El Salvador
 

 
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (Spanish: República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America. It is bordered on the northeast by Honduras, on the northwest by Guatemala, and on the south by the Pacific Ocean. El Salvador's capital and largest city is San Salvador (1528-1539: San Salvador en el Valle de la Bermuda; 1539-1579: San Salvador en el Valle de las Hamacas). As of 2018, the country had a population of approximately 6.42 million, mostly consisting of European and Native American descent.
El Salvador was, for millenia, controlled by several Mesoamerican nations, especially Lenca, early Mayans, then later the Cuzcatlecs up until the Spanish conquest. Archaeological monuments also suggest an early Olmec presence around the first millennium BCE. In the early 16th century, the Spanish Empire conquered the territory, incorporating it into the Viceroyalty of New Spain ruled from Mexico City. However the Viceroyalty of Mexico had little to no influence in the daily affairs of the Central American isthmus, which would be colonized in 1524. In 1609 the area became the Captaincy General of Guatemala, of which El Salvador was part until its independence from Spain, which took place in 1821, as part of the First Mexican Empire, then later seceded, as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, in 1823. When the Republic dissolved in 1841, El Salvador became a sovereign nation, then formed a short-lived union with Honduras and Nicaragua called the Greater Republic of Central America, which lasted from 1896 to 1898.
From the late 19th to the mid-20th century, El Salvador endured chronic political and economic instability characterized by coups, revolts, and a succession of authoritarian rulers. Persistent socioeconomic inequality and civil unrest culminated in the devastating Salvadoran Civil War (1979–1992), which was fought between the military-led government and a coalition of left-wing guerrilla groups. The conflict ended with the Chapultepec Peace Accords. This negotiated settlement established a multiparty constitutional republic, which remains in place to this day.
El Salvador's economy has historically been dominated by agriculture, beginning with the indigo plant (añil in Spanish), the most important crop during the colonial period, and followed thereafter by coffee, which by the early 20th century accounted for 90% of export earnings. El Salvador has since reduced its dependence on coffee and embarked on diversifying its economy by opening up trade and financial links and expanding the manufacturing sector. The colón, the currency of El Salvador since 1892, was replaced by the United States dollar in 2001.
El Salvador ranks 16th among Latin American countries in terms of the Human Development Index and fourth in Central America (behind Panama, Costa Rica, and Guatemala) due in part to ongoing rapid industrialization. However, the country continues to struggle with high rates of poverty, inequality, and gang-related violent crime.
Territorial Disputes: International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras boundary, in 1992, with final agreement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States (OAS) survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca advocating Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not identified in the ICJ decision, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca.
 
 
Chronology:
 
                      1524  Spanish conquest beings (completed by 1540).
                  Apr 1525  San Salvador city founded (refounded 1528).
               01 Apr 1528  Province of San Salvador (Provincia de San Salvador).
        1538 - 1543         Governed by the Audiencia of Panama.
                  Nov 1542  Divided into three administrative districts (Los Izalcos [from
                             1552 Sonsonate], Cuzcatlán, and San Miguel); part of Kingdom of
                             Guatemala, (which is subordinate to New Spain [Mexico]).
               27 Sep 1546  San Salvador alcaldia formed from Cuzcatlán, Choluteca and
                             San Miguel.
                      1577  Alcaldía mayor de San Salvador.
               17 Sep 1785  Intendancy of San Salvador (still subordinate to Guatemala).
 05 Nov 1811 - 03 Dec 1811  Independence of San Salvador declared (not recognized).
               21 Sep 1821  Independence declared (Province of San Salvador, constituent
                             of the Kingdom of Guatemala which declared its independence
                             15 Sep 1821).
               11 Jan 1822  The province repudiates the decision by the Guatemala junta
                             to incorporate the Kingdom of Guatemala into Mexico, and
                             declares its secession.
               02 Dec 1822  Government requests annexation to United States.
               10 Feb 1823  Incorporation into Mexico.
               01 Jul 1823  Central America (the former Kingdom of Guatemala) proclaims
                             its independence from Spain and Mexico; Province of San Salvador
                             is part of the newly established republic (under Guatemala).
               22 Apr 1824  Constituent state of the Central American Republic
                             (State of Salvador) [Estado del Salvador].
                  Apr 1840  Federal authorities cease to exist.
               02 Feb 1841  Secession by Salvador formally decreed.
                             Federal Republic of Central America dissolved.
                  Oct 1852  2nd attempt for Confederation with Honduras and Nicaragua as
                             Federation of Central America failed.
               25 Jan 1859  Republic of Salvador (República del Salvador) [also in
                             sporadic official use since 07 Oct 1890, Republic of
                             El Salvador]. Republic of Salvador official use until
                             at least 1914.
               15 Sep 1879  Text of National Anthem adopted.
                             (officially from 11 Dec 1953).
               20 Jun 1895  Treaty of Amapala to have Confederation.
               15 Jun 1866  Spain recognizes the independence of El Salvador.
 15 Sep 1896 - 21 Nov 1898  3rd Confederation with Honduras and Nicaragua as Greater Republic
                             of Central America (from 01 Nov 1898 Constitution was adopted
                             for abortive union as United States of Central America with
                             Capital: Amapala).
               17 Sep 1896  State of Salvador (also Estado de El Salvador).
               25 Nov 1898  Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador).
               09 Jun 1915  Use of the form "El Salvador" as part of official name of the
                             Republic is legally certified.
               19 Jan 1921  El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Costa Rica agreed to formed
                             a (second) Federation of Central America at San José.
 13 Jun 1921 - 04 Feb 1922  State of El Salvador (Estado de El Salvador), during a later
                             aborted attempt at recreating a Central American Federation.
               04 Feb 1922  Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador).
 15 Oct 1979 – 16 Jan 1992  Salvadoran Civil War.
               16 Jan 1992  The Chapultepec Peace Accords was signed by the combatants in
                             Mexico City.
               20 Dec 1983  Constitution.
 
 

 
 
EL SALVADOR
  • The smallest Central American state, located next to Guatemala on the Pacific coast.
  • CUZCATLAN A pre-Columbian Nahuat nation of the Post-Classical period that extended from the Paz river to the Lempa river (covering most of the western and central zones of the present Republic of El Salvador).
  • Cuachimicín
  • Tutecotzimit
  • Pilguanzimit
  • Tonaltut
  • Atlacatl.................................................... ? - 1528
  • Spain.....................................................1521 - 21 Sep 1821
  • Senior justices (later Lieutenant governors)
  • Gonzalo de Alvarado y Contreras....................01 Apr 1525 - 1526 d. 1541
  • Diego de Alvarado Tordolla.........................01 Apr 1528 - 22 Apr 1529 d. 1540
  • Gaspar Arias Dávila................................22 Apr 1529 - Jul 1529
  • Diego de Rojas........................................Jul 1529 - 1530 d. 1544
  • He was prisoner of Estete in 1530.
  • Martín de Estete (Astete)........................................1530 d. 1536
  • In dissidence, appointed by Pedro Arias Dávila of Nicaragua.
  • Luis de Moscoso Alvarado..................................1530 - 1532 d. 1551
  • Gómez de Alvarado y Contreras.............................1532 - 1534 d. 1542
  • Alcaldes ordinarios of San Salvador
  • Isidro Blasco.............................................1534 - 1536
  • Alonso de Oliveros........................................1536 - 1537
  • Pedro Cerón (1st time) + Antonio Docampo..................1537 - 1538
  • Antonio Bermúdez..........................................1538 - 1539
  • Luis Dubre................................................1539 - 1541
  • Pedro Cerón (2nd time) + Antonio de Figueroa..............1541 - 1544
  • Cristóbal Salvago + Juan de Ugarte........................1544 - 1548
  • Luis de Dubois (1st time).................................1548 - 1550
  • Juan Vázquez de Coronado y Anaya..........................1550 - 1552 d. 1565
  • Gaspar de Cepeda..........................................1552 - 1554 d. 1558
  • Ambrosio Méndez (1st time)................................1554 - 1556
  • Hernando Bermejo + Luis de Dubois (2nd time)..............1556 - 1558
  • Juan de Tovar.............................................1558 - 1559
  • Pedro Benavides...........................................1559 - 1562
  • Pedro Cerón (3rd time)....................................1562 - 1564
  • Juan Núñez de Prado + Ambrosio Méndez (2nd time)..........1564 - 1567
  • Lope Pardo................................................1567 - 1569
  • Luis Dubois (3rd time)....................................1569 - 1570
  • Hernando Bermejo..........................................1570 - 1572
  • Gómez Díaz de la Reguera + Blás Cordova...................1572 - 1573
  • Luis Ganboa...............................................1573 - 1577
  • Ignacio Cota..............................................1577 - 1579
  • Alcaldes Mayores of San Salvador
  • Diego Galán (interim).....................................1579 - 1580
  • Juan Cisneros de Reynosa y Valverde (interim).............1580 - 1581
  • Alonso de Nava............................................1581 - 1586
  • Alcaldes Mayores of the Provinces of San Salvador, San Miguel and Jérez de la Choluteca
  • Lucas Pinto Cuadrado......................................1585 - 1588 d. 1588
  • Diego de Paz (interim)....................................1588 - 1590
  • Pedro Girón de Alvarado (interim).........................1590 - 1593
  • Luis de la Fuenta y Cerda (interim).......................1593 - 1594
  • Martín de Vega y Aceituno.................................1594 - 1596
  • Francisco Osorio y Ávalos.................................1596 - 1602
  • Alcaldes Mayores of the Provinces of San Salvador and San Miguel
  • Juan Guiral de Mencis.....................................1602 - 1607
  • Andrés Dorante de Laguna..................................1607 - 1613
  • Pedro Farfan de los Godos (arrested 1619).................1613 - 1620
  • Pedro de Aguilar Lazo de la Vega..........................1620 - 1626
  • He was also lieutenant of the captain-general.
  • Pedro de Torres y Toledo..................................1626 - 1631
  • Eugenio de Nueda y Góngora................................1631 - 1636
  • Juan Sarmiento Valderrama.................................1636 - 1641
  • Martín de Duarte (interim)................................1641 - 1642 d. 1642
  • Antonio Justiniano Chavarri (interim).....................1642 - 1647
  • Alcaldes Mayores and Lieutenants of Captain-general of the Provinces of San Salvador and San Miguel and (from 1689, San Vicente)
  • Juan Martínez Telles de los Ríos..........................1647 - 1652
  • José Portal de Artavia....................................1652 - 1657
  • Francisco Andrabeja.......................................1657 - 1659
  • Lupercio de Espés y Brizuela (interim)....................1659 - 1663
  • Pedro de Saravelles.......................................1663 - 1670
  • Martín de Revollar........................................1670 - 1673
  • Juan de Miranda...........................................1673 - 1680
  • Diego de Gamarra y Balcárcel (interim)....................1680 - 1684
  • Pedro Calvo del Risco.....................................1684 - 1689
  • José de Arría y Hurtado...................................1689 - 1694
  • José Calvo de Lara........................................1694 - 1699
  • Bartolomé Gálvez Corral...................................1699 - 1703
  • Juan Antonio Ruiz de Bustamante (interim).................1703 - 1706 d. 1725
  • Francisco Chacón Medina y Salazar (interim)...............1706 - 1708 d. 1723
  • Nicolás de Segovia Parada y Verdugo.......................1708 - 1710
  • Francisco Rodríguez Franco (interim)......................1710 - 1715
  • Andrés de Miranda................................................1715
  • He did not take office.
  • Pedro de Oyanarte.........................................1715 - 1716 d. 1716
  • Estebán de Larramendi (interim)...........................1716 - 1718
  • José Llanes Robles........................................1718 - 1721
  • Pedro de Doralea (interim)................................1721 - 1723 d. 1723
  • Rodrigo Salgado (interim).................................1723 - 1724
  • José de Algarrate................................................1724 d. 1724
  • He did not take office.
  • Pedro de Echevers.........................................1724 - 1729
  • Antonio González Manrique.................................1729 - 1734 d. 1738
  • Cristóbal Marcos de Gálvez Corral (1st time).............1737 - 1737
  • Manuel de Gálvez y Corral (interim).......................1737 - 1740
  • Esteban Sánchez Calderón..................................1740 - 1744
  • He did not come to San Salvador.
  • Isidro Díaz de Vivar......................................1744 - 1751
  • Domingo Soto Bermúdez.....................................1751 - 1756
  • Manuel Amate (interim)....................................1756 - 1757
  • Bernabé de la Torre Trassierra (1st time).................1757 - 1759 d. 1773
  • Francisco Ignacio Chamorro Sotomayor y Vilavicencio (interim)..1759 - 1761 d. 1785
  • Manuel Fradique y Goyena (1st time - interim).............1761 - 1763
  • José Jacinto Palomo y Rodríguez (interim).................1763 - 1765
  • Cristóbal Marcos de Gálvez Corral (2nd time)..............1765 - 1766
  • Manuel Fradique y Goyena (2nd time).......................1766 - 1771
  • Bernabé de la Torre Trassierra (2nd time).................1771 - 1773
  • Rafael Benavides (interim).......................................1773
  • He declined office.
  • Francisco Antonio de Aldana y Guevarra (interim)..........1773 - 1774
  • Melchor de Meneos (interim)...............................1774 - 1777
  • Manuel Fradique y Goyena (3rd time).......................1777 - 1786
  • Intendants of San Salvador
  • José Ortiz de la Peña.....................................1786 - 1789
  • Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet de Novelles...........1786 - 1789 d. 1807
  • He was also known as Barón de Carondelet.
  • José Antonio María de Aguilar (interim)...................1791 - 1793 d. 1799
  • Ignacio Santiago Ulloa....................................1793 - 1798 d. 1798
  • Antonio Isidoro Palomo....................................1798 - 1805
  • Bernardo José de Arce (acting)............................1799 - 1800
  • Luis Martínez Navarrete (acting)..........................1800 - 1801
  • Luis de Argueda (acting)..................................1801 - 1802
  • José Justiniano Ros (acting)..............................1802 - 1803
  • Buenaventura de Viteri (acting)...........................1803 - 1804
  • Francisco Vallejo (acting).......................................1804
  • Antonio Basilio Gutiérrez y Ulloa.........................1805 - 05 Nov 1811 d. af. 1831
  • José Mariano Batres y Asturias.....................05 Nov 1811 - 03 Dec 1811
  • José Alejandro de Aycinena y Carrillo (acting).....03 Dec 1811 - Aug 1812 d. 1826
  • José María Peinado (1st time).........................Aug 1812 - 1814 d. 1820
  • José Méndez de Quiroga....................................1814 - 1817
  • Juan Miguel de Bustamante.................................1817 - 1818
  • Simón Gutiérrez..................................................1818
  • José María Peinado (2nd time).............................1818 - 29 Jan 1820
  • Pedro Barriere de la Barriere.............................1820 - 21 Sep 1821 d. 1827
  • Mexico.............................................21 Sep 1821 - 01 Jul 1823
  • Intendant and Superior Political Chief
  • Pedro Barriere de la Barriere......................21 Sep 1821 - 28 Nov 1821
  • Intendants and Governors
  • José Matías Delgado y de León......................28 Nov 1821 - 09 Feb 1823 d. 1832
  • From 11 Jan 1822, he became President of the Junta of Government.
  • Vicente Filisola...................................10 Feb 1823 - 07 May 1823 d. 1850
  • Felipe Codallos Núñez..............................07 May 1823 - 25 May 1823
  • Consultative Junta
  • Mariano Prado Baca.................................25 May 1823 - 17 Jun 1823 d. 1837
  • José Milla.........................................25 May 1823 - 17 Jun 1823
  • José Rivas.........................................25 May 1823 - 17 Jun 1823
  • Part of the Republic of Central America............01 JUl 1823 - 02 Feb 1841
  • Central American States: Capital: Guatemala City (1821–1834) and then San Salvador (1834–1838).
  • Supreme Political Chief
  • Mariano Prado Baca (continued).....................01 Jul 1823 - 22 Apr 1824
  • Chief of State
  • Juan Manuel Rodríguez..............................22 Apr 1824 - 01 Oct 1824 d. 1847
  • Supreme Chiefs of State
  • Mariano Prado Baca (1st time - acting).............01 Oct 1824 - 13 Dec 1824
  • Juan Vicente Villacorta Díaz.......................13 Dec 1824 - 01 Nov 1826 d. 1828
  • Mariano Prado Baca (2nd time - acting).............01 Nov 1826 - 30 Jan 1829
  • José María Cornejo Merino y Guevara................30 Jan 1829 - 29 Mar 1832 d. 1864
    • acting for Cornejo Merino
    • José Damian Villacorta Cañas..................16 Feb 1830 - 25 Feb 1830 d. 1860
  • José Francisco Morazán Quezada (1st time)..........29 Mar 1832 - 13 May 1832 d. 1842
  • He was Provisional Chief of State.
  • Joaquín de San Martín y Ulloa (1st time - acting)..13 May 1832 - 25 Ju1 1832 d. 1854
  • Mariano Prado Baca (3rd time)......................25 Ju1 1832 - 01 Jul 1833
  • Anastasio Aquino (in rebellion).......................Jan 1833 - 23 Apr 1833 d. 1833
  • He was known as "king" of Nonualco indians.
  • Joaquín de San Martín y Ulloa (2nd time)...........01 Jul 1833 - 23 Jun 1834
  • Carlos Salazar Castro..............................23 Jun 1834 - 13 Jul 1834 d. 1867
  • He was Provisional Chief of State; in rebellion from 12 Jun 1834.
  • Direct rule by the Federal Government: 13 Jul 1834 - 30 Sep 1834.
  • Joaquín Escolán y Balibrera (acting)...............30 Sep 1834 - 14 Oct 1834
  • José María Silva (1st time - acting)...............14 Oct 1834 - 10 Apr 1835 d. 1876
  • Nicolás Espinoza...................................10 Apr 1835 - 15 Nov 1835 d. 1845
  • Francisco Gómez de Altamirano y de Elizondo (acting)..15 Nov 1835 - 07 Mar 1836 d. 1838
  • Diego Fernández Vigil y Cocaña.....................07 Mar 1836 - May 1838 d. 1845
  • Timoteo Menendez (acting).............................May 1838 - 01 May 1839
  • Antonio José Cañas Quintanilla (1st time - acting).01 May 1839 - 13 Jul 1839 d. 1844
  • José Francisco Morazán Quezada (2nd time)..........13 Jul 1839 - 04 Apr 1840
  • José María Silva (2nd time - acting)...............04 Apr 1840 - 15 Apr 1840
  • He departs / leaves the Country on 05 Apr 1840, therefore Municipal Council of San Salvador then assumes government: 05 Apr 1840 - 15 Apr 1840.
  • Municipal Council of San Salvador
  • Rafael Francisco Osejo (alcalde de primer voto)....05 Apr 1840 - 15 Apr 1840 d. 1848
  • Ignacio Carrillo...................................05 Apr 1840 - 15 Apr 1840
  • Isidro Viteri......................................05 Apr 1840 - 15 Apr 1840
  • Supreme Chiefs of State
  • Antonio José Cañas Quintanilla (2nd time - acting).15 Apr 1840 - 23 Sep 1840
  • Norberto Ramírez Áreas (acting)....................23 Sep 1840 - 07 Jan 1841 d. 1856
  • Juan Nepomuceno Fernández Lindo y Zelaya...........07 Jan 1841 - 22 Feb 1841 d. 1857
  • He was Provisional Chief of State.
  • Republic of El Salvador............................02 Feb 1841 - 14 Dec 1948
  • Presidents
  • Juan Nepomuceno Fernández Lindo y Zelaya...........22 Feb 1841 - 01 Feb 1842
  • He was Provisional President.
  • José Escolástico Marín (acting)....................01 Feb 1842 - 14 Apr 1842 d. 1846
  • Juan José Guzmán...................................14 Apr 1842 - 01 Feb 1844 d. 1947
  • He was acting Provisional President to 20 Sep 1842.
  • Fermín Palacios Ulloa (1st time - acting)..........01 Feb 1844 - 07 Feb 1844
  • Francisco Malespín Herrera.........................07 Feb 1844 - 15 Feb 1845 d. 1846
  • Joaquín Eufrasio Guzmán Ugalde Alvarado (1st time).15 Feb 1845 - 01 Feb 1846 d. c. 1875
  • In rebellion from 02 Feb 1845.
  • Fermín Palacios Ulloa (2nd time - acting)..........01 Feb 1846 - 21 Feb 1846
  • Eugenio Aguilar González Batres....................21 Feb 1846 - 01 Feb 1848 d. 1879
  • José Tomás Medina Menéndez (acting)................01 Feb 1848 - 03 Feb 1848 d. 1884
  • José Félix Quirós Sánchez (1st time - acting)......03 Feb 1848 - 07 Feb 1848 d. 1883
  • Doroteo Vasconcelos Vides y Ladrón de Guevara (1st)..07 Feb 1848 - 01 Feb 1850 d. 1883
  • Ramón Rodríguez (acting)...........................01 Feb 1850 - 04 Feb 1850
  • Doroteo Vasconcelos Vides y Ladrón de Guevara (2nd)..04 Feb 1850 - 01 Mar 1851
  • José Félix Quirós Sánchez (2nd time - acting)......01 Mar 1851 - 03 May 1851
  • Francisco Javier Dueñas Díaz (1st time - acting)...03 May 1851 - 30 Jan 1852 d. 1884
  • José María San Martín y Fugón (1st time - acting)..30 Jan 1852 - 01 Feb 1852 d. 1857
  • Francisco Javier Dueñas Díaz (2nd time)............01 Feb 1852 - 01 Feb 1854
  • Vicente Gómez (acting).............................01 Feb 1854 - 15 Feb 1854
  • José María San Martín y Fugón (2nd time)...........15 Feb 1854 - 01 Feb 1856
  • Francisco Javier Dueñas Díaz (3rd time - acting)...01 Feb 1856 - 12 Feb 1856
  • Rafael Campo Pomar.................................12 Feb 1856 - 01 Feb 1858 d. 1890
  • Lorenzo Zepeda (acting)............................01 Feb 1858 - 07 Feb 1858 d. 1859
  • Miguel Santín del Castillo y Barroeta..............07 Feb 1858 - 01 Feb 1860 d. 1880
  • He was deposed de facto on 19 Jan 1859.
  • Joaquín Eufrasio Guzmán Ugalde Alvarado (2nd act)..24 Jan 1859 - 15 Feb 1859
  • José María Peralta (acting)........................15 Feb 1859 - 12 Mar 1859 d. 1883
  • José Gerardo Barrios Espinoza......................12 Mar 1859 - 26 Oct 1863 d. 1865
  • He was acting to 01 Feb 1860. He left national territory on 19 Nov 1863.
  • Francisco Javier Dueñas Díaz (4th time)............26 Oct 1863 - 15 Apr 1871
  • He was Provisional President to 01 Feb 1865. In rebellion: 10 Jul 1863 - 26 Oct 1863.
  • Santiago González Portillo.........................15 Apr 1871 - 01 Feb 1876 d. 1887
  • He was Provisional President to 01 Feb 1872.
  • Andrés del Valle Rodríguez.........................01 Feb 1876 - 01 May 1876 d. 1888
  • Rafael Zaldívar y Lazo (1st time)..................01 May 1876 - 06 Apr 1884 d. 1903
  • He was Provisional President: 01 May 1876 - 19 Jul 1876 and 02 Feb 1880 - 25 Feb 1880.
  • Ángel Guirola......................................06 Apr 1884 - 21 Aug 1884 d. 1910
  • He was Provisional President.
  • Rafael Zaldívar y Lazo (2nd time)..................21 Aug 1884 - 14 May 1885
  • Fernando Figueroa (1st time).......................14 May 1885 - 18 Jun 1885 d. 1919
  • He was Provisional President.
  • José Rosales Herrador..............................18 Jun 1885 - 22 Jun 1885 d. 1891
  • He was Provisional President.
  • Francisco Menéndez Valdivieso......................15 May 1885 - 22 Jun 1890 d. 1890
  • In rebellion: 15 May 1885 - 22 Jun 1885. Provisional President: 22 Jun 1885 - 01 Mar 1887.
  • Carlos Basilio Ezeta y de León.....................22 Jun 1890 - 09 Jun 1894 d. 1903
  • He was Provisional President to 01 Mar 1891.
  • Rafael Antonio Gutiérrez...........................01 May 1894 - 13 Nov 1898 d. 1921
  • In rebellion: 01 May 1894 - 10 Jun 1894. Provisional President: 10 Jun 1894 - 01 Mar 1895. Governor: 01 Nov 1989 - 13 Nov 1898.
  • Tomás Herculano de Jesús Regalado Romero...........14 Nov 1898 - 01 Mar 1903 d. 1906
  • Provisional President to 01 Mar 1899. The union of United States of Central America was dissolved on 21 Nov 1898 after General Tomás Regalado seized power in El Salvador.
  • Pedro José Escalón.................................01 Mar 1903 - 01 Mar 1907 d. 1923
  • Fernando Figueroa (2nd time).......................01 Mar 1907 - 01 Mar 1911
  • Manuel Enrique Araujo Rodríguez....................01 Mar 1911 - 09 Feb 1913 d. 1913
  • Carlos Meléndez Ramírez............................09 Feb 1913 - 01 Mar 1919 d. 1919
  • He was Provisional President: 09 Feb 1913 - 29 Aug 1914.
    • acting for absent Meléndez Ramírez
    • Alfonso Quiñónez Molina (1st time)............29 Aug 1914 - 01 Mar 1915 d. 1950
    • Alfonso Quiñónez Molina (2nd time)............21 Dec 1918 - 01 Mar 1919
  • Jorge Meléndez Ramírez.............................01 Mar 1919 - 01 Mar 1923 d. 1953
  • Head of State: 13 Jun 1921 - 04 Feb 1922.
  • Alfonso Quiñónez Molina (3rd time).................01 Mar 1923 - 01 Mar 1927
  • Pío Romero Bosque "Don Pío"........................01 Mar 1927 - 01 Mar 1931 d. 1935
  • Arturo Araujo Fujardo..............................01 Mar 1931 - 04 Dec 1931 d. 1967
  • Maximiliano Hernández Martínez.....................04 Dec 1931 - 09 May 1944 d. 1966
    • acting Provisional President for absent Hernández Martínez
    • Andrés Ignacio Menéndez (1st time)............29 Aug 1934 - 01 Mar 1935 d. 1962
  • Provisional Presidents
  • Andrés Ignacio Menéndez (2nd time).................09 May 1944 - 20 Oct 1944
  • Osmín Aguirre y Salinas............................21 Oct 1944 - 01 Mar 1945 d. 1977
  • Miguel Tomás Molina (in rebellion).................04 Nov 1944 - 07 Nov 1944 d. 1965
  • President
  • Salvador Castaneda Castro..........................01 Mar 1945 - 14 Dec 1948 d. 1965
  • Military Junta.....................................15 Dec 1948 - 14 Sep 1950
  • Revolutionary Council of Government
  • Manuel de Jesús Córdova Rodríguez..................15 Dec 1948 - 05 Jan 1949
  • Óscar Osorio Hernández.............................15 Dec 1948 - 22 Oct 1949 d. 1969
  • Reynaldo Galindo Pohl..............................15 Dec 1948 - 22 Oct 1949 d. 2012
  • José Óscar Adán Bolaños Estrada....................15 Dec 1948 - 14 Sep 1950
  • Humberto Costa.....................................15 Dec 1948 - 14 Sep 1950
  • Republic...........................................14 Sep 1950 - date
  • Presidents
  • Óscar Osorio Hernández (continued).................14 Sep 1950 - 14 Sep 1956
  • José María Lemus López.............................14 Sep 1956 - 26 Oct 1960 d. 1993
  • Junta of Government (26 Oct 1960 - 25 Jan 1961)
  • Miguel Ángel Castillo (Military)...................26 Oct 1960 - 25 Jan 1961
  • Fabio Castillo Figueroa............................26 Oct 1960 - 25 Jan 1961 d. 2012
  • Ricardo Falla Cáceres..............................26 Oct 1960 - 25 Jan 1961 d. 1990
  • René Fortín Magaña.................................26 Oct 1960 - 25 Jan 1961
  • Rubén Alonso Rosales Soriano (Military)............26 Oct 1960 - 25 Jan 1961 d. 2000
  • César Yanes Urías (Military).......................26 Oct 1960 - 25 Jan 1961
  • Civic-Military Directory (25 Jan 1961 - 25 Jan 1962)
  • Aníbal Portillo Gonzalez (Military)................25 Jan 1961 - 25 Jan 1962 d. 2010
  • Feliciano Avelar...................................25 Jan 1961 - 25 Jan 1962
  • José Antonio Rodríguez Porth.......................25 Jan 1961 - 06 Apr 1961 d. 1989
  • José Francisco Valiente............................25 Jan 1961 - 06 Apr 1961
  • Julio Adalberto Rivera Carballo (Military).........25 Jan 1961 - 11 Sep 1961 d. 1973
  • Mariano Castro Morán...............................11 Sep 1961 - 25 Jan 1962 d. 2005
  • Provisional President
  • Eusebio Rodolfo Cordón Cea.........................25 Jan 1962 - 01 Jul 1962 d. 1966
  • Presidents
  • Julio Adalberto Rivera Carballo....................01 Jul 1962 - 01 Jul 1967
  • Fidel Sánchez Hernández............................01 Jul 1967 - 01 Jul 1972 d. 2003
  • Arturo Armando Molina Barraza......................01 Jul 1972 - 01 Jul 1977
  • Carlos Humberto Romero Mena........................01 Jul 1977 - 15 Oct 1979 d. 2017
  • Revolutionary Junta (15 Oct 1979 - 02 May 1982)
  • Salvadoran Civil War: 15 Oct 1979 – 16 Jan 1992. A coup on 15 October 1979, was followed by killings of anti-coup protesters by the government and of anti-disorder protesters by the guerrillas, and is widely seen as the start of civil war. Main Commanders from Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) were: Schafik Jorge Handal, Joaquín Villalobos, Salvador Cayetano Carpio and Salvador Sánchez Cerén. On 16 Jan 1992, The Chapultepec Peace Accords was signed by the combatants at Chapultepec Castle in Mexico City. After the ceasefire established, the FMLN converted itself from a guerrilla army into a political party with Schafik Jorge Handal served as its general coordinator. The FMLN has participated in elections since 1994. Salvador Sánchez Cerén became El Salavador's President: 2014-2019.
  • Adolfo Arnoldo Majano Ramos (Military).............15 Oct 1979 - 07 Dec 1980
  • Jaime Abdul Gutiérrez Avendaño (Military)..........15 Oct 1979 - 22 Dec 1980 d. 2012
  • Román Antonio Mayorga Quirós.......................17 Oct 1979 - 05 Jan 1980
  • Guillermo Manuel Ungo Revelo.......................17 Oct 1979 - 05 Jan 1980 d. 1991
  • Mario Antonio Andino Gómez.........................17 Oct 1979 - 05 Jan 1980 d. 2014
  • José Antonio Morales Ehrlich.......................09 Jan 1980 - 22 Dec 1980
  • José Ramón Ávalos Navarrete........................09 Jan 1980 - 22 Dec 1980
  • Héctor Miguel Antonio Dada Hirezi..................09 Jan 1980 - 03 Mar 1980
  • José Napoleón Duarte Fuentes.......................10 Mar 1980 - 22 Dec 1980 d. 1990
  • President of the Revolutionary Junta
  • José Napoleón Duarte Fuentes (continued)...........22 Dec 1980 - 02 May 1982
  • Provisional President
  • Álvaro Alfredo Magaña Borja........................02 May 1982 - 01 Jun 1984 d. 2001
  • Presidents
  • José Napoleón Duarte Fuentes (2nd time)............01 Jun 1984 - 01 Jun 1989
  • Alfredo Félix Cristiani Burkard....................01 Jun 1989 - 01 Jun 1994
  • Armando Calderón Sol...............................01 Jun 1994 - 01 Jun 1999 d. 2017
  • Francisco Guillermo Flores Pérez...................01 Jun 1999 - 01 Jun 2004 d. 2016
  • Elías Antonio Saca González........................01 Jun 2004 - 01 Jun 2009
  • Carlos Mauricio Funes Cartagena....................01 Jun 2009 - 01 Jun 2014
  • Salvador Sánchez Cerén.............................01 Jun 2014 - 01 Jun 2019
  • Nayib Armando Bukele Ortez.........................01 Jun 2019 - date
 
 
Coinage
Currency: Salvadoran Peso (SVC) = 100 centavos [1847-1919]
 
1908
 
 
 
 
 
 
Currency: Salvadoran Colon (SVC) = 100 centavos [1919-2001]
 
1992
On 29 November 1993, the National Bank of Moldova (NBM) issued its first coins of 1, 5, 25 and 50 bani and 1 and 5 lei.

KM#5 Leu. Year: 1992. Weight: 3.23g [3.30 g]. Metal: Nickel clad steel. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monetăria Statului, Romania.
Obverse: "M" monogram at the top stands for the name of the country - Moldova. Numeral "1" in the center. Two digits of Date on each side. Currency "LEU" written at the bottom. Reverse: Coat of Arms of Moldova in the center. "REPUBLICA" (Republic) written in Romanian at the left side clockwise and "MOLDOVA" written at the right side clockwise. A pair of Oak leaves at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Issue date: 29 November 1993. Designer: Constantin Dumitrescu.

Note: The 1 leu 1992 and 5 lei 1993 coins were withdrawn from circulation in 1994. Due to their low quality and relatively high nominal value, many forgeries appeared.

 
1993
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
 
1995
 
   
   
 
   
 
   
 
 
2012
 
   
   
 
2013
 
   
   
   
 
2015
 
   
   
   
 
2016
 
   
   
   
 
2017
 
   
   
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Currency: U.S. Dollar (USD) = 100 cents. [2001-Date]
 
 
 
 
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins