United States of America
 

 
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2) and with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area, third-largest by land area, and the third-most populous. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, and is home to the world's largest immigrant population. The capital is
Washington, D.C., and the largest city is New York City; nine other major metropolitan areas - each with at least 4.5 million inhabitants; are Los Angeles, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Philadelphia, Miami, Atlanta, Boston, and San Francisco. Motto: "In God We Trust".
 
               607/1620     English colonies founded (from 1607 at Jamestown in
                             Virginia; and 1620 at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts).
 19 Apr 1775 - 17 Mar 1776  British occupy Boston.
               23 Aug 1775  "Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition" issued
                             by the British government.
               02 Jul 1776  Resolution in favor of independence of 13 British colonies
                             (Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut,
                             Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire,
                             Virginia, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island) in North
                             America is passed by the Continental Congress.
               04 Jul 1776  "The unanimous declaration [of independence] of the 13
                             united States of America" is approved by the Continental
                             Congress.
 15 Sep 1776 - 25 Nov 1783  British occupy New York City.
 26 Sep 1777 - 18 Jun 1778  British occupy Philadelphia.
               15 Nov 1777  "Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union" are passed
                              by the Congress.
               01 Mar 1781  "Articles of Confederation" effective upon the completion of
                              ratification by the states (United States of America).
               03 Sep 1783  Independence recognized by Great Britain.
               04 Mar 1789  Constitution effective; 11 of the 13 original states have
                             ratified it by that time.
               21 Nov 1789  North Carolina ratifies the Constitution.
               29 May 1790  Rhode Island ratifies the Constitution.
               20 Dec 1803  Louisiana territory acquired from France (treaty signed
                             20 Apr 1803).
 18 Jun 1812 - 18 Feb 1815  The War of 1812. A conflict between the United States and
                             the United Kingdom.
               22 Feb 1819  Florida acquired from Spain (ratified 19 Feb 1821).
               29 Dec 1845  Texas annexed.
 25 Apr 1846 - 03 Feb 1848  Mexican-American War.
               15 Jun 1846  Oregon country annexed.
               02 Feb 1848  Mexican cession (occupied since 1846) annexed.
               20 Dec 1853  Gadsden purchase from Mexico (ratified 08 Jun 1854).
 08 Feb 1861 - 10 May 1865  Confederate States of America in secession.
 12 Apr 1961 - 09 May 1865  American Civil War.
               30 Mar 1867  Alaska purchased from Russia.
               12 Aug 1898  Hawaii annexed.
 
Territorial Disputes: The U.S. has intensified domestic security measures and is collaborating closely with its neighbors, Canada and Mexico, to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across the international borders; abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-U.S. border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement in the Bering Sea awaits Russian Duma ratification; managed maritime boundary disputes with Canada at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; The Bahamas and U.S. have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or U.S. abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims Navassa Island; U.S. has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nations; Marshall Islands claims Wake Island; the Bajo Nuevo Bank are claimed by Jamaica; the Serranilla Bank is possibly claimed by Colombia and Honduras; Tokelau included American Samoa's Swains Island among the islands listed in its 2006 draft constitution.
 
  • Provisional Government - Presidents of the Continental Congress - (Non-party).
  • Peyton Randolph (1st time)....................05 Sep 1774 - 22 Oct 1774 d. 1775
  • Henry Middleton...............................22 Oct 1774 - 26 Oct 1774 d. 1784
  • vacant
  • Peyton Randolph (2nd time)....................10 May 1775 - 24 May 1775
  • John Hancock (1st time).......................24 May 1775 - 29 Oct 1777 d. 1793
  • vacant
  • Charles Thomson (acting)......................29 Oct 1777 - 01 Nov 1777 d. 1824
  • Henry Laurens.................................01 Nov 1777 - 09 Dec 1778 d. 1792
  • John Jay......................................10 Dec 1778 - 28 Sep 1779 d. 1829
  • Samuel Huntington.............................28 Sep 1779 - 02 Mar 1781 d. 1796
  • Presidents of the United States in Congress Assembled - "First Republic" - (Non-party)
  • Samuel Huntington (continued).................02 Mar 1781 - 10 Jul 1781
  • Thomas McKean.................................10 Jul 1781 - 04 Nov 1781 d. 1817
  • John Hanson...................................05 Nov 1781 - 03 Nov 1782 d. 1783
  • Elias Boudinot................................04 Nov 1782 - 02 Nov 1783 d. 1821
  • Thomas Mifflin................................03 Nov 1783 - 31 Oct 1784 d. 1800
  • Daniel Carroll (acting for Mifflin)...........03 Nov 1783 - 13 Dec 1783 d. 1796
  • Richard Henry Lee.............................30 Nov 1784 - 06 Nov 1785 d. 1794
  • John Hancock (2nd time).......................23 Nov 1785 - 05 Jun 1786
  • David Ramsay (acting for Hancock).............23 Nov 1785 - 12 May 1786 d. 1815
  • Nathaniel Gorham..............................15 May 1786 - 05 Nov 1786 d. 1796
  • He was acting for Hancock to 05 June 1786.
  • vacant
  • Arthur Saint Clair............................02 Feb 1787 - 04 Nov 1787 d. 1818
  • Cyrus Griffin................................ 22 Jan 1788 - 02 Nov 1788 d. 1810
  • vacant
  • Between Nov 1788 - 06 Apr 1789, the United States had no chief executive due to transitional period and organization of federal government according to the Constitution of 1789. Congress did not hold regular sessions, though delegates from the various states continued to appear and present their credentials, so that it would have been possible at any time that seven states were present for the secretary to have read the credentials and for Congress to have begun its sessions. According to the provisions of the new Constitution, federal Congress met on 4 Mar 1789, but it could not proceed with any business as the number of delegates was insufficient for quorum. The House of Representatives reached quorum on 01 Apr 1789, and elected Speaker, who in this case was the highest state officer until inauguration of President George Washington on 30 Apr.
  • Speaker of the House of Representatives
  • Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg.................01 Apr 1789 - 30 Apr 1789 d. 1801
  • Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg was elected Speaker on 01 Apr 1789 from Federal party. The Senate of the United States achieved quorum on 06 Apr 1789. John Langdon (b. 1741 - d. 1819) was elected President pro tempore "for the sole purpose of opening and counting the votes for President of the United States". John Adams, elected Vice President and entitled to serve as a presiding officer of the Senate, was introduced by John Langdon to the chair of the Senate on 21 Apr 1789. George Washington was inaugurated on 30 Apr 1789.
 
Click on below links to view coinage used by USA, sorted yearly according to respective Presidential rule.
 
  • Presidents - "Second Republic" - the government organized by the Federal Constitution.
  • George Washington (Non-party).................30 Apr 1789 - 04 Mar 1797 d. 1799
  • John Adams (Fed. party).......................04 Mar 1797 - 04 Mar 1801 d. 1826
  • Thomas Jefferson (Dem-Rep. party).............04 Mar 1801 - 04 Mar 1809 d. 1826
  • On July 04, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson died at the age of 83 at Charlottesville, Virginia at 12:50 PM, while Adams died at the age of 90 at his home in Quincy, Massachusetts at approximately 6:20 PM on the same day.
  • James Madison (Dem-Rep. party)................04 Mar 1809 - 04 Mar 1817 d. 1836
  • James Monroe (Dem-Rep. party).................04 Mar 1817 - 04 Mar 1825 d. 1831
  • John Quincy Adams (Dem-Rep. party)............04 Mar 1825 - 04 Mar 1829 d. 1848
  • He was the son of John Adams.
  • Andrew Jackson................................04 Mar 1829 - 04 Mar 1837 d. 1845 Dem
  • Martin Van Buren..............................04 Mar 1837 - 04 Mar 1841 d. 1862 Dem
  • William Henry Harrison........................04 Mar 1841 - 04 Apr 1841 d. 1841 Whg
  • Whg = Whig Party (economic nationalist, protectionist, anti-Jacksonian, 1833-1860). Presidents Abraham Lincoln, Rutherford B. Hayes, Chester A. Arthur, and Benjamin Harrison were Whigs before switching to the Republican Party, from which they were elected to office. William Henry Harrison Sr. (February 09, 1773 April 04, 1841) was an American military officer, a principal contributor in the War of 1812, and the ninth President of the United States (1841). He was the last president born as a British subject, and died of pneumonia just 31 days into his term, thereby serving the shortest tenure in United States presidential history. He was the first president to die in office, and his death sparked a brief constitutional issue. Its resolution left unsettled. Constitutional questions as to the presidential line of succession until the passage of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1967. Harrison was the son of Founding Father Benjamin Harrison V and in turn was the grandfather of Benjamin Harrison, the 23rd United States President (18891893). John Tyler, who as the Vice President became President after William Henry Harrison Sr.'s death..
  • John Tyler....................................04 Apr 1841 - 04 Mar 1845 d. 1862 Whg
  • James Knox Polk...............................04 Mar 1845 - 04 Mar 1849 d. 1849 Dem
  • Zachary Taylor................................05 Mar 1849 - 09 Jul 1850 d. 1850 Whg
  • Despite treatment of cholera, Taylor died at 10:35 p.m. on July 09, 1850. He was 65 years old. After his death, Vice President Fillmore assumed the presidency and completed Taylor's term, which ended on March 04, 1853.
  • Millard Fillmore..............................09 Jul 1850 - 04 Mar 1853 d. 1874 Whg
  • Franklin Pierce...............................04 Mar 1853 - 04 Mar 1857 d. 1869 Dem
  • James Buchanan................................04 Mar 1857 - 04 Mar 1861 d. 1868 Dem
  • Abraham Lincoln (North).......................04 Mar 1861 - 15 Apr 1865 d. 1865 Rep
  • Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War (April 12, 1861 May 09, 1865)  - its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis. In doing so, he preserved the Union, paved the way to the abolition of slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. In Congress, abolition of slavery was passed by the Senate on April 08, 1864, and by the House on January 31, 1865. Lincoln was assassination on 14 April 1865 by John Wilkes Booth and died on 15 April 1865 at 7:22 a.m., in the Petersen House opposite the theater. opposed by...
  • Jefferson Davis (South).......................22 Feb 1862 10 May 1865 d. 1889
  • Andrew Johnson................................15 Apr 1865 - 04 Mar 1869 d. 1875 Dem
  • Ulysses Simpson Grant.........................04 Mar 1869 - 04 Mar 1877 d. 1885 Rep
  • Rutherford Birchard Hayes.....................04 Mar 1877 - 04 Mar 1881 d. 1893 Rep
  • James Abram Garfield..........................04 Mar 1881 - 19 Sep 1881 d. 1881 Rep
  • He is the only sitting House member to be elected president. Garfield was shot by Charles Julius Guiteau, a disgruntled office seeker, at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station in Washington, D.C. on July 02, 1881. After eleven weeks of intensive and other care Garfield died in Elberon, New Jersey on Sep 19, 1881.
  • Chester Alan Arthur...........................19 Sep 1881 - 04 Mar 1885 d. 1886 Rep
  • Stephen Grover Cleveland (1st time)...........04 Mar 1885 - 04 Mar 1889 d. 1908 Dem
  • Benjamin Harrison.............................04 Mar 1889 - 04 Mar 1893 d. 1901 Rep
  • Stephen Grover Cleveland (2nd time)...........04 Mar 1893 - 04 Mar 1897 d. 1908 Dem
  • William McKinley..............................04 Mar 1897 - 14 Sep 1901 d. 1901 Rep
  • After six months into 2nd term as President, Leon Frank Czolgosz concealed his gun in a handkerchief, and, when he reached the head of the line, shot McKinley twice in the abdomen at Temple of Music on September 06, 1901. In the days after the shooting McKinley appeared to improve. Unknown to the doctors, the gangrene that would kill him was growing on the walls of his stomach, slowly poisoning his blood. On the morning of September 13, McKinley took a turn for the worse. Relatives and friends gathered around the death bed. At 2:15 a.m. on September 14, President McKinley died. Theodore Roosevelt who was the vice President had rushed back and took the oath of office as president in Buffalo.
  • Theodore Roosevelt............................14 Sep 1901 - 04 Mar 1909 d. 1919 Rep
  • William Howard Taft...........................04 Mar 1909 - 04 Mar 1913 d. 1930 Rep
  • Woodrow Thomas Wilson.........................04 Mar 1913 - 04 Mar 1921 d. 1924 Dem
  • Warren Gamaliel Harding.......................04 Mar 1921 - 02 Aug 1923 d. 1923 Rep
  • John Calvin Coolidge..........................02 Aug 1923 - 04 Mar 1929 d. 1933 Rep
  • Herbert Clark Hoover..........................04 Mar 1929 - 04 Mar 1933 d. 1964 Rep
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt.....................04 Mar 1933 - 12 Apr 1945 d. 1945 Dem
  • A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and emerged as a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century. He directed the United States government during most of the Great Depression and World War II. Due to the President's declining health, the small-scale for his fourth inauguration as President on January 20, 1945, was held on the White House lawn. Roosevelt died at 3:35 p.m on April 12, 1945 at due massive cerebral hemorrhage.
  • Harry S. Truman...............................12 Apr 1945 - 20 Jan 1953 d. 1972 Dem
  • Dwight David Eisenhower.......................20 Jan 1953 - 20 Jan 1961 d. 1969 Rep
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy.......................20 Jan 1961 - 22 Nov 1963 d. 1963 Dem
  • Kennedy served at the height of the Cold War, and much of his presidency focused on managing relations with the Soviet Union. He was a member of the Democratic Party who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate prior to becoming president. President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, at 12:30 pm Central Standard Time on Friday, November 22, 1963, while on a political trip to Texas to smooth over frictions in the Democratic Party between liberals Ralph Yarborough and Don Yarborough (no relation) and conservative John Connally. Traveling in a presidential motorcade through downtown Dallas, he was shot once in the back, the bullet exiting via his throat, and once in the head. Kennedy was taken to Parkland Hospital for emergency medical treatment, where he was pronounced dead 30 minutes later; he was 46 years old and had been in office for 1,036 days.
  • Lyndon Baines Johnson.........................22 Nov 1963 - 20 Jan 1969 d. 1973 Dem
  • Richard Milhouse Nixon........................20 Jan 1969 - 09 Aug 1974 d. 1994 Rep
  • Gerald Rudolph Ford...........................09 Aug 1974 - 20 Jan 1977 d. 2006 Rep
  • James "Jimmy" Earl Carter.....................20 Jan 1977 - 20 Jan 1981 Dem
  • Ronald Wilson Reagan..........................20 Jan 1981 - 20 Jan 1989 d. 2004 Rep
  • George Herbert Walker Bush....................20 Jan 1989 - 20 Jan 1993 Rep
  • William "Bill" Jefferson (Blythe IV) Clinton..20 Jan 1993 - 20 Jan 2001 Dem
  • George Walker Bush............................20 Jan 2001 - 20 Jan 2009 Rep
  • Barack Hussein Obama II.......................20 Jan 2009 20 Jan 2017 Dem
  • Donald John Trump.............................20 Jan 2017 - date Rep
 
 
 
 
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