#7 10 Bani, but...

Year: 2000. Weight: 0.81 g [0.85g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

 
2001
 

Same as above KM#3 25 Bani, but...

Year: 2001. Weight: 0.92 g [0.95g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

KM#12 / Schön# 36 10 Lei. Year: 2001. Weight: 13.61g [13.50 g]. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Czech Mint.

Obverse: Date "2001" at the top with diamond on both side. Coat of Arms of Moldova in the center top position. "REPUBLICA" (Republic) written in Romanian at the left side clockwise and "MOLDOVA" written at the right side clockwise. Value "10 LEI" written at the bottom in two line below the horizontal line. Reverse: "CARTEA ROŞIE" (The Red Book) written at the top. European wildcat (Felis silvestris) moving left within bush in the center circle. "PISICĂ SĂLBATICĂ" (wildcat) written in Romanian at the bottom left section anti-clockwise. "FELIS SILVESTRIS" stylishly written at the bottom right section anti-clockwise. Dot at the bottom. Mintage: 1,000. Minted Years: One year type. Issued Date: 05 November 2001. Ordered by: Leonid Talmaci [He was born on 26 April 1954. He is a Moldovan politician. He was born in Reteni and served as the head of the National Bank of Moldova (1991–2009). He was a candidate in the Moldovan presidential election: 2011–2012].

The wildcat is a species complex comprising two small wild cat species, the European wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the African wildcat (F. lybica). The European wildcat inhabits forests in Europe and the Caucasus, while the African wildcat inhabits semi-arid landscapes and steppes in Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Central Asia, into western India and western China. The wildcat species differ in fur pattern, tail, and size: the European wildcat has long fur and a bushy tail with a rounded tip; the smaller African wildcat is more faintly striped, has short sandy-gray fur and a tapering tail; the Asiatic wildcat (F. lybica ornata) is spotted.

The Red Book series consists on the following 20 Moldavian Silver coins. 10 Lei coins are in 0.925 silver with Weight: 13.50 grams and Diameter: 24.50 mm. 50 Lei coins are 0.925 Silver with Weight: 16.50 grams and Diameter: 30.00 mm. Both coins have plain edge.

  • 10 Lei 2001 (Wildcat). Mintage: 1,000. [displayed above]
  • 10 Lei 2001 (Green woodpecker). Mintage: 1,000.
  • 10 Lei 2003 (European mink). Mintage: 500.
  • 10 Lei 2003 (Black stork). Mintage: 500.
  • 10 Lei 2004 (Wood marten). Mintage: 500.
  • 10 Lei 2005 (Imperial eagle). Mintage: 500.
  • 10 Lei 2006 (Bustard). Mintage: 500.
  • 10 Lei 2007 (Common gopher). Mintage: 500.
  • 10 Lei 2008 (White water lily). Mintage: 500.
  • 50 Lei 2011 (Spoonbill). Mintage: 500.
  • 50 Lei 2012 (Lady's slipper orchid). Mintage: 1,000.
  • 50 Lei 2012 (Otter). Mintage: 1,000.
  • 50 Lei 2013 (Mute Swan). Mintage: 2,000.
  • 50 Lei 2013 (Southern Damselfly). Mintage: 2,000.
  • 50 Lei 2014 (Glossy ibis). Mintage: 500.
  • 50 Lei 2014 (Paeonia Peregrina). Mintage: 500.
  • 50 Lei 2015 (European pond turtle). Mintage: 500.
  • 50 Lei 2016 (Red-breasted goose). Mintage: 250.
  • 50 Lei 2017 (Maiden pink). Mintage: 300. Used Pink colour in flower.
  • 50 Lei 2018 (Saker falcon). Mintage: 300.
 
2002
 

Same as above KM#7 10 Bani, but...

Year: 2002. Weight: 0.81 g [0.85g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

 
2003
 

Same as above KM#2 5 Bani, but...

Year: 2003. Weight: 0.78 g [0.77g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

Same as above KM#7 10 Bani, but...

Year: 2003. Weight: 0.81 g [0.85g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

Same as above KM#3 25 Bani, but...

Year: 2003. Weight: 0.94 g [0.95g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

Same as above KM#10 50 Bani, but...

Year: 2003. Weight: 3.13 g [3.10g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

 
2004
 

Same as above KM#2 5 Bani, but...

Year: 2004. Weight: 0.75 g [0.77g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

Same as above KM#3 25 Bani, but...

Year: 2004. Weight: 0.92 g [0.95g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

 
2005
 

Same as above KM#2 5 Bani, but...

Year: 2005. Weight: 0.78 g [0.77g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

Same as above KM#7 10 Bani, but...

Year: 2005. Weight: 0.84 g [0.85g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

Same as above KM#10 50 Bani, but...

Year: 2005. Weight: 3.10 g [3.10g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

 
2006
 

Same as above KM#2 5 Bani, but...

Year: 2006. Weight: 0.77 g [0.77g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

Same as above KM#7 10 Bani, but...

Year: 2006. Weight: 0.84 g [0.85g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

Same as above KM#3 25 Bani, but...

Year: 2006. Weight: 0.93 g [0.95g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

 
2008
 

Same as above KM#2 5 Bani, but...

Year: 2008. Weight: 0.78 g [0.77g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

Same as above KM#7 10 Bani, but...

Year: 2008. Weight: 0.83 g [0.85g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

Same as above KM#3 25 Bani, but...

Year: 2008. Weight: 0.94 g [0.95g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

Same as above KM#10 50 Bani, but...

Year: 2008. Weight: 3.11 g [3.10g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

 
2010
 

Same as above KM#2 5 Bani, but...

Year: 2010. Weight: 0.77 g [0.77g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

Same as above KM#7 10 Bani, but...

Year: 2010. Weight: 0.83 g [0.85g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

Same as above KM#3 25 Bani, but...

Year: 2010. Weight: 0.92 g [0.95g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

 
2011
 

Same as above KM#7 10 Bani, but...

Year: 2011. Weight: 0.82 g [0.85g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

Same as above KM#3 25 Bani, but...

Year: 2011. Weight: 0.94 g [0.95g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: N/A.

 
2012
 

Same as above KM#2 5 Bani, but...

Year: 2012. Weight: 0.77 g [0.77g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: 10,000,000.

Same as above KM#3 25 Bani, but...

Year: 2012. Weight: 0.91 g [0.95g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: 17,600,000.

 
2013
 

Same as above KM#2 5 Bani, but...

Year: 2013. Weight: 0.77 g [0.77g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: 9,400,000.

Same as above KM#7 10 Bani, but...

Year: 2013. Weight: 0.83 g [0.85g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: 14,900,000.

Same as above KM#3 25 Bani, but...

Year: 2013. Weight: 0.92 g [0.95g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: 17,700,000.

 
2015
 

Same as above KM#2 5 Bani, but...

Year: 2015. Weight: 0.80 g [0.77g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: 9,500,000.

Same as above KM#7 10 Bani, but...

Year: 2015. Weight: 0.84 g [0.85g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: 14,490,000.

Same as above KM#3 25 Bani, but...

Year: 2015. Weight: 0.94 g [0.95g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: 16,580,000.

 
2016
 

Same as above KM#2 5 Bani, but...

Year: 2016. Weight: 0.77 g [0.77g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: 9,500,000.

Same as above KM#7 10 Bani, but...

Year: 2016. Weight: 0.82 g [0.85g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: 15,000,000.

Same as above KM#3 25 Bani, but...

Year: 2016. Weight: 0.94 g [0.95g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: 15,400,000.

 
2017
 

Same as above KM#2 5 Bani, but...

Year: 2017. Weight: 0.78 g [0.77g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: 12,200,000.

Same as above KM#7 10 Bani, but...

Year: 2017. Weight: 0.84 g [0.85g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: 16,200,000.

Same as above KM#3 25 Bani, but...

Year: 2017. Weight: 0.94 g [0.95g]. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania. Mintage: 19,000,000.

 
2018
In 2017 the National Bank of Moldova announced plans to reintroduce 1 and 5 lei coins alongside new 2 and 10 lei coins citing "superior durability and cheaper manufacturing and maintenance cost over time compared to banknotes" as the main reason and asking people to submit their designs for the new coins. The design of the new coins was unveiled and were put into circulation on 28 February 2018 featuring elements of both the Coat of Arms of the Republic of Moldova on the Obverse side and the Coat of Arms of the Principality of Moldavia on the Reverse side. 1 and 2 lei coins being made from nickel-plated steel and 5 and 10 lei coins featuring a bi-metallic design with elements made from nickel-plated steel and brass-plated steel. All of the new Lei coins are currently intended to be used alongside banknotes of equal value.

On the Obverse side, the assembling of four coins recreates the State Coat of Arms of the Republic of Moldova. On the Reverse side, the assembling of four coin recreates the Aurochs’ head as shown above.

Leu. Year: 2018. Weight: 4.42g [4.45 g]. Metal: Nickel plated steel. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Thickness: 1.80 mm. Edge: Reeded and Plain (three section each). Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.
Obverse: At the top is the hologram switches between "R" and "M" ( from "Republic of Moldova"). Numeral "1" in the center with "LEU" written below it. Right part of the Coat of Arms shows design on the coin. "BNM" written incuse three times at the base of large Numeral "1". Date "2018" written at the bottom. Reverse: Right part of  the Aurochs’ head and crescent facing left in the center. "REPUBLICA MOLDOVA" written clockwise at the right side. A small  Coat of Arms design at the bottom left side. Mintage: 6,400,000. Minted Years: 2018 and 2020. Issued Date: 28 February 2018.

BNM = Banca Națională a Moldovei (National Bank of Moldova).

2 Lei. Year: 2018. Weight: 6.66g [6.67 g]. Metal: Nickel plated steel. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Thickness: 2.20 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.

Obverse: At the top is the hologram switches between "R" and "M" ( from "Republic of Moldova"). Numeral "2" in the center with "LEI" written below it. Left part of the Coat of Arms shows design on the coin. "BNM" written incuse three times at the base of large Numeral "2". Date "2018" written at the bottom. Reverse: Left part of  the Aurochs’ head and man face sun in the center. "REPUBLICA MOLDOVA" written clockwise at the right side. A small  Coat of Arms design at the bottom right side. Mintage: 1,950,000. Minted Years: One year type. Issued Date: 28 February 2018.

5 Lei. Year: 2018. Weight: 6.94g [7.10 g]. Metal: Bi-metallic: Nickel-plated steel (center) and Brass-plated steel (outer ring). Diameter: 24.00 mm. Thickness: 2.25 mm. Edge: Reeded and Plain (five section each). Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.
Obverse: At the top is the hologram switches between "R" and "M" ( from "Republic of Moldova"). Numeral "5" in the center right side with "LEI" written at its base on left side. Top part of the Coat of Arms shows design on the coin. "BNM" written incuse three times at the top line of large Numeral "5". Date "2018" written at the bottom. Reverse: Top part of  the Aurochs’ head and man face sun in the center. "REPUBLICA MOLDOVA" written in the top section, Aurochs head (Capul de Bour) horns with an eight-pointed star beneath a crown, in the center. A heraldic rose at the center right position. A small Coat of Arms of Moldova at the center left position. Mintage: 40,000. Minted Years: One year type. Issued Date: February 2019.

10 Lei. Year: 2018. Weight: 7.51g [7.50 g]. Metal: Bi-metallic: Brass plated steel (center) and Nickel plated steel (ring). Diameter: 25.00 mm. Thickness: 2.30 mm. Edge: Reeded with incuse Lettering "MOLDOVA*MOLDOVA*". Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.

Edge lettering is readable when the Stephen's the Great shield (Reverse side) is at the top.

Obverse: At the top is the hologram switches between "R" and "M" ( from "Republic of Moldova"). Numerals "10" in the center with "LEI" written below. Bottom part of the Coat of Arms shows design on the coin. "BNM" written incuse three times in Numeral "1" bottom to top. Date "2018" written at the bottom. Reverse: Bottom part of  the Aurochs’ head consisting of nose holes in the center. Large "Stephen III the Great shield" at the center right side. A small Coat of Arms of Moldova at the center left position. "REPUBLICA MOLDOVA" written at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Issued Date: February 2019.

Stephen III of Moldavia, known as Stephen the Great (Romanian: Ștefan cel Mare); died on 02 July 1504. He was Voivode (or Prince) of Moldavia from 1457 to 1504. Moldavia is the eastern flank of what is now Romania. Stephen's long rule represented a period of stability in the history of Moldavia. From the 16th century onwards both his subjects and foreigners remembered him as a great ruler.  Modern Romanians regard him as one of their greatest national heroes, although he also endures as a cult figure in Moldovenism. After the Romanian Orthodox Church canonized him in 1992, he is venerated as "Stephen the Great and Holy" (Ștefan cel Mare și Sfânt).

10 Lei. Year: 2018. Weight: 7.44g [7.50 g]. Metal: Bi-metallic: Brass plated steel (center) and Nickel plated steel (ring). Diameter: 25.00 mm. Thickness: 2.30 mm. Edge: Reeded with incuse Lettering "MOLDOVA*MOLDOVA*". Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.

Edge lettering is readable when the Stephen's the Great shield (Reverse side) is at the top.

Obverse: At the top is the hologram switches between "R" and "M" ( from "Republic of Moldova"). Date "2018" below the hologram. Numerals "10" in the center with "LEI" written below. 25 stars in circular form in the outer circle (representing 25 years). BNM" written incuse three times in Numeral "1" bottom to top. Reverse: Standing lion facing left on the center right side. A small Coat of Arms of Moldova at the center top left position. Logo of the National Bank of Moldova at the center bottom left position. "25 DE ANI DE LA INTRODUCEREA MONEDEI NAȚIONALE" (25 years since the introduction of the national currency) written in Romanian in circular form in the outer circle. Mintage: 250,000. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: 25 years of introducing national currency.
 
 
 
  • Chairmen of the General Directory
  • Pantelimon Vasile Erhan............................21 Dec 1917 - 01 Feb 1918 d. 1971
  • Daniel Alexandru Ciuhureanu........................01 Feb 1918 - 09 Apr 1918 d. 1950
  • Petru Cazacu.......................................09 Apr 1918 - 10 Dec 1918 d. 1956
  • Prime ministers
  • Mircea Druc........................................26 May 1990 - 28 May 1991
  • He was Chairman of the council of ministers to 05 Jun 1990.
  • Valeriu Tudor Muravschi............................28 May 1991 - 01 Jul 1992 d. 2020
  • He was Deputy Prime Minister: 06 June 1990 – 28 May 1991 and Minister of Finance: 06 June 1990 – 28 May 1991. He died on 08 April 2020 (aged 70) at Chișinău, Moldova.
  • Andrei Nicolae Sangheli............................01 Jul 1992 - 25 Jan 1997
  • He was Minister of Agriculture and Food Industry: 06 June 1990 – 1 July 1992.
  • Ion Condratie Ciubuc...............................25 Jan 1997 - 12 Mar 1999 d. 2018
  • He was 1st Chairman of the Court of Accounts of Moldova: 27 December 1994 – 06 March 1997. He died on 29 January 2018 (aged 74) at Chișinău, Moldova.
  • Ion Mihai Sturza...................................12 Mar 1999 - 21 Dec 1999
  • He was Deputy Prime Minister: 22 May 1998 – 17 February 1999 and Minister of Economy and Reforms: 22 May 1998 – 17 February 1999.
  • Dumitru Petru Braghis..............................21 Dec 1999 - 19 Apr 2001
  • He was Moldovan Ambassador to Russia: 28 October 2015 – 01 March 2017 and Member of the Moldovan Parliament: 07 April 2001 – 05 April 2009.
  • Vasile Petru Tarlev................................19 Apr 2001 - 31 Mar 2008
  • Zinaida Petru Greceanîi (female)...................31 Mar 2008 - 14 Sep 2009
  • She is currently the 12th Speaker of the Parliament of Moldova since 08 June 2019. She is the leader of the Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova (PSRM) and was previously a member of the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (PCRM). She was Moldova's first female Prime Minister and was the second female Communist head of government in Europe, the first having been Premier Milka Planinc of Yugoslavia. Greceanîi is Member of the Moldovan Parliament since 29 July 2009. She served as First Deputy Prime Minister: 10 October 2005 – 31 March 2008 and Minister of Finance: 26 February 2002 – 10 October 2005.
  • Vitalie Vasile Pîrlog (acting).....................14 Sep 2009 - 25 Sep 2009
  • Vladimir Vasile Filat..............................25 Sep 2009 - 25 Apr 2013
  • He served as Member of the Moldovan Parliament: 06 March 2005 – 25 September 2009 and 30 November 2014 – 15 December 2016. He also served as Interim President of Moldova for a brief period of two days: 28 December 2010 – 30 December 2010. He was Minister of State: 12 March 1999 – 21 December 1999.
  • Iurie Leanca.......................................25 Apr 2013 - 18 Feb 2015
  • He was acting to 31 May 2013. He served as Deputy Prime Minister for European Integration: 10 January 2018 – 08 June 2019, Deputy Speaker of the Moldovan Parliament: 02 June 2017 – 22 December 2017, First Deputy Prime Minister: 25 September 2009 – 30 May 2013 and Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: 25 September 2009 – 30 May 2013. He has Moldova and Romania citizenships.
  • Chiril Gaburici....................................18 Feb 2015 - 22 Jun 2015
  • He severed as Minister of Economy and Infrastructure: 10 January 2018 – 08 June 2019.
  • Natalia Snegur-Gherman (female - acting)...........22 Jun 2015 - 30 Jul 2015
  • She is the daughter of Mircea Snegur (who served as the first President of Moldova from 1991 to 1997) and Georgeta Snegur. She served as First Deputy Prime Minister: 30 May 2013 – 20 January 2016, Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: 30 May 2013 – 20 January 2016, Ambassador to Sweden, Norway and Finland: 2006 – 25 September 2009 and Ambassador to Austria and OSCE: 2002–2006.
  • Valeriu Strelet....................................30 Jul 2015 - 30 Oct 2015
  • He received a vote of no-confidence on 29 October 2015. He was Member of the Moldovan Parliament: 05 April 2009 – 30 July 2015.
  • Gheorghe Brega (acting)............................30 Oct 2015 - 20 Jan 2016
  • Pavel Filip........................................20 Jan 2016 - 14 Jun 2019
  • He is an engineer and politician from the Republic of Moldova. In 2001-2008 he was the director of the Joint-stock company "Bucuria" and in 2008-2011, general manager of Tutun-CTC joint stock company. He was Minister of Information and Communication Technology: 14 January 2011 – 20 January 2016 in the Governments headed by Filat, Leancă, Gaburici and Streleț, when he replaced Alexander Oleinic (2009-2011). He was the deputy chairman of the Democrat Party (DPM). On 07 September 2019 at the IXth Congress of the DPM, he was elected for the position of the chairman of the Party. He is Member of the Moldovan Parliament since 24 February 2019. From 09 to 15 June 2019, due to Moldovan constitutional crisis, Pavel Filip became acting president of Moldova.
  • Maia Sandu (female)................................08 Jun 2019 - 14 Nov 2019
  • She was not recognized by Constitutional Court until 15 Jun 2019. She is the current leader of the Party of Action and Solidarity (PAS). On 12 November 2019, Maia Sandu's government fell after the vote of the censure motion. 63 (deputies from PSRM and PDM) of the 101 MPs voted the motion submitted by the PSRM. She was Member of the Moldovan Parliament: 24 February 2019 – 08 July 2019 and 30 November 2014 – 18 February 2015. She was Minister of Education: 24 July 2012 – 30 July 2015. On 21 February 2019, Sandu and the candidates of the ACUM electoral bloc, both of the national and uninominal constituency, have signed the public commitment according to which after Parliamentary elections of 24 February 2019, they would not make any coalition with the Party of Socialists, Democratic Party and Shor Party, and if this commitment will be violated they resign from as MPs mandate. She violated this self-imposed commitment after agreeing to form a coalition government along with the Party of Socialists in early June 2019.
  • Ion Chicu..........................................14 Nov 2019 - date
  • On 14 November 2019, the government of Prime Minister Maia Sandu was defeated in a vote of no confidence after attempts to pass bills to change the judicial system. With the support of just over 60% of MPs, Chicu was approved as a replacement Prime Minister. Chicu served as Minister of Finance: 10 December 2018 – 08 June 2019, Secretary General of the Ministry of Finance: 02 January 2018 – 10 December 2018 and Deputy Minister of Finance: 01 March 2006 – 04 April 2008.
 
 
Gagauzia (Gagauz-Yeri)
Gagauzia or Gagauz Yeri (Gagauz: Gagauz Yeri or Gagauziya; Romanian: Găgăuzia; Russian: Гагаузия, romanized: Gagauzija), officially the Autonomous Territorial Unit of Gagauzia (Gagauz: Avtonom Territorial Bölümlüü Gagauziya; Romanian: Unitatea Teritorială Autonomă Găgăuzia; Russian: Автономное территориальное образование Гагаузия, romanized: Avtonomnoje territoriaľnoje obrazovanije Gagauzija), is an autonomous region of Moldova. Its autonomy is ethnically motivated by the predominance of the Gagauz people, who are primarily Orthodox Turkic-speaking people.
All of the territory of Gagauzia was part of the Kingdom of Romania in the early 20th century before being carved up into the Soviet Union in 1940 during World War II, incorporating the present day state into the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. As the Soviet Union began into disintegrate, Gagauzia declared independence in 1990, but was integrated into Moldova in 1994. Gagauz Yeri literally means "place of the Gagauz".
Currency: Moldovan Leu (MDL). Capital: Komrat (Comrat). Motto: "Long live Gagauzia!" ("Yaşasın Gagauziya!"). Anthem: "Tarafım" ("My Land"). Local Holiday: 23 Dec (1994). Area: 1,832 km2 (707 sq mi) including 0.36% water.
 
             18-25 Jan 1906  Uprising launched in Komrat (as part of the Russian 1905/07
                              revolution) headed by Andrey Pavlovich Galatsan (b. 1875 -
                              d. 1943), popularly referred to as the "Komrat Republic."
               12 Nov 1989  Gagauz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic declared within
                             Moldavian S.S.R. (repeated again on 03 Dec 1989 and 22 Jul 1990);
                             the demand is repeatedly voided by the Moldavian S.S.R.
               19 Aug 1990  Gagauz nation declares independence from Moldova S.S.R., within
                             Soviet Union, as the Gagauz Republic (Gagauzskaya
                             Respublika/Gagauz Respublikasi/Republica Gagauza);
                             not recognized by Moldova.
 26 Oct 1990 - 06 Dec 1990  Moldova declares a state of emergency over southern districts.
               22 Dec 1990  Soviet government invalidates independence declaration.
               23 Dec 1994  Autonomy Agreement reached.
               14 Jan 1995  Autonomy established.
               19 Jun 1995  Gagauziya/Gagauz-Yeri/Gagauzia an autonomous territorial unit of
                             Moldova.
               31 Oct 1995  Flag of Gagauzia adopted.
               04 Dec 1995  "Gimn Gagauziya"/ "Gagauz Milli Marsi" (Hymn of Gagauzia) text
                             of Anthem adopted.
               05 Jun 1998  Code / Articles of Gagauzia adopted.
               02 Feb 2014  Referendum 98.4% of voters chose closer relations with the CIS
                             over the EU; and 98.9% of voters support Gagauzia's right to
                             declare independence should Moldova ends its independence.
 
 
 
  • Chairman of the Provisional Committee
  • Note: Russian names with Gagauz in parentheses - Gagauz and Moldovan/Romanian are also official languages, but are not used administratively.
  • Stepan Mikhaylovich Topal (Stepan Topal)...........19 Aug 1990 - 31 Oct 1990 d. 2018
  • Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
  • Stepan Mikhaylovich Topal..........................31 Oct 1990 - 01 Dec 1991
  • Moldovan prisoner: 23 Aug 1991 - 01 Oct 1991.
  • Ivan Georgiyevich Burgudzhi (Ivan Burgucu).........23 Aug 1991 - 01 Oct 1991. First Deputy, acting for imprisoned Topal.
  • President
  • Stepan Mikhaylovich Topal..........................01 Dec 1991 - 19 Jun 1995
  • Governors
  • Georgiy Dmitriyevich Tabunshchik (1st time)........19 Jun 1995 - 24 Sep 1999
  • Gagauz name: Georgiy Tabunsçik
  • Dmitriy Vasilyevich Kroytor (Dmitriy Kroytor)......24 Sep 1999 - 10 Jul 2002
  • He is also known as Dumitru Croitor.
  • Valeriy Fyodorovich Yanioglo (Valeri Yanioglo).....06 Jul 2002 - 01 Aug 2002
  • He was acting for Kroytor to 10 Jul 2002.
  • Ivan Petrovich Kristioglo (Ivan Kristioglo)........10 Jul 2002 - 01 Aug 2002
  • He was acting in opposition. He was acting Chairman of the Executive Committee.
  • Georgiy Ilyich Molla (Georgiy Molla) [interim].....01 Aug 2002 - 09 Nov 2002
  • Georgiy Dmitriyevich Tabunshchik (2nd time)........09 Nov 2002 - 29 Dec 2006
  • Mikhail Makarovich Formuzal (Mihail Formuzal)......29 Dec 2006 - 15 Apr 2015
  • Irina Fyodorovna Vlakh (Irina Vlah) [female].......15 Apr 2015 - date
 
 
 
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins