Monaco
 

 
Principality of Monaco (French: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque: Principatu de Múnegu; Italian: Principato di Monaco; Occitan: Principat de Mónegue), is a sovereign city-state, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. Bordered by France on three sides, one side borders the Mediterranean Sea. It is nine miles from Nice. It has an area of 2.02 km2 (0.78 sq mi), making Monaco the second smallest, and the most densely populated country in the world. Monaco has a land border of only 4.4 km (2.7 mi), a coastline of 4.1 km (2.5 mi), and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m (5,600 and 1,145 ft). The highest point in the country is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires district, which is 161 metres (528 feet) above sea level. Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo, and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Monaco is known for its land reclamation, which has increased its size by an estimated 20%. Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with Prince Albert II as head of state. Even though Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he still has immense political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297. The official language is French, but Monégasque, Italian, and English are widely spoken and understood. The state's sovereignty was officially recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite Monaco's independence and separate foreign policy, its defence is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two small military units.
Capital: Monaco. Motto: "Deo Juvante" (Latin) [Translation: With God's Help].
Government: Unitary constitutional principality.
The economy is based on tourism and the manufacture of cosmetics, gourmet foods and highly specialized electronics. Monaco also derives its revenue from a tobacco monopoly and the sale of postage stamps for philatelic purpose. Gambling in Monte Carlo accounts for only a small fraction of the country's revenue. Monaco derives its name from Monoikos', the Greek surname for Hercules, the mythological strong man who, according to legend, formed the Monacan headland during one of his twelve labors. Monaco has been ruled by the Grimaldi dynasty since
1297 - Prince Albert II, the present and 32nd monarch of Monaco, is still of that line - except for a period during the French Revolution until Napoleon's downfall when the Principality was annexed to France. Since 1865, Monaco has maintained a customs union with France which guarantees its privileged position as long as the royal line remains intact. Under the new constitution proclaimed on December 17, 1962, the Prince shares his power with an 18-
member unicameral National Council.
Grimaldi dynasty titles:
  • 20 Sep 1331 - 14 Sep 1641: Signori di Monaco, (from 1346) Mentone (from 1355) e Roccabruna ("Lord of Monaco, [from 1346] Menton [from 1355] and Roquebrunne");
  • 14 Sep 1641 - 13 Jan 1793: Principe Sovrano di Monaco, Signore Sovrano di Mentone e Roccabruna ("Sovereign Prince of Monaco, Sovereign Lord of Menton and Roquebrunne");
  • from 30 May 1814: Par la grâce de Dieu, Prince Souverain de Monaco ("by the grace of God, Sovereign Prince of Monaco"). The dynastic name has been preserved through several changes in patrilineage: all males marrying female heirs to the principality (as i.e. the father of Rainier III) have changed their family name to Grimaldi. All princes since Jacques I carried the additional title of duc de Valentinois, together with a very long list of other (actually extinct) titles (duc de Estouteville, duc de Mazarin et de Mayenne, prince de Château-Porcien, marquis des Baux, Chilly et Guiscard, comte de Carladès, Longjumeau, Thann, Belfort, Rosemont, Ferrette et de Thorigny, baron de Calvinet, Buis-les-Baronnies, Hambie, Massy, Altkirch, Saint-Lô et de la Luthumière, seigneur de Saint Rémy de Provence et Issenheim et sire di Matignon).
 

 
 
               06 Aug 1174  Sold to Genoa by Raimond VI Count of Toulouse
                             (claimant to county of Provence).
               30 May 1191  Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich VI grants suzerainty over the
                             area to the Genoa (effective 2 Jul 1191, confirmed 4 Oct
                             1220).
               10 Jun 1215  First stone of the fortress is laid.
               22 Jul 1262  Genoese possession confirmed by count of Provence.
               08 Jan 1297  Francesco and Raniero Grimaldi seize the fortress.
 04 May 1301 - 20 Sep 1331  Genoese rule.
               19 Nov 1346  Grimaldi acquire Lordship of Mentone (Menton).
               02 Jan 1355  Grimaldi acquire Roccabruna (Roquebrune) castle.
 15 Aug 1357 - 11 May 1397  Genoese rule.
               19 Dec 1395  Failed attempt to regain Monaco by Boglio (Beuil)
                             branch of the Grimaldi dynasty.
 05 Nov 1402 - 1419         Genoese rule.
               13 Nov 1428  Submission to Milan for Mentone by homage.
 06 Oct 1428 - 18 Mar 1436  Duchy of Milan rule.
               19 Dec 1448  Mentone and Roccabruna made a fief of Savoia.
 14 Jan 1498 - 07 Jun 1524  Protectorate of France (confirmed 11 Jun 1507).
 10 Dec 1506 - 22 Mar 1507  Under siege by Genoa.
               20 Feb 1512  France recognizes sovereignty of Monaco, French
                             protectorate remains.
 07 Jun 1524 - 17 Nov 1641  Protectorate of Spain (ratified 5 Nov 1524; definitive from
                             10 Apr 1525).
               14 Sep 1641  Principality of Monaco (sovereign 8 Jun 1688); protectorate
                             of France by Treaty of Péronne.
               31 Dec 1688  Monaco recognized as prince étranger by France.
               19 Jan 1793  National Convention declares the Grimaldi dynasty deposed;
                             République de Monaco.
 14 Feb 1793 - 30 May 1814  Annexed to France including Mentone and Roccabruna; from
                             24 Feb 1793 part of département Alpes-Maritimes (under
                             Italian states).
               22 Sep 1793  Monaco renamed Fort-Hercule.
 12 May 1800 - 31 May 1800  Austro-Sardinian occupation.
               17 Apr 1814  Provisional government established by revolt.
 17 May 1814 - 17 Jun 1814  Austrian occupation.
               30 May 1814  Principality of Monaco (restored) (effective on 17 Jun 1814).
 13 Mar 1815 - 20 Nov 1815  Anglo-Sardinian occupation.
 20 Nov 1815 - 18 Jul 1860  Protectorate of Piedmont-Sardinia.
 04 Nov 1847 - 25 Nov 1847  Public unrest in Menton (put down by requested Piedmont-
                             Sardinia intervention).
               22 Feb 1848  Menton asks Piedmont-Sardinia for protection.
               02 Mar 1848  Provisional government established in Menton.
               21 Mar 1848  Menton and Roquebrune proclaim themselves free cities
                             (Città Libere di Mentone e Roccabruna/Villes Libres de Menton
                             et Roquebrune) under Sardinian protection and Grimaldi
                             dynasty is deposed and then banned on 28 May 1848.
               03 Apr 1848  Menton occupied by Piedmont-Sardinia.
               18 Sep 1848  Piedmont - Sardinia decrees that the cities Menton and
                             Roquebrune temporarily are to be governed according to
                             Sardinian law.
               01 May 1849  Sardinia places Menton and Roquebrune administratively under
                             the intending general of Nice.
               10 Nov 1849  Menton and Roquebrune annexed by Piedmont-Sardinia (which
                             consisted of 80% of Monaco).
               24 Mar 1860  County of Nice (including Menton and Roquebrune) ceded to
                             France by Piedmont-Sardinia (effective 14 Jun 1860).
 18 Jul 1860 - 24 Oct 2002  Protectorate of France (confirmed 17 Jul 1918).
               02 Feb 1861  Monaco cedes all rights to Menton and Roquebrune to France
                             (effective 12 Feb 1861).
 16 Nov 1942 - 09 Sep 1943  Occupied by Italy.
 09 Sep 1943 - 03 Sep 1944  Occupied by Germany.
 
  • This tiny principality began as the base of operations for an exiled Genovese family, the Grimaldi, conducting piracy and raiding operations against the pro-Ghibelline Genoan state. They held a haphazard and intermittent connection with the locality thereafter, although permanent control over the city was not achieved until 1419. The Principality was established in 1659. Though fully independent, a 1918 treaty with France specifies that should the reigning dynasty become extinct, the Principality will revert to the status of an autonomous district within France.
  • The Ligurians................................................. ? - c. 500 BCE
  • Greek colony of Monoikos (founded by Massalia/Marseilles).c. 500 - 47
    Massalia and her dependencies remained locally autonomous, albeit under Roman protectorate status, from the time of the First Punic War until Massalia picked the wrong side in the Civil War.
  • Roman Republic..........................................(237-)49 - 27
  • Roman Empire..............................................27 BCE - 395 CE
  • Western Roman Empire.........................................395 - 476
  • Kingdom of Odoacer...........................................476 - 493
  • Ostrogothic Kingdom..........................................493 - 553
  • Byzantine Empire.............................................553 - 568
  • Lombards.....................................................568 - 774 opposed by...
  • Carolingian Empire.........................................760's - 843
  • The conflict and continuous cross-border raids by the Franks and Lombards left the town virtually depopulated.
  • Lotharingia..................................................843 - 870
  • Kingdom of Italy.............................................870 - 900
  • Intermittently occupied by Saracen corsairs..................900 - 975
  • Kingdom of Burgundy..........................................975 - 1032
  • Holy Roman Empire...........................................1032 - 1191
  • Genoa.......................................................1191 - 1297
    • Fulco del Cassello.....................................1215 - 1220's
  • GRIMALDI
  • Grimaldo Canella (d. c. 1184) was the youngest son of Otto Canella and Consul of Genoa in 1162, 1170, and 1184. He is an ancestor and the namesake of the House of Grimaldi, the ruling family of Monaco. A century later, in 1270, the Guelph families of Grimaldi and Fieschi were forced into exile from Genoa. The Grimaldis ended up in the Guelph towns around Nice. They made their first attempt to seize the Ghibelline fortress of Monaco in 1297, although they did not control it permanently until 1419. Thus the family became Princes of Monaco.
  • Francis S/o Guglielmo..............................08 Jan 1297 - 10 Apr 1301 d. 1309
  • Francesco Grimaldi (François, in French) called il Malizia ("the Cunning"), was the Genoese leader of the Guelphs who captured the Rock of Monaco on the night of 8 January 1297. He was the son of Guglielmo Grimaldi by his wife Giacobina or Giacoba Aganetti, from counts of San Genuario, descendants of Odo, Count of Penthièvre. Dressed as a Franciscan monk, Francesco was greeted at the gates of Monaco's castle, only then to seize the castle with his cousin Rainier I, Lord of Cagnes, and a group of men behind him. The event is commemorated on the Monegasque coat of arms, on which the supporters are two monks armed with swords. He held the citadel of Monaco for four years before being chased out by the Genoese. The battle over "the rock" was taken over by his kinsmen. Francesco thus failed to establish Grimaldi's rule over Monaco, but was the first to attempt to do so.
    He was married in 1295 to Aurelia del Carretto; the marriage was childless. The modern Grimaldis are therefore not descendants of Francesco. After his death, in 1309, he was succeeded by his cousin (and stepson), Rainier I, Lord of Cagnes.
  • Genoa............................................10 Apr 1301 - 12 Sep 1331
  • Rainier I S/o Lanfranco (at Cagnes).....................1309 - 1314
  • Rainier I of Monaco (1267–1314) was the first sovereign Grimaldi ruler of the area now known as Monaco. He also held the title of Lord of Cagnes. Cagnes was the town where in 1309 he established a stronghold, today known as the Château Grimaldi. The eldest of the three sons of Lanfranco Grimaldi, French Vicar of Provence, by his wife, Aurelia del Carretto (who later was remarried to her late husband's nephew, François Grimaldi), Rainier joined his stepfather and a group of men to take the castle on the Rock of Monaco; the event is commemorated on the Monegasque coat of arms, where the supporters are two monks armed with swords (because François dressed as monk and opened the gates of Monaco's castle). Rainier held the citadel of Monaco for four years before departing on April 10, 1301. In 1304 he was appointed Admiral of France after winning the Battle of Zierikzee.
  • Charles I S/o Rainier I.........................12 Sep 1331 - 15 Aug 1357 with...
  • The oldest son of Rainier I by his first wife, Salvatica del Carretto, Charles was forced to flee into exile following the Rock of Monaco falling into Genoese control on April 10, 1301. After thirty years of Genoese rule, Charles retook the Rock on September 12, 1331, and ruled to his death, when the Rock was again conquered by the Genoese army. In 1346 he took the Lordship of Menton and, in 1355, he conquered the Lordship of Roquebrune. On June 29, 1352, Charles designed a co-rulership of Monaco between his uncle Antonio (his father's youngest brother), and his own sons, Rainier II and Gabriele. Charles I married Lucchina Spinola, a daughter of Girardo Spinola, Lord of Dertonne. They had eight children.
  • Antonio S/o Lanfranco............................29 Jun 1352 - 27 May 1357 d. 1357
  • Rainier II S/o Charles I.........................29 Jun 1352 - 15 Aug 1357 d. 1407
  • Gabriele S/o Charles I...........................29 Jun 1352 - 15 Aug 1357
  • Genoa............................................15 Aug 1357 - 11 May 1397
  • Failed attempt to regain Monaco by Boglio (Beuil), a branch of the Grimaldi dynasty on 19 Dec 1395.
  • Jean.............................................11 May 1397 - 05 Nov 1402 with...
  • Louis............................................11 May 1397 - 05 Nov 1402
  • Genoa............................................05 Nov 1397 - 1419
  • Jean I S/o Rainier II (1st time)........................1419 - 06 Oct 1428 with...
  • Ambroise S/o Rainier II.................................1419 - 13 May 1427 d. 1433
  • Antonie S/o Rainier II..................................1419 - 13 May 1427 d. 1435
  • Milan............................................06 Oct 1428 - 18 Mar 1436
  • Jean I S/o Rainier II (2nd time).................18 Mar 1436 - 08 May 1454
  • Catalan S/o Jean I...............................08 May 1454 - 01 Jul 1457
  • Claudine (female) D/o Catalan....................01 Jul 1457 - 16 Mar 1458
  • She was Lady regnant of Monaco 1457-1458, and then Lady consort of Monaco as spouse of Lord Lambert of Monaco. Claudine was the only child of her father, Catalan Grimaldi. At his death, her father stated in his will that she should marry her cousin to ensure that the Grimaldi family should keep the throne of Monaco. She became Lady of Monaco at her father's death in 1457, under the regency of her paternal grandmother, Pomelline Fregoso (d. 1462). After only one year of reign, she abdicated (1458) in favour of her cousin Lambert, her future spouse. In 1465, seven years after her abdication, she married Lambert and became Lady of Monaco as his spouse. Upon Lambert's death in 1494, their son Jean became Lord of Monaco as Jean II. Claudine outlived Jean, who was murdered in 1505 by his brother Lucien, the subsequent lord. Claudine died in 1515 during Lucien's reign.
    • Pomelline Fregoso (regent)..................01 Jul 1457 - 16 Mar 1458
  • Lambert de Antibes S/o Nicolas...................16 Mar 1458 - 15 Mar 1494
  • He was the son of Nicolas Grimaldi di Antibes and Cesarina Doria d’Oneglia.
  • Jean II S/o Lambert..............................15 Mar 1494 - 11 Oct 1505
  • During his 11-year reign, he pursued the politics of his father. He was made Lieutenant of the Riviera by King Charles VIII of France. Jean married Antonia of Savoy, illegitimate daughter of the Duke of Savoy and his mistress Libera Portoneri, in 1486. The marriage was childless. He was murdered by his brother Lucien, who then became Lord of Monaco.
  • Lucien S/o Lambert...............................11 Oct 1505 - 22 Aug 1523
  • A year after Lucien's reign began, Genoa broke free of France, and many of its people fled to Monaco for refuge. In December 1506, 14,000 Genoese troops besieged Monaco and its castle. The blockade lasted for five months, until Lucien was able to rout the Genoese in March 1507. Monaco, and by extension Lucien, was now in a tight spot, being subjects of France but caught in a diplomatic tight spot between France and Spain, trying to preserve its fragile independence. In 1515, Lucien bought the feudal rights over the city of Mentone, retained by the family of Anne de Lascaris, Countess of Villars, thus bringing the city, as a whole, under Monaco's sovereignty until the French Revolution. Lucien was responsible for extensive repairs and additions to the Prince's Palace of Monaco, resulting from damage received during the Geneose siege. Pope Adrian VI visited Monaco during Lucien's reign, in 1522. On 22 August 1523, Lucien was assassinated by his nephew, Bartholomew Doria of Dolceaqua, son of Lucien's sister Francoise Doria, at the Prince's Palace of Monaco. His body was dragged down the steps of the palace by Doria's men, to be shown to the disbelieving masses, thus inciting a riot wherein the people of Monaco chased Doria and his men out of the country.
  • Augustine S/o Lambert............................22 Aug 1523 - 14 Apr 1532
  • He was Regent of Monaco, Bishop of Grasse, Abbot of Lérins and founder of the village of Valbonne. Upon the assassination of his brother Lucien on 22 August 1523, Augustine was appointed Regent to Lucien's son Honoré, who was not yet a year old. He held this position for over 8 years, until his death at the age of 50 in 1532. In 1524, to better avenge himself on his brother's murderers, Bartholomew Doria and Andrea Doria, Augustine deserted Francis I of France, with whom the Doria's were allied. He then swore allegiance to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, by the signing of the Treaties of Burgos and Tordesillas. This brought Monaco under Spanish protection, and Augustine was placed at the head of the government in Monaco. The alliance lasted from 1525 to 1641. This alliance weighed heavily on the financial situation of Monaco, and shortly before his death on 14 April 1932, Augustine admitted to regret for his actions in this regard. During his Regency, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V paid a visit to Monaco in 1529.
  • Honoré I S/o Lucien.............................14 Apr 1532 - 07 Oct 1581
  • He was born on 16 December 1522 and died on 07 October 1581. Honoré was the youngest child of Lucien Grimaldi (1487–1523) and Jeanne de Pontevès-Cabanes. He was of 9 months, when his father was assassinated.
    • Nicholas Grimaldi (regent).................14 Apr 1532 - 23 Apr 1532
    • Étienne (Stephen) Grimaldi (regent)........23 Apr 1532 - 16 Dec 1540
  • Étienne (Stephen) Grimaldi (died 1561) was from Genoa and known as “the Governor”. Etienne remained regent until 16 December 1540, when Honoré reached his majority and was responsible for restorations made to the Church of St. Nicholas. The reign of Honoré I was relatively calm and peaceful, and Honoré was remarkable for his bravery, wisdom and valour. In 1545 he married Isabella Grimaldi (died 1583). The couple had four sons.
  • Charles II S/o Honoré I..........................07 Oct 1581 - 17 May 1589
  • He was born on 26 January 1555 and died on 17 May 1589. Protected by Spain, due to the Treaties of 1524, Charles was the first Lord of Monaco to refuse to pay homage to the Dukes of Savoy for Mentone and Roccabruna. In 1583 he was declared, after a trial, to have forfeited those two cities. Charles ruled for only 8 years before dying at the age of 33. He left no issue and so his youngest brother Hercule became Lord of Monaco.
  • Hercule S/o Honoré I.............................17 May 1589 - 21 Nov 1604
  • Hercule (Ercole) was born on 24 September 1562 and died on 21 November 1604. He was the youngest of four sons of Honoré I (1522–1581) and Isabella Grimaldi. He married Maria Landi on 15 December 1595 and the marriage produced three children; two daughters and one son.
  • Honoré II S/o Hercule............................21 Nov 1604 - 10 Jan 1662
  • He was born on 24 December 1597 and the first to be called Prince, but started his reign as Lord of Monaco. He was the son of Hercule and Maria Landi. His father was murdered when he was six, and he succeeded under the regency of his uncle, Frederico Landi, 4th Prince of Val di Taro. Landi was a loyal ally and friend of Spain and allowed the country to be occupied by Spanish troops in 1605. The inhabitants of Monaco were prohibited to carry arms and the Prince and his two sisters were moved to Milan. The Council of Monaco tried to limit Spanish power but the occupation lasted until 1614, and a strong Spanish influence remained until 1633, when it recognized Honoré as a sovereign prince. From adulthood, Honoré started to criticize Spain and turned to France for support. Louis XIII gave him the support he needed and this resulted in the Treaty of Péronne. This ended Spanish rule and put Monaco under French protection, recognizing and guaranteeing Monegasque sovereignty. As a consequence Honoré lost his Spanish and Italian possessions, but was compensated by King Louis XIII of France with the marquisate Les Baux and the title of Duke of Valentinois. During his reign he did much to extend, rebuild and transform the Genoese fortress that was the Grimaldi's stronghold into what is today Monaco's Royal Palace. He was killed in a battle on 10 Jan 1662. On 13 February 1616 he married Ippolita Trivulzio (d. 1638). The couple had one son. Hercule (Ercole) Grimaldi, Marquis of Baux (1623 – 02 August 1651). Ercole Grimaldi, Marquis of Baux married on 04 July 1641 to Maria Aurelia Spinola (d. 29 September 1670) and had one son and three daughters.
    • Federico, principe Landi di Valditaro (regent)..21 Nov 1604 - c. Feb 1616
  • Louis I S/o Hercule, Marquis of Baux............10 Jan 1662 - 03 Jan 1701
  • Louis Grimaldi was born on 25 July 1642 and was the elder son of Prince Hercule of Monaco and Maria Aurelia Spinola. Louis married 30 March 1660 in Pau Catherine Charlotte de Gramont (1639 – Paris 4 June 1678), daughter of Marshal Antoine III de Gramont and had six children. In 1662 Louis succeeded his grandfather Honoré II as Prince of Monaco. In 1666 he distinguished himself at the Four Days' Battle between the English and Dutch fleets. On 5 July 1668 he took the oath to King Louis XIV of France in the Parlement on account of being Duke of Valentinois and a Peer of France. He was made a knight of the French royal orders on 31 December 1688. In 1699 Louis XIV sent Louis to Rome as ambassador extraordinary. There on 19 December he presented the insignia of the Order of the Holy Spirit to James Louis and Alexander Benedict Sobieski, the two sons of King John III of Poland. Louis remained in Rome, where he died 03 January 1701. His remains were transported back to Monaco.
  • Antoine S/o Louis I..............................03 Jan 1701 - 20 Feb 1731
  • He was born on 25 Jan 1661 and was the elder son of Louis I, Prince of Monaco and Catherine Charlotte de Gramont. In 1683 Antonio was named lieutenant in the Régiment du Roi Infanterie. In 1684 he was named colonel of the regiment of Soissonois. During the Nine Years War he was present at the Battle of Philippsburg (1688), the Battle of Fleurus (1690), the Siege of Mons (1691), and the Siege of Namur (1692). On 21 August 1702 Antonio took the oath to King Louis XIV of France in the Parlement on account of being Duke of Valentinois and a Peer of France. He was made a knight of the French royal orders in 1724. Antonio married 13 June 1688 Marie de Lorraine-Armagnac (12 August 1674 – 30 October 1724), daughter of Louis de Lorraine-Guse, Count d'Armagnac. They had six daughters of whom only three survived infancy. Antonio also had also three known illegitimate children including Chevalier de Grimaldi (Antoine accepted him in 1715).
  • Louise-Hippolyte (female) D/o Antoine............21 Feb 1731 - 29 Dec 1731 with...
  • She (born: 10 November 1697; died: 29 December 1731) was the second daughter of Antonio I of Monaco and Marie de Lorraine-Armagnac. Because she had no brothers, Louise Hippolyte became the heiress to the throne of Monaco. Her father decided, with the permission of Louis XIV, that her future husband should assume the surname of Grimaldi and rule Monaco jointly with her. On 20 October 1715, at the age of eighteen, she married Jacques François Goyon, Count de Matignon after his family had proposed him as a candidate. At the end of 1731, Louise Hippolyte died of smallpox. Her husband neglected the affairs of Monaco and had to leave the country in May 1732. He abdicated in favor of their son, Honoré, the next year.
  • Goyon de Matignon
  • Jacques François Léonor..........................21 Feb 1731 - 07 Nov 1733 d. 1751
  • He (born: 21 November 1689; died: 23 April 1751) was count of Thorigny, Prince of Monaco as Jacques I and the fourth Duke of Valentinois from 1731 until 1733. Jacques came from an ancient Norman family. "Thorigny" is now called Torigni-sur-Vire, where the Mairie, or town hall, is the former family chateau. His uncle was Marshal of France Charles-Auguste de Goyon-Matignon. He was son of Jacques Goyon de Matignon, jure uxoris Count of Thorigny, and Charlotte Goyon de Matignon, Countess of Thorigny. When Antonio I of Monaco and his wife Marie de Lorraine was looking for a wedding partner for his daughter and heir Louise Hippolyte of Monaco, the family proposed him as a candidate. The prospect of his own Principality was very attractive and his candidacy was supported by King Louis XIV of France, who wanted to consolidate the French influence in Monaco. Jacques and Louise Hippolyte married on 20 October 1715 and had eight children. The wedding ceremony was the first official act that the five year old King Louis XV carried out during the Regency of the Duke of Orléans. The marriage wasn't very happy. Jacques preferred to stay more in Versailles than in Monaco, where he had several mistresses. After the death of Antonio I of Monaco, Louise Hippolyte traveled from Paris to Monaco on 04 April 1731 and received an enthusiast reception by the population. When Jacques joined her few times later, the reception was much colder.
    At the end of 1731, Louise Hippolyte died of smallpox. Jacques I neglected the affairs of state and, under pressure from the population, had to leave the country in May 1732. He abdicated in favor of his son Honoré the next year. He spent the last years of his life in Versailles and Paris. It was at Versailles that Mademoiselle du Maine, a grand daughter of Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan was proposed as a wife for the widowed Prince; despite having a large dowry, (she was the daughter of the duc du Maine and his wife, the formidable Anne Louise Bénédicte de Bourbon) the marriage never materialised and the Prince never married again.
    His Paris residence was named after him Hôtel Matignon and is today the official residence of the Prime Minister of France. Prior to his death, he was a frequent visitor to Versailles with his son.
  • Honoré III Camille Léonor S/o Jacques............07 Nov 1733 - 19 Jan 1793 d. 1795
  • Honoré III (born: 10 November 1720; died: 21 March 1795) ruled as Prince of Monaco and was Duke of Valentinois for almost sixty years from 1733 to 1793. Honoré was the son of Jacques I, Prince of Monaco and his wife, Louise Hippolyte, Princess of Monaco. In 20 May 1732, he moved to Hôtel Matignon in Paris with his father and remained there, even after the proclamation in 1733 of him as Prince of Monaco. Antoine Grimaldi, le Chevalier de Grimaldi, acted as regent for the prince between 1732 and 1784, when Honoré chose to reside in Paris. This situation remained the same for half a century until Antoine's death in 1784, when Honoré III was already 64 years old. Although he was open to the revolutionary ideas of the time, he was imprisoned on 20 September 1793. At his liberation a year later, he was ruined, and his property under seal.
  • President of the National Convention
  • Joseph Barriera aîné.............................19 Jan 1793 - 24 Feb 1793
  • France...........................................14 Feb 1793 - 30 May 1814
  • French Commandant
  • Armand Louis de Gontaut, duc de Lauzun...........24 Feb 1793 - 01 Mar 1793 d. 1793
  • Commissioners of the French National Convention
  • Baptiste Henri Grégoire........................................01 Mar 1793 d. 1831
  • Grégoire Marie Jagot...........................................01 Mar 1793 d. 1838
  • Austrian Commandant
  • Cavaliere Fulchieri (commander)..................12 May 1800 - 31 May 1800
  • Hungher (commissioner)...........................12 May 1800 - 31 May 1800
  • President of the Provisional Government
  • Louis de Millo-Terrazzani........................17 Apr 1814 - 17 Jun 1814
  • GRIMALDI
  • Honoré IV S/o Honoré III.........................30 May 1814 - 16 Feb 1819
  • Honoré IV (born: 17 May 1758; died: 16 February 1819) was Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois from 12 March 1795 to 16 February 1819. He was the son of Prince Honoré III by his wife, Maria Caterina Brignole, a Genoese noblewoman. After the fall of Napoleon I, he regained control of the principality thanks to a clause added by Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord at the Congress of Vienna stating that, "the Prince of Monaco should return to his estates", and passed on his titles to his eldest son, Honoré V, Prince of Monaco. Honoré IV married Louise Félicité Victoire d'Aumont, Duchess of Aumont, Duchess Mazarin and of La Meilleraye on 15 July 1777 in Paris. They divorced in 1798. They had two sons: Honoré V (1778–1841) and Florestan I (1785–1856).
    • Joseph Marie Jerôme Honoré (regent).........30 May 1814 - 23 Jun 1814 d. 1816
    • Honoré V Gabriel (regent)...................03 Mar 1815 - 16 Feb 1819 d. 1841
  • British Commander
  • Francis Burke....................................13 Mar 1815 - Jun 1815
  • GRIMALDI
  • Honoré V Gabriel S/o Honoré IV...................16 Feb 1819 - 02 Oct 1841
  • Honoré V (born: 13 May/14 May 1778, in Paris; died: 02 October 1841, in Paris) was Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois. He was born Honoré Gabriel Grimaldi, the first son of Honoré IV of Monaco and Louise d'Aumont. He died unmarried and his younger brother, Prince Florestan, succeeded him. Honoré V had a natural and legitimized son Louis Gabriel Oscar Grimaldi, marquis des Baux (born in Paris on 09 June 1814 and died in Saint-Germain-en-Laye on 15 July 1894), with Félicité Madeleine Honorée Gabrielle de Rouault de Gamaches, daughter of Joachim Valéry Thérèse Louis, marquis de Gamaches, grand d'Espagne and Marie Catherine Hyacinthe de Choiseul-Beaupré. Louis-Gabriel-Oscar Grimaldi also died unmarried.
  • Tancrède Florestan Roger Louis S/o Honoré IV.....02 Oct 1841 - 20 Jun 1856
  • Florestan (born: 10 October 1785, in Paris; died: 20 June 1856) was never prepared to assume the role of prince. He had been an actor in the Théâtre de l'Ambigu-Comique and the real power during his reign lay in the hands of his wife, also an actress, Maria Caroline Gibert de Lametz, whom he married in Commercy on 27 November 1816. For some time, she was able to alleviate the difficult economic situation stemming from Monaco's new position as a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia, then a regional power, rather than of France. The princely couple also attempted to meet local demands for greater democracy and offered two constitutions to the local population, but these were rejected, particularly by the people of Menton. When they saw that their efforts were doomed to failure, they handed over power to their son Charles (later Prince Charles III). This was, however, too little, too late. Encouraged by the events of 1848, the towns of Menton and Roquebrune revolted, and declared themselves independent. They had hoped to be annexed by Sardinia, but this did not occur, and the towns remained in a state of political limbo until they were finally ceded to France in 1861, under Charles III.
    • Menton and Roquebrune President of the Commission
    • Menton & Roquebrune Capital: Menton Statut Fondamental (30 Apr 1848).
    • Charles Trenca..............................02 Mar 1848 - 30 Apr 1848 d. 1853
    • Menton and Roquebrune President of the Government
    • Charles Trenca (continued)..................30 Apr 1848 - 18 Sep 1848
    • Sardinian Commander for Menton and Roquebrune
    • Claudio Gonnet..............................03 Apr 1848 - 1849 d. 1866
  • Charles III Honoré S/o Florestan.................20 Jun 1856 - 10 Sep 1889
  • He (born: 08 December 1818; died: 10 September 1889) was the founder of the famous casino in Monte Carlo (It stands for the "Mount Charles" in Italian), as his title in Monegasque and Italian was Carlo III. He was born in Paris Charles Honoré Grimaldi, the only son of Florestan I of Monaco and Maria Caroline Gibert de Lametz.
    Charles was married on 28 September 1846 in Brussels to Countess Antoinette de Mérode-Westerloo. He was succeeded by his son Albert I of Monaco. During his reign, the towns of Menton and Roquebrune, constituting some 80 percent of Monegasque territory, were formally ceded to France, paving the way for formal French recognition of Monaco's independence. Under Charles III, the Principality of Monaco increased its diplomatic activities; for example, in 1864, Charles III concluded a Treaty of Friendship with the Bey of Tunis, Muhammad III as-Sadiq, which also regulated trade and maritime issues. He was the 182nd Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword. In his middle years his sight greatly weakened, and by the last decade of his life he had become almost totally blind. He died at Château de Marchais.
  • Albert I Honoré Charles S/o Charles III..........10 Sep 1889 - 26 Jun 1922
  • Albert I (13 November 1848 – 26 June 1922) was Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois from 10 September 1889 until his death. He devoted much of his life to the science of oceanography. Alongside his expeditions, On March 1910, there were mass protests against his rule. The Monegasque demanded a constitution and a parliament to rein in the absolute monarch or else they would overthrow him and establish a republic. They were dissatisfied about French domination of the principality's politics and economy. Albert I set about making reforms on political, economic and social levels, bestowing a constitution on the Principality in 1911. Also in 1911, Albert I created the Monte Carlo Rally, an automobile race designed to draw tourists to Monaco and the Casino. He was the son of Prince Charles III (1818–1889), and Countess Antoinette de Mérode-Westerloo (1828–1864), a Belgian noblewoman, maternal aunt of Donna Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo, Princess della Cisterna, Duchess consort of Aosta and Queen consort of Spain.
    As a young man, Prince Albert served in the Spanish Navy, but during the Franco-Prussian War, he joined the French Navy where he was awarded the Legion of Honor. In addition to his interest in oceanographic studies, Albert had a keen interest in the origins of man and in Paris, he founded the "Institute for Human Paleontology" that was responsible for a number of archeological digs. The "Grimaldi Man" found in the Baousse-Rousse cave was named in his honour. Albert's intellectual achievements gained him worldwide recognition and in 1909, the British Academy of Science made him a member. Albert I constituted a collection of postage stamps that was later continued by Louis II and finally remain part of the postal museum Rainier III created in 1950. He was honored by "Knight of the Black Eagle" by German Empire.
  • Louis II Honoré Charles Antoine S/o Albert I.....26 Jun 1922 - 09 May 1949
  • Born Louis Honoré Charles Antoine Grimaldi (born: 12 July 1870; died: 09 May 1949) in Baden-Baden, Germany, he was the only child of Prince Albert I of Monaco (1848–1922), and Lady Mary Victoria Hamilton (11 December 1850 – 14 May 1922). His mother was a daughter of William Alexander Anthony Archibald Hamilton, 11th Duke of Hamilton, and his wife, Princess Marie Amélie Elizabeth Caroline of Baden.
    Within a year of his parents' marriage Louis was born, but his mother, a strong-willed 19-year-old, disliked Monaco and was unhappy with her husband. Shortly thereafter, she left the country permanently, and the princely couple's marriage was annulled in 1880. Louis was raised in Germany by his mother and stepfather, Count and later Prince Tassilo Festetics von Tolna, along with his eldest half-sister, Maria-Mathilde (later grandmother of Ira von Fürstenberg), and did not see his father until age 11 when he was obliged to return to Monaco to be trained for his future royal duties. While stationed in Algeria, he met Marie Juliette Louvet (1867–1930), a cabaret singer. (Juliette was already the mother of two children, Georges and Marguerite, by her former husband, French "girlie" photographer Achille Delmaet.). Their illegitimate daughter, Charlotte Louise Juliette, was born on 30 September 1898 in Constantine, Algeria. For ten years, Louis served in the military with distinction, being awarded the Cross of the Legion of Honor. In 1908 he returned home, leaving behind his mistress and daughter. At the outbreak of World War I, he re-enlisted in the French Army, proving to be one of the Fifth Army's most outstanding soldiers. He was made a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor and eventually became a Brigadier General. While many of his Grimaldi ancestors had served in the military, none had ever acquitted themselves with more distinction than Louis.
    A political crisis loomed 1911-1918, for the Prince because without any other heir, the throne of Monaco would pass to his first cousin Wilhelm, the duke of Urach, a German nobleman who was a son of Prince Albert's aunt, Princess Florestine of Monaco. To ensure this did not happen, in 1911 a law was passed recognizing his illegitimate daughter, Charlotte, as Louis's acknowledged heir, and making her part of the sovereign family. This law was later held to be invalid under the 1882 statutes. Thus another law was passed in 1918 modifying the statutes to allow the adoption of an heir, with succession rights. Charlotte was formally adopted by Louis in 1919, and became Charlotte Louise Juliette Grimaldi, Princess of Monaco, and Duchess of Valentinois.
    Wilhelm, 2nd Duke of Urach, thus placed further back in the line of succession to the throne of Monaco, as he was chosen as King of Lithuania for a few months in 1918, being known as Mindaugas II.
    On 27 June 1922, Prince Albert I died in Paris. Louis Grimaldi ascended to the throne as Louis II, Prince of Monaco. While his reign never achieved the grandeur of his father, Louis II left an indelible imprint on the tiny principality. In 1924 the Monaco Football Club was formed and in 1929, the first Grand Prix of Monaco automobile race was held, won by Charles Grover (aka "Williams") driving a Bugatti painted in what would become the famous British racing green color. He collected artefacts belonging to Napoleon I which are now assembled and displayed in the Napoleon Museum attached to the Royal Palace in Monte Carlo.
    Particularly in the earlier years of Prince Louis' reign, he acquired the reputation for administrative probity: he obtained the departure of Camille Blanc who had long managed Monte Carlo Casino, about whom there were increasing questions as to his administration of the Casino's affairs.
    In 1931, the prestige of Monaco's cultural life received a boost when René Blum was hired to form the "Ballet de l'Opéra à Monte-Carlo." Just before the outbreak of World War II in 1939, a modern large football stadium had been built where the World University Games were staged at the newly named "Stade Prince Louis II."
    While Prince Louis' sympathies were strongly pro-French, he tried to keep Monaco neutral during World War II but supported the Vichy France government of his old army colleague, Marshal Pétain. Nonetheless, his tiny principality was tormented by domestic conflict partly as a result of Louis' indecisiveness and also because the majority of the population was of Italian descent and they supported the fascist regime of Italy's Benito Mussolini. In 1943, the Italian Army invaded and occupied Monaco, setting up a Fascist government administration. Shortly thereafter, following Mussolini's collapse in Italy, the German army occupied Monaco and began the deportation of the Jewish population. Among them was René Blum, founder of the Opera, who died in Auschwitz, a Nazi concentration camp. Under Prince Louis' secret orders, the Monaco police, often at great risk to themselves, warned people in advance that the Gestapo was about to arrest them. However, throughout the War, Prince Louis' vacillation caused an enormous rift with his grandson Rainier, the heir to the throne, who strongly supported the Allies against the Nazis. For a number of months in 1944, communists participated in the Liberation administration of Monaco and it is a moot point to debate how strong a position Louis II was in, in 1944, to resist any attempts to abolish the monarchy in Monaco. Following the liberation of Monaco by the Allied forces, the 75-year-old Prince Louis did little for his principality and it began to fall into severe neglect. By 1946, he was spending most of his time in Paris and on 24–27 July of that year, he married in Monaco for the first time. His wife was Ghislaine Dommanget (1900–91), a French film actress and former wife of actor André Brulé. Absent from Monaco during most of the final years of his reign, he and his wife lived at Marchais, the family estate near Paris.
    Prince Louis died in 1949 in the Prince's Palace and is buried at the Saint Nicholas Cathedral in Monte Carlo, Monaco. His widow, Ghislaine, Dowager Princess of Monaco, died on 30 April 1991 in Paris, where she was interred in the Passy Cemetery. Hereditary Princess Charlotte ceded her succession rights to her son, Rainier, in 1944, at which time he became Hereditary Prince. When Louis died five years later, he was succeeded by his grandson, Prince Rainier III. Prince Louis was the 298th Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword.
 
Honoré V coinage: 1837 - 1838
Currency: 10 Centimes = 1 Decime; 10 Decimes = 1 Franc.
 

KM#95.2a 5 centimes (Cinq). Year: 1837. Weight: 8.92g [9.00g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 28.50 mm. Edge: Oblique milling (Grained right). Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monte Carlo Mint. Obverse: "CINQ CENTIMES" with date, Mint mark and Mint director marks in the center surrounded by wreath all around. Reverse: Honoré V portrait in the center facing left. "MONORE V PRINCE" written on left side clockwise and "DE MONACO" written right side clockwise. "BORREL F." designer's name written at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: 1837 and 1838.
Note: This coin has smaller head of Honore V. This coin is slightly off-flan (off-centered) from both sides.

Engraver: Borrel F. Mint Director during 1837-1838: Francois Cabinas (symbols are "C" and clasped hands).

 
Louis II coinage: 1924, 1926, 1943 and 1945-1947
Currency: 1 Franc = 10 Decimes = 100 Centimes.
 

KM#110 50 centimes. Year: 1924. Weight: 1.99g [2.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: "HERCUL·MONOEC·" (HERCULE MONACO) written at the right side clockwise. Hercules shooting bow on his one knee in the center right. Crown is on Louis II reign mark and "DEO JVVANTE" (GOD HELP) written in Latin below it at the left side. Engraver name is at the bottom left side "Edmond-Emile Lindauer".
Reverse: "CREDIT·FONCIER·DE·MONACO" (Land Credit of Monaco) written in French at the top in the outer circle. "REMB.JUSQU'AU 31XBRE 1926" (Valid till 31st December 1926) written at the top in inner circle. Value "50 CMES" (50 centimes) divided by a sword facing upwards in the center and Shield below it. Mint marks on both sides of the shield. Thunderbolt mintmark of Poissy at left of shield. "BON P. CINQUANTE CMES" (Good for fifty centimes) written at the bottom in the outer circle. Mintage: 150,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#120 1 Franc. Year: ND (1943). Weight: 1.29g [1.30g]. Metal: Aluminum. Diameter: 22.90 mm. Thickness: 1.5 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: Crowned mantled arms flanked by value below. Reverse: Louis II portrait in the center with eye glasses facing left. "LOUIS II PRINCE DE MONACO" written around him. Engraver "L. MAUBERT" written at the bottom. Mintage: 2,500,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#120a 1 Franc. Year: ND (1945). Weight: 3.99g [4.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 22.90 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: Crowned mantled arms flanked by value below. Reverse: Louis II portrait in the center with eye glasses facing left. "LOUIS II PRINCE DE MONACO" written around him. Engraver "L. MAUBERT" written at the bottom. Mintage: 1,509,00. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#121 2 Francs. Year: ND (1943). Weight: 2.23g [2.20g]. Metal: Aluminum. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Thickness: 2.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: Crowned mantled arms flanked by value below. Reverse: Louis II portrait in the center with eye glasses facing left. "LOUIS II PRINCE DE MONACO" written around him. Engraver "L. MAUBERT" written at the bottom. Mintage: 1,250,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#121a 2 Francs. Year: ND (1945). Weight: 8.02g [8.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: Crowned mantled arms flanked by value below. Reverse: Louis II portrait in the center with eye glasses facing left. "LOUIS II PRINCE DE MONACO" written around him. Engraver "L. MAUBERT" written at the bottom. Mintage: 1,080,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#122 5 Francs. Year: 1945. Weight: 3.76g [3.70g]. Metal: Aluminum. Diameter: 31.00 mm. Thickness: 2.4 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: Crowned mantled arms flanked by value below. Date at the bottom. Reverse: Louis II portrait in the center with eye glasses facing left. "LOUIS II PRINCE DE MONACO" written around him. Engraver "L. MAUBERT" written at the bottom. Mintage: 1,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#123 10 Francs. Year: 1946. Weight: 6.99g [7.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Thickness: 1.8 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: Crowned mantled arms flanked by value below. Date at the bottom. Reverse: Louis II portrait in the center with eye glasses facing left. "LOUIS II PRINCE" written on the left side clockwise and "DE MONACO" written on the right side clockwise. Engraver "P. TURIN" (Pierre Turin) written at the tie knot. Mintage: 1,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#124 20 Francs. Year: 1947. Weight: 10.10g [10.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 30.00 mm. Thickness: 2.0 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: Crowned mantled arms flanked by value below. Date at the bottom. Reverse: Louis II portrait in the center with eye glasses facing left. "LOUIS II PRINCE" written on the left side clockwise and "DE MONACO" written on the right side clockwise. Engraver "P. TURIN" (Pierre Turin) written at the tie knot. Mintage: 1,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
 
  • Italian Consuls
  • Antonio San Felice......................................1940 - 1941
  • Stanislao, marchese Lepri...............................1941 - 1943 d. 1980
  • Commander of the Italian forces (58th Infantry Division Legnano)
  • Vincenzo Cesare Dapino..............................Nov 1942 - 09 Sep 1943 d. 1957
  • German Consul General
  • Walter Hellenthal................................05 Apr 1943 - 03 Sep 1944 d. 1967
  • Commanders of German forces
  • Otto Kohlermann..................................09 Sep 1943 - Oct 1943 d. 1984
  • He was the commander of 60th Panzergrenadier division Feldherrnhalle.
  • Commanders of German forces - 715th infantry
  • Kurt Hoffmann....................................09 Sep 1943 - 05 Jan 1944 d. 1981
  • Hans-Georg Hildebrandt...........................05 Jan 1944 - Feb 1944 d. 1967
  • Commanders of German forces - 148th reserve division
  • Otto Fretter-Pico...................................Feb 1944 - 20 Mar 1944 d. 1966
  • Otto Schönherr...................................20 Mar 1944 - 03 Sep 1944 d. 1954
  • GRIMALDI - Polignac
  • Rainier III S/o Pierre...........................09 May 1949 - 06 Apr 2005
  • Rainier III (Rainier Louis Henri Maxence Bertrand Grimaldi; 31 May 1923 – 06 April 2005) ruled the Principality of Monaco for almost 56 years, making him one of the longest ruling monarchs of the 20th century. Rainier was born in Monaco, the only son of Prince Pierre of Monaco, Duke of Valentinois (né Count Pierre de Polignac) and his wife, Hereditary Princess Charlotte, Duchess of Valentinois. Born in Algeria, his mother was the only child of Prince Louis II and Marie Juliette Louvet; she was later legitimized through formal adoption and subsequently named heiress-presumptive to the throne of Monaco. His father was a half-French, half-Mexican nobleman from Brittany who adopted his wife's surname, Grimaldi, upon marriage and was made a prince of Monaco by his father-in-law. Rainier was best known outside of Europe for having married American actress Grace Kelly, he was also responsible for reforms to Monaco's constitution and for expanding the principality's economy beyond its traditional gambling base. Gambling accounts for only approximately three percent of the nation's annual revenue today; when Rainier ascended the throne in 1949, it accounted for more than 95 percent.
    • Albert II (regent)..........................31 Mar 2005 - 06 Apr 2005
  • Albert II........................................06 Apr 2005 - date
  • Albert II (Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi; born 14 March 1958) is the reigning monarch of the Principality of Monaco, and head of the Princely House of Grimaldi. He is the son of Rainier III, Prince of Monaco, and the American actress Grace Kelly. His sisters are Caroline, Princess of Hanover, heiress presumptive to the Crown, and Princess Stéphanie. In July 2011, Prince Albert married Charlene Wittstock. Prince Albert is one of the wealthiest royals in the world, with assets valued at more than $1 billion, which includes vast amounts of land in both Monaco and France. While his real estate does not include the Prince's Palace, it does include holdings in the Société des bains de mer de Monaco.
 
Rainier III coinage: 1950 - 1956
Currency: 1 Franc = 100 Centimes.
 

KM#130 10 Francs. Year: 1950. Weight: 3.03g [3.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 23.50 mm. Thickness: 1.6 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: Rainier III portrait in the center facing left with a circle of dots in his front and back. "RAINIER III PRINCE DE MONACO" written around him. Date at the bottom. Engraver "P. TURIN" (Pierre Turin) written above the date. Reverse: Crowned shield flanked by divided value, "10" on the left side and "FRS" on the right side. Six dots on each side below the mint marks. "DEO JUVANTE" (GOD HELP) written in Latin below the dotted circular curve. Mintage: 500,000. Minted Years: 1950 and 1951.

Same as above coin KM#130, but...

Year: 1951. Weight: 2.99g. Mintage: 500,000.

KM#131 20 Francs. Year: 1950. Weight: 3.84g [4.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 23.50 mm. Thickness: 1.6 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: Rainier III portrait in the center facing left with a circle of dots in his front and back. "RAINIER III PRINCE DE MONACO" written around him. Date at the bottom. Engraver "P. TURIN" (Pierre Turin) written above the date. Reverse: Crowned shield flanked by divided value, "20" on the left side and "FRS" on the right side. Six dots on each side below the mint marks. "DEO JUVANTE" (GOD HELP) written in Latin below the dotted circular curve. Mintage: 500,000. Minted Years: 1950 and 1951.

Same as above coin KM#131, but...

Year: 1951. Weight: 4.02g. Mintage: 500,000.

KM#132 50 Francs. Year: 1950. Weight: 7.95g [8.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Thickness: 2.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: Rainier III portrait in the center facing left with a circle of dots in his front and back. "RAINIER III PRINCE DE MONACO" written around him. Date at the bottom. Engraver "P. TURIN" (Pierre Turin) written above the date. Reverse: "DEO JUVANTE" (GOD HELP) written in Latin at the top. Armored equestrian in the center divides circular dotted pattern four times. Value "50 FRANCS" written at the bottom. Mintage: 500,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#133 100 Francs. Year: 1950. Weight: 12.22g [12.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 30.00 mm. Thickness: 2.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: Rainier III portrait in the center facing left with a circle of dots in his front and back. "RAINIER III PRINCE DE MONACO" written around him. Date at the bottom. Engraver "P. TURIN" (Pierre Turin) written above the date. Reverse: "DEO JUVANTE" (GOD HELP) written in Latin at the top. Armored equestrian in the center divides circular dotted pattern four times. Value "100 FRANCS" written at the bottom. Mintage: 500,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#134 100 Francs. Year: 1956. Weight: 5.93g [6.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: Rainier III portrait in the center facing left. "RAINIER III PRINCE DE MONACO" written around him. Date at the lower right side. Engraver "LAGRIFFOUL" (Henri Lagriffoul) written above the date. Reverse: "DEO JUVANTE" (GOD HELP) written in Latin at the top divided by the crown. Crowned shield in the center. Value "100 FRANCS" written at the bottom. Mintage: 500,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
Rainier III coinage: 1960 - 2000
Currency: 1 Franc = 100 Centimes = 100 Old Francs (used from 1960 to 17 Feb 2002).
 

KM#142 10 centimes. Year: 1962. Weight: 3.02g [3.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: Rainier III portrait in the center facing right. "RAINIER III PRINCE DE MONACO" written around him. Date at the bottom. Engraver "SIMON" (G. Simon) written at the back of the neck.
Reverse: Figure with his right hand on shield and holding sword in his left hand, Crown above his right arm. "DEO" written above his right hand and "JUVANTE" written in Latin below his right foot. Value "10 CENTIMES" on the right side. Mint mark at his right foot. Mintage: 750,000. Minted Years: 1962, 1974-1979, 1982 and 1995 (1995 only in sets).

Same as above coin KM#142, but...

Year: 1974. Weight: 3.00g. Mintage: 172,000.

Same as above coin KM#142, but...

Year: 1975. Weight: 2.98g. Mintage: 172,000.

Same as above coin KM#142, but...

Year: 1976. Weight: 2.98g. Mintage: 172,000.

KM#145 Half Franc. Year: 1968. Weight: 4.52g [4.50g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: Rainier III portrait in the center facing right. "RAINIER III PRINCE DE MONACO" written around him. Date at the bottom. Engraver "R. COCHET" (Robert Cochet) written at the back of the neck.
Reverse: Crown on the top right side overlapping the shield in the center. Value "½FR" at lower left side with mint marks. "DEO JUVANTE" (GOD HELP) written in Latin on the right side clockwise. Mintage: 125,000. Minted Years: 1962, 1968, 1974-1979, 1982, 1989 and 1995 (1995 only in sets).

Same as above coin KM#145, but...

Year: 1982. Weight: 4.39g. Mintage: 460,000.

KM#140 Franc. Year: 1968. Weight: 5.92g [6.00g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: Rainier III portrait in the center facing right. "RAINIER III PRINCE DE MONACO" written around him. Date at the bottom. Engraver "R. COCHET" (Robert Cochet) written at the back of the neck. Reverse: Crown on the top right side overlapping the shield in the center. Value "1FR" at lower left side with mint marks. "DEO JUVANTE" (GOD HELP) written in Latin on the right side clockwise. Mintage: 250,000. Minted Years: 1960, 1966, 1968, 1974-1979, 1982, 1986, 1989 and 1995 (1995 only in sets).

Same as above coin KM#140, but...

Year: 1975. Weight: 6.01g. Mintage: 195,000.

Same as above coin KM#140, but...

Year: 1977. Weight: 5.96g. Mintage: 188,000.

Same as above coin KM#140, but...

Year: 1978. Weight: 6.03g. Mintage: 280,000.

KM#157 2 Francs. Year: 1979. Weight: 7.47g [7.50g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 26.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: "2 FRANCS" written at the top. Rainier III Monogram within crowned shield in the center. Date and mint marks at the bottom. Reverse: Rainier III portrait in the center facing right. "RAINIER · III · PRINCE · DE · MONACO" written around him. Engraver "G. SIMON" written at the back of the neck. Mintage: 162,000. Minted Years: 1979, 1981 and 1982.

KM#154 10 Francs. Year: 1982. Weight: 10.00g [10.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel-Aluminum. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: "10 FRANCS" written at the top. Rainier III Monogram within crowned shield in the center. Date and mint marks at the bottom. Reverse: Rainier III portrait in the center facing left. "RAINIER · III · PRINCE · DE · MONACO" written around him. Engraver "G. SIMON" written at the back of the neck. Mintage: 230,000. Minted Years: 1975-1979 and 1981-1982.

KM#163 10 Francs. Year: 2000. Weight: 6.51g [6.50g]. Metal: Bi-Metallic; Nickel in center and Aluminium-bronze in ring. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Plain and Reeded; 5 section each. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris. Obverse: Value "10F" and Rainier III monogram within center circle. "PRINCIPAUTÉ DE MONACO" written in outer circle. Mint mark and Date at the bottom. Reverse: Armored knight riding right with engraver "R.B. BARON" (Roger B. Baron) written below at left side, all within circle. "DEO JUVANTE" (GOD HELP) written in Latin in outer circle with dot at the bottom. Mintage: 250,000. Minted Years: 1989, 1991-1998 and 2000.

Same as above coin KM#163, but...

Year: 2000. Weight: 6.54g. Mintage: 240,000.

 
Rainier III coinage: 2001 - 2005
Currency: 1 Euro = 100 euro cents.
 

KM#173 1 Euro. Year: 2001. Weight: 7.52g [7.50g]. Metal: Bi-Metallic; Copper-nickel plated Nickel in center and Nickel-brass in ring. Diameter: 23.25 mm. Thickness: 2.33 mm. Edge: Plain and Reeded; 3 section each. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Paris. Obverse: "MONACO" written at the top. Six stars on each side. Mint mark and Date at the bottom. Portrait of Prince Rainier III in the left, imposed on Prince Albert portrait in the right; both facing right within center circle. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination "1 EURO" shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 994,634 + 3,500 in Proof + 20,000 in sets. Minted Years: 2001-2004.
Engravers: Gérard Buquoy (obverse; mark description: horseshoe) and Luc Luycx (reverse).

KM#174 2 Euros. Year: 2001. Weight: 8.45g [8.50g]. Metal: Bi-Metallic; Nickel-brass plated in Nickel center and Copper-nickel in ring. Diameter: 25.75 mm. Thickness: 2.20 mm. Edge: Reeded and lettering; The sequence "2 * *" repeated six times alternately upright and inverted. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Paris. Obverse: "MONACO" written at the top. Six stars on each side. Mint mark and Date at the bottom. Portrait of Prince Rainier III facing right within center circle. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination "2 EURO" shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 923,476 + 3,500 in Proof + 20,000 in sets. Minted Years: 2001-2004.
Engravers: Gérard Buquoy (obverse; mark description: horseshoe) and Luc Luycx (reverse).
 
Albert II coinage: 2006 - date
Currency: 1 Euro = 100 euro cents.
 

KM#195 2 Euros. Year: 2012. Weight: 8.44g [8.50g]. Metal: Bi-Metallic; Nickel-brass plated in Nickel center and Copper-nickel in ring. Diameter: 25.75 mm. Thickness: 2.20 mm. Edge: Reeded and lettering; The sequence "2 * *" repeated six times alternately upright and inverted. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Paris. Obverse: "MONACO" written at the top, Portrait of Prince Albert II facing right and Mint mark and Date at the bottom; all within center circle. 12 stars in outer circle. Reverse: Map of Europe with the denomination "2 EURO" shown in Latin characters. Mintage: 1,082,373. Minted Years: 2001-2004.
Engravers: Yves Sampo (obverse; mark description: pentagon with letters AG, MP and YS) and Luc Luycx (reverse).
 
 
 
 
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