El Salvador, officially the Republic
of El Salvador (Spanish: República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of
The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in
Central America. It is bordered on the northeast by Honduras, on the
northwest by Guatemala, and on the south by the Pacific Ocean. El Salvador's
capital and largest city is San Salvador
(1528-1539: San Salvador en el Valle de la Bermuda; 1539-1579: San Salvador
en el Valle de las Hamacas). As of 2018, the country had a population of
approximately 6.42 million, mostly consisting of European and Native
El Salvador was, for millenia, controlled by several Mesoamerican nations,
especially Lenca, early Mayans, then later the Cuzcatlecs up until the
Spanish conquest. Archaeological monuments also suggest an early Olmec
presence around the first millennium BCE. In the early 16th century, the
Spanish Empire conquered the territory, incorporating it into the
Viceroyalty of New Spain ruled from Mexico City. However the Viceroyalty of
Mexico had little to no influence in the daily affairs of the Central
American isthmus, which would be colonized in 1524. In 1609 the area became
the Captaincy General of Guatemala, of which El Salvador was part until its
independence from Spain, which took place in 1821, as part of the First
Mexican Empire, then later seceded, as part of the Federal Republic of
Central America, in 1823. When the Republic dissolved in 1841, El Salvador
became a sovereign nation, then formed a short-lived union with Honduras and
Nicaragua called the Greater Republic of Central America, which lasted from
1896 to 1898.
From the late 19th to the mid-20th century, El Salvador endured chronic
political and economic instability characterized by coups, revolts, and a
succession of authoritarian rulers. Persistent socioeconomic inequality and
civil unrest culminated in the devastating Salvadoran Civil War (1979–1992),
which was fought between the military-led government and a coalition of
left-wing guerrilla groups. The conflict ended with the Chapultepec Peace
Accords. This negotiated settlement established a multiparty constitutional
republic, which remains in place to this day.
El Salvador's economy has historically been dominated by agriculture,
beginning with the indigo plant (añil in Spanish), the most important crop
during the colonial period, and followed thereafter by coffee, which by the
early 20th century accounted for 90% of export earnings. El Salvador has
since reduced its dependence on coffee and embarked on diversifying its
economy by opening up trade and financial links and expanding the
manufacturing sector. The colón, the currency of El Salvador since 1892, was
replaced by the United States dollar in 2001.
El Salvador ranks 16th among Latin American countries in terms of the Human
Development Index and fourth in Central America (behind Panama, Costa Rica,
and Guatemala) due in part to ongoing rapid industrialization. However, the
country continues to struggle with high rates of poverty, inequality, and
gang-related violent crime.
Disputes: International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the
delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras
boundary, in 1992, with final agreement by the parties in 2006 after an
Organization of American States (OAS) survey and a further ICJ ruling in
2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime
boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca advocating Honduran access to the Pacific;
El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not identified in the ICJ
decision, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca.
1524 Spanish conquest beings (completed by 1540).
Apr 1525 San Salvador city founded (refounded 1528).
01 Apr 1528 Province of San Salvador (Provincia de San Salvador).
1538 - 1543
Governed by the Audiencia of Panama.
Nov 1542 Divided into three administrative districts
(Los Izalcos [from
1552 Sonsonate], Cuzcatlán,
and San Miguel); part of Kingdom of
(which is subordinate to New Spain [Mexico]).
27 Sep 1546 San Salvador alcaldia formed from Cuzcatlán, Choluteca and
1577 Alcaldía mayor de San Salvador.
17 Sep 1785 Intendancy of San Salvador (still subordinate to Guatemala).
05 Nov 1811 - 03 Dec 1811 Independence of San Salvador declared (not
21 Sep 1821 Independence declared (Province of San Salvador,
of the Kingdom of Guatemala which declared its independence
15 Sep 1821).
11 Jan 1822 The province repudiates the decision by the Guatemala
to incorporate the Kingdom of Guatemala into Mexico, and
declares its secession.
02 Dec 1822 Government requests annexation to United States.
10 Feb 1823 Incorporation into Mexico.
01 Jul 1823 Central America (the former Kingdom of Guatemala)
its independence from Spain and Mexico; Province of San Salvador
is part of the newly established republic (under Guatemala).
22 Apr 1824 Constituent state of the Central American Republic
(State of Salvador) [Estado del Salvador].
Apr 1840 Federal authorities cease to exist.
02 Feb 1841 Secession by Salvador formally decreed.
Federal Republic of Central America dissolved.
Oct 1852 2nd attempt for Confederation with Honduras and Nicaragua as
Federation of Central America failed.
25 Jan 1859 Republic of Salvador (República del Salvador) [also in
sporadic official use since 07 Oct 1890, Republic of
El Salvador]. Republic of Salvador official use until
at least 1914.
15 Sep 1879 Text of National Anthem adopted.
(officially from 11 Dec 1953).
20 Jun 1895 Treaty of Amapala to have Confederation.
15 Jun 1866 Spain recognizes the independence of El Salvador.
15 Sep 1896 - 21 Nov 1898 3rd Confederation with Honduras and
Nicaragua as Greater Republic
of Central America (from 01 Nov 1898 Constitution was adopted
for abortive union as United States of Central America with
17 Sep 1896 State of Salvador (also Estado de El Salvador).
25 Nov 1898 Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador).
09 Jun 1915 Use of the form "El Salvador" as part of official
name of the
Republic is legally certified.
19 Jan 1921 El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Costa Rica agreed to
a (second) Federation of Central America at San José.
13 Jun 1921 - 04 Feb 1922 State of El Salvador (Estado de El
Salvador), during a later
aborted attempt at recreating a Central American Federation.
04 Feb 1922 Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador).
15 Oct 1979 – 16 Jan 1992 Salvadoran Civil War.
16 Jan 1992 The Chapultepec Peace Accords was signed by the combatants
20 Dec 1983 Constitution.
The smallest Central American state, located
next to Guatemala on the Pacific coast.
A pre-Columbian Nahuat nation of the Post-Classical period that extended
from the Paz river to the Lempa river (covering most of the western and
central zones of the present Republic of El Salvador).
Romero Mena........................01 Jul 1977 - 15 Oct 1979 d. 2017
(15 Oct 1979 - 02 May 1982)
Salvadoran Civil War: 15 Oct 1979 – 16 Jan
1992. A coup on 15 October 1979, was followed by killings of anti-coup
protesters by the government and of anti-disorder protesters by the
guerrillas, and is widely seen as the start of civil war. Main
Commanders from Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) were:
Schafik Jorge Handal, Joaquín Villalobos, Salvador Cayetano Carpio and
Salvador Sánchez Cerén. On 16 Jan 1992, The Chapultepec Peace Accords
was signed by the combatants at Chapultepec Castle in Mexico City. After
the ceasefire established, the FMLN converted itself from a guerrilla
army into a political party with Schafik Jorge Handal served as its
general coordinator. The FMLN has participated in elections since 1994.
Salvador Sánchez Cerén became El Salavador's President: 2014-2019.
Adolfo Arnoldo Majano Ramos (Military).............15
Oct 1979 - 07 Dec 1980
Jaime Abdul Gutiérrez Avendaño (Military)..........15
Oct 1979 - 22 Dec 1980 d. 2012
Román Antonio Mayorga Quirós.......................17
Oct 1979 - 05 Jan 1980
Guillermo Manuel Ungo Revelo.......................17
Oct 1979 - 05 Jan 1980 d. 1991
Mario Antonio Andino Gómez.........................17
Oct 1979 - 05 Jan 1980 d. 2014
José Antonio Morales
Ehrlich.......................09 Jan 1980 - 22 Dec 1980
José Ramón Ávalos Navarrete........................09
Jan 1980 - 22 Dec 1980
Héctor Miguel Antonio Dada Hirezi..................09
Jan 1980 - 03 Mar 1980
José Napoleón Duarte
Fuentes.......................10 Mar 1980 - 22 Dec 1980 d. 1990
President of the
José Napoleón Duarte Fuentes (continued)...........22
Dec 1980 - 02 May 1982
Álvaro Alfredo Magaña Borja........................02
May 1982 - 01 Jun 1984 d. 2001
José Napoleón Duarte Fuentes (2nd
time)............01 Jun 1984 - 01 Jun 1989
Alfredo Félix Cristiani Burkard....................01
Jun 1989 - 01 Jun 1994
Sol...............................01 Jun 1994 - 01 Jun 1999 d. 2017
Francisco Guillermo Flores Pérez...................01
Jun 1999 - 01 Jun 2004 d. 2016
Elías Antonio Saca González........................01
Jun 2004 - 01 Jun 2009
Carlos Mauricio Funes Cartagena....................01
Jun 2009 - 01 Jun 2014
Salvador Sánchez Cerén.............................01
Jun 2014 - 01 Jun 2019
Nayib Armando Bukele Ortez.........................01
Jun 2019 - date
"M" monogram at the top stands for the name of the country
- Moldova. Numeral "1" in the center. Two digits of Date on each side.
Currency "LEU" written at the bottom.
Coat of Arms of Moldova in the center.
"REPUBLICA" (Republic) written in Romanian at the left side
clockwise and "MOLDOVA" written at the right side clockwise. A pair
of Oak leaves at the bottom.
29 November 1993.
The 1 leu 1992 and 5 lei 1993 coins
were withdrawn from circulation in 1994. Due to their low quality
and relatively high nominal value, many forgeries appeared.
U.S. Dollar (USD) = 100 cents. [2001-Date]