South Sudan
 

 
South Sudan officially the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in northeastern Africa that gained its independence from Sudan on 09th July 2011. Capital: Juba, which is also its largest city. It is planned that the capital city will be changed to the more centrally located Ramciel in the future. South Sudan is bordered by the Republic of the Sudan to the north, Ethiopia to the east, Kenya to the southeast, Uganda to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest, and the Central African Republic to the west. It includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd, formed by the White Nile and known locally as the Bahr al Jabal.
The territories of modern South Sudan and the Republic of the Sudan were occupied by Egypt under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, and later governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium until Sudanese independence was achieved in 1956. Following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon developed and ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005. Later that year, southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed.
South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, following a referendum that passed with 98.83% of the vote. It is a United Nations member state, a member state of the African Union, and a member state of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development. In July 2012, South Sudan signed the Geneva Conventions. South Sudan has suffered internal conflict since its independence; it has the highest score on the Fragile States Index (formerly the Failed States index).
Motto: "Justice, Liberty, Prosperity".
 
               26 May 1871  Equatoria province of Egyptian Sudan (under Sudan).
                  Apr 1889  Part of the Mahdiya (under Sudan).
               02 Sep 1898  Mahdiya extinguished by Britain.
 12 May 1894 - 10 Jun 1910  Lado district leased to the Belgian Congo.
               19 Jan 1899  Part of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (under Sudan).
        1922 - 13 Jun 1947  Aborted British plan to administer the southern provinces of
                             The Sudan separately from the northern provinces.
               01 Jan 1956  Part of independent Republic of The Sudan.
 28 Feb 1972 - 05 Jun 1983  Self-government for the three Southern provinces.
                             Southern Sudan Autonomous Region (included Equatoria,
                             Bahr al-Ghazal and Upper Nile, capital at Juba).
               16 May 1983  Founding of the Sudan Peoples’ Liberation Army (SPLA).
 05 Jun 1983 - 09 Jan 2005  Rebellion against the Sudanese government.
               09 Jul 2005  Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan within The Sudan
                              established.
 06 Dec 2005 - 09 Jul 2011  Interim Constitution
 09 Jan 2011 - 15 Jan 2011  Referendum votes 98.83% for independence.
               09 Jul 2011  Independence (Republic of South Sudan) from The Sudan.
 
Territorial Disputes: South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 01 Jan 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan; periodic violent skirmishes with South Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; the boundary that separates Kenya and South Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenya has administered since colonial times.
 
  • Chairmen of the Southern Region High Executive Council
  • Abel Alier (1st time)......................06 Apr 1972 - Feb 1978
  • Joseph Lagu...................................Feb 1978 - 12 Jul 1979
  • Peter Gatkuoth (acting)....................12 Jul 1979 - 30 May 1980
  • Abel Alier (2nd time)......................30 May 1980 - 05 Oct 1981
  • Gismalla Abdalla Rassas (interim)..........05 Oct 1981 - 23 Jun 1982
  • Joseph James Tombura.......................23 Jun 1982 - 05 Jun 1983
  • Post abolished.............................05 Jun 1983 - 25 May 1985
  • James Loro.................................25 May 1985 - May 1986
  • Post abolished................................May 1986 - 31 Jan 1987
  • Chairmen of the Council for the South
  • Matthew Abor Ayang.........................31 Jan 1987 - Jan 1988
  • Angelo Beda...................................Jan 1988 - Jun 1989
  • Post abolished................................Jun 1989 - 07 Aug 1997
  • Chairmen of the Southern Sudan Coordination Council
  • Riek Machar Teny...........................07 Aug 1997 - 31 Jan 2000
  • Angelo Beda (acting)..............................2000 - 2001
  • Gatluak Deng......................................2001 - 09 Dec 2002
  • Riek Gai Kok...............................09 Dec 2002 - 2005
  • Presidents of the Government of Southern Sudan
  • John Garang de Maboir......................09 Jul 2005 - 30 Jul 2005
  • Salva Kiir Mayardit........................01 Aug 2005 - 09 Jul 2011
  • He was acting to 11 Aug 2005.
  • President
  • Salva Kiir Mayardit (continued)............09 Jul 2011 - date
  • On 11th Feb 2016, President Salva Kiir appoints Riek Machar as first vice president and James Wani Igga as second vice president.
 
 
Coinage: Currency: South Sudanese Pound (SSP) = 100 piasters.
From 01 Jan 1956 to 18 Jul 2011 Sudanese Pound (SDG) was used. The South Sudanese Pound (SSP) is now the official currency of the Republic of South Sudan. It is subdivided into 100 piasters. It was approved by the Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly before secession on 09 July 2011 from Sudan. It was introduced on 18 July 2011, and replaced the Sudanese pound at par.
The banknotes feature the image of John Garang, the deceased leader of South Sudan's independence movement.
Six different denominations (1, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 pounds) in the form of banknotes have been confirmed. Three new banknotes for 5, 10, and 25 piasters were issued 19 October 2011.
The first circulation coins of the South Sudanese pound denominated in 10, 20, and 50 Piasters were put into circulation on 09 July 2015 (South Sudanese fourth anniversary of Independence Day). Bimetallic coins denominated 1 Pound with Nubian giraffe and 2 Pounds with African Shield will follow soon afterwards.
 
2015
 

KM#1 10 piasters. Year: 2015. Weight: 3.45g. Metal: Copper-plated Steel. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN" written on the top section. Emblem in the center circle. Date at the bottom. Reverse: Value "10 PIASTERS" written at the top left section. Oil rig in the center. 17 triangles pointing towards the center circle. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#2 20 piasters. Year: 2015. Weight: 4.23g. Metal: Brass-plated Steel. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN" written on the top section. Emblem in the center circle. Date at the bottom. Reverse: Value "20 PIASTERS" written at the center left section. Shoebill stork standing on grass in the center, facing left. 18 triangles pointing towards the center circle. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#3 50 piasters. Year: 2015. Weight: 5.25g. Metal: Nickel-plated Steel. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Plain and Reeded (10 patches each). Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN" written on the top section. Emblem in the center circle. Date at the bottom. Reverse: Value "50 PIASTERS" written at the top section. Northern white rhino standing on rocks at the bottom, facing right. 13 triangles pointing towards the center circle. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#4 1 Pound. Year: 2015. Weight: 7.01g. Metal: Bi-metallic; Bronze-plated Steel in the center and Nickel-plated Steel in outer circle. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN" written on the top section. Emblem in the center circle. Date at the bottom. Reverse: Value "1 POUND" written at the top left section. Two Nubian giraffes standing in the center. 18 triangles pointing towards the center circle. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#5 2 Pounds. Year: 2015. Weight: 8.03g. Metal: Bi-metallic; Nickel-plated Steel in the center and Bronze-plated Steel in outer circle. Diameter: 26.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN" written on the top section. Emblem in the center circle. Date at the bottom. Reverse: Value "2 POUNDS" written at the top section. African Shield in the center. 25 triangles pointing towards the center circle. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.
 
 
Rebel Leaders
  • President of the Southern Sudan Liberation Front (SSLF)
    (from Aug 1971, Southern Sudan Liberation Movement [SSLM])
  • Joseph Lagu...........................................Oct 1969 - 28 Mar 1972
  • Chairman of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM)
  • John Garang de Maboir..............................05 Jun 1983 - 09 Jan 2005
Governments in Exile (Based in Kampala, Uganda)
  • President of the Southern Sudan Provisional Government
  • Aggrey Jaden.......................................15 Aug 1967 - 27 Mar 1969
  • President of the Nile Provisional Government (NPG)
  • Gordon Muortat Mayen..................................Mar 1969 - 23 Jul 1970
  • President of the Anyidi Revolutionary Government (in opposition to NPG)
  • Emilio Tafeng......................................15 Jul 1969 - Apr 1970
 
 
Lado [Capital: Rejaf (Redjaf)]
 
    May 1892  First Congolese expedition in the Bahr al-Ghazal.
 12 May 1894  British-Belgian Congolese Treaty. In order to prevent a French take over of
               the Bahr al-Ghazal and to open a "second front" against the Mahdists, the
               British leased for the lifetime of Leopold II the Bahr al-Ghazal
               (region between the Nile, Lake Albert, 10° Northern Latitude and
               25° Western Longitude) to Congo. The Congo agrees to only occupy the zone
               between the Nile, Lake Albert, 5°30' NL and 30° WL (later Lado district).
 17 Feb 1897  Mahdist tropos are defeated at Bedden Battle by the Congo Free State army
               led by Lt. Louis Chaltin. Congolese troops start occupying the territory.
               At first limited to the Lado Enclave, occupation later extends to other
               parts of Bahr al-Ghazal.
 19 Jan 1899  Britain proclaims the Bahr al-Ghazal a part of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
               Belgian Congolese presence and expansion continues.
 09 May 1906  British-Belgian Congolese Treaty, the lease of the Bahr al-Ghazal is
               canceled, only the Lado enclave remains leased to the Belgian Congo
               for King Leopold's lifetime.
 03 Aug 1907  Last Congolese troops leave Bahral-Ghazal (except Lado enclave).
 10 Jun 1910  Lado district handed over to Anglo-Egyptian Sudan government, part of
               Bahr al-Ghazal province.
 
  • Commandants Supérieur of Uele and the Lado Enclave
  • Louis Napoléon Chaltin (1st time)....................17 Feb 1897 - Nov 1897
  • Léon Charles Edouard Hanolet (1st time).................Nov 1897 - 15 Dec 1898
  • Jean Baptiste Josué Henry de la Lindi................15 Dec 1898 - 01 May 1900
  • Louis Napoléon Chaltin (2nd time)....................01 May 1900 - Mar 1902
  • Léon Charles Edouard Hanolet (2nd time).................Mar 1902 - Jan 1903
  • Georges François Wtterwulghe............................Jan 1903 - 24 Mar 1904
  • Florian Alexandre François Wacquez...................24 Mar 1904 - 1904
  • He was acting for Wtterwulghe to 08 May 1904.
  • Ferdinand, baron de Rennette Villers-Perwin.................1904 - May 1907
  • He was acting to Aug 1906.
  • Chief of the Lado Enclave Zone
  • Gustave Ferdinand Joseph Renier.............................1899 - 1900
  • Commandants of the Lado Enclave
  • Gustave Ferdinand Joseph Renier (continued).................1900 - Jan 1903
  • Albéric Constantin Édouard Bruneel......................Jan 1903 - Aug 1903
  • Henri Laurent Serexhe...................................Aug 1903 - Mar 1905
  • Guillaume Léopold Olaerts...............................Mar 1905 - Jan 1908
  • Léon Néstor Preud'homme.................................Jan 1908 - Apr 1909
  • Alexis Bertrand.........................................Apr 1909 - 1910
  • Charles Eugène Édouard de Meulenaer.........................1910 - Jun 1910
 
 
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