Iraq
 
 
This area is old and modern geographical books is known as Mesopotamia. Iraq's capital Baghdad has always been a major city in Islamic history.
 
  • LARSA In southeastern Iraq, (modern Tall Sankarah), about 25 miles (40 km.) west of modern city an-Nasiriyah.

  • Naplanum (Contemporary of Ibbi-Suen of Ur 3rd Dynasty)..2025 - 2004 BCE
  • Emisum..................................................2004 - 1976
  • Samium..................................................1976 - 1941
  • Zabaia S/o Samium (First royal inscription).............1941 - 1932
  • Gungunum................................................1932 - 1905
  • The city again became a political force during the so-called Isin-Larsa period. After the Third Dynasty of Ur collapsed ca. 2002 BCE, Ishbi-Erra (an official of Ibbi-Sin, the last king of the Ur), relocated to Isin ((modern city of al-Diwaniyah) and set up a government which purported to be the successor to the Ur dynasty. From Isin, Ishbi-Erra recaptured Ur as well as the cities of Uruk and Lagash, which Larsa was subject to. Subsequent Isin rulers appointed governors to rule over Lagash; one such governor was an Amorite named Gungunum. He eventually broke with Isin from ruler; Lapit-Ishtar and established an independent dynasty in Larsa.
  • Abisare.................................................1905 - 1894
  • Sumuel..................................................1894 - 1865
  • Nur-Adad (Contemporary of Sumulael of Babylon)..........1865 - 1849
  • Sin-Iddinam S/o Nur-Adad................................1849 - 1842
  • Sin-Eribam..............................................1842 - 1840
  • Sin-Iqisham S/o Sin-Eribam (Contemp. of Zambiya of Isin)1840 - 1835
  • Silli-Adad..............................................1835 - 1834
  • Warad-Sin...............................................1834 - 1822
  • He is Possibly co-regency with his father Kudur-Mabuk.
  • Rim-Sin I...............................................1822 - 1763
  • Brother of Warad-Sin. Contemporary of Irdanene of Uruk. He defeated Damiq-Ilishu of Isin and captured it in 1794 BCE. Later Rim-Sin I was defeated by Hammurabi, Larsa along with Isin was taken into Babylon.
  • BABYLON Perhaps the best-known of the early Mesopotamian imperial peoples. Babylon was a city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, sometimes considered an empire, the remains of which can be found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers (55 mi) south of Baghdad. It has been officially recognized as one of the first civilizations on earth. Babylon existed south of Baghdad mainly on the banks of river Euphrates and close by river Tigris in the north. Even after the final destruction of the Babylonian state by Persia in the 6th century BCE, the Babylonian people survived for more than 1100 years more before being submerged within their distant relatives, the Arabs.
  • 1st Dynasty (Amorite)
  • Sumuabum (Contemporary of Ilushuma of Assyria)..........1894 - 1880 BCE
  • Sumulael (Contemporary of Erishum I of Assyria).........1880 - 1844
  • Sabium S/o Sumulael.....................................1844 - 1830
  • Apil-Sin S/o Sabium.....................................1830 - 1812
  • Sin-Muballit S/o Apil-Sin...............................1812 - 1792
  • Hammurabi...............................................1792 - 1749
  • Samsuiluna S/o Hammurabi................................1749 - 1711
  • Rim-Sin II (Larsa, killed in revolt against Babylon).c. 1711 - 1707
  • Abieshu S/o Samsuiluna..................................1711 - 1683
  • Ammiditana S/o Abieshu..................................1683 - 1646
  • Ammisaduqa..............................................1646 - 1625
  • Samsuditana.............................................1625 - 1595
  • Babylon was sacked. and another dynasty was established. These rulers did not rule Babylon itself, but rather the Sumerian regions (the delta of the Euphrates and upper Gulf coast) south of it.
  • Sea Land Dynasty
  • Ilima-Ilu
  • Itti-Ili-nibi..................................................fl. c. 1700
  • Damiq-Ilishu
  • Ishkibal.......................................................fl. c. < 1650
  • Shushshi
  • Gulkishar
  • Peshgaldaramash................................................fl. c. < 1550
  • Adarakalamma
  • Ekurduanna.....................................................fl. c. 1500
  • Melamkurkukka
  • Ea-Gamil.......................................................fl. c. < 1450
  • Hittite Empire
  • The Hittites, arising in central Anatolia within what later was known as Cappadocia, were one of the earliest peoples to make extensive use of iron. They are also the first Aryan people to achieve a civilization. The empire begins disintegrating from c. 1500 on into numerous Neo-Hittite local Kingdoms as Kizzuwadna, Kummuhu, Milid, Sam'al, Tabal and Tarhuntassa.
  • BABYLON
  • 2nd Dynasty (Kassite)
  • Gandash
  • Agum I.........................................................fl. c. 1700
  • Kashtiliash I
  • Ushshi.........................................................fl. c. < 1650
  • Abirattash
  • Kashtiliash II
  • Urzigurumash
  • Kharbashikhu...................................................fl. c. 1600
  • Tiptakzi
  • Agum II........................................................fl. c. < 1550
  • Burnaburiash I
  • Unknown rulers
  • Kashtiliash III
  • Ulamburiash....................................................fl. c. < 1450
  • Agum III
  • Unknown rulers
  • Kadashmankharbe.........................................1415 - ?
  • Karaindash
  • Kurigalzu I....................................................fl. c. < 1390
  • Kadashman-Enlil I
  • Burnaburiash II......................................c. 1375 - 1347
  • Karakhardash
  • Nazibugash
  • Kurigalzu II............................................1345 - 1323
  • Nazimaruttash...........................................1323 - 1297
  • Kadashman-Turgu.........................................1297 - 1279
  • Kadashman-Enlil II......................................1279 - 1264
  • Kudur-Enlil.............................................1264 - 1255
  • Shagarakti-Shuriash.....................................1255 - 1242
  • Kashtiliash IV..........................................1242 - 1235
  • Assyria.................................................1235 - 1227
  • Assysia is also best-known early Mesopotamian states that survived till 609 BCE.
  • 3rd Dynasty
  • Enlil-Nadin-Shumi.......................................1227 - ?
  • Kadashmankharbe II
  • Adad-Shuma-Iddina.......................................1224 - 1218
  • Adad-Shuma-Usur.........................................1218 - 1188
  • Meli-Shikhu.............................................1188 - 1173
  • Marduk-Apla-Iddina......................................1173 - 1160
  • Zababa-Shuma-Iddina.....................................1160 - 1159
  • Enlil-Nadin-Akhi........................................1159 - 1157
  • Elam....................................................1157 - 1156
  • Elam was a state on coastal regions along the northern shore of the Persian Gulf, from what is now Kuwait to the Straits of Hormuz. This state existed from c. 2550 to 644 BCE. It was captured by Assyria state.
  • 4th Dynasty (from Isin)
  • Marduk-Kabit-Ahheshu....................................1156 - 1138
  • Itti-Marduk-Balatu......................................1138 - 1131
  • Ninurta-Nadin-Shumi.....................................1131 - 1125
  • Nebuchadrezzar I........................................1125 - 1103
  • Enlil-Nadin-Apli........................................1103 - 1099
  • Marduk-Nadin-Ahhe.......................................1099 - 1081
  • Marduk-Shapik-Zeri......................................1081 - 1068
  • Adad-Apal-Iddina........................................1068 - 1046
  • Marduk-Ahhe-Eriba.......................................1046 - 1045
  • Marduk-Zer-X............................................1045 - 1033
  • Nabu-Shum-Libur.........................................1033 - 1026
  • 5th Dynasty (Sea-Land)
  • Simbar-Shikhu...........................................1026 - 1008
  • Ea-Mukin-Shumi..........................................1008 - 1007
  • Kashshu-Nadin...........................................1007 - 1005
  • 6th Dynasty (Bazu)
  • E-Ulmash-Shakin-Shumi...................................1005 - 987
  • Ninurta-Kudursh-Usur.....................................987 - 985
  • Shiriqti-Shuqamunu.......................................985 - 984
  • 7th Dynasty (Elamite)
  • Mar-Biti-Apal-Usur.......................................984 - 979
  • 8th Dynasty
  • Nabu-Mukin-Apli..........................................979 - 943
  • Ninurta-Kudurri-Usur II..................................943 - 942
  • Mar-Biti-Akh-Iddin.......................................942 - ?
  • Shamash-Mudammik
  • Nabu-Shum-Ukin I
  • Nabu-Apal-Iddin I
  • Marduk-Bel-Usate
  • Marduk-Zakir-Shum I
  • Marduk-Balatsu-Ikbi
  • Bau-Akh-Iddin
  • Four kings, names unknown
  • Ninurta-apla-X
  • Adad-Shum-Ibai
  • Marduk-Bel-Zeri................................................fl. c. 800
  • Marduk-Apal-Usur
  • Eriba-Marduk
  • Nabu-Shum-Ukin II..............................................fl. c. 760
  • Nabu-Nasir..............................................747 - 734
  • Nabu-Nadin-Zer..........................................734 - 732
  • Nabu-Shum-Ukin III............................................732
  • 9th Dynasty
  • Ukin-Zer.................................................732 - 729
  • Assyrian VI Dynasty
  • Tiglath-Pileser Pulu (King of Assyria 745-27)............729 - 727
  • Shalmaneser Ululai (King of Assyria 727-22)..............727 - 722
  • Aramaean
  • Marduk-Apal-Iddin II (1st time)..........................722 - 710 d. 702
  • Assyrian VII Dynasty
  • Sargon (II, King of Assyria 722-705).....................710 - 705
  • Sennecherib (King of Assyria 705-681)....................705 - 703 d. 681
  • Another Dynasty
  • Marduk-Zakir-Shum II...........................................703
  • Aramaean
  • Marduk-Apal-Iddin II (2nd time)..........................703 - 702
  • Assyrian Vassalage.......................................700 - 694
    • Bel Ibni (in rebellion from 700)....................702 - 700
    • Ashur-Nadin-Shum....................................700 - 694
  • Elam.....................................................694 - 689
    • Nergal-Ushezib......................................694 - 693
    • Mushezib-Marduk.....................................693 - 689
  • Assyrian VII Dynasty
  • Sennecherib (King of Assyria 705-681; 2nd time)..........689 - 681
  • Esarhaddon (King of Assyria).............................681 - 669
    • Shamash-Shum-Ukin...................................669 - 647
    • Kandalanu...........................................647 - 626
  • Dakkurian Dynasty
  • Nabu-Apal-Usur...........................................626 - 605
  • Nebuchadrezzar II the Great..............................605 - 562
  • Amel-Marduk..............................................562 - 560
  • Chaldaean Dynasty
  • Nergal-Shar-Usur.........................................560 - 556
  • Harranian Dynasty
  • Labashi-Marduk.................................................556
  • Chaldaean Dynasty
  • Nabu-Naid................................................556 - 539 opposed by...
  • Dakkurian Dynasty
  • Belshazzar...............................................553 - 539
  • Persia...................................................539 - 522 BCE
  • In 539 BCE, Babylon was captured by Cyrus the Great of Persia.
    • Gubaru..............................................539 - 525
    • Ushtani..........................................c. 524 - 516 opposed by...
  • Nidintu-Bel (rebel)............................................522
  • Persia...................................................522 - 521
  • Arakha (rebel).................................................521
  • Persia...................................................521 - 481
  • Bel-Shimani (rebel)............................................481
  • Persia...................................................481 - 480
  • Shamash-Erba (rebel)...........................................480
  • Persia...................................................480 - 336
  • Nidin-Bel (rebel)..............................................336
  • Persia...................................................336 - 331
  • Macedon..................................................331 - 312
  • Babylon was captured by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE.
    • Mazaeus (former Persian Satrap of Syria)..................fl. 320's
    • Archon................................................? - 323
    • Blitor (in the north)...............................323 - 316 with...
    • Seleucus Nicanor (in the south).....................323 - 316 opposed by...
    • Eumenes...................................................318
  • Antigonos I Monophthalmus................................316 - 312
  • Greek: Ἀντίγονος ὁ Μονόφθαλμος, "Antigonus the One-eyed", 382 BC - 301 BC), son of Philip from Elimeia, was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great. During his early life he served under Philip II, and he was a major figure in the Wars of the Diadochi after Alexander's death, declaring himself king and establishing the Antigonid dynasty.
    • Peithon Agenoridas..................................315 - 312
  • Independent Seleucid Satrapy, leading to empire 305
  • Seleucus (restored; king from 305).......................312 - 305 d. 281
  • Original lands of the Seleucid Empire....................305 - 141
  • Persia...............................................141 BCE - 115 CE
  • Roman Empire.............................................115 - 117
  • Persia...................................................117 - 636
  • The Prophet Muhammad's Elected Successors 636 - 661
  • Abu Hafs Umar I ibn al-Khattab al-Adawi..................636 - 644
  • He is the 2nd caliph of Islam since 634 CE. He captured present areas of Iraq from Persian ruler; Yazdegerd III in 636 CE.
  • Abu Amr Uthman ibn Affan al-Umawi........................644 - 656
  • Abu'l Hasan Ali ibn Abi Talib al-Hashimi.................656 - 660 opposed by...
    • Aysha bint Abu Bakr (female)..............................656 with...
    • Aysha was the favorite wife of Muhammad (one of at least twelve). To Sunni historians she is "Umm ul-Muminin", the "Mother of the Faithful". In 656, the Caliph Uthman was murdered. As Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin, did not do captured and did justice to the ones involved in Uthman's death. An outraged Aysha led a rebellion, attempting to replace Ali with her brother-in-law Zubayr, who was also a nephew of Muhammad's first wife Khadija. The brief civil war culminated in a battle outside Basra in which Aysha led her forces from camelback (hence the name "Battle of the Camel"). She was captured but pardoned and retired to Medina. She died in c. 678 CE.
    • Zubayr ibn al-Awam........................................656 and...
    • Talhah ibn Ubaidallah.....................................656 and...
    • Yala (deposed governor of Yemen)..........................656
  • Abu Muhammad al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Hashimi................660 - 661
    • Caliphate Governors of Iraq from 638 to 661
    • Said ibn Abi Waqkas (1st time)......................638 - 643
    • Umar ibn Yasir............................................644
    • Abu Musa al-Ashari (1st time).............................644
    • Mughaire ibn Shuba (1st time).......................644 - 646
    • Said ibn Abi Waqkas (2nd time)......................646 - 647
    • Walid ibn Uqba ibn Abu Muyat........................647 - 651
    • Said ibn al-As ibn Said al-Amawi....................651 - 655
    • Abu Musa al-Ashari (2nd time).......................655 - 658
    • Abu masud Uqba ibn Amir.............................658 - 661
    • Abdallah ibn Amr..........................................661
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................661 - 750
  • A dynasty was formed with it's capital as Damascus (Syria) and their rulers were Caliphs.
    • Umayyad Caliphate Governors
    • Mughaire ibn Shuba (2nd time).......................661 - 670
    • Zaid ibn Abu Suffin.................................670 - 673
    • Ubaydallah ibn Ziad (1st time)......................673 - 679
    • Numan ibn Bashir al-Ansari..........................679 - 680
    • Ubaydallah ibn Ziad (2nd time)......................680 - 683
    • Amir ibn Masud......................................683 - 684
    • Abdallah ibn Yazid al-Khatmi..............................684
    • Abdallah ibn Miti.........................................684
    • al-Haris ibn Abu Rabia..............................685 - 690
    • Basir ibn Marwan....................................690 - 692
    • Abdallah ibn Khalid.................................693 - 694
    • al-Hadjadj ibn Yusuf al-Kulayb......................694 - 714
    • Al-Ḥajjāj was sent to govern Iraq. He continued to be viewed as cruel and his reputation was not helped when he fought and eventually crushed a Kharijite rebellion under Abdur-Rahmān ibn Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath from 699-701. For his considerable successes, al-Ḥajjāj was also made governor of some provinces in Persia, where he was again tasked with putting down rebellions. However, his severe tactics led him to make many enemies, who would come to power after his death. With the ascent of al-Walid, Hajjāj's reputation grew due to the selection and deployment of numerous successful generals who expanded the empire. He was given these powers due to his high status in the Umayyad government and he exhibited a lot of control over the provinces that he governed. Among these generals was the teenaged Muhammad ibn-Qasīm, who in 712 was sent to Sindh in Pakistan. Qutayba ibn Muslim was sent to conquer Turkestan, which he did. Al-Ḥajjāj's most successful general was Mūsā ibn Nusayr, who consolidated control over North Africa and sent Tariq ibn Ziyād to invade Spain. The year after al-Ḥajjāj died, al-Walid died as well, and his brother Sulayman ibn Abdi l-Malik came to power. Sulayman was indebted to many opponents of al-Ḥajjāj for their political support in getting him elected Caliph, so he recalled all of al-Ḥajjāj's generals and had them tortured to death in prison.
    • Sulayman ibn Yazi...................................714 - 715
    • Yazid ibn al-Muhallab...............................715 - 721
    • Maslama ibn Abdulmalik..............................721 - 722
    • Umar ibn Hubayra....................................722 - 724
    • Khalid ibn Abdallah al-Qasri........................724 - 738
    • Yusuf ibn Umar......................................738 - 744
    • Mansur ibn Djumhur........................................744
    • Abdallah ibn Umar...................................744 - 747
    • Yazid ibn Omar......................................747 - 750
    • Khalid ibn Abdallah al-Qasri..............................750
    • Daud ibn Ali..............................................750
    • Isa ibn Musa........................................750 - 764
    • In 762 Baghdad was founded as the capital of the Abbasid Caliphs.
 

Drachma. Year: AH 75 (694). Weight: 3.60g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 31.00 mm. Mint: BYSh. Ruler: al-Hadjadj ibn Yusuf (Caliphate Governors of Basra, Iraq).

Note: Sassanid type Dirham.

 
  • ABBASID
  • The capital of the Caliphs was transferred to the newly built city of Baghdad, in central Mesopotamia. Abbasids with a violent, overthrow the Ummayads. A member of the Ummayad dynasty escaped and after wandering North Africa for several years, re-established his House at Cordoba, in Spain. Abbasid has control of Mesopotamia till 945. Abbasid resumed in power in Mesopotamia again from 1156 to 1258. Below is the complete list of these Caliphs. Capital: Kufa (750762), Ar-Raqqah (796809), Samarra (836892) and Baghdad (762796, 809836, 8921258).
  • Abu'l-Abbas Abdallah al-Saffah...........................750 - 754
  • Complete name: Abu al-Abbas Abdullah al-Saffah ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abdullah ibn Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib ibn Hashim.
  • Abu Jafar Abdallah al-Mansur ibn Muhammad................754 - 775
  • Ibrahim ibn Abdullah (revolt at Basra in AH 145).........762 - 763
  • Abu Abdallah Muhammad al-Mahdi ibn al-Mansur.............775 - 785
  • Abu Muhammad Musa al-Hadi ibn al-Mahdi...................785 - 786
  • Abu Jafar Harun al-Rashid ibn al-Mahdi...................786 - 809
  • Abu Musa Muhammad al-Amin ibn Harun al-Rashid............809 - 813
  • al-Natiq Musa (recognized at Dimashq in AH 194)..........810 - 811
  • Abu Jafar Abdallah al-Mamun ibn Harun al-Rashid (1st)....813 - 817 d. 833
  • Abu'l Saraya al-Shaybani (revolt at Kufa)............Jan 815 - Sep 815
  • Ibrahim al-Mubarrak......................................817 - 819
  • Abu Jafar Abdallah al-Mamun ibn Harun al-Rashid (2nd)....819 - 833
  • Abu Ishaq Muhammad al-Mutasim Billah ibn Harun al-Rashid.833 - 842 opposed by...
    • al-Abbas ibn al-Mamun...............................833 - 838 and also...
    • Muhammad ibn al-Saqqim al-Alawi.....................833 - 834
  • Abu Jafar Harun al-Wathiq Billah ibn al-Mutasim..........842 - 847
  • Abul-Fadl Jafar al-Mutawakkil Ala Allah ibn al-Mutasim...847 - 861
  • Abu Jafar Muhammad al-Muntasir Billah ibn al-Mutawakkil..861 - 862
  • Abul-Abbas Ahmad al-Mustain Billah ibn Muhammad..........862 - 866
  • He was the grandson of al-Mutasim Billah ibn Harun al-Rashid.
  • Abu Abdallah Muhammad al-Mutazz Billah ibn al-Mutawakkil.866 - 869
  • Abu Ishaq Muhammad al-Muhtadi Billah ibn al-Wathiq.......869 - 870
  • Abul-Abbas Ahmad al-Mutamid Alallah ibn al-Mutawakkil....870 - 892 with...
  • al-Muwaffaq ibn al-Mutawakkil (considered heir to throne)875 - 892
  • He issued silver Dirhams during his reign.
  • Abul-Abbas Ahmad al-Mutadid Billah ibn al-Muwaffaq.......892 - 902
  • He was the grandson of al-Mutawakkil ibn al-Mutasim.
  • Abu Muhammad Ali al-Muktafi Billah ibn al-Mutadid........902 - 908
  • Abul-Fadl Jafar al-Muqtadir Billah ibn al-Mutadid........908 - 932 opposed by...
    • Abul-Abbas Abdallah al-Murtada ibn al-Mutazz..............1 day in 908 and
    • Abu Mansur Muhammad al-Qahir Billah.......................2 days in 929
  • Muhammad al-Qahir ibn al-Mutadid.........................932 - 934
  • Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad al-Radi Billah ibn al-Muqtadir.........934 - 940
  • Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al-Muttaqi Billah ibn al-Muqtadir......940 - 944
  • Abu'l Qasim Abdallah al-Mustakfi Billah ibn al-Muktafi...944 - 946 with...
  • Abu'l Hasan Muhammad...........................................946 (AH 334 only)
  • Abbasids almost lost control to the growing Persian faction known as the Buwayhids in 945. Despite this, the Abbasids retained a highly ritualized court in Baghdad.
  • Abul Qasim al-Fadl al-Muti Lillah ibn al-Muqtadir........946 - 974
  • Abul Fadl Abd al-Karim al-Tai Lillah ibn al-Muti.........974 - 991
  • Abul-Abbas Ahmad al-Qadir Billah ibn al-Muttaqi..........991 - 1031
  • Abu Jafar Abdallah al-Qaim Bi Amr Allah ibn al-Qadir....1031 - 1075 opposed by...
    • Revolt of al-Bassassiri (in Baghdad)...............1058 - 1060
  • Abul Qasim Abdallah Uddat al-Din al-Muqtadi BiAmr Allah 1075 - 1094
  • He was the son of Muhammad Dhakirat and grandson of al-Qaim.
  • Abul-Abbas Ahmad al-Mustazhir Billah ibn al-Muqtadi.....1094 - 1118
  • al-Muqtadi in AH 486 (1093 CE) and al-Mustazhir in AH 491 (1098 CE) issued gold Dinars to represent their unsuccessful attempts to reassert themselves as politically independent rulers.
  • Abu Mansur alFadl al-Mustarshid Billah ibn al-Mustazhir.1118 - 1135
  • Abu Jafar al-Mansur al-Rashid Billah ibn al-Mustarshid..1135 - 1136
  • Abu Abdallah Muhammad al-Muqtafi Li Amr Allah...........1136 - 1160
  • Caliph Al-Muqtafi ibn al-Mustazhir, became the first Abbasid Caliph to regain the independence of the Caliphate, after nearly 250 years of foreign rule, he successfully defended Baghdad against the Seljuqs, thus securing Iraq for the Abbasids in 1157. The Siege of Baghdad was the last Seljuq attempt to capture Baghdad from the Abbasids. Caliph al-Muqtafi successfully defended his capital against the allied armies of Seljuq Sultan Muhammad of Hamadan and Qutb ad-Din of Mosul.
  • Abul Muzaffar Yusuf al-Mustanjid Billah ibn al-Muqtafi..1160 - 1170
  • Abu Mohammed al-Hassan al-Mustadhi Bi Amr Allah.........1170 - 1180
  • He was the son of al-Muqtafi
  • Abul-Abbas Ahmad al-Nasr Li Din Allah ibn al-Mustadhi...1180 - 1225
  • Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Zahir Bi Amr Allah ibn Nasr........1225 - 1226
  • Abu Djafar al-Mansur al-Mustansir Billah ibn al-Zahir...1226 - 1242
  • Abu Ahmad Abdallah al-Mustasim Billah ibn al-Mustansir..1242 - 1258
  • Mongol ruler Hulegu Khan bin Tolui bin Genghiz Khan [Temujin] bin Yesugei Khan attacked Baghdad. On 10th February 1258, Baghdad surrendered. The Mongols swept into the city on 13th February and began a week of massacre, looting, rape and destruction. The Grand Library of Baghdad, containing countless precious historical documents and books on subjects ranging from medicine to astronomy were destroyed. Survivors said that the waters of the Tigris ran black with ink from the enormous quantities of books flung into the river. The Mongols looted and then destroyed mosques, palaces, libraries, and hospitals. Grand buildings that had been the work of generations were burned to the ground. The year following the fall of Baghdad, Hulagu named the Persian Ata al-Mulk Juvayni governor of Baghdad, Lower Mesopotamia and Khuzistan.
  • The Abbasid rulers was started again in 1261 by al-Mustansir II ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Abu Bakr ibn al-Mustarshid, still maintained a feeble show of authority, confined to religious matters, in Egypt under the Mamluks, but the dynasty finally disappeared with Al-Mutawakkil III ibn al-Mustamsik, who was carried away as a prisoner of the palace to Constantinople by Selim I in 1517, where he only had a ceremonial role, until his death in 1543.
:

SA#213. Dirham. Year: AH 157 (774 CE). Weight: 2.82g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 25mm. Alignment: Rotated. Edge: Plain. Mint: Madinatul Islam (Baghdad).

Ruler: Abdullah Al-Mansur ibn.al-Saffah. Minted Years: AH 136-158.

Obverse: لا اله الا الله وحده لا شرك له (There is no diety except (the one) Allah alone. He has no equal). 
بسم الله ضرب هذا الدرهم بمدينة السلام سنة سبع و خمسين و مئة  [In The Name of Allah. This dirham was struck in Madinat al-Salam in the year seven and fifty and one hundred (157)].

Reverse: محمد رسول الله بخ بخ [Muhammad The Messanger Of Allah (Bakh Bakh)]. 
محمد رسول الله ارسله بالهدى و دين الحق ليظهره على الدين كله ولو كره المشركون [Muhammad is the messenger of God. He sent him with guidance and the true religion to reveal it to all religions even if the polytheists abhor it].

SA#214. Dinar. Year: AH 158 (775 CE). Weight: 3.99g. Metal: .917 Gold. Diameter: 19 mm. Alignment: Rotated. Edge: Plain. Mint: anonymous. Ruler: Muhammad Al-Mahdi.

This coin is cut from one side either to check the authenticity of gold or to steal some gold contents.

SA#219.2. Dirham. Year: AH 190 (806 CE). Weight: 2.93g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 21.25 mm. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Al-Muhammadiyya. Ruler: Abu Jafar Harun al-Rashid ibn al-Mahdi.
Obverse: لا اله الا الله وحده لا شرك له (There is no diety except (the one) Allah alone. He has no equal). 
بسم الله ضرب هذا الدرهم بالمحمدية سنة تسعين و مئة  [In The Name of God. This dirham was struck in al-Muhammadiyya in the year ninety and one hundred (190)].

Reverse: محمد رسول الله ه [Muhammad The Messanger Of Allah (Ha)]. 
محمد رسول الله ارسله بالهدى و دين الحق ليظهره على الدين كله ولو كره المشركون [Muhammad is the messenger of God. He sent him with guidance and the true religion to reveal it to all religions even if the polytheists abhor it].

Harun al-Rashid was the caliph about whom the Thousand and One Nights was composed, memorialized in Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherzade. Most of his Dirhams lack his name.
 
  • Musabid (or Tahirid) military governors of Baghdad
  • Even by 820, the Samanids had begun the process of exercising independent authority in Transoxiana and Greater Khorasan, the Shia Hamdanids in Northern Syria, and the successive Tahirid, Alid and Saffarid dynasties of Iran.
  • Tahir I ibn al-Husayn ibn Musab (Khorasan 821-822)..820 - 822
  • Ishaq ibn Ibrahim ibn Musab.........................822 - 849
  • Muhammad I ibn Ishaq................................849 - 850
  • Abdallah ibn Ishaq..................................850 - 851
  • Muhammad II ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir I................851 - 867
  • Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir I (1st time)......867 - 869 d. 891
  • Suleiman ibn Abdallah...............................869 - 879
  • Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah (2nd time)..................879 - 884 d. 891
  • Muhammad III ibn Tahir II ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir I..884 - 890
  • Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah (3rd time)..................890 - 891
  • Turkic Slave-Commanders
  • Badr al-Mutadidi....................................891 - ?
  • Munis al-Khadim...........................................fl. c. 910
    • Musabid
    • Muhammad IV ibn Ubaydallah (Deputy for Munis)........fl. c. 910
  • Buyid or Buwayhid
  • By the early 10th century, the Abbasids almost lost control to the growing Persian faction known as the Buwayhids that replaced the Samanids. Buwayhids were quietly able to assume real power in the bureaucracy at Baghdad. The Buwayhids, who were Shi'ites, seized power over Baghdad in 945 CE by Ahmad Muizz al-Dawla, They ruled central Iraq for more than a century. Despite the power of the Buwayhid amirs, the Abbasids retained a highly ritualized court in Baghdad, as described by the Buwayhid bureaucrat Hilal al-Sabi', and they retained a certain influence over Baghdad as well as religious life. The caliph al-Qadir, for example, led the ideological struggle against the Shia with writings such as the Baghdad Manifesto. All the autonomous provinces slowly took on the characteristic of de facto states with hereditary rulers, armies, and revenues and operated under only nominal caliph suzerainty, which may not necessarily be reflected by any contribution to the treasury. The member of this dynasty ruled various parts of Iran simultaneously citing their seniors and fathers as overload on their coinage. The below rulers of this dynasty are purely listed, ruling Iraqi areas.
  • Ahmad Abu'l Hussein Muizz al-Dawla ibn Buwayh............939 - 967
  • He was ruling Khuzistan and later also became ruler of Baghdad by occupying it in 945 CE.
  • Sanad al-Dawla (rebel at Barsa)..........................939 - 940
  • Bakhtiar Abu Mansur Izz al-Dawla.........................967 - 978
  • Fana Khusrau Abu Shuja Adud al-Dawla.....................978 - 983
  • Marzuban Abu Kalinjar Samsam al-Dawla ibn Adud al-Dawla..983 - 987
  • Marzuban Abu Kalinjar Samsam al-Dawla was governor of Khuzistan under his father, Adud al-Dawla from 978 to 983 CE and struck his own coins. All his coins cite his father as overload. Some of his coins dated AH 367 (978 CE) also cite Rukn al-Dawla as supreme ruler of the Buwayhid domains. Later he became as independent ruler of Iraq from AH 372-376 (983-987 CE). Later he became ruler of Fars and Kirman from AH 380-388 (990-998 CE), as nominal vassal of Fakhr al-Dawla from AH 380-387.
  • Abu'l Husayn Taj al-Dawla ibn Adud al-Dawla..............983 - 986
  • Ruled Khuzistan and Basra.
  • Shirdhil Abu'l Fawaris Sharaf al-Dawla ibn Adud al-Dawla.987 - 989
  • Governor of Kirman province under his father's rule from AH 361-372 (972-983 CE). Cited Rukn al-Dawla as overload on his AH 366/367 coinage. He ruled southern Iraq and Iran from AH 373-378 (983-988 CE) and later ruled Fars, Khuzistan and Iraq from AH 375-379 (985-989 CE).
  • Abu Tahir Diya al-Dawla ibn Adud al-Dawla (Barsa)........986 - 989
  • Firuz Abu Nasr Baha al-Dawla ibn Adud al-Dawla...........989 - 1012
  • Ruled Iraq and Khuzistan. Also became ruler of Fars after AH 388 (998 CE).
  • Abu Shuja Sultan al-Dawla ibn Baha al-Dawla.............1012 - 1021
  • Ruled Iraq, Khuzistan and Fars from AH 403-412 (1012-1021 CE).
  • Abu Tahir Jalal al-Dawla ibn Baha al-Dawla (Barsa)......1012 - 1025
  • Hasan Abu Ali Musharrif al-Dawla........................1021 - 1025
  • Shirzil Abu Tahir Djalal al-Dawla.......................1025 - 1044 opposed by...
  • Abu Khujar al-Marzuban..................................1036 - 1044
  • Marzuban Abu Kalijar Imad al-Din ibn Sultan al-Dawla....1044 - 1048
  • Ruled Fars from AH 415-440 (1024-1048 CE) and Iraq after AH 435 (1044 CE).
  • Khusrau Firuz Abu Nasr alMalik alRahim ibn Imad al-Din..1048 - 1055
  • Ruled Fars and Iraq from AH 440-447 (1048-1055 CE).
  • Seljuqs...............................................1055 - 1156
  • Rukn ad-Din Abu Talib Toghril Beg captured Baghdad from the Buyids under a commission from the Abbasid Caliph al-Qaim. Although the Seljuqs respected the Caliphs, they did not let them rule. In fact the Seljuqs themselves took over de facto lordship of the Empire, and the Caliph bestowed on Toghril Beg the title of Sultan of the East and the West. The Seljuqs publicly pledged allegiance to the Caliph, but left him in control of little actual territory beyond Baghdad.
    • Seljuq governors
    • Shihna Bursaq......................................1059 - 1064
    • Ertigin al-Sulayman................................1064 - 1072
    • Saad ad-Duwla Gauhar Ayin..........................1072 - 1074
    • Shihna Gauhar Ayin.................................1074 - 1093
    • Nadjm ad-Duwla Khumar Tegin al-Sharabi....................1089
    • Shihna Yulbarad...........................................1093
    • Ertigin Djabb.............................................1094
    • Yusuf ibn Abuq.....................................1095 - 1102
    • Nadjm ad-Din Ilghazi (1st time)...........................1102
    • Gumush Tegin al-Djandar...................................1103
    • Nadjm ad-Din Ilghazi (2nd time)...........................1104
    • Modjahid ad-Din Bohruz.............................1104 - 1105
    • Shihna Aqsonqur al-Bursaqi (1st time)..............1105 - 1127
    • Shihna Zenki ibn Aqsonqur.................................1127
    • Modjahid ad-Din al-Bursaqi (2nd time)..............1127 - ?
    • Mahmud II ibn Muhammad................................? - 1131
    • Toghril ?..........................................1131 - 1133
    • Masud ibn Muhammad..............................c. 1131 - c. 1133 ?
    • Bekabeh al-Mahmudi....................................? - 1135
    • Modjahid ad-Din Bahruz.............................1135 - 1142
    • Masud ibn Muhammad ? (restored ?)..................1142 - 1152
    • Malik-Shah III.....................................1152 - 1154
    • Muhammad II........................................1154 - 1156 d. 1160
  • Abbasid (continued)...................................1156 - 1258
  • Abbasid resumed power from 1156 to 1258. See their ruler details above. Later Baghdad was sacked by Mongol ruler: Hulegu Khan bin Tolui bin Genghiz Khan [Temujin] bin Yesugei Khan and Abbasid lost their control in Mesopotamia.
  • Ilkhanate Mongols (governors).......................1258 - 1356
    • Ali Bahadur........................................1258 - 1262
    • Aladdn At-Malik..................................1262 - 1283
    • Baidu.............................................1284 - 1295
    • Tudadj............................................1295 - 1317
    • Unknown name ruling from 1317 to 1336.
    • Ali Shah...........................................1336 - 1338
    • Jalayirid
    • Hasan-i Buzurg (the Great) Taj ad-Din..............1340 - 1356 opposing...
    • Chopanid
    • Hasan-i Kuchuk (the Small).........................1340 - 1343 and then...
    • Malik Ashraf.......................................1343 - 1356
  • Mongols (Golden Horde)..................................1356 - 1358
  • Jalayirid
  • Shaykh Uwais I..........................................1358 - 1374
  • Sultan Hussein I Jalal ad-Din...........................1374 - 1382
  • Sultan Bayazid (contender at Qazwin)....................1382 - 1384
  • Sultan Ahmad Ghiyath ad-Din (1st time)..................1382 - 1392 d. 1410
  • Timurid Mongols.........................................1392 - 1394
    • Masud Sabzawari....................................1392 - 1394
  • Sultan Ahmad Ghiyath ad-Din (2nd time)..................1394 - 1400 d. 1410
  • Timurid Mongols (in Upper Mesop.).......................1400 - 1410 opposed by...
    • Abu-Bakr ibn Miranshah ibn Timur...................1400 - 1403
    • Dawlat Khwadja Inaq................................1404 - 1410
  • Ahmad Ghiyath ad-Din (3rd time but in Lower Mesop.).....1405 - 1410
  • Walad...................................................1410 - 1411
  • Mahmud ibn Shah Walad..........................................1411 d. 1425
  • Baghdad falls to the Qara Koyunlu in 1411, the Jalayirids retain Basra under Timurid hegemony. Later Basra was also is taken by the Qara Koyunlu.
    • JALAYIRID at Basra
    • Shaykh Uwais II ibn Shah Walad.....................1411 - 1421
    • Shah Muhammad ibn Shah Walad..............................1421
    • Mahmud ibn Shah Walad (2nd time)...................1421 - 1425
    • Sultan Hussein II ibn Ala' al-Dawla................1425 - 1432
 

SA# 2311. 2 Dinars. Year: AH 784-796 (1382-1392 CE). Weight: 2.10g. Metal: Silver. Mint: Baghdad. Jalayirid Dynasty Ruler: Ahmad Ghiyath ad-Din.

Ruler 1st time: 1382-1392. Ruler restored from 1394-1400 and then again from 1405-1410.

 
  • Qara Koyunlu (Horde of the Black Sheep).................1411 - 1469
  • Ak Koyunlu (Horde of the White Sheep)...................1469 - 1508
  • Persia..................................................1508 - 1524
    • Lla Husain........................................1508 - 1515
    • Qonghoroz..........................................1515 - 1524
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1524 - 1529
    • Dulfaqar...........................................1524 - 1529
  • Persia..................................................1529 - 1534
    • Muhammad Khan ibn Sharafaddin......................1529 - 1533
    • Tekkelu Muhammad Khan..............................1533 - 1534
  • Ottoman Empire...................................18 Nov 1534 - 1623
    • Walis of Baghdad
    • Suleimn Pasha ibn Qubd...........................1534 - 1545
    • Ays...............................................1545 - 1549
    • Ali Tamarrud.......................................1549 - 1551
    • Mohammed...........................................1551 - 1566
    • Murd..............................................1566 - 1575
    • Al Elwendzd.....................................1575 - 1590
    • Tshighl-zd Sinn...............................1590 - 1594
    • Hasan ibn Muhammad.................................1594 - 1603
    • Qsim (did not arrive at his post)........................1603
    • Mustaf Sryqdi....................................1603 - 1608 opposed by...
    • Ahmad Tawil........................................1603 - 1608
    • Tshighl-zd Mahmud..............................1608 - 1610
    • Ali Qadi-zade.............................................1610
    • Dilawar...................................................1610
    • Mustafa...................................................1610
    • Hafiz Ahmad........................................1610 - 1628 opposed by...
  • Persia..................................................1623 - 1638
    • Saf Qul Khn.....................................1625 - 1631
    • Bektash Khan.......................................1631 - 1638
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1638 - 1917
    • Walis of Baghdad
    • Kutshuk Hasan (1st time)...........................1638 - 1639
    • Dervsh Muhammad...................................1639 - 1642
    • Kutshuk Hasan (2nd time)...........................1642 - 1644
    • Deli Husain...............................................1644
    • Muhammad..................................................1644
    • Ms...............................................1645 - 1646
    • Ibrhm...................................................1646
    • Ms Semiz................................................1647
    • Melek Ahmad...............................................1647
    • Arslan Nogai-zd..................................1648 - 1649
    • Qaplan Mustaf Merziwenli (1st time)......................1649
    • Husain.............................................1649 - 1650
    • Qara Mustaf (1st time)............................1651 - 1652
    • Murtad (1st time).................................1653 - 1654
    • Aq-Muhammad........................................1654 - 1656
    • Khassk Muhammad (1st time).......................1657 - 1659
    • Murtad (2nd time)........................................1659
    • Khassk Muhammad (2nd time).......................1659 - 1661
    • Kanbr Mustaf.....................................1661 - 1663
    • Pambgh Mustaf....................................1663 - 1664
    • Qara Mustaf (2nd time)...................................1664
    • Uzun Ibrhm.......................................1664 - 1666
    • Qara Mustaf (3rd time)............................1666 - 1671
    • Silahdr Husain....................................1671 - 1674
    • Abd ar-Rahmn......................................1674 - 1676
    • Qaplan Mustaf Merziwenli (2nd time)...............1676 - 1677
    • Umar Pasha (1st time)..............................1677 - 1681
    • Ibrhm............................................1681 - 1684
    • Umar Pasha (2nd time)..............................1684 - 1686
    • Serkhosh Ahmad Ketkhod...................................1686
    • Umar Pasha (3rd time).....................................1687
    • Hasan..............................................1688 - 1690
    • Ahmad Bzirgn............................................1690
    • Ahmad..............................................1691 - 1693
    • Hddj Ahmad Qalil...............................1693 - 1695
    • Ali.......................................................1695
    • Hasan..............................................1696 - 1698
    • Isml.............................................1698 - 1700
    • Ali................................................1700 - 1702
    • Ysuf..............................................1703 - 1704
    • Hasan..............................................1704 - 1723
    • Ahmad ibn Hasan....................................1723 - 1734
    • Ismil....................................................1734
    • Topal Mohammed.....................................1735 - 1742
    • Hddj Ahmad.......................................1742 - 1748
    • Ahmad Kesril (of Castoria)..............................1748
    • Mohammed Teriq...................................1748 - 1751
  • Mamluq Walis of Iraq (semi-independent under purely nominal Ottoman overlordship)
  • Suleiman................................................1751 - 1761
  • Al.....................................................1761 - 1763
  • Umar....................................................1763 - ?
  • Abdallah Agha
  • Hasan Agha.................................................? - 1780
  • Sulaiman................................................1780 - 1802
  • Al.....................................................1802 - 1807
  • Suleiman................................................1807 - 1810
  • Abdallh................................................1810 - 1812
  • Sad....................................................1812 - 1816
  • Dd....................................................1816 - 1831
  • Daud was deposed by the Ottomans and forced into exile after a Turkish army captured Baghdad in 1831.
    • Walis of Baghdad
    • Ali-Rid Pasha.....................................1831 - 1841
    • Haci Necip Pasha...................................1841 - 1849
    • Abdi Pasha................................................1849
    • Vecini Pasha..............................................1850
    • Namik Pasha...............................................1851
    • Mehmet Resid Pasha........................................1852
    • Ibrahim Pasha......................................1853 - 1857
    • Omer Pasha.........................................1857 - 1859
    • Mustafa Nuri Pasha.................................1859 - 1861
    • Ahmed Tevik Pasha.........................................1861
    • Namik Pasha........................................1861 - 1868
    • Tufiettin Pasha...........................................1868
    • Midhat Pasha (1st time)............................1869 - 1871
    • Radif Pasha (2nd time)....................................1871
    • Midhat Pasha (2nd time)............................1871 - 1872
    • Radif Pasha (2nd time).............................1873 - 1877
    • Mehmet Akif Pasha.........................................1877
    • Kadri Pasha...............................................1878
    • Abdu'l Rahman Pasha.......................................1879
    • Taqi'l Din Pasha...................................1880 - 1886
    • Mustafa 'Asim.............................................1887
    • Sirri Pasha........................................1888 - 1891
    • Haji Hasan.........................................1892 - 1895
    • Ataullah Pasha.....................................1896 - 1897
    • Namiq Pasha........................................1898 - 1902
    • Ahmad Faydhi Pasha.................................1902 - 1904
    • Abd al-Majid Bey...................................1905 - 1906
    • Hazim Bey..........................................1907 - 1908
    • Nadhim Pasha..............................................July 1908
    • Fazil Pasha........................................1908 - 1909
    • Najm al-Din Bey....................................1909 - 1910
    • General Husayn Nadhim Pasha........................1910 - 1911
    • Yusif Pasha...............................................1911
    • Jamal Pasha........................................1911 - 1912
    • Muhammad Zaki Pasha.......................................1912
    • General Husayn Jalal Bey..................................1913
    • General Javid (Jawad) Pasha...............................1914
    • Dr. Rashid Bey............................................1915
    • Sulayman Nadhif Bey.......................................1915
    • Nur al-Din Bey.....................................1915 - 1916
    • Khalil Pasha.......................................1916 - 1917
    • Memduh Bey................................................1917
 
     10 Jan 1919            British Rule
     11 Nov 1920            State of Iraq (British protectorate)
     23 Aug 1921            Iraqi Kingdom
     03 Oct 1932            full independence
     14 Feb 1958            Federation with Jordan (Arab Union) till 14 July 1958.
     14 Jul 1958            Iraqi Republic
     02 Aug 1990            Iraq attacks Kuwait and occupies it.
     28 Feb 1991            Kuwait is liberated from Iraq by USA led forces.
     20 Mar 2003            U.S. and U.K. invasion. Baghdad is taken on 09 Apr 2003.
     28 Jun 2004            Sovereignty returned.
 
Click on the links provided on below Rulers to view coinage used in their era.
 
Currency: Rupee = 16 Annas = 64 Pice = 192 Pies (Mohur = 15 Rupees).
Iraqis used the Indian currency earlier than 1914. On 22 November 1914, when the British occupied Basra City, it become more acceptable. By 11 March 1917, British occupied Baghdad. The Indian currency was introduced along side with Ottoman currency. On 15 March 1920, British governor of Iraq, ordered to stop using Ottoman currency in Iraq. According to Law# 44 for year 1931, Iraq introduced their own currency. Officially, the use of the Indian currency was abandoned on 01 October 1932, but practically, it was still in use until 1933.
 
  • Great Britain [George V]................................1917 - 03 Oct 1932
    • Administrator
    • Sir Arnold Talbot Wilson....................10 Jan 1919 - 01 Oct 1920
    • Chairman of Council of State
    • Saiyid Abdul Rahman al-Haydari al-Gaylani...11 Nov 1920 - 23 Aug 1921
    • High Commissioners
    • Sir Percy Zachariah Cox.....................01 Oct 1920 - 04 May 1923
    • Sir Henry Robert Conway Dobbs...............04 May 1923 - Oct 1928
    • Acting till 15th Sep 1923.
    • Sir Gilbert Falkingham Clayton.................Oct 1928 - 11 Sep 1929
    • Sir Francis Henry Humphrys..................03 Oct 1929 - 03 Oct 1932

  • Hashemite
  • Faisal I.........................................23 Aug 1921 - 08 Sep 1933
  • He was the 3rd son of King of Hejaz; Al-Husayn ibn Ali bin Muhammad al-Hashimi [Hussein Pasha ibn Ali]. Faisal became short time King of Greater Syria from 11 Mar 1920 to 25 July 1920. Full independence to Iraq was granted by Great Britain on 03 Oct 1932.
  • Ghazi I ibn Faisal I.............................08 Sep 1933 - 04 Apr 1939
  • He became King at the age of 21. Died young at the age of 27 in a mysterious car racing accident.
  • Faisal II ibn Ghazi I............................04 Apr 1939 - 14 Jul 1958
  • Faisal was a youth of four when he succeeded to the throne, spent much of the 1940's in Great Britain, having been smuggled out of Iraq during the Rashid Ali rebellion in April 1941. After he attained his majority in 1953, he was in contention with his cousin King Hussein of Jordan for leadership of the Hashemite Clan; both were of the 41st generation. The issue was decided in Faisal's favour in February of 1958, and he became leader of an Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan on 14th Feb 1958, but he died under somewhat unclear circumstances only five months later, shot in a firefight between an army unit trying to arrest him and palace guards returning fire during the Republican revolution.
    • Regents
    • Abdullah ibn Ali ibn Hussein (1st time)....04 Apr 1939 - 01 Apr 1941
    • Sharaf ibn Rajih al-Fawwaz.................01 Apr 1941 - 01 Jun 1941
    • Abdullah ibn Ali ibn Hussein (2nd time)....01 Jun 1941 - 02 May 1953
  • On July 14, 1958, Prince Zeid bin Hussein was appointed Head of the Royal House of Iraq, following the assassination of King Faisal II by General Muhammad Najib al-Rubai, who proclaimed Iraq to be a Republic. Zeid and his family continued to live in London, where the family resided during the coup, as Zeid was the Iraqi ambassador there. Zeid was also Iraqi ambassador in Berlin and in Ankara in 1930s and in London in the 1950s. Prince Zeid died in Paris on October 18, 1970, and is buried in the Royal Mausoleum at Raghdan Palace, Amman, Jordan. His son Prince Ra'ad succeeded him as head of the Royal House of Iraq. The Kingdom of Jordan has confirmed his style as His Royal Highness and Prince.
  • First Republic
  • Chairman of the Sovereignty Council
  • Muhammad Najib al-Rubai.........................14 Jul 1958 - 08 Feb 1963
    • Abdul Karim Kassem (Prime Minister)........14 Jul 1958 - 08 Feb 1963
  • Presidents
  • Abdul Salam Arif................................08 Feb 1963 - 13 Apr 1966
  • Head of provisional government till 20 Nov 1963.
  • Abdul Rahman al-Bazzaz (acting).................13 Apr 1966 - 16 Apr 1966
  • He also served as Prime Minister of Iraq from 21 Sep 1965 to 09 Aug 1966.
  • Abdul Rahman Arif...............................16 Apr 1966 - 17 Jul 1968
  • He also served as Prime Minister of Iraq from 10 May to 10 July 1967.
  • Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr............................17 Jul 1968 - 16 Jul 1979
  • He also served twice as Prime Minister of Iraq from 08 Feb to 18 Nov 1863 and again from 31 Jul 1968 to 16 Jul 1979.
  • Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti..........16 Jul 1979 - 09 Apr 2003
  • He also served twice as Prime Minister of Iraq from 16 Jul 1979 to 23 Mar 1991 and again from 29 May 1994 to 09 Apr 2003. Saddam was hanged on the first day of Eid ul-Adha, 30 December 2006, despite his wish to be shot.
  • Supreme Commanders of Occupation forces (commanders-in-Chief, US Central Command)
  • Tommy Ray Franks...............................09 Apr 2003 - 07 Jul 2003
  • John Abizaid...................................07 Jul 2003 - 28 Jun 2004
    • Civil Administrators
    • Jay Garner................................21 Apr 2003 - 12 May 2003
    • director, Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance.
    • Paul Bremer...............................12 May 2003 - 28 Jun 2004
    • head of the Coalition Provisional Authority.
  • Second Republic
  • Presidents (Provisional government from 2004 to 2006)
  • Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer.....................28 Jun 2004 - 07 Apr 2005
  • Jalal Talabani.................................07 Apr 2005 - date
 
 
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins