Comoro Islands (Comoros)
 

 
The Comoro Islands or Comoros (Shikomori Komori; Arabic: جزر القمر‎, Juzur al-Qumur / Qamar; French Les Comores) form an archipelago of volcanic islands situated in the Indian Ocean off the south-east coast of Africa, to the east of Mozambique and north-west of Madagascar and the French region of Mayotte. Officially known as the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, French: Union des Comores, Arabic: الاتحاد القمري‎ al-Ittiḥād al-Qumurī / Qamarī). The islet of Banc du Geyser and the Glorioso Islands are part of the archipelago. The islands are politically divided between Union of the Comoros (pop. 795,601) and two territories of France : the region of Mayotte (pop. 212,645) and the Glorioso Islands, a part of the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean, the 5th district of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands. The capital and largest city in Comoros is Moroni (Dzaoudzi 1887-1962; Chingoni 1841-1887). The religion of the majority of the population is Sunni Islam.
At 1,660 km2 (640 sq mi), excluding the contested island of Mayotte, the Comoros is the third-smallest African nation by area. As a nation formed at a crossroads of different civilisations, the archipelago is noted for its diverse culture and history. The archipelago was first inhabited by Bantu speakers who came from East Africa, supplemented by Arab and Austronesian immigration.
The sovereign state is an archipelago consisting of three major islands and numerous smaller islands, all in the volcanic Comoro Islands. The major islands are commonly known by their French names: northwestern-most Grande Comore (Ngazidja); Mohéli (Mwali); and Anjouan (Nzwani). In addition, the country has a claim on a fourth major island, southeastern-most Mayotte (Maore), though Mayotte voted against independence from France in 1974, has never been administered by an independent Comoros government, and continues to be administered by France (currently as an overseas department). France has vetoed United Nations Security Council resolutions that would affirm Comorian sovereignty over the island. In addition, Mayotte became an overseas department and a region of France in 2011 following a referendum passed overwhelmingly.
Territorial Disputes: Claims French-administered Mayotte and challenges France's and Madagascar's claims to Banc du Geyser, a drying reef in the Mozambique Channel. In May 2008, African Union forces were called in to assist the Comoros military recapture Anjouan Island from rebels who seized it in 2001.
 
                      1503  Comoros discovered by Portuguese explorers.
               25 Apr 1841  France annexes Mayotte (ratified 13 Jun 1843)
                             (Mayotte protectorate).
                      1886  Ngazidja (Grande Comore), Ndzuwani (Anjouan), and Mwali
                             (Mohéli) become French protectorates.
               05 Sep 1887  Renamed Protectorate of the Comoros.
               09 Apr 1908  Comoros a dependent territory of Madagascar.
               25 Jul 1912  Annexed by France (joined with Mayotte as Mayotte and
                             Dependencies); subordinated to Madagascar (de facto
                             23 Feb 1914).
 16 Jun 1940 - 25 Sep 1942  Administration loyal to Vichy France (from May 1943,
                             under Free French).
 25 Sep 1942 - 13 Oct 1946  British occupation (see Madagascar), French administration
                             continues.
               27 Oct 1946  Comoros overseas territory of France.
               22 Dec 1961  Autonomy (State of Comoros).
               06 Jul 1975  Independence (State of Comoros)(excluding Mayotte).
               31 Dec 1975  France recognizes Comoros independence.
               24 May 1978  Federal and Islamic Republic of Comoros.
 03 Aug 1997 - 14 Apr 2002  Secession of Anjouan (Ndzuwani)(not internationally
                             recognized).
 11 Aug 1997 - 1998         Secession of Mohéli (Mwali)(not internationally recognized).
               23 Dec 2001  New constitution approved by referendum, creating the
                             Union of Comoros.
               07 Jan 2002  Constitution.
 
 

 
The Comoro Islands are located in the Mozambique Channel to the north-west of Madagascar and facing Mozambique. These volcanic islands, covering a total area of 2361 km2, are as follows:
 
  • Grande Comore (also known as Ngazidja): the largest island of the Union of the Comoros, with its capital Moroni.
  • Anjouan (also known as Ndzuwani or Nzwani): part of the Union of the Comoros.
  • Mohéli (also known as Mwali): part of the Union of the Comoros.
  • Grande-Terre (also known as Maore or Mahori): part of the French overseas department of Mayotte, with its capital Mamoudzou.
  • Petite-Terre (also known as Pamanzi): Mayotte's second-largest island with the Dzaoudzi–Pamandzi International Airport.
  • The Glorioso Islands, comprising Grande Glorieuse, Île du Lys and eight small rock islets, were administratively attached to the archipelago before 1975, and, geologically speaking, form a part of the archipelago. These Islands are administrated by France.

Notable reefs that are part of the archipelago are as follows:

  • Banc Vailheu, or Raya, a submerged volcano located 20 km west of Grand Comoro.
  • Banc du Geyser (also Banc du Geysir), a reef measuring 8 by 5 km in area, situated 130 km North-East of Grande-Terre. It is controlled by France. Banc du Geyser is a mostly submerged reef in the Mozambique Channel's northeastern part, 125 km (78 mi) northeast from Mayotte, 112 km (70 mi) southwest of the Glorioso Islands, and 200 km (124 mi) off the northwestern coast of Madagascar.
  • Banc du Leven, a former island between Madagascar and Grande-Terre which is now submerged.
 
ANJOUAN (Ndzuwani)
 
An island in the Comoros, about 340 miles (545 km.) west of the northern tip of Madagascar, and 280 miles (450 km.) east of northern Mozambique. Capital: Mutsamudu (formerly Domoni).
 
                      1500  Ndzuwani sultanate founded.
               21 Apr 1886  French protectorate of Comoros.
               25 Jul 1912  Annexed by France.
               03 Aug 1997  Secession from Comoros (State of Anjouan)
                             (not internationally recognized).
               26 Oct 1997  Referendum endorses independence.
               10 Mar 2002  New constitution approved by referendum, establishing
                             Anjouan as an autonomous part of the Union of Comoros.
                            (Autonomous Island of Anjouan).
 10 Mar 2002 - Feb 2012     Constitution.
 
  • Sultans (also styled Phany)
  • Muhammad I..........................................c. 1500 - c. 1506
  • Hasan...............................................c. 1506 - ?
  • Muhammad II
  • Alimah I (female)........................................ ? - c. 1590
  • Hussein.............................................c. 1590 - c. 1610
  • Alimah II (female)..................................c. 1610 - c. 1676
  • Alimah III (female).................................c. 1676 - c. 1711
  • Sheikh Salim........................................c. 1711 - 1741 d. 1741
  • Sheikh Saidi Ahmad.....................................1741 - 1782
  • Abdallah I (1st time)..................................1782 - 1788
  • Halimah (female).......................................1788 - 1792
  • Abdallah I (2nd time)..................................1792 - 1796
  • Alawi I bin Husain "Mwinye Fani".......................1796 - 1816
  • Abdallah II bin Alawi I (1st time).....................1816 - 1832 d. 1836
  • Ali bin Salim..........................................1832 - 1833
  • Abdallah II bin Alawi I (2nd time).....................1833 - 1836
  • Saidi Alawi II bin Abdullah II.........................1836 - 1837 d. 1842
  • Salim I bin Alawi II...................................1837 - 1852
  • Saidi Abdallah III bin Salim I.........................1852 - 02 Feb 1891
  • France.................................................1866 - 1975
    • Salim II bin Abdallah III.....................Feb 1891 - 02 Apr 1891 d. 1891
    • Saidi Omar bin Saidi Hasan.................02 Apr 1891 - 14 Apr 1892 d. 1892
    • Saidi Muhammad bin Saidi Omar..............14 Apr 1892 - 25 Jul 1912 d. 1931
    • French Residents (subordinated to the administrators of Mayotte)
    • Théodore Troupel...........................02 Aug 1886 - Nov 1888 d. 1897
    • Louis Auguste Bertrand Ormières...............Nov 1888 - 30 May 1895 d. 1914
    • Jean Baptiste Castaing (acting for Ormières)......1892 - 189. d. 1915
  • Within Colony of Madagascar............................1914 - 1946
  • Comoros................................................1975 - 2002 opposed by...
  • Republic of Nzwani..............................03 Aug 1997 - 10 Mar 2002
  • President
  • Foundi Abdallah Ibrahim.........................05 Aug 1997 - 01 Aug 1999
    • Prime ministers
    • Chamasse Said Omar.........................08 Mar 1998 - 07 Jul 1998
    • Abdou Mohamed Mhindi.......................19 Jul 1998 - Dec 1998
    • Abdou Mohammed Hussain........................Dec 1998 - Jan 1999
  • Heads of state
  • Said Abeid Abderemane (Military)................01 Aug 1999 - 09 Aug 2001
  • He was National Coordinator to 22 Aug 1999.
  • Presidium
  • Halidi Charif (Military)........................10 Aug 2001 - 25 Aug 2001 with..
  • Mohamed Bacar (Military)........................10 Aug 2001 - 25 Aug 2001 and...
  • Hassan Ali Toilha (Military)....................10 Aug 2001 - 25 Aug 2001
  • Mohamed Bacar (continued).......................25 Aug 2001 - 14 Apr 2002
  • Ahmed Aboubacar Foundi..........................24 Sep 2001 - 25 Sep 2001
  • He was premier chef d'autorité de l'île, in rebellion.
  • Autonomous unit within Union of Comoros.........10 Mar 2002 - date
  • Presidents
  • Mohamed Bacar (continued).......................14 Apr 2002 - 28 Apr 2007
  • He ruled from political party MPA = Mouvement Populaire Anjouanais (Anjouan People's Movement, Anjouan separatist, est.1997)
  • Kaambi Houmadi (interim)........................28 Apr 2007 - 11 May 2007
  • He was overthrown by forces loyal to Bacar on 10 May.
  • Dhoihirou Halidi (interim)......................11 May 2007 - 14 Jun 2007
  • Mohamed Bacar (2nd time)........................14 Jun 2007 - 25 Mar 2008
  • Peace talks were held between the Comorian and Anjouan governments whereby they agreed to hold free elections in which Mohamed Bacar would stand. Although the Union government delayed the election, citing alleged irregularities and intimidation. Bacar unilaterally printed ballots and held an illegal election in June. The result, due to electoral fraud, was an overwhelming victory of 90 percent. In July 2007, Bacar once again declared the island of Anjouan to be independent of the Comoros. In February 2008, the Comoros rejected the African Union's extended sanctions against Anjouan and instead opted for a military solution. In early March, the Comoros armed forces and around 400 international reinforcements from the African Union assembled on the island of Mohéli. Hostilities began on March 11, when Comorian forces staged an armed incursion on the island. Mohamed Bacar managed to escape to Mayotte by 26 March to seek political asylum. He was subsequently held in custody there by the French administration and brought to the island of Réunion, where he was charged for entering French territory illegally and possession of weapons. On 15 May, France rejected Bacar's request for asylum but the French refugee office ruled that the ousted leader could not be extradited to Comoros because of the risk of persecution. France's State Secretary for Overseas, Yves Jégo, said France would support the Comorian government's efforts. "We will continue to act in consultation with the Comoros so that the law can be applied and Col Bacar can be tried". On June 24, 2008, the Saint-Denis Court of Appeal ruled against extraditing Bacar to the Comoros. With all his appeals exhausted, Bacar, his brother, and two of his men were expelled from Réunion on the morning of July 19. They were taken to Cotonou, Benin, on a French government flight; the Beninese government had agreed to allow Bacar to stay in Benin. Bacar said that on this occasion that he intended to stay there for as long as his presence was allowed, and he expressed a desire to "reflect on our past errors". Comorian government spokesman Abdourahim Said Bakar said that the government was "disappointed" by the expulsion of Bacar to Benin, reiterating the government's position that he should face trial in the Comoros or before an international court.
  • Ikililou Dhoinine (provisional).................26 Mar 2008 - 31 Mar 2008
  • Lailizamane Abdou Cheik (interim)...............31 Mar 2008 - 07 Jul 2008
  • Moussa Toybou...................................07 Jul 2008 - 23 May 2009
  • Governors
  • Moussa Toybou (continued).......................23 May 2009 - 23 May 2011
  • Anissi Chamsidine...............................23 May 2011 - 23 May 2016
  • Abdou Salami Abdou..............................23 May 2016 - date
  • He is under arrest from 21 Oct 2018.
  • Abdallah Mohamed (administrator)................08 Nov 2018 - date
  • Comoros President, Azali Assoumani appoints Abdallah Mohamed as administrator of Anjouan, Governor Abdou Salami Abdou being in detention since 25 October 2018. The result of election on 24 March 2019, Anissi Chamsidine 67.9%, Nassimou Ahamadi 20.2%; turnout 67.4%.
 
 
MOHÉLI (Mwali)
 
One of the Comoro Islands group, 40 miles (65 km.) southeast of Gran Comoro and an equal distance west of Anjouan. It was governed 1997-2002 by a secessionist movement. Capital: Fomboni.
 
                      1830  Migrants from Madagascar establish Mwali as a
                             separate sultanate; previously Mwali was subject to Anjouan.
               26 Apr 1886  French protectorate.
                      1889  The residency of Mohéli was suppressed. The Sultanate became
                             dependent of the Residents of Anjouan.
                      1909  Annexed by France.
                      1912  Sultanate abolished by colonial authority, part of Comoros.
 11 Aug 1997 - 1998          Secession from Comoros (Democratic Republic of Mwali)
                             (not internationally recognized).
               10 Mar 2002  New constitution approved by referendum, establishing Moheli
                             an autonomous part of the Union of Comoros
                             (Autonomous Island of Moheli).
 
  • Sultans
  • Abd-er Rahman I (Abderremane)..........................1828 - 1842 d. 1842
  • He was earlier known as Ramanetaka.
  • Jumbe Fatima (female, 1st time)........................1842 - 1865 d. 1878
  • She was known as Raketaka Jombe Sudy and from 1851, Jumbe Fatima bint Abderremane.
    • Rovao (female, co-regent 1842-47, sole regent)....1842 - 26 May 1849
    • Tsivandini (co-regent)............................1842 - 1847
  • Muhammad bin Saidi Hamadi Makadara.................Sep 1865 - 1874
    • Jumbe Fatima (female regent, 2nd time)........Sep 1865 - 1868
    • Joseph Lambert duc d'Imerina (regent).............1868 - Jan 1871 d. 1873
  • Jumbe Fatima (fem. - 3rd time, regent until 1874)..Jan 1871 - 1878
  • Abd-er Rahman II (Abderremane bin Saidi Hamadi)........1878 - 1885 d. 1885
  • Muhammad Shekhe........................................1885 - 1886
  • France.................................................1886 - 1975
  • Marjani bin Abudu Shekhe...............................1886 - 1888
  • Salima Machamba bint Saidi Hamadi (female).............1888 - 1909 d. 1964
  • She never took office.
    • Fadeli bin Othman (co-regent).....................1888 - 1889
    • Balia Juma (female, co-regent)....................1888 - 1889
    • Abudu Tsivandini (co-regent)......................1888 - 1889
    • Mahmudu bin Mohamed Makadara (regent).............1889 - 1897 d. 1898
  • Salima Machada never assumed office. When Mahmudu resigned in 1897, Mohéli was governed solely by French Residents at Anjouan, until 1912, when all the islands were annexed by France as Mayotte and Dependencies, and then subordinated to Madagascar two years later.
  • French residents (subordinated to the governors etc. of Mayotte)
  • Louis Hyacinthe Désiré Jules Vincent..................1886 - 1887 d. 1894
  • Germain Barneaud (1st time - acting)..................1887 - 1888
  • Edmond Édouard Regnot.................................1888 - 1889 d. 1891
  • Germain Barneaud (2nd time - acting).........................1889
  • Residents of Anjouan..................................1889 - 1912
  • Gustave Adolphe Paul Emile Dufour..............07 Apr 1897 - 1898
  • He represented the resident of Anjouan.
  • Within Colony of Madagascar...........................1914 - 1946
  • Comoros...............................................1975 - 1997 opposed by...
  • Republic of Mwali.....................................1997 - 2002
  • President
  • Said Mohamed Souef.............................11 Aug 1997 - 1998
    • Prime minister
    • Soidri Ahmed..............................11 Aug 1997 - 1998
  • Autonomous within the Union of Comoros................2002 - date
  • Constitution written in French: 10 March 2002.
  • Presidents
  • Mohamed Said Fazul (1st time)..................19 May 2002 - 19 May 2007
  • Vacant: 19 May 2007 - 22 May 2007.
  • Youssouf El-Farouk (interim)...................22 May 2007 - 01 Jul 2007
  • Mohamed Ali Said...............................01 Jul 2007 - 23 May 2009
  • Governors
  • Mohamed Ali Said (continued)...................23 May 2009 - 23 May 2016
  • Mohamed Said Fazul (2nd time)..................23 May 2016 - date
  • He takes leave as required by the constitution due to his candidacy in the coming election. The result of election on 24 March 2019, Said Baco Attoumane 36.3%, incumbent Mohamed Said Fazul 35.1%, Djabir Abdou 11.8%; turnout 61.1%. First round; runoffs to be held on 21 April 2019.
  • Youssouf Said Moissi (acting)..................13 Feb 2019 - date
 
 
NGAZIDJA (Grande Comore)
 
Grande Comore (Swahili: Ngazidja) is an island in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa. Largest and westernmost of the Comoros Island group, about 440 miles (700 km.) west of the northern tip of Madagascar and roughly 200 miles (320 km.) east of northern Mozambique. Most of its population is of the Comorian ethnic group. The island's capital is Moroni, which is also the national capital. The island is made up of two shield volcanoes, with Mount Karthala being the country's highest point at 2,361 m (7,746 ft) above sea level. According to the 2009 revision of the constitution of 2002, it is governed by an elected Governor, as are the other islands, with the federal government being much reduced in power. The name Ngazidja is sometimes seen in the now nonstandard form Njazidja.
 
                      1886  The ruler of Bambao unifies the island (the local rulers
                            retaining their titles) into the State of Ngazidja.
               24 Jun 1886  Ngazidja a French protectorate.
               06 Jan 1892  Local sultanates suppressed.
                      1911  Annexed by France (officially ratified 23 Feb 1914).
               06 Jul 1975  Part of independent Comoros.
 07 Apr 2002 - 20 Mar 2010  New constitution approved by referendum, establishing
                             Grande Comore as an autonomous part of the Union of Comoros
                             (Autonomous Island of Grand Comore).
 
Before the coming of the Europeans, Gran Comoro was partitioned among 11 small local Sultanates (Bajini, Bambao, Hamahame, Hamamvu, Hambu, Itsandra, La Dombe, Mbaku, Mbude, Mitsamihuli, Washili); generally, one of these held the style of Tibe, Paramount Ruler.
Note: Some rulers of Bambao and of Itsandra acquired the paramount-ruler style tibe. These are marked (tibe #), where # indicates the order in which they held it.
 
  • Bajini (Badgini)
  • Inya Mdombozi dynasty - Sultans (also styled mfalme)
  • Mwenye Bamba I
  • Bamba Jumbe
  • Tambe Mbafu wa Fum Nau
  • Ju Mamba Oma wa Mla Nau
  • Mwambatsi
  • Ju Mamba Oma wa Mla Nau and Mwambatsi ruled together.
  • Mwenye Bamba II
  • Bamba Oma
  • Suja Oma wa Tambwe
  • Shekani
  • Bamba Oma, Suja Oma wa Tambwe and Shekani, all three ruled together.
  • Fumu Oma
  • Oma wa Dari................................................ ? - 1884 d. 1884
  • Fumu Oma and Oma wa Dari ruled together.
  • Ja Mhaba (female)
  • Hashimu bin Ahmed (1st time) d. 1889
  • Hadija bint Ahmed (female)
  • Hashimu bin Ahmed (2nd time).............................188. - 1886
  • Hashimu bin Ahmed (3rd time)....................................1889
  • Bambao
  • Inya Mwatsoa Pirusa dynasty - Sultans (also styled mfalme [plural wafalme])
  • Ngoma Mrahafu
  • Mwasi Pirusa
  • Fum Mbavu Inkwaba
  • Mwenye Mji wa Mwenye Mambo
  • Inye wa Mantsi
  • Mwenye Mji wa Mwanze
  • Tambavu mna Muhame wa Saidi
  • Tambavu Inkwaba
  • Inya Fey wa Mbaya dynasty
  • Fum Nau wa Kori Dozi (tibe i)
  • He was Sultan of Bambao and Itsandra.
  • Inya Mwatsoa Pirusa dynasty
  • Mwenye Mji wa Mvunza Panga
  • Mla Nau (tibe ii)
  • Fozi Wa
  • Suja Oma Inkwaba
  • Nyau wa Faume (female)
  • Bamba Oma wa Ju Mamba (1st time)
  • Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome (1st time) (tibe iv)
  • He was born in c.1793 and died in 1875.
  • Bamba Oma wa Ju Mamba (2nd time)
  • Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome (2nd time)
  • Saidi Bakari
  • Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome (3rd time)...........................? - 1875
  • Mwenye Mambo
  • Ju Mamba
  • Mohamed bin Ahmed (1st time)
  • Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome (4th time) (tibe x)
  • Abdallah bin Saidi Hamza (1st time)
  • Mohamed bin Ahmed (2nd time)....................................1874 ?
  • Mwenye Mji (1st time)
  • Abdallah bin Saidi Hamza (2nd time)
  • Saidi Bakari bin Ahmed (1st time)
  • Mwenye Mji (2nd time)
  • Abdallah bin Saidi Hamza (3rd time)
  • Saidi Bakari bin Ahmed (2nd time)
  • Saidi Ali bin Saidi Omar (tibe xv).....................c. 1875 - 1886
  • He was born in c.1856 and died in 1916.
  • Hamahame - Subordinated to Itsandra.
  • Inya Fu Wemba dynasty - Sultans (also styled mfalme)
  • Nye Hila
  • Haji wa No Fumu
  • Suja Oma Mshinda Kodo
  • Jumbe Fumu Madi
  • Bwana Haji Musa
  • Simai
  • Dari Oma
  • Fumu Oma wa Nasiri
  • Suja Oma wa Fumu
  • Mba Fumu wa Bwana Haji
  • Suja Oma Bwana
  • Hamamvu
  • Sultans (also styled mfalme)
  • list of rulers are unknown.
  • Hambu
  • Inya Mba Mro dynasty - Sultans (also styled mfalme)
  • Beja Mbuyuni
  • Nau wa Migira
  • Nau wa Moro
  • Fumu Nau
  • Yasi Azi
  • Demani Mtango
  • Fumu Jimba wa Idimani
  • Madi Jimbwa wa Tangwe
  • Dari wa Mla Nau
  • Madi Jimbwa wa Tangwe and Dari wa Mla Nau ruled together.
  • Jumbe Fumu wa Suja Oma Inkwaba
  • Suja Oma wa Tambwe
  • Mrunda Mijo
  • Fey Mwando wa Tambwe
  • Mrunda Mijo and Fey Mwando wa Tambwe ruled together.
  • Bamba Oma wa Ju Mamba
  • Tambwe wa Hinye
  • Abudu bin Mohamed bin Sultani
  • Bamba Oma wa Oma
  • Abudu bin Mohamed bin Sultani and Bamba Oma wa Oma ruled together.
  • Itsandra
  • Inya Fey wa Mbaya dynasty - Sultans (also styled mfalme)
  • Fey Owa Mbaya
  • Fey Mwenza
  • Fey Jumbe
  • Ju Mwamba Pirusa
  • Zombe Ilingo
  • Nguzo wa Inehili
  • Tibe wa Kanzu
  • Mkongo
  • Mna Musa Hibu
  • Muhammadi Saidi
  • Mvunza Panga
  • Fey Beja wa Wabeja (female)
  • Fum Nau wa Kori Dozi (tibe i)
  • He was Sultan of Bambao and Itsandra.
  • Fey Fumu (1st time) (tibe iii)
  • Bwana Fumu (1st time) (tibe v)
  • Fey Fumu (2nd time) (tibe vi)
  • Bwana Fumu (2nd time) (tibe vii)
  • Fey Fumu (3rd time) (tibe viii)
  • Fum Mbavu (tibe ix)
  • Musa Fumu wa Fey Fumu (1st time) (tibe xi) d. 1883
  • Tibe Bamba (1st time) (tibe xii)
  • Musa Fumu wa Fey Fumu (2nd time) (tibe xiii)
  • Tibe Bamba (2nd time) (tibe xiv)
  • Musa Fumu wa Fey Fumu (3rd time)
  • Tibe Bamba (3rd time)
  • Musa Fumu wa Fey Fumu (4th time)
  • Tibe Bamba (4th time)
  • Kalega
  • La Dombe
  • Sultans (also styled mfalme)
  • Febeja Mambwe
  • Mbaku
  • Sultans (also styled mfalme)
  • Bwana Fumu
  • Mbude (M'Budé)
  • Subordinated to Itsandra...............................c.1860 - 1872
  • Subordinated to Bambao...................................1872 - 1873
  • Subordinated to Itsandra.................................1873 - 1880
  • Subordinated to Bambao...................................1880 - 1892
  • Inya Mwatsoa Udhiwa dynasty - Sultans (also styled mfalme)
  • Msa Mwinza
  • Bamba
  • Lwali
  • Jumbe Fumu wa Tambwe
  • Dari Mbamba
  • Mwandhi Oma wa Jumbe Fumu
  • Bamba Oma wa Suja Funu
  • Jumbe Fumu Mna Mango
  • Bamba wa Madi Jimba
  • Jumbe Fumu wa Sinai
  • Mitsamihuli
  • Inya Mwatsoa Pirusa dynasty - Sultans (also styled mfalme)
  • Mahame Msahi
  • Fozi wa Mahame
  • Mbantsi
  • Ju Mambu Madi wa Musa Fumu
  • Jumbe Fumu Mfaume wa Domba (1st time)
  • Kori Dazi
  • Jumbe Fumu Mfaume wa Domba and Kori Dazi ruled together.
  • Jumbe Fumu Mfaume wa Domba (2nd time)
  • Tambavu wa Jumbe Fumu
  • Jumbe Fumu Mfaume wa Domba and Tambavu wa Jumbe Fumu ruled together.
  • Fozi Wa
  • Suja Fumu Mbamba
  • Mba Fumu wa Jumbe Fumu
  • Suja Fumu Mbamba and Mba Fumu wa Jumbe Fumu ruled together.
  • Msa Fumu wa Tambwe
  • Jumbe Fumu wa Jumbe Mfumu
  • Msa Fumu wa Tambwe and Jumbe Fumu wa Jumbe Mfumu ruled together.
  • Mbandhi wa Bwana Haji
  • Abdallah bin Ahmed
  • Mbandhi wa Bwana Haji
  • Abdallah bin Ahmed and Mbandhi wa Bwana Haji ruled together.
  • Bwana Fumu......................................................1886 ?
  • Washili (Oichili) - Subordinated to Itsandra.
  • Inya Maoni Yambao dynasty, later Inya Fu Wemba dynasty - Sultans (also styled mfalme)
  • Mohama Mdume wa Beja
  • Fey Zinda wa Mawana
  • Fey Zinda wa Makasara
  • Tambwe Msa Fumu
  • Tambwe wa Habadi
  • Tambwe Msa Fumu and Tambwe wa Habadi ruled together.
  • Jumbe Fumu wa Mlala Bwani
  • Tambwe No Fumu wa Mla Nau.......................................c.1760
  • He was born in 1735 and died in 1815.
  • Ju Mwamba Mwenye Majini
  • Mba Fumu wa Suja Fumu Bamba
  • Shekhe Salim
  • Mba Fumu wa Suja Fumu Bamba and Shekhe Salim ruled together.
  • Mavunzanga
  • Tibe Mle
  • Abudu
 
In 1841 the island of Mayotte was made a French colony. The French, the British and the Germans wanted to exercise power and trade on the Commores. In 1886, the island of Ngazidja or (Grande Comore in French) comprised nine sultanates. Saidi Ali bin Saidi Omar, the ruler of Bambao unifies the island (the local rulers retaining their titles) into the State of Ngazidja. But on 24 June 1886, the Sultan (paramount ruler and Sultan) of Bambao usurped the other sultanates and signed a treaty with French, granting France rights over the entire island. Ndzuwani (Anjouan), and Mwali sultanate (Mohéli island in French) became French protectorates the same year and a French résident was posted to each of the three islands.
  • Sultani tibe
  • Saidi Ali bin Saidi Omar.................................1886 - 1911
  • In 1892 Sultan Said Ali bin Said Omar was banished to Réunion. He was in exile from 19 Sep 1893 to Diégo-Suarez and then from 1897 in Réunion. On 09 April 1908, France declared the Comoros a single territory (Mayotte and dependencies) and attached it to the colony of Madagascar. Said Ali bin Said Omar went to court. The French judges awarded him a compensation for his losses. Saidi Ali ibn Saidi Omar died on 10 February 1916 in Tamatave (Toamasina) on Madagascar. His son, Crown prince Said Houssein joined the French Foreign Legion on 04 August 1916.
  • French Residents (subordinated to the administrators of Mayotte)
  • Louis Edmond Weber...................................Nov 1886 - Dec 1887
  • Jules Le Corney......................................Jan 1888 - Nov 1888
  • Claude Jean Henri Pupier.............................Nov 1888 - Nov 1889
  • Henry Joseph Léon Humblot............................Nov 1889 - Jun 1896 d. 1914
  • He was known as "the White Sultan".
  • Eugène Louis Frédéric Decazes........................Jun 1896 - Nov 1897 d. 1913
  • Charles Henri Olivier Pobéguin.......................Nov 1897 - Apr 1899 d. 1951
  • Emilien Célestin Nicolas du Plantier.................Apr 1899 - Sep 1899
  • Jean Louis Edmond Alby...............................Sep 1899 - Dec 1899 d. 1948
  • de Bellemare.........................................Dec 1899 - Apr 1900
  • Évariste Paul Sallefranque...........................Apr 1900 - Aug 1900 d. 1943
  • Alexis Joseph Gratian................................Aug 1900 - Jul 1901
  • François Henri Félix Veisseyre.......................Jul 1901 - Aug 1902
  • René Pierre..........................................Aug 1902 - Apr 1903
  • Mainguy (acting).....................................May 1903 - Sep 1903
  • Louis Célestin Jean Baptiste Lemaire.................Sep 1903 - Oct 1903
  • Massol...............................................Oct 1903 - Apr 1904
  • Louis Victor Ferdinand Feuillard.....................May 1904 - Dec 1904
  • Carten...............................................Jan 1905 - Jun 1907
  • Pierre Martin (1st time).............................Jun 1907 - Jun 1909
  • Ernest Philippe François Lachat......................Jun 1909 - May 1911 d. 1950
  • Pierre Martin (2nd time).............................May 1911 - 1912
  • Presidents
  • Abdou Soulé Elbak.................................29 May 2002 - 28 May 2007
  • Soulé Ahamada Mroivili (acting)...................26 May 2007 - 29 May 2007
  • Soudjay Hamadi (interim)..........................30 May 2007 - 30 Jun 2007
  • Mohamed Abdoulwahab...............................30 Jun 2007 - 23 May 2009
  • Governors
  • Mohamed Abdoulwahab (continued)...................23 May 2009 - 23 May 2011
  • Mouigni Baraka Said Soilihi.......................23 May 2011 - 23 May 2016
  • Hassani Hamadi....................................23 May 2016 - date
  • The result of election on 24 March 2019, Mhoudine Sitti Farouata 38.5%, Aboudou Soefou 23.1%, Youssouf Mohamed Boina 17.2%; turnout 55.5%.
  • Abdourahim Said Bacar (acting for Hamadi).........13 Feb 2019 - date
 
Currency: Franc = 100 centimes (Santīmāt).
The coins were issued in AH 1308 (1891) for Njazidja (Grande Comore) by Sultan Saidi Ali bin Saidi Omar.
 

KM#1.1 5 centimes. Year: AH 1308 (1891). Weight: 4.89g [5.00g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monnaie de Paris (mintmark: Fasces).
Obverse: "٥" (5) written at the top right side, Star at the center top position and "س" (S) written at the top left side. "دولة نجزيجة" (State of Ngazidja) written as first two lines. "حرسها اللة" (God guard it) written as third line in Arabic. "سنة" (Year) with Date "١٣٠٨" (1308) written at the bottom. Wreath surrounds the legends and Date with knot at the bottom. Reverse: "يجة" (wage) written in Arabic at the top within the center beaded circle. "سلطان انجز سيد علي ابن سيد عمر" (Sultan of Ngazidja Said Ali ibn Said Omar) written in Arabic as last three line within the center beaded / dotted circle. "حماية دولة فرنسا الفخيمة" (The protection of the French state) written in Arabic starting at 6 o'clock in circular form outside the beaded center circle. A stylized lily at the bottom. Mintmark "Fasces" at 5 o'clock near the border. Mintage: 100,200. Minted Years: One year type with two different mint marks. Engraver: Henri Auguste Jules Patey.

Henri Auguste Jules Patey (09 September 1855, Paris – June 1930, Paris) was a French sculptor, medallist and coin engraver.
Patey studied sculpture with Henri Chapu and engraving and medal making with Jules-Clément Chaplain. He was admitted to the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in 1873. In 1875, he won the second Prix de Rome for medal engraving and in 1881 he won the first Grand prix de Rome, also for medal engraving. He won further prizes in 1886 (third), 1887 (second) and 1894 (first). At the Universal Exhibition of 1889 he won a bronze medal. He produced many portrait medals, not only of clients, but also of relatives and friends. He also authored decorations and patterns.
He succeeded Jean Lagrange as chief engraver of the Paris mint in 1896, a position he held until his death. In 1898, he became a knight of the Légion d'honneur. He used a torch as his privy mark. In this position, Patey designed the France 25 Centimes 1903-1904 in Nickel. This piece was generally rejected. It was the first Nickel coin in France. The white metal was taken for silver and the coin confused with the 1 franc, in spite of a completely different design. Coin of 25 centimes with a different design and shape (22-sided) dated 1904-1908 were not accepted either. He did not design any other coins for France after this double disappointments. Copper-nickel coins succeeded only in 1914, when holed coins were produced. However, he designed coins for French colonial and foreign coins: Cameroon (1924-1926), French Indo China 5 centimes (1923-1943), Guadeloupe (1903, 1921), Kingdom of Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia (1925), Thailand: 1 baht 1908, Togo (1924-1926) and possibly coins for the Comoros, Syria and Lebanon struck at the Paris mint. He was a member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts from 1913. Henri-Auguste Patey died in 1930.

KM#1.2 5 centimes. Year: AH 1308 (1891). Weight: 4.90g [5.00g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monnaie de Paris (mintmark: Torch). Mintage: 200,000.
Note: Same as above coin but mintmark "Torch" at 5 o'clock near the border on the Obverse side.

KM#2.2 10 centimes. Year: AH 1308 (1891). Weight: 9.53g [10.00g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 30.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monnaie de Paris (mintmark: Torch).
Obverse: "١٠" (10) written at the top right side, Star at the center top position and "س" (S) written at the top left side. "دولة نجزيجة" (State of Ngazidja) written as first two lines. "حرسها اللة" (God guard it) written as third line in Arabic. "سنة" (Year) with Date "١٣٠٨" (1308) written at the bottom. Wreath surrounds the legends and Date with knot at the bottom. Reverse: "يجة" (wage) written in Arabic at the top within the center beaded circle. "سلطان انجز سيد علي ابن سيد عمر" (Sultan of Ngazidja Said Ali ibn Said Omar) written in Arabic as last three line within the center beaded / dotted circle. "حماية دولة فرنسا الفخيمة" (The protection of the French state) written in Arabic starting at 6 o'clock in circular form outside the beaded center circle. A stylized lily at the bottom. Mintmark "Torch" at 5 o'clock near the border. Mintage: 100,000. Minted Years: One year type with two different mint marks. Engraver: Henri Auguste Jules Patey.

Note: KM#2.1 10 centimes exists with mintmark: Fasces with mintage: 50,200.

Also a very rare silver coin belong to this set:

KM# 3 / Lec# 10 / Schön# 3 / Dav# 9 5 Francs AH 1308 (1891). 0.900 Silver. Weight: 25.00 g. Diameter: 37.25 mm. Mintage: 2,050.

 
 
French Comoros
  • On 09 April 1908, France declared the Comoros a single territory (Mayotte and dependencies) and attached it to the colony of Madagascar.
  • Administrators
  • Administrators of Mayotte.........................24 Jun 1886 - 25 Jul 1912
  • On 25 July 1912, the protectorate was abolished and Ngazidja, along with the three other islands, was annexed by France and the entire archipelago was constituted as a province of Madagascar. This was ratified on 23 February 1914.
  • Gabriel Samuel Garnier-Mouton.....................25 Jul 1912 - 21 Feb 1913 d. 1914
  • Honoré Lucien Cartron.............................21 Feb 1913 - 23 Feb 1914 d. 1937
  • Province of Madagascar............................23 Feb 1914 - 13 Oct 1946
  • Administrators-superior
  • Eugène Alain Charles Louis Alaniou................24 Oct 1946 - 31 Dec 1948 d. 1969
  • Roger Marie Adolphe Emmanuel Roger Rémy (acting)..31 Dec 1948 - Dec 1950 d. 1992
  • Pierre Léonard Alphonse Coudert......................Dec 1950 - 21 Apr 1956 d. 1970
  • Georges Victor Maurice Arnaud.....................21 Apr 1956 - 30 Jun 1959 d. 1971
  • He was acting to 11 Feb 1958.
  • Georges Gabriel Joseph Savignac (acting)..........30 Jun 1959 - 14 Dec 1960 d. 1987
  • Louis Joseph Édouard Saget........................14 Dec 1960 - 27 Feb 1962 d. 2010
  • High Commissioners
  • Louis Joseph Édouard Saget (continued)............27 Feb 1962 - 22 May 1962
  • Yves de Daruvar...................................22 May 1962 - 15 Feb 1963 d. 2018
  • Henri Joseph Marie Bernard........................15 Feb 1963 - 26 Jul 1966 d. 2000
  • Antoine Padoua Colombani..........................26 Jul 1966 - Nov 1969 d. 2007
  • Jacques Mouradian....................................Nov 1969 - 1973 d. 1992
  • Georges Poulet...........................................1973 - 1974 d. 2008
  • Henri Charles Beaux......................................1974 - Jul 1975
Currency: 1925-1945: Madagascar Franc (MGG). 1945-1975: Madagascar-Comores CFA Franc (XMCF).
The French franc became the currency of Comoros after the islands became a French protectorate in 1886. In 1891, Sultan Said Ali bin Said Omar of Grande Comore, Ngazidja issued coins denominated in centimes and francs which circulated alongside French currency. In 1912, the Comoros became a province of Madagascar, which was a French possession. French banknotes and coins circulated in the colony. Apart from an emergency issue of small change notes in 1920, the French currency circulated alone until 1925.
On 01 July 1925, the French government formed an agreement with the Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas to create the Banque de Madagascar, headquartered in Paris, and granted it a private monopoly to issue currency for the colony of Madagascar. The Malagasy franc (French: franc malgache) was equivalent to the French franc and French coins continued to circulate as Madagascar had no coins of its own until 1943.
When the Comoros became a separate French territory in 1945, the name of the issuing bank was changed to the Banque de Madagascar et des Comores (still headquartered in Paris). A branch office opened in Comoros in 1953. While the banknotes were changed to reflect the new status of Comoros, the coins were not changed and bore only the name Madagascar. On 26 December 1945, the Madagascar-Comores CFA franc (XMCF) was established to replace the Madagascar  franc and its value was fixed at 1.7 French francs. Old Madagascar coins and banknotes continued to circulate as this new currency. On 17 October 1948, the CFA franc was revalued to 2 French francs.
In 1950, the French government took over majority ownership of the Banque de Madagascar et des Comores. On 01 January 1960, the French franc was revalued, with 100 old francs becoming 1 new franc. (Décret n°59-1450 du 22 décembre 1959) The new exchange rate was 1 Madagascar-Comores CFA franc = 0.02 French francs (50 Madagascar-Comores CFA francs = 1 French franc).
On 26 June 1960, Madagascar gained independence from France, and the Institut d'Émission Malgache (headquartered in Antananarivo) was created to issue currency only for Madagascar. Madagascar left the CFA zone effective 01 July 1973.
 
1964
 

KM#4 / Schön#4 Franc. Year: 1964. Weight: 1.28g [1.30g]. Metal: Aluminum. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monnaie de Paris (mintmark: owl).

Note: EASSI (pattern) issue exists as KM#E1 with mintage: 1,700.

 
 

 

   
   
   
   
   
 
Comoros (Independent)
  • Vice president of the Government Council
  • Mohamed Ahmed..................................13 Aug 1957 - 01 Jan 1962 d. 1984
  • Presidents of the Government Council
  • Said Mohamed Cheikh............................01 Jan 1962 - 16 Mar 1970 d. 1970
  • Said Ibrahim Ben Ali...........................02 Apr 1970 - 16 Jun 1972 d. 1975
  • Said Mohamed Jaffar............................16 Jun 1972 - 26 Dec 1972 d. 1993
  • Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane......................26 Dec 1972 - 06 Jul 1975 d. 1989
  • Presidents (State of Comoros)
  • Comoros becomes independent from France on 06 July 1975.
  • Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane (continued)..........06 Jul 1975 - 03 Aug 1975
  • He was President of the Government to 07 Jul 1975, then Head of State.
  • Said Mohamed Jaffar............................03 Aug 1975 - 03 Jan 1976 d. 1993
  • He was chairman National Council of the Revolution to 10 Aug 1975, then chairman National Executive Council.
  • Ali Soilih Mtsashiwa...........................03 Jan 1976 - 13 May 1978 d. 1978
  • He was Head of State to 28 Oct 1977.
  • Said Atthoumani................................13 May 1978 - 23 May 1978
  • He was chairman Politico-Military Directorate.
  • Presidents (Federal and Islamic Republic of Comoros)
  • On 24 May 1978, State of Comoros becomes Federal and Islamic Republic of Comoros.
  • Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane (2nd time)...........23 May 1978 - 03 Oct 1978 with...
  • Mohamed Ahmed..................................23 May 1978 - 03 Oct 1978
  • They were both co-chairmen to 22 Jul 1978 of Politico-Military Directorate.
  • Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane (3rd time)...........03 Oct 1978 - 26 Nov 1989
  • He was chairman Directorate to 25 Oct 1978.
  • Haribon Chebani (provisional)..................26 Nov 1989 - 27 Nov 1989
  • Said Mohamed Djohar (1st time).................27 Nov 1989 - 29 Sep 1995 d. 2006
  • He was acting to 20 Mar 1990.
  • Combo Ayouba...................................29 Sep 1995 - 02 Oct 1995 d. 2010
  • He was coordinator Transitional Military Committee.
  • Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim (1st time)............02 Oct 1995 - 05 Oct 1995 d. 1998
  • Said Ali Kemal (acting)........................02 Oct 1995 - 05 Oct 1995
  • Caabi El-Yachroutu Mohamed (interim)...........05 Oct 1995 - 26 Jan 1996
  • Said Mohamed Djohar (2nd time).................26 Jan 1996 - 25 Mar 1996
  • Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim (2nd time)............25 Mar 1996 - 06 Nov 1998
  • Tadjidine Ben Said Massounde (interim).........06 Nov 1998 - 30 Apr 1999 d. 2004
  • Azali Assoumani (1st time).....................30 Apr 1999 - 21 Jan 2002
  • Chief of Staff of the National Development Army to 06 May 1999, then Head of State.
  • Presidents (Union of Comoros)
  • On 23 December 2001, Federal and Islamic Republic of Comoros becomes Union of the Comoros.
  • Hamada Madi "Boléro" (interim).................21 Jan 2002 - 26 May 2002
  • Azali Assoumani (2nd time).....................26 May 2002 - 26 May 2006
  • Ahmed Abdallah Mohamed Sambi...................26 May 2006 - 26 May 2011
  • Ikililou Dhoinine..............................26 May 2011 - 26 May 2016'
  • Azali Assoumani (3rd time).....................26 May 2016 - date
  • Azali Assoumani takes leave as required by the constitution due to his candidacy in the coming presidential election, and Moustadroine Abdou becomes acting president. In presidential elections on 24 March 2019, incumbent Azali Assoumani wins 59.1% of the vote, Ahamada Mahamoudou 15.7%, and Mouigni Baraka Said Soilihi 5.5%. Turnout is 53.8%. Results of gubernatorial elections (first round; runoffs was to be held on 21 April 2019). On 02 April 2019, President Azali Assoumani resumes office following the proclamation of the official results of the presidential election.
  • Moustadroine Abdou (acting for Assoumani)......13 Feb 2019 - 02 Apr 2019
  • Since 26 May 2016, he has served as the Vice-President of the Comoros for Agriculture, Fishing, Environment, Spatial Planning and Urbanism.
     
Currency: Comorian Franc (KMF)
On 01 January 1975, Banque de Madagascar et des Comores was replaced as Institut d'Emission des Comores with same exchange rate: 50 Comores CFA francs = 1 French franc. On 23 November 1979, the government of Comoros signed the Accord de coopération monétaire entre la République Française et la République fédérale islamique des Comores, a monetary cooperation agreement with France, making Comoros part of the franc zone (but not part of the CFA franc zone). This agreement provided for the establishment of a system of fixed parity between the French franc and the Comorian franc and free convertibility between the two currencies, guaranteed by the Comorian central bank's opening of an operations account (compte d'operation) at the French Treasury (Trésor public) to handle all exchange transactions. Sixty-five percent of the foreign exchange reserves of Comoros are held in euros in this account. This account is similar to overnight deposits with the French Treasury: it may bear interest and may, in special circumstances, post a negative balance. However, to prevent this account from showing a lasting overdraft, a number of preventative measures have been set up.
Until 1994, the Comorian franc was pegged to the French franc at the rate of 50 Comorian francs to 1 French franc. This was changed on January 12, 1994, when the currency was devalued in concert with the CFA franc devaluation. however, the Comorian franc was devalued 33⅓% to a new rate of 75 Comorian francs for 1 French franc, while the CFA franc's new rate was 100 CFA francs to 1 French franc. With the creation of the euro on 01 January 1999, the Comorian franc was pegged, at its prevailing rate, to the new currency. Pegged with euro = 491.96775 Comorian francs.
 
1975
 
   
   
   
 
1977
 
   
   
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
2011
 

10 apsar. Year: 2011. Weight: 33.65g [33.94g ± 0.31g]. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 39.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Saint Petersburg Mint Goznak (RF). Obverse: “10 ҧСАРК” (10 APSARS) written on the top. Emblem in the center with “Аҧсны Абанк” (The Bank of Abkhazia) in Abkhazian language written below it. On the right part of the coin, near the border, it has a small square having the logotype and mint trademark in the first line, indication of metal sign "Ag-925" in accordance with the D. I .Mendeleyev Periodic System of Elements and the fineness in the second line and "33.65g" on the third line. Date imposed at the bottom with “Аҧсны Абанк” written several times in five lines on the rough surface in the background. Reverse: 8 stars with "VIII World Domino Championship 10-2011" written around Domino shaped sail boat in the center. Colored waving Abkhazia flag on top of the boat. "Апсны" (Abkhazia) written in  Abkhazian language at the bottom. Mintage: probably 1,000 (estimated). Minted Years: One year type. Issued: 12 Sep 2011. Designer: Japua B.R.

 
 
 
 
 
 
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins