Niger
 
 
The French Colony of Niger (French: Colonie du Niger) was a French Colonial possession covering much of the territory of the modern West African state of Niger, as well as portions of Mali, Burkina Faso and Chad. It existed in various forms from 1900 to 1960, but was titled the Colonie du Niger only from 1922 to 1958. On 13 October 1922 the civilian Colony of Niger took control of most of southern and western areas, with a Lieutenant governor reporting to the Governor General of French West Africa. On 31 December 1946 the Military Territories of N'Guigmi and Agadez were ceded to Niger Colony, leaving only Bilma Cercle as the last Military run section of modern Niger. This area in the far north east only came under French civilian administration in 1956.

In 1947, French Upper Volta was reconstituted, and the Cercles of Dori and Fada N'Gourma ceded to Upper Volta Colony. While there were minor border changes after 1947, the modern borders of Niger were roughly established with this change. Following the 1956 Loi Cadre, rudiments of internal rule were created with the Territorial Assembly of Niger elected by popular vote, but holding only advisory and administrative powers. In 1958 the French Union succeed the French Community On 25 August 1958, the Lieutenant Governor became High Commissioner of Niger, but remained Head of State of a quasi-independent state which controlled some purely internal administration.

The Constitution of 25 February 1959 was created by and then ratified vote of the Constituent Assembly of Niger, a body created for this purpose from the elected Territorial Assembly of Niger in December 1958. On 12 March 1959 the Constituent Assembly became the Legislative Assembly of Niger, with the head of government, Hamani Diori, retaining the title of President of the Council. Nominal executive powers were vested in the Assembly. with the constitution establishing elements, such as the Flag of Niger, the National anthem of Niger and the Coat of Arms of Niger, along with language on naming of political bodies, rights and powers which have been retained in subsequent texts.

French Commandants were put in place in Niger from 23 Jul 1900 to 24 Feb 1913, then Commissioners till 26 Dec 1922 and then Lieutenant governors till 25th Aug 1958.

Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute in the Tommo region; much of Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint with Nigeria, remains undemocratic; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries.

Niger Motto: Fraternité, Travail, Progrès (French); translation: Fraternity, Work, Progress.

 
Niger has some Traditional States like:
  • Damagaram. Later capital at Zinder founded. Rulers titles: Sarkin Damagaram, Sultan. Ruling from 1731-date. French protectorate from 30 Jul 1899.
  • Doso. Rulers title: Jermakoy. Ruled from 1865 - fl.1960's.
  • Maradi. Gobir is an ancient Hausa state, centered in what is now Maradi province of Niger since fl. c. 1100 CE. It was from the area of Gobir that the Fulani Jihad erupted, evicted from the Katsina state in Nigeria, creating the Fulani states in northern and central Nigeria during the 19th century They established Fulani dynasty with title: Sarkin Katsina and ruled from 1807 - fl.1960's. At the end of the 18th century, a Muslim cleric of Fulani origin, Usman dan Fodio, established a religious training center in Gobir with the initial support of the Hausa King. Alarmed, however, by the schools growing autonomy and influence, the King attempted to rein it in, with the result that Usman resisted and ultimately declared Jihad, Holy War, on the Hausa. Ceding political and military control of the new empire to his two sons, Muhammad Bello at Sokoto and Abdullah at Gwandu. Usman created a puritanistic Muslim presence in the central Niger River basin. Gobir partitioned between France and Great Britain in 1900. The French portion is included in the Republic of Niger in 1960.
  • Songhay Empire: The Songhay empire grew out of a polity that was formed in the Dendi region of present-day Niger. This polity flourished in present-day Mali and replaced the Mali empire as the major West Sudanese power; its capital was Gao. After being vanquished by incursions from Morocco, the Songhay state withdrew to its original location in the Dendi region, and is thenceforth often referred to as Dendi; but there is a continuity of rule, symbolized by continuing to use the Songhay name and the royal style askya. In addition to this remnant Songhay state, this record contains a small group of break-off polities. consists of
    • Songhay. Rulers title: Askya. Ruled from c.1700 - 1901.
    • Tera. Rulers title: Askya. Ruled from fl.1700's - 1952.
    • Kokoro. Rulers title Askya. Ruled from fl.1700's - fl. c. 1900's.
    • Goruol. Rulers title Askya. Ruled from fl. 1700's - fl. c. 1900's.
    • Dargol. Rulers title Askya. Ruled from fl. 1750's - fl. c. 1900's.
  • The Berber Sultanate of Aïr. A hilly region in northern Niger, more-or-less in the middle of the entire Sahara desert. Rulers title: Amenokal, Sultan. Ruled from 1405 - fl. c .1960's.
 
     23 Jul 1900            French military territory of Zinder. Part of French West
                            Africa (capital at Dakar).
     22 Jun 1910            Niger military territory.
     04 Dec 1920            Niger territory.
     26 Dec 1922            French colony of Niger.
     16 Jun 1940            Administration loyal to Vicky France.
        Nov 1942            Administration loyal to Free French.
     13 Dec 1946            Niger overseas territory of France.
     19 Dec 1958            Autonomy (Republic of Niger).
     03 Aug 1960            Independence from France.

 
 
  • France..........................................
  • .23 Jul 1900 - 03 Aug 1960
  • High Commissioner
  • Jean Colombani...................................25 Aug 1958 - 10 Nov 1960
  • Following the Algerian War and the collapse of the French Fourth Republic, the colonies of the French Union became fully independent in 1960. Niger ratified its first fully independent constitution on 08 November 1960 and Jean Colombani stepped down as High Commissioner on 10 November 1960.
    • Djibo Bakary
    • ................................20 May 1957 - 10 Oct 1958
    • Vice president of the Government Council to 26 Jul 1958, then president of the Government Council.
    • Hammani Diori...............................10 Oct 1958 - 10 Nov 1960
    • President of the provisional government to 25 Feb 1959.
  • President
  • Hammani Diori (continued)........................10 Nov 1960 - 15 Apr 1974
  • Presidents of the Supreme Military Council
  • Seyni Kountché...................................15 Apr 1974 - 10 Nov 1987
  • Ali Saibou (interim to 14 Nov 1987)..............10 Nov 1987 - 17 May 1989
  • President of the Supreme Military Council of National Orientation
  • Ali Saibou (continued)...........................17 May 1989 - 20 Dec 1989
  • Presidents
  • Ali Saibou (continued)...........................20 Dec 1989 - 16 Apr 1993
  • Mahamane Ousmane.................................16 Apr 1993 - 27 Jan 1996
  • Chairman of National Salvation Council
  • Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara..........................27 Jan 1996 - 07 Aug 1996
  • President
  • Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara (continued)..............07 Aug 1996 - 09 Apr 1999
  • Chairman of the National Reconciliation Council
  • Daouda Malam Wanké...............................11 Apr 1999 - 22 Dec 1999
  • President
  • Mamadou Tandja...................................22 Dec 1999 - 18 Feb 2010
  • Chairman of the Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy
  • Salou Djibo......................................18 Feb 2010 - date
  • Following the military coup on February 18, 2010, he became head of the Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy, and thus de facto leader of Niger. He has suspended Niger's constitution and dissolved all state institutions. It has placed President Mamadou Tandja in captivity at a military barracks. His military government has announced it intends to make Niger a model of democracy and good governance.
 
The West African CFA Franc (ISO 4217 code: XOF) is the currency of eight independent states spanning over 1,350,000 square miles (3,500,000 km2) in West Africa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Sénégal and Togo. These eight countries form the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), whose common central bank is the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO).  The acroynym CFA stands for Communauté financière d'Afrique ("Financial Community of Africa"). The currency is issued by the BCEAO (Banque Centrale des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, "Central Bank of the West African States"), located in Dakar, Senegal, for the members of the UEMOA (Union Économique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine, "West African Economic and Monetary Union"). The Franc is nominally subdivided into 100 centimes but no centime denominations have been issued. The catologues list these coins under “West African States”.
The CFA Franc was introduced to the French colonies in west Africa in 1945, replacing the French West African Franc. The west African colonies and territories using the CFA Franc were Côte d'Ivoire (formerly known as Ivory Coast), Dahomey (now Benin), French Sudan (now Mali), Mauritania, Niger, Sénégal, Togo and Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso). The currency continued in use when these colonies gained their independence, except in Mali (formerly French Sudan), which replaced at par the CFA franc with its own franc in 1961. In 1973, Mauritania replaced the CFA franc with the ouguiya at a rate of 1 ouguiya = 5 francs. Mali readopted the CFA franc in 1984, at a rate of 1 CFA franc = 2 Malian francs. The former Portuguese colony of Guinea-Bissau adopted the CFA franc in 1994, replacing the Guinea Bissau peso at a rate of 1 CFA franc = 65 pesos.
The CFA franc, in general is a currency used in fourteen countries: twelve formerly French-ruled African countries, as well as in Guinea-Bissau (a former Portuguese colony) and in Equatorial Guinea (a former Spanish colony). The ISO currency codes are XAF for the Central African CFA franc and XOF for the West African CFA franc. It has a fixed exchange rate to the euro: 100 CFA francs = 1 French (nouveau) franc = 0.152449 euro; or 1 euro = 655.957 CFA francs. Although Central African CFA francs and West African CFA francs have the same monetary value against other currencies, West African CFA coins and banknotes are not accepted in countries using Central African CFA francs, and vice versa.
Despite Niger using West CFA Francs in general daily transactions, it has also produced some of it's own commemorative coins as shown below.
 
1960
 

KM#E6 1000 Francs. Year: ND (1960). Weight: 19.80g (20.00g). Metal: 0.900 Silver. Diameter: 39 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: 1,000. Obverse: "INDEPENDANCE" on top. Flagged arms in center. "1000 FRs 3 AOUT 1960" at bottom. Reverse: "PRESIDENT DIORI HAMANI" written on top. Diori Hamani picture facing left in center. "REPUBLIQUE DU NIGER" written at bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type, issued only in Proof condition. Subject: Independence Commemorative coin with date 03rd August 1960.

Note: "ESSAI" written below Flagged arms of the above coin. Pattern issue.

KM#6 1000 Francs. Year: ND (1960). Weight: 20.00g. Metal: 0.900 Silver. Diameter: 39 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "INDEPENDANCE" on top. Flagged arms in center. "1000 FRs 3 AOUT 1960" at bottom. Reverse: "PRESIDENT DIORI HAMANI" written on top. Diori Hamani picture facing left in center. "REPUBLIQUE DU NIGER" written at bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type, issued only in Proof condition. Subject: Independence Commemorative coin with date 03rd August 1960.
 
1968
 

KM#8.2 10 Francs. Year: 1968. Weight: 24.40g (24.54g). Metal: 0.900 Silver. Diameter: 39 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "FRATERNITÉ - TRAVAIL - PROGRÉS 10 FRs" on the top. Flagged arms and date below it. Reverse: "REPUBLIQUE DU NIGER" on top. Lion of grass. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type, issued only in Proof condition.

Note: Exists with and without accent marks above first “E” in REPUBLIQUE. Dull details with machined-down rim.

 
2003
 

KM#12 3000 CFA Francs or 2 Africa. Year: 2003. Weight: 10.00g. Metal: Brass. Diameter: 28 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Africa Mint. Obverse: "* 3000 CFA * AFRIQUE DE L'OUEST * 2003 * EMISSION NIGERIENNE *" (clockwise). Lion of grass, looking back. "GF" initials of the engraver at the lion's back foot. Reverse: "IDADO . EMISSION MONETAIRE DE L'INSTITUT DE DEVELOPPEMENT DE L'AFRIQUE DE L'OUEST." (clockwise). Elephant face on West African Map. Mintage: 1,200. Minted Years: One year type.

Note: KM#12a also exits as the same coin but in silver with Mintage of five pieces only.

 
2005
 

KM#16 6000 CFA Francs or 4 Africa. Year: 2005. Weight: 10.00g. Metal: Brass outer ring, CuNi inside ring. Diameter: 29 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Africa Mint. Obverse: "PROGRAMME NATIONAL DE LUTTE CONTRE LE PALUDISME REPUBLIQUE DU NIGER." (clockwise in outer circle). "Stop Malaria 6000 CFA 2005" with Mosquito picture (in center). Reverse: "IDADO . EMISSION MONETAIRE DE L'INSTITUT DE DEVELOPPEMENT DE L'AFRIQUE DE L'OUEST." (clockwise). Elephant face on West African Map (in center). Mintage: 1,200. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: National Program Malaria (Paludism).
Note: KM#16a also exits as the same coin but in silver and gold with Mintage of 10 pieces and KM#16b in silver only with mintage of 10 pieces.
 
 
 
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