Syria
 
 
     3300 BC - 1200 BC      Mostly part of the Egyptian Empire.
     1200 BC - 724 BC       Local kingdoms (Phoenicians, Canaanites, etc.)
      724 BC - 612 BC       Part of the Assyrian Empire.
      612 BC - 539 BC       Part of the Babylonian Empire.
      539 BC - 332 BC       Part of the Persian Empire.
               332 BC       Conquered by Macedonia under Alexander "the Great"
      319 BC - 301 BC       Antigonid Kingdom
      301 BC - 198 BC       Part of Egypt under Ptolemaic dynasty.
      198 BC - 63 BC        Part of the Seleucid Empire.
       85 BC - 64 BC        Nabataean rule in Damascus
       64 BC - 261 AD       Part of the Roman Empire.
      261 AD - 272          Ruled by Palmyra.
               272          Roman rule restored.
               17 Jan 395   Part of the Byzantine Empire.
         529 - 584          Damascus administered by Kingdom of Ghassan.
               635          Arab Muslim conquest.
        1076 - 1154         Part of the Seljuq Empire
        1154 - 1176         Egyptian rule.
        1176 - 1260         Various local Ayyubid dynasts in Aleppo, Damascus, Hamath
                             and Homs.
               1260         Part of Mameluke Sultanate.
        1260 - 1261         Mongol occupation.
        1400 - 1401         Occupied by Tamurlane.
               23 Aug 1516  Part of the Ottoman Empire.
    Feb 1799 - Jun 1799     French occupy coastal parts of Syria.
 14 Jun 1832 - 1840         Annexed by Egypt (nominally remains under Ottoman suzerainty)
               10 Oct 1840  Direct Ottoman rule restored.
               30 Sep 1918  Independence (Syria).
 25 Oct 1918 - 21 Nov 1919  British/French occupation, divided into British southern
                             zone (Palestine), French zone (Lebanon and coastal Syria),
                             and an interior Arab state (Syria).
               08 Mar 1920  United Kingdom of Syria.
               24 Jul 1920  France occupies Damascus and Aleppo.
               01 Sep 1920  State of Great Lebanon (part of French Syria).
               01 Dec 1920  State of Damascus and State of Aleppo formed (under French
                             mandate).
               28 Jun 1922  Union of Syrian States.
 29 Sep 1923 - 01 Jan 1944  Syria a League of Nations Mandate under France.
               01 Jan 1925  State of Syria.
               01 Sep 1926  Lebanese Republic made a separate mandate.
               11 Jun 1932  Syrian Republic.
               07 Jul 1939  France cedes Hatay to Turkey, de facto on 23 Jul 1939
               10 Jul 1939  State of Syria.
 10 Jun 1940 - 21 Jun 1941  Administration loyal to Vichy France (from 21 Jun 1941,
                             Free French).
 21 Jun 1941 - 15 Apr 1946  Occupied by British and (Free) French troops.
               16 Sep 1941  Syrian Republic.
               27 Sep 1941  Independence declared.
               01 Jan 1944  Independence partial accepted by France.
               17 Apr 1946  Full independence recognized by France.
 22 Feb 1958 - 28 Sep 1961  Part of United Arab Republic (under Egypt).
               28 Sep 1961  Syrian Arab Republic
               10 Jun 1967  Israel occupies the Golan Heights (annexed by Israel 14 Dec
                             1981).
 01 Jan 1972 - 19 Nov 1977  Part of Federation of Arab Republics (Egypt, Libya and Syria)
               14 Oct 2008  Syria recognizes Lebanon's sovereignty, establishing
                             diplomatic relations.
 
Territorial Disputes:  Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied with the almost 1,000-strong UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) patrolling a buffer zone since 1964; lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Lebanon-Syria boundary are unclear with several sections in dispute; since 2000, Lebanon has claimed Shaba'a farms in the Golan Heights; 2004 Agreement and pending demarcation settles border dispute with Jordan; approximately two million Iraqis have fled the conflict in Iraq with the majority taking refuge in Syria and Jordan.
 
 
  • CAANANITE
  • Uz ben Shem (possibly apocryphal)..............................c. 2500 BCE
  • Unknown rulers
  • Biryawaza......................................................mid 1300's
  • Unknown rulers
  • URKESH
  • A city situated at the base of the Taurus Mountains in what is now northern Syria near the modern city of Qamishli. It was founded during the fourth millennium BCE (possibly by the Hurrians) on a site which appears to have been inhabited before then on a small scale for centuries: at least since 5000 BCE, the date of the earliest known remains found there.
  • Tupkish-endan.................................................fl. c. 2250 BCE
  • Tar'am-Agade, the daughter of the Sargonid Akkadian king Naram-Sin, married a king of Urkesh, possibly Tupkish-endan.
  • Tish-atal-endan ?
  • Shatar-mat ?
  • Atal-shen ?
  • Ann-atal.....................................................fl. c. 2050
  • Unknown rulers
  • Te'irru......................................................fl. c. 1800
  • To Mari thereafter and abandoned c. 1500 BCE.
  • Ayab (at Arvad)..............................................1400's
  • Arvad is a Phoenician city located on a tiny island off the Syrian coast, about equidistant between Tripoli, Lebanon, and Latakia, Syria. The nearest mainland port is Tartus, which is built on the ruins of the Arvadite colony of the same name (called Antaradus by the Greeks). The city was independent from 2nd Millenium to c. 1100.
  • ALEPPO (Kingdom of Yamkhad)
  • An ancient city in northwestern Syria, about 80 miles (130 km.) east of Antioch. A kingdom of Yamkhad was established with Aleppo its capital.
  • Yarimlim I...................................................fl. c. 1800
  • Hammurabi I
  • Abbael I
  • Yarimlim II
  • Niqmiepu' I
  • Irkabtum
  • Hammurabi II
  • Yarimlim III
  • Abbael II
  • Ilimilimma I
  • Idrimi.......................................................fl. c. 1550/00
  • Niqmiepu' II
  • Ilimilimma II................................................fl. c. 1450
    • The Hittites control over Aleppo..............c. 1400 - c. 1200
    • Telipinu (son of Suppiliuliumas of Hittites)......mid - early 1300's
    • Talmi-Sharruma..........................................fl. c. 1330
    • Rimisharina.............................................fl. mid 1200's
  • UGARIT (modern Latakia)
  • An ancient city-state near Latakia on the Syrian coast. Its ruins are located in a debris hill (tel) about half a mile from the shore at Ra's Shamrah. Ugarit was a major center of ancient civilization which developed an early cuneiform script. Its inhabitants, people of north Canaanite stock, were major traders who were influenced by and influenced Sumerian, Minoan, Mycenaean, Hurrian, Hittite, Akkadian and Egyptian civilization. Several of the Kings of Ugarit are known from a single badly damaged tablet called KTU 1.113 by archeologists. The sequence and exact dating of these rulers is uncertain at best. The modern city dates from about 300 BCE.
  • Niqmaddu I...................................................fl. c. 1850
  • Yaqarum......................................................fl. c. 1825
  • Under Egypt c. 1800's - 1600's and then under the Hyksos 1600's - 1500's.
    • Ibiranu I...............................................fl. 1600's
  • Probably under Egypt in 1400's with unknown rulers.
  • Ammishtamru I.......................................1390's - c. 1360
  • Niqmaddu II........................................c. 1360 - c. 1330
  • Arhalbu............................................c. 1330 - c. 1324
  • Niqmepa............................................c. 1324 - c. 1274
  • Ammishtamru II.....................................c. 1274 - c. 1240
  • Ibiranu II.........................................c. 1240 - ?
  • Niqmaddu III............................................ ? - c. 1225
  • Ammurapi...........................................c. 1225 - c. 1180
  • Yakurum II.........................................c. 1180 - ?
  • Around 1180 the city of Ugarit was destroyed by the Sea Peoples and was never rebuilt. Neo-Hittite populations in the region in 12th-10th centuries. It came under Assyria from c. 900 to 609 and later under Babylon.
  • Aramaeans (some parts).............................c. 1200 - c. 900
  • Aleppo under Aramaeans control during this time.
  • Kingdom of Bashan
  • An ancient Kingdom based in the rough country just to the east of the Golan Heights, in southwestern Syria. It's territory and influence at times reached into the heights themselves. Ammonite and Canaanite settlement from 1400's BCE. Amorite incursions from 1300's BCE, leaded the creation of this Kingdom.
  • Zirtaya......................................................fl. c. 1330
  • Amawashe.....................................................1300's
  • Og the Amorite.................................late 1200's - early 1100's
  • ARAMAEAN
  • Rezon I........................................................fl. c. 950
  • Tab-Rimmon
  • Bar Haddad I..........................................c. 914 - c.880
  • Bar Haddad II.........................................c. 880 - c.843
  • A second Aramaic Dynasty
  • Hazael................................................c. 843 - c. 804
  • Bar Haddad III.................................................fl. c. 796
  • Tab-El.........................................................fl. c. 770
  • Rezon II..............................................c. 740 - 732
  • Mati'ilu [at Arpad (Beit Agusi)]...................mid 700's - 743
  • Not to be confused with the Phoenician city of Arvad, Arpad was a minor Aramaean state north of Aleppo. In 743 BCE the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III led an expedition to Syria to fight the growing power of Urartu. Arpad allied with Urartu against the Assyrians, and was beseiged for three years. After taking the city, Tiglath-pileser presided over the extermination of its inhabitants. The city was destroyed and never repopulated. To Assyria 743 BCE; the district generally within Aleppo chronology thereafter...
  • TEL BARSIP (Bit Adini, Beit Eden, Barsib)
  • An Aramean city-state in Syria, with its capital at Tel Barsip near modern Tel Ahmar. Bit Adini was situated on a natural crossing-point of the Euphrates River and was thus a vitally strategic spot along the trade and military routes from the Levant into Mesopotamia. This city state was possibly under Hamath till c. 900 BCE.
  • Adin............................................................fl. early 800's
  • Akhuni bar Adin.................................................fl. 850's
  • To Assyria till 612. The Assyrians made Barsib a provincial capital, renaming the town Kar-Shulmanu-Ashared. It came under Babylon from 612.
    • Shamshi-ili (bar Gayah?)..........................c. 750 - 740
  • UNQI (Patin)
  • A kingdom in what is now northern Syria. Its capital was Calneh, a city whose exact location is unknown.
  • Labarna.........................................................fl. c. 858
  • Unattested King ?
  • Labarna II................................................. ? - 831
  • Surri the Usurper.........................................831 - 830
  • Sasi the Kurussean
  • Tutammu.................................................... ? - 738
  • Under Assyria from 738 to 612.
  • ZIMRU
  • A minor Aramean or Akkadian-speaking kingdom in ancient times, probably in northeastern Syria.
  • Markduk-Mudannik.........................................mid 600's followed by...
  • Yan'su bar Khanban
  • Zimru was taken by Assyria till 612 and then by Babylon.
  • Assyria..................................................732 - 609
  • Aleppo under Assyria from c. 900 BCE.
    • Ilu-Ittia (at Damascus)...................................fl. 700's
  • Arvad came under Assyrian rule from c.1100-625. Some known rulers of Arvad ruled as Assyrian vassal.
    • ARVAD
    • Milkuli...................................................fl. 860's
    • Matan Baal I..............................................fl. 850's
    • Mut-baal (probably same as above).........................c. 850's
    • Abdiliti..................................................fl. c. 740
    • Avd Ilihit (probably same as above).......................fl. c. 701
    • Matan Baal II.............................................680's
    • Ikkilu....................................................660's ?
    • Iakinlu...................................................c. 650's
    • Abimilki ben Iakinlu......................................640's ? with...
    • Ahimilki ben Iakinlu......................................640's ?
  • Azibaal (at Arvad).............................................to 604 ?
  • Babylon..................................................609 - 539
  • Arvad under babylon from 604.
  • Persia..............,....................................539 - 332
    • Strato (at Arvad).........................................330's
    • Gerostratos (at Arvad)....................................c. 330's
  • Macedon..................................................332 - 323
  • The Kingdom of Antigonus.................................323 - 301
  • Egypt....................................................301 - 198
  • The Seleucid Empire......................................198 - 167
  • Abilene was took over by Ituraea in 85 to 35 BCE and then remained independent till 2nd century CE.
  • Arvad remained under Seleucid Empire till 68 BCE and later under Roman Republic.
  • Aleppo under Seleucid Empire from 301 - c. 80 BCE.
  • Ugarit under Seleucid Empire from 301 - 83 BCE. Briefly it came under Egypt control in 145 BCE.
  • Ituraea..................................................167 - 110
  • A member of the Dekapolis................................110 - 85
  • Nabataea..................................................85 - 64
  • Armenia (some part)....................................c. 80 - 66
  • Aleppo under Armenia c. 80-66 BCE.
  • Ugarit (Latakia) under Armenia 83-73 BCE and then back to Seleucid Empire 73-64 BCE. It came under Armenia 63-27 BCE.
  • The Roman Republic........................................64 - 27
  • Independent city-state of Beroea 66-64 BCE
  • Strato (as tyrant of Beroea)...................................c. fl. c. 65 BCE
  • Dionysios son of Heraklion (tyrant of Beroea)..................fl. c. 64 BCE
  • The Roman Empire......................................27 BCE - 395 CE
  • Ugarit (Latakia)  came under Persian control in 260-261 CE.
  • Lysanias (at Abilene)..........................................fl. 20's CE
  • Lysanias should not be confused with the ruler of Iturea of the same name, but is believed to be a descendent of that ruler. He is mentioned as reigning during the ministry of John the Baptist. Abilene is an ancient kingdom north of Iturea, in modern Syria. The capital was Abila, often called Abila of Lysanias to differentiate between it with another city by the same name on the Yarmuk river just inside northwestern Jordan.
  • Palmyra (some parts).....................................261 - 272
  • Ugarit briefly came under Palmyra control 261-272 CE.
  • The Byzantine Empire.....................................395 - 638
  • Ugarit (Latakia)  briefly came under Persia in 540 and again in 611.
  • Ghassan..................................................529 - 584
  • The Byzantine Empire.....................................584 - ?
  • Ghassan....................................................? - 635
  • Prophet Muhammad's elected successors....................635 - 661
  • Emirs (Governors) for the province of Syria were appointed from 635-661 and 750-1076.
  • Abilene and Arvad under Caliphate till 868 and afterwards under Egypt.
  • UMAYYAD CALIPHATE
  • The Caliphate becomes formally hereditary in the Ummayad clan, a move unrecognized by adherents to 'Ali, a schism which defines Sunni (Ummayad) and Shia (Aliid) Islam. Ali was assassinated in 660, apparently by a Kharijite partisan. Muawiyah marched to Kufa, where he persuaded a number of Ali's supporters to acclaim him as caliph instead of Ali's son, Hassan in 661. Following his elevation, Muawiyah moved the capital of the caliphate to Damascus. After Hassan's mysterious death the same year in 661, his Iraqi followers wrote to Hassan's brother Hussain pledging allegiance and proposing to remove Muawiya. However, Hussain refused, choosing to abide by the treaty between Hassan ibn Ali and Muawiyah, which could not be broken at that time.
  • Sufyenid branch
  • Abu Abderrahman Muawiyah I ibn Abi Sufyen................661 - 06 May 680
  • Abu Khalid Yazid I ibn Muawiyah I........................680 - 683 opposed by...
  • Abu Khubayb Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr (in Hejaz)............680 - Oct 692 opposing...
    Zubayrid control over the holy sites in Mecca and Medina caused the early Umayyads to seek an alternative pilgrimage site to prevent the Zubayrids from gaining funds from pilgrims. Identifying the site of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem with a little-understood reference in the Qur'an to "the farthest place" (al-Aqsa), they built a new mosque there, which eventually became known as The Dome of the Rock.
  • Abu Abderrahman Muawiyah II ibn Yazid I..................683 - 684 and then...
  • Marwanid branch
  • Abu Abd al-Malik Marwan I ibn al-Hakam...................684 - 685 and then...
  • Abul Walid Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan.......................685 - 705 opposed by...
  • He first defeated the governor of Basra Mosaab Ibn al-Zubair. Abd al-Malik then appointed one of his most able generals and administrators who would later change the face of the Umayyad Empire, al-Hajjaj bin Yousef to march against Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr, the governor of Hejaz. He besieged Makkah with almost 12,000 Syrian troops. Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr with a few loyal followers, including his youngest son, were killed in this fighting around the Kaaba in October 692.
  • The Byzantine and Sassanid Empires relied on money economies before the Muslim conquest, and that system remained in effect during the Umayyad period. Pre-existing coins remained in use, but with phrases from the Quran stamped on them. In addition to this, the Umayyad government began to mint its own coins in Damascus (which were similar to pre-existing coins), the first coins minted by a Muslim government in history. Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan ordered Al-Hajjaj to mint the first silver Dirhams in 75 AH (694 CE), the first standard gold Dinar were minted in the following year in 77 AH (676 CE). In the next years these coins were minted in all the regions of Islam.
  • Abu Nu'ama Qatari ibn al-Fuja'a at-Tamimi (Kharijite, in Iraq)..688 - 698 and also...
  • Atiya ibn al-Aswad (Kharijite, in Kerman)................690 - 696
  • Abul-Abbas Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik......................705 - 715
  • In the year 712, Muhammad bin Qasim, an Umayyad general sailed from the khaleej into Sindh in India and conquered both the Sindh and the Punjab regions along the Indus river. The conquest of Sindh and Punjab, in modern day Pakistan, although costly, were major gains for the Umayyad Caliphate. However, further gains were halted by Hindu Kingdoms in North India in the battle of Rajasthan.
  • Abu Ayyub Suleyman ibn Abd al-Malik......................715 - 717
  • Abu Hafs Umar II ibn Abd al-Aziz ibn Marwan..............717 - 720
  • Abu Khalid Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik.....................720 - 724
  • Abul Walid Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik.......................724 - 743
  • Abul-Abbas al-Walid II ibn Yazid.........................743 - 744
  • Abu Khalid Yazid III ibn al-Walid..............................744
  • Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn al-Walid.................................744
  • Abu Abd al-Malik Marwan II ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan.......744 - 750
  • The Battle of the Zab took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in what is now Iraq on January 25, 750. It spelled the end of the Umayyad Caliphate and the rise of the Abbasids by Abu al-Abbas Abdullah ibn Muhammad as-Saffah.
 

SA#125 1 Dinar. Year: AH 79 (698 CE). Weight: 4.27g [4.25g]. Metal: 0.916 Gold. Diameter: 20.25 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH 77-86 (696-705 CE). Ruler: Abul Walid Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan.

All gold Dinar and silver Dirhmas of this ruler are considered Common Type, however the first three years are sold at higher prices.

Obverse: لا اله الا الله وحده لا شرك له (There is no diety except (the one) Allah alone. He has no equal) written in the center. محمد رسول الله أرسله بالهدى ودين الحق ليظهره على الدين كله [Muhammad is the messenger of God. Allah sent him with guidance and the true religion to reveal it to all religions] written in outer anti-clockwise circle.

Reverse: الله احد الله الصمد لم يلد و لم يولد  [Allah the One and Only; Allah the Eternal Absolute (independent of all, while all are dependent on Him); He begets not, and neither is He begotten] written in the center.

بسم الله ضرب هذا الدينر في سنة تسع وسبعين [In The Name of Allah, this dinar was struck in the year nine and seventy (79)] written in outer anti-clockwise circle.

Note: All coins dated AH 77-86 are conventionally ascribed to this ruler. The gold Dinar of AH 77 is considered the first Islamic coin and held in great esteem. Sales records reached $400,000 of this coin in 1980s, but latest auction results have been at about half that amount. 

SA#137. Dirham. Year: AH 123 (741 CE). Weight: 2.94g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 25.50 mm. Alignment: Medal;  but rotated as shown. Edge: Plain. Mint: Wasit (Iraq).

Ruler: Abul Walid Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik. Minted Years: AH 106 - 125 (724 - 743 CE).

Abundant Type.

Obverse: لا اله الا الله وحده لا شرك له (There is no diety except (the one) Allah alone. He has no equal) written in the center.
بسم الله ضرب هذا الدرهم بواسط سنة ثلث و عشرين و مئة [In The Name of Allah. This dirham was struck in the year three and twenty and one hundred (123)] written in outer anti-clockwise circle.

Reverse: الله احد الله الصمد لم يلد و لم يولد و لم يكن له كفوا احد [Allah the One and Only; Allah the Eternal Absolute (independent of all, while all are dependent on Him); He begets not, and neither is He begotten; and there is nothing that could be compared with Him] written in the center.
محمد رسول الله ارسله بالهدى و دين الحق ليظهره على الدين كله ولو كره المشركون [Muhammad is the messenger of God. Allah sent him with guidance and the true religion to reveal it to all religions even if the polytheists abhor it] written in outer anti-clockwise circle.

Note: All gold Dinars dated AH 106-125 are conventionally ascribed to this ruler as Common types, except Ifriqiya mint as very rare and al-Andalus mint as extremely rare. A fractional gold Dinar of Wasit mint of AH 106 is a modern fake.

SA#140. Dirham. Year: AH 127 (744 CE). Weight: 2.67g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Alignment: Medal. Edge: Plain. Mint: Wasit (Iraq).

Ruler: Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn al-Walid. Minted Years: AH 126 - 127 (744 CE).

Scarce Type, having 7 annulets around.

Obverse: لا اله الا الله وحده لا شرك له (There is no diety except (the one) Allah alone. He has no equal) written in the center.
بسم الله ضرب هذا الدرهم بواسط سنة سبع و عشرين و مئة  [In The Name of Allah. This dirham was struck in the year seven and twenty and one hundred (127)] written in outer anti-clockwise circle.

Reverse: الله احد الله الصمد لم يلد و لم يولد و لم يكن له كفوا احد [Allah the One and Only; Allah the Eternal Absolute (independent of all, while all are dependent on Him); He begets not, and neither is He begotten; and there is nothing that could be compared with Him] written in the center.
محمد رسول الله ارسله بالهدى و دين الحق ليظهره على الدين كله ولو كره المشركون [Muhammad is the messenger of God. Allah sent him with guidance and the true religion to reveal it to all religions even if the polytheists abhor it] written in outer anti-clockwise circle.

Note: Only the Dirham of Wasit AH 126 with seven annulets can be confirmed to this ruler. However, anonymous coins of AH 127 are traditionally assigned to the ruler. No gold Dinar can be securely assigned to any of the three short reigns of al-Walid II [AH 125-126 (743 CE)], Yazid III [AH126 (743-744 CE)] and Ibrahim [AH 126-127 (744 CE)]. Dinars of AH 126 are rare and may belong to any of the three. Dinars of AH 127 are extremely rare.

 
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................750 - 877
  • Egypt (Tulunid Dynasty)..................................877 - 905
  • Aleppo under Egypt from 868-896.
  • The NUSAYRI (ALAWITES)
  • The Nusayri are a Shi'ite sect which developed during the mid 800's. Originally centered in Kufa, Iraq, the sect is now located almost exclusively in northwestern Syria (especially Latakia) and in parts of southern Anatolia and northern Lebanon. The term al-Alevi (Alawites) is a pejorative given them by other Muslims, referring to their veneration of the Caliph 'Ali which verges on worship. Among their beliefs are that human souls (which women do not possess) were cast out of heaven by God, who periodically manifests himself in the physical world to test mankind. Such manifestations have included Noah, Moses, Mohammed, and especially 'Ali. Many Zoroastrian, Christian and pagan beliefs have found their way into Nusayri'ism, including the venaration of angels and saints, and the observance of Christmas and other non-Muslim holidays. The Nusayri follow the Twelver Shi'ite succession until the eleventh Imam, al-Hasan al-'Askari, who was proclaimed to be a manifestation of the Divine by the sect's founder, ibn Nusayr.
  • Muhammad ibn Nusayr al-Namiri.........................c. 865 - 880's
  • Muhammad ibn Djundab................................c. 880's - ?
  • Abu Muhammad Abdallah al-Djunbulani the Gardener...........? - 900
  • Abu Abdallah al-Hussein ibn Hamdan al-Khasibi..........900 ? - 957
  • Muhammad ibn Ali al-Djilli...............................957 - 994
  • Surur ibn al-Qasim al-Tabarani...........................994 - 1035
  • In the 1000's, the Nusayri sect divided up into clans, of times warring with each other as much as against infidels. They were often forced underground by orthodox Muslim as well as Shi'ite regimes. Nonetheless, they eventually became the most economically successful group in Syria, and today are the dominant sect in that country, including among their numbers the ruling Assad family, a disproportionately large percentage of the armed forces' upper echelons, and many cabinet ministers.
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................905 - 945
  • Abilene under Caliphate till 935 and afterwards under Egypt (initially Ihkshidid Dynasty) from 935-1071. Aleppo under Caliphate from 896-945.
  • Aleppo (some parts)......................................945 - 946
  • HAMDANID  (in Aleppo)
  • Saif ud-Dawlah Ali.......................................945 - 967
  • Sa'ad ud-Dawlah Sharif I.................................967 - 991
  • Sa'id ud-Dawlah Sa'id....................................991 - 1002
  • Abu'l-Hassan Ali II.....................................1002 - 1004
  • Abu'l-Ma'ali Sharif II.........................................1004
  • Aleppo under Egypt 1004-1023.
  • Egypt (Ikhshidid Dynasty)................................946 - 968
  • The Qarmatians.................................................968
  • Egypt (Ikhshidid Dynasty)................................968 - 969
  • Arvad remained under Egypt from 968-1071.
  • Ugarit (Latakia) came under Byzantine Empire 969-1084, Rum Seljuqs 1084-1086 and The Great Seljuqs 1086-1098. Duing this period Latakia became associated with the Nusayri (Alawite) movement. Ugarit came under Antioch 1098-1188, Aleppo 1188-1260, Tripoli 1260-1268 and later under Egypt (Mamluqs) from 1268.
  • The Fatamid Caliphate....................................970 - 971
  • The Qarmatians.................................................971
  • The Fatamid Caliphate....................................971 - 978
  • Qassam at-Turab (at Damascus)............................978 - 983
  • The Fatamid Caliphate....................................983 - 1076 and
    • FATIMIDS (in Aleppo)
    • Abu Muhammad Lulu al-Kabir.........................1004 – 1009
    • Murtada al-Dawla Mansur............................1009 – 1016
    • Mubarak al-Dawla Fatah.............................1016 – 1017
    • Fatik Aziz al-Dawla................................1017 – 1023
  • MIRDASID (in Aleppo)
  • Assad ud Dawlah Salih ibn Mirdas........................1023 - 1029
  • Shibl ud-Dawlah Nasr ibn Salih..........................1029 - 1037
  • Egypt - Fatamid Emir (Aleppo Governor) 1037-1042
    • Anush Tegin Al-Dabzari.............................1037 - 1042
  • Mu'izz ud-Dawlah Tamal ibn Salih (1st time).............1042 - 1057 d. 1062
  • Egypt - Fatamid Emir (Aleppo Governor) 1057-1060
    • Al Hassan ibn Mulhem...............................1057 - 1060
  • Rashid ud-Dawlah Mahmud (1st time)......................1060 - 1061 d. 1075
  • Mu'izz ud-Dawlah Tamal ibn Salih (2nd time).............1061 - 1062
  • Abu Du'aba Atiyya ibn Salih (in Rahba only 1065-1071)...1062 - 1065
  • Rashid ud-Dawlah Mahmud (2nd time)......................1065 - 1075
  • Seljuqs (some parts)....................................1071 - 1124
  • Abilene and Arvad under Seljuqs 1071-1124 and Aleppo 1075-1079
    • Jalal ud-Dawlah Nasr (Mirdasid emir at Aleppo)............1075 - 1076
    • Abu'l-Fada'il Sabiq ibn mahmud (Mirdasid emir at Aleppo)..1076 - 1079
  • SELJUQ - Haleb (Aleppo)
  • Mosul (Uqailid) control over Aleppo.....................1079 - 1085
    • The Aquilites
    • Sharaf Ud Dawla Muslim.............................1079 – 1085
    • Ibrahim Bin Quraysh................................1085 – 1085
    • Al Sharif Bin Al Habiby............................1085 – 1086
  • Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (Damascus 1079-95)......1085 - 1086 d. 1095
  • Malik Shah I (Great Seljuq 1072-1092)...................1086 - 1087 d. 1092
  • Qasim ad-Dawla Abu Said Aq Sunqur al-Hadjib.............1087 - 1094
  • In 1094 Tutush I, the ruler of Damascus, accused Aq Sunqur of treason and had him beheaded. Aq Sunqur al-Hajib was the father of Zengi, the founder of the Zengid dynasty.
  • Tadj ad-Dawla Abu Said Tutush I (2nd time)..............1094 - 1095
  • After Tutush I's death in 1095, his younger son Duqaq inherited Damascus, causing Duqaq's older brother Radwan to revolt, splitting their father's realm.
  • Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan ibn Tutush I.......................1095 - 1113
  • Tadj ad-Dawla Alp-Arslan al-Akhras ibn Radwan...........1113 - 1114
  • Sultan Shah ibn Radwan..................................1114 - 1123
    • Abu'l-Fadl Ibn al-Khashshab (de facto).............1113 - 1125
    • When Radwan died in 1113, ibn al-Khashshab governed the city in place of his weak children.
  • SELJUQ - Dimashq (Damascus)
  • Aziz (Atzis) ibn Abaaq al-Khwarazmi.....................1076 - 1079
  • Tadj ad-Dawla Abu Said Tutush I (Aleppo 1085-6,94-5)....1079 - 1095
  • Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq I ibn Tutush I............1095 - 08 Jun 1104
  • Tutush II ibn Duqaq I..........................................1104
  • Muhi ad-Din Baqtash............................................1104
  • Toghtegin soon overthrew Duqaq's dynasty to establish the Burid dynasty, which would rule Damascus for the next half-century.
  • Jerusalem (some parts)..................................1124 - 1244 and
  • Abilene under Jerusalem from 1124-1244.
  • The Order of the Templars...............................1124 - 1302
  • Arvad until the order of the templars from 1124 to 1302 and later under Egypt.
  • BURID (in Damascus)
  • Saif-ul-Islam Zahir ud-Din Tughtigin....................1104 - 1128
  • Taj ul-Muluk Buri.......................................1128 - 1132
  • Shams ul-Muluk Ismail...................................1132 - 1135
  • Shihab ud-Din Mahmud....................................1135 - 1139
  • Jamal ud-Din Muhammad...................................1139 - 1140
  • Mujir ud-Din Abaq.......................................1140 - 1154
    • Muin ad-Din Unur (regent)..........................1140 - 1149
  • Atabegs of Haleb (Aleppo)
  • Lulu....................................................1114 - 1117
  • Shams al-Havas Yariqtash.......................................1117
  • ARTUQID (in Aleppo)
  • Ghazi ibn-Artuq................................................1117
  • Timurtash ibn al-Ghazi (1st time).......................1117 - 1118 d. 1125
  • Suleyman I ibn al-Ghazi.................................1118 - 1121
  • Suleyman II (usurper)...................................1121 - 1123
  • Nur ad-Dawla Balaq (Usurper: in Kharpert 1100-1120’s)...1123 - 1124
  • Timurtash ibn al-Ghazi (2nd time).......................1124 - 1125
  • Aq Sunkur al-Bursuqi (also in Mosul)....................1125 - 1127
  • Masul ibn Aq Sunkur.....................................1127 - 1128
  • Aleppo became under Mosul 1128-1146.
  • ZANGID (in Aleppo)
    • Imad ad-Din Zengi al-Mansur ibn Aq Sunqur al-Hajib.1128 - 1146
  • Mahmud Nur ad-Din ibn Zengi.............................1146 - 1174
  • Ismail as-Salih al-Malik ibn Nur ad-Din.................1174 - 1181
  • Aleppo became under Mosul 1181-1182.
    • Masud..............................................1181 - 1182
  • Zangi II Imad ud-Din (brother of Masud).................1182 - 1183
  • AYYUBID (in Aleppo)
  • az-Zahir Ghazi Abu Mansur Ghiyath ud-Din I (governor)..........1183 d. 1216
  • Third son of Salah ad-Din Ayyubi.
  • al-Adil I Muhammad Saif Abu-Bakr ad-Din.................1183 - 1186
  • Al-Adil was a son of Najm ad-Din Ayyub, and a younger brother of Salah ad-Din Ayyubi.
  • az-Zahir Ghazi Abu Mansur Ghiyath ud-Din I (2nd time)...1186 - 08 Oct 1216
  • al-Aziz Muhammad Ghiyath ud-Din II ibn az-Zahir ........1216 - 1236
  • al-Nasr II Yusuf Salah ad-Din...........................1236 - 1259 d. 1260
  • He became the Ayyubid ruler of Aleppo when he was seven years old. His grandmother Daifah Khatun, daughter of Al-Adil I, was his regent until her death in 1242. He occupied Damascus in AH 648 AH (1250) and ruled it till 1260.
  • Dayfa Khatun bint al-Adil Muhammad (fem., regent).......1236 - 1242
  • al-Muazzam Turan Shah (in Damascus 1249-1250)...........1259 - 1260
 

SA#836. Dirham. Year: AH 613-638 (1216-1240 CE). Weight: 2.63g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Alignment: Medal; but rotated as shown. Edge: Plain. Mint: Haleb (Aleppo). Abundant Type.

Ruler: Al-Zahir Ghazi Abu Mansur Ghiyath ud-Duniya wa ud-Din ibn Saladin [governor at Aleppo in 1183], while coins were issued on his name AH 582-613 (1183-1216 CE).

Note: Hexagram type Dirham with posthumous dates Struck during 613-638. It is identical in style and alloy to the lifetime Dirhams of al-Zahir Ghazi citing Caliph al-Nasir and the overload al-Adil Abu Bakr even after their deaths. It is imitative issue of Crusader Kingdom Tarablus (Tripoli), Lebanon.

SA#842. Dirham. Year: AH 648 (1250 CE). Weight: 3.02g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Alignment: Medal; but 75% rotated. Edge: Plain. Mint: Haleb (Aleppo). Common Type.

Ruler: al-Nasr II Yusuf Salah ad-Din ibn Al-Aziz Muhammad.

There are numerous subtypes of this coin, some naming a Seljuq or Ayyubid overload, however this coin is citing Caliph Al Musta'sim B'Allah.

SA#844. Half Dirham. Year: undated (1236-1259 CE). Weight: 1.51g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 13.25 x 12.00 mm. Alignment: almost Coin. Edge: Plain. Mint: Acre. Common Type - Crusader imitation.

Ruler: al-Nasr II Yusuf Salah ad-Din ibn Al-Aziz Muhammad.

Note: 1/2 Dirham, various types (normally undated). Some Dirhams and Half Dirhams of this ruler are now believed to be Crusader imitations, theoretically distinguished by style, alloy and fabric, occasionally by inscription. However, the criteria for separating them have not yet been established.
 
  • Aleppo (Zangid) rule over Damascus......................1154 - 1174
  • Egypt (Saladin) rule over mainly all Syria..............1174 - 1186
  • AYYUBID (in Damascus)
  • al-Afdal Ali Abu'l-Hasan Nur ad-Din ibn Salah ad-Din....1186 - 1196
  • al-Adil I Muhammad Saif ad-Din ibn Najm ad-Din Ayyub....1196 - 1201 d. 1218
  • He was also ruler of Egypt 1193-1198 and brother of Salah ad-Din.
  • Egypt...................................................1201 - 1218
    • Governor
    • al-Malik al-Muazzam Isa Sharaf ad-Din, Emir........1201 - 1218
  • al-Muazzam Isa Sharaf ad-Din ibn al-Adil I (continued)..1218 - 1227
  • al-Nasr II Dawud Salah ad-Din ibn al-Muazzam............1227 - Jun 1229
  • He was besieged by the combined armies of his uncle late in 1228. The siege until June 1229. al-Nasir later became Emir of Kerak in Transjordan region  from 1229-1248. Kerak was annexed by Egypt in 1249.
  • al-Ashraf I Musa Abu'l-Fath al-Muzaffar ad-Din ibn al-Adil I...1229 - 27 Aug 1237
  • al-Salih I Ismail Imad ad-Din ibn al-Adil I (1st time)..1237 - 1238 d. 1250/1
  • al-Kamil I Muhammad Abu'l-Ma'ali Nasr ad-Din ibn al-Adil I (Eg. 1218-38)...1238
  • During his tenure as sultan, the Ayyubids defeated two crusades. In a temporary agreement with the Crusaders, he ceded Jerusalem to the Christians.
  • al-Adil II Saif ad-Din ibn al-Kamil I (in Egypt 1238-1240).....1238 - 1239 d. 1248
  • al-Salih II Ayyub Najm ad-Din ibn al-Kamil I (Egypt 1240-1249)........1239 d. 1249
  • al-Salih I Ismail Imad ad-Din ibn al-Adil I (2nd time)..1239 - 1245 d. 1250/1
  • al-Salih II Ayyub Najm ad-Din ibn al-Kamil I (2nd time).1245 - 22 Nov 1249
  • al-Muazzam Turan Shah IV Ghiyath ad-Din ibn al-Salih II.1249 - 1250
  • Turanshah was murdered by the Bahri Mamluks of Egypt, Shajar al-Durr (widow of as-Salih II Ayyub) seized the throne of Egypt in 1250. al-Nasir Yusuf, being an Ayyubid, refused to recognize Shajar al-Durr as the Sultana of Egypt.
  • al-Nasr II Yusuf Salah ad-Din ibn al-Aziz (in Aleppo 1236-60)..1250 - 1260
  • Tripoli (some parts)....................................1244 - 1292
  • Abilene under Tripoli from 1244-1292.
  • The Mongols.............................................1260 - 1261
    • Mameluks at Aleppo
    • Imad ud Din Al Qazwinny............................1260 – 1260
    • Al Saeed Ali Al Mousily............................1260 – 1260
    • Hussam ud Din Lagin................................1260 – 1261
  • Egypt...................................................1261 - 1516
  • Abilene under Egypt from 1292.
  • OTTOMAN EMPIRE
  • Ottoman Empire......................................Sep 1516 - 1832
  • The Ottoman established two main positions, Walis (Viceroys) of Damascus and Walis of Haleb (Aleppo) from 1516 to 1918. Walis (Viceroys) of Damascus had broad authority over most of Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and Syria. Under the Ottomans the wali of Damascus held the coveted title Amir al Hadj or "Commander of the Pilgrimage". He took the head of the official caravan which travelled from Anatolia to Mecca each year and thus bore an extremely important ritual position within the Ottoman state.
 
Currency: 1 Pound (Lira) = 100 Piastres (Qirsh) = 4000 para.

KM#65 5 para. Year: AH 1171 (1757). Weight: 1.18g [1.20g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 20.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Haleb (Aleppo). Obverse: "ضرب في حلب" (Mint at Haleb) written in the center. Date at bottom. Reverse: Tughra in center. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ottoman Empire Ruler: Mustafa III AH1171-1187 (1757-1773).

Note: Krause Publication mentions star above "حلب" and star at the right side of the Tughra.

 
  • Egypt...................................................1832 - 1840
  • Technically, Egypt was still a part of the Ottoman Empire, although as a practical matter it was entirely autonomous.
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1840 - 30 Sep 1918
  • Head of Government
  • Muhammad Said al-Jazairi.......................................30 Sep 1918
  • Ali Rida Pasha al-Rikabi.........................30 Sep 1918 - 05 Oct 1918
  • Faisal bin Hussein bin Ali.......................05 Oct 1918 - 08 Mar 1920
    • British Commander
    • Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby.................25 Oct 1918 - 21 Nov 1919
  • al-Hashemi
  • Faisal bin Hussein bin Ali (continued)...........08 Mar 1920 - 28 Jul 1920
  • On 23 October 1916 at Hamra in the Wadi Safra, the first encounter took place between Faisal and Captain Thomas Edward Lawrence, a relatively junior British intelligence officer from Cairo. Lawrence already had a vision of an independent post-war Arabian state, and knew it was essential to find precisely the right man to lead the Arab forces to achieve this. Faisal also worked with the Allies during World War I in their conquest of Greater Syria and the capture of Damascus, where he became part of a new Arab government in 1918. Faisal was made for a short time King of the Arab Kingdom of Syria (or Greater Syria) in 1920, and later he became the King of the Kingdom of Iraq from 1921 to 1933. His rule over Syria ended after only a few months, following the clash between his Syrian Arab forces and regular French forces at the Battle of Maysalun. French troops occupied Syria later that year after the San Remo conference proposed that the League of Nations put Syria under a French mandate.
  • Acting head of State
  • Ala ad-Din ad-Durubi Pasha.......................28 Jul 1920 - 21 Aug 1920
  • Jamil al-Ulshi...................................06 Sep 1920 - 30 Nov 1920
  • France...........................................01 Dec 1920 - 17 Apr 1946
    • Governor
    • Haqqi Bey al-Azm (State of Damascus)........01 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922 with...
    • Kamil Pasha al-Kudsi (State of Aleppo)......01 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922
  • President
  • Subhi Bey Barakat al-Khalidi.....................28 Jun 1922 - 01 Jan 1925
  • Head of State
  • Subhi Bey Barakat al-Khalidi (continued).........01 Jan 1925 - 21 Dec 1925
  • In 1925, Sultan al-Atrash led a revolt that broke out in the Druze Mountain and spread to engulf the whole of Syria and parts of Lebanon. This is considered one of the most important revolutions against the French mandate, as it encompassed the whole of Syria and witnessed fierce battles between rebel and French forces. On August 23, 1925, Sultan Pasha al-Atrash officially declared revolution against France, and soon fighting erupted in Damascus, Homs and Hama. Al-Atrash won several battles against the French at the beginning of revolution, notably the Battle of Al-Kabir on July 21, 1925, the Battle of Al-Mazra'a on August 2, 1925, and the battles of Salkhad, Almsifarh and Suwayda. After resistance victories against the French, France sent thousands of troops to Syria and Lebanon from Morocco and Senegal, equipped with modern weapons; the rebels were lightly armed. This dramatically altered the results and allowed the French to regain many cities, although resistance lasted until the spring of 1927. The French sentenced Sultan al-Atrash to death, but he had escaped with the rebels to Transjordan and was eventually pardoned. Al-Atrash strongly rejected the French offer of independence for the Druze Mountain. He demanded a national Syrian unity.
  • Marie François Julien Pierre-Alype (acting)......09 Feb 1926 - 28 Apr 1926
  • Damad-i Shahriyari Ahmad Nami Bey................28 Apr 1926 - 15 Feb 1928
  • Shaykh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani (acting).............15 Feb 1928 - 19 Nov 1931
  • Léon Solomiac (acting)...........................19 Nov 1931 - 11 Jun 1932
  • Presidents
  • Muhammad Ali Bey al-Abid.........................11 Jun 1932 - 21 Dec 1936
  • Hashim Khalid al-Atassi (1st time)...............21 Dec 1936 - 07 Jul 1939
  • In 1934, France attempted to impose a treaty of independence heavily prejudiced in favor of France. It promised gradual independence but kept the Syrian Mountains under French control. The Syrian head of state at the time was a French puppet, Muhammad 'Ali Bay al-'Abid. Fierce opposition to this treaty was spearheaded by senior nationalist and parliamentarian Hashim al-Atassi, who called for a sixty day strike in protest. Atassi's political coalition, the National Bloc, mobilized massive popular support for his call. Riots and demonstrations raged, and the economy came to a standstill. The new Popular Front-led French government then agreed to recognize the National Bloc as the sole legitimate representatives of the Syrian people and invited Hashim al-Atassi to independence negotiations in Paris. He traveled there on March 22, 1936, heading a senior Bloc delegation. The resulting treaty called for immediate recognition of Syrian independence as a sovereign republic, with full emancipation granted gradually over a 25 year period. The treaty guaranteed incorporation of previously autonomous Druze and Alawite regions into Greater Syria, but not Lebanon, with which France signed a similar treaty in November. The treaty also promised curtailment of French intervention in Syrian domestic affairs as well as a reduction of French troops, personnel and military bases in Syria. In return, Syria pledged to support France in times of war, including the use of its air space, and to allow France to maintain two military bases on Syrian territory. Other political, economic and cultural provisions were included. Atassi returned to Syria in triumph on September 27, 1936 and was later elected President of the Republic. France ceded the province of Alexandretta (now Hatay), whose territory was guaranteed as part of Syria in the treaty, to Turkey on 07 July 1939. Riots again broke out, Atassi resigned, and Syrian independence was deferred until after World War II.
  • Nasuhi Salim al-Bukhari (acting).................07 Jul 1939 - 10 Jul 1939
  • Chairman Council of Commissioners/Directors
  • Bahij ad-Din al-Khatib...........................10 Jul 1939 - 04 Apr 1941
  • Presidents
  • Khalid al-Azm (acting)...........................04 Apr 1941 - 16 Sep 1941
  • Shaykh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani......................16 Sep 1941 - 17 Jan 1943
  • Jamil al-Ulshi (acting)..........................17 Jan 1943 - 25 Mar 1943
  • Head of State
  • Ata Bey al-Ayyubi................................25 Mar 1943 - 17 Aug 1943
 
French Mandate/Protectorate coinage of Etat du Syrie (State of Syria) / Republique Syrienne (Syrian Republic)
 
Currency: Livre (Pound) = 100 piastres.
During the period when Syria was a part of Ottoman empire -which lasted about 400 years- the Turkish lira was the currency. Following the fall of the Ottoman empire and the placing of Syria under a mandate (French Occupation), the Egyptian pound was used in the territories under French and British mandates, including Lebanon, Transjordan, and Palestine. Upon taking Lebanon and Syria under its separate mandate, the French government sought to replace the Egyptian currency and granted a commercial bank, the Banque de Syrie (a French affiliate of the Ottoman Bank), the authority to issue a currency for states under its new mandate. The pound (or livre as it was then known) was introduced in 1919 and was pegged at a value of 20 French Francs. As the political status of Lebanon evolved, the Banque de Syrie, which was to act as the official bank for Lebanon and Syria, was renamed the Banque de Syrie et du Grand-Liban (BSL). The BSL issued the Lebanese-Syrian currency for 15 years, starting in 1924. Two years before the expiration of the 15-year period, the BSL split the Lebanese-Syrian currency into two separate currencies that could still be used interchangeably in either state. In 1939, the bank was renamed the Banque de Syrie et du Liban.
In 1921, cupro-nickel ½ qirsh coins were introduced, followed in 1926 by aluminum bronze 2 and 5 qirshan. In 1929, holed, nickel-brass 1 qirsh and silver 10, 25 and 50 qirsha were introduced. Nickel-brass ½ qirsh were introduced 1935, followed by zinc 1 qirsh and aluminum-bronze 2½ qirsh in 1940. During the Second World War, brass 1 qirsh and aluminum 2½ qirsh emergency coins were issued. These pieces were crudely produced and undated. Before 1947, the word qirsh was spelled with the initial Arabic letter غ, after which the word began with ق. In 1941, the peg to the French franc was replaced by a peg to the British pound of 8.83125 Syrian Pounds = 1 British pound, as a consequence of the occupation of Syria by British and Free French forces. This rate was based on the pre-war conversion rate between the Franc and Sterling. In 1946, following devaluation of the Franc, the Syrian Pound was pegged once again to the Franc at a rate of 1 pound = 54.35 Francs. The Arabic spelling girsh (غرش) was used from 1921 to 1941.
 
1921
 

KM#68 ½ piastre. Year: 1921. Weight: 4.06g [4.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "BANQUE DE SYRIE" at top. Value "½ PIASTRE SYRIENNE" within sprigs in center. Date at bottom. Reverse: Value "½ QIRSH SURRI" in center within roped wreath flanked by oat sprigs above date. "AL-BANK AL-SURRI" in Arabic at top. Date at bottom. Mintage: 4,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1926
 

KM#69 2 piastres. Year: 1926. Weight: 1.99g [2.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A - without privy marks. Obverse: "ETAT" at the top with date below it. "DULAT SURRIYA" in the center with date. "DE SYRIE" at the bottom. design at the borders. Reverse: "DEUX PIASTRES" at the top. Value in the center with crossed oat sprigs. "QIRSHAN" written at the bottom. Mintage: 600,000. Minted Years: One year type.

Note: Krause publication also mentioned this coin to be produced with Paris privy marks including above mintage, but never seen.

KM#70 5 piastres. Year: 1926. Weight: 3.88g [4.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "ETAT" at the top with date below it. "DULAT SURRIYA" in the center with date. "DE SYRIE" at the bottom. design at the borders. Reverse: "DEUX PIASTRES" at the top. Value in the center with crossed oat sprigs. "QIRSHAN" written at the bottom. Mintage: 300,000. Minted Years: 1926, 1926 without mint marks, 1933, 1935, 1936 and 1940.

Note: Paris privy mint marks are seen with below date.

Same as above coin but

Mint: N/A - without privy marks. Weight: 4.04g [4.00g]. Mintage: 600,000.

 
1929
 

KM#71 1 piastre. Year: 1929. Weight: 4.94g [5.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24.00 mm with hole in center. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "One Piastre" in Arabic at top. Hole in center flanked by lion heads with value "1 PIASTRE 1" and dates below. Paris privy mark on both sides of the dates. Reverse: ""DULAT SURRIYA" in Arabic at the top. "ETAT DE SYRIE" in French at bottom. Wreath around the center hole. Mintage: 750,000. Minted Years: 1929, 1933, 1935 and 1936.

KM#72 10 piastres. Year: 1929. Weight: 1.95g [2.00g]. Metal: 0.680 silver. Diameter: 17.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" within above banner design. Flower design in the center. Dates in the below banner design. Reverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" at the top. "10 PIASTRES" written in Arabic and in English in center circle. "ETAT DE SYRIE" written in below banner design. Mintage: 1,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#73 25 piastres. Year: 1929. Weight: 4.94g [5.00g]. Metal: 0.680 silver. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" within above banner design. Flower design in the center. Dates in the below banner design. Reverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" at the top. "25 PIASTRES" written in Arabic and in English in center circle. "ETAT DE SYRIE" written in below banner design. Mintage: 1,000,000. Minted Years: 1929 without mint mark, 1933, 1936 and 1937.

KM#74 50 piastres. Year: 1929. Weight: 9.91g [10.00g]. Metal: 0.680 silver. Diameter: 27.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" within above banner design. Flower design in the center. Dates in the below banner design. Reverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" at the top. "50 PIASTRES" written in Arabic and in English in center circle. "ETAT DE SYRIE" written in below banner design. Mintage: 880,000. Minted Years: 1929 without mint mark, 1933, 1936 and 1937.
 
1933
 

KM#71 1 piastre. Year: 1933. Weight: 4.98g [5.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24.00 mm with hole in center. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "One Piastre" in Arabic at top. Hole in center flanked by lion heads with value "1 PIASTRE 1" and dates below. Paris privy mark on both sides of the dates. Reverse: ""DULAT SURRIYA" in Arabic at the top. "ETAT DE SYRIE" in French at bottom. Wreath around the center hole. Mintage: 600,000. Minted Years: 1929, 1933, 1935 and 1936.

KM#70 5 piastres. Year: 1933. Weight: 3.92g [4.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "ETAT" at the top with date below it. "DULAT SURRIYA" in the center with date. "DE SYRIE" at the bottom. design at the borders. Reverse: "DEUX PIASTRES" at the top. Value in the center with crossed oat sprigs. "QIRSHAN" written at the bottom. Mintage: 1,200,000. Minted Years: 1926, 1926 without mint marks, 1933, 1935, 1936 and 1940.

Note: Paris privy mint marks are on both sides of ETAT.

Same as above coin but...

Arabic and English last digit "3" in date is a bit lower then the remaining digits. Secondly the Paris privy mark on both side are thinner as compared to the above coin. 

Weight: 4.02g.

Note: A third type also exists without Paris privy mint marks with leveled digits in Date.

KM#73 25 piastres. Year: 1933. Weight: 4.91g [5.00g]. Metal: 0.680 silver. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" within above banner design. Flower design in the center. Dates and Paris privy mint marks in the below banner design. Reverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" at the top. "25 PIASTRES" written in Arabic and in English in center circle. "ETAT DE SYRIE" written in below banner design. Mintage: 500,000. Minted Years: 1929 without mint mark, 1933, 1936 and 1937.

KM#74 50 piastres. Year: 1933. Weight: 9.87g [10.00g]. Metal: 0.680 silver. Diameter: 27.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" within above banner design. Flower design in the center. Dates in the below banner design. Reverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" at the top. "50 PIASTRES" written in Arabic and in English in center circle. "ETAT DE SYRIE" written in below banner design. Mintage: 250,000. Minted Years: 1929 without mint mark, 1933, 1936 and 1937.

Fake coin of the above coin:

The dots are not of the same sizes on both sides of the coin. The Arabic legends are more thicker on reverse side at the top. The bar on Syria in Arabic is smaller and of irregular style on obverse side. The star is fat as compared to other issues. The mint mark on the right side of the date is slightly larger. The edge is irregular. Reeded (lines on the thickness) is not straight. Slightly smaller in size. Yellowish color on the edge indicating other metals added. Weights 8.52g instead of usual 9.90-10.00 grams. The digits "33" in both dates are clumsy. 

 
1935
 

KM#75 ½ piastre. Year: 1935. Weight: 3.98g [4.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "REPUBLIQUE SYRIENNE" at the top. Value "½ PIASTRE" in the center. Sprigs on both sides. Date at bottom. Reverse: "AL-JUMURRIYYA AL-SURRIYA" at the top. Value "½" in center within roped wreath. "NISF QIRSH" below the center circle and date at the bottom. Mintage: 600,000. Minted Years: 1935 and 1936.

KM#71 1 piastre. Year: 1935. Weight: 4.91g [5.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24.00 mm with hole in center. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "One Piastre" in Arabic at top. Hole in center flanked by lion heads with value "1 PIASTRE 1" and dates below. Paris privy mark on both sides of the dates. Reverse: ""DULAT SURRIYA" in Arabic at the top. "ETAT DE SYRIE" in French at bottom. Wreath around the center hole. Mintage: 1,900,000. Minted Years: 1929, 1933, 1935 and 1936.

KM#70 5 piastres. Year: 1935. Weight: 4.02g [4.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "ETAT" at the top with date below it. "DULAT SURRIYA" in the center with date. "DE SYRIE" at the bottom. design at the borders. Reverse: "DEUX PIASTRES" at the top. Value in the center with crossed oat sprigs. "QIRSHAN" written at the bottom. Mintage: 2,000,000. Minted Years: 1926, 1926 without mint marks, 1933, 1935, 1936 and 1940.

Note: Paris privy mint marks are on both sides of ETAT.

 
1936
 

KM#75 ½ piastre. Year: 1935. Weight: 3.98g [4.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "REPUBLIQUE SYRIENNE" at the top. Value "½ PIASTRE" in the center. Sprigs on both sides. Date at bottom. Reverse: "AL-JUMURRIYYA AL-SURRIYA" at the top. Value "½" in center within roped wreath. "NISF QIRSH" below the center circle and date at the bottom. Mintage: 800,000. Minted Years: 1935 and 1936.

KM#71 1 piastre. Year: 1936. Weight: 5.04g [5.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24.00 mm with hole in center. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "One Piastre" in Arabic at top. Hole in center flanked by lion heads with value "1 PIASTRE 1" and dates below. Paris privy mark on both sides of the dates. Reverse: ""DULAT SURRIYA" in Arabic at the top. "ETAT DE SYRIE" in French at bottom. Wreath around the center hole. Mintage: 1,400,000. Minted Years: 1929, 1933, 1935 and 1936.

KM#70 5 piastres. Year: 1936. Weight: 4.05g [4.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "ETAT" at the top with date below it. "DULAT SURRIYA" in the center with date. "DE SYRIE" at the bottom. design at the borders. Reverse: "DEUX PIASTRES" at the top. Value in the center with crossed oat sprigs. "QIRSHAN" written at the bottom. Mintage: 900,000. Minted Years: 1926, 1926 without mint marks, 1933, 1935, 1936 and 1940.

Note: Paris privy mint marks are on both sides of ETAT.

KM#73 25 piastres. Year: 1936. Weight: 4.98g [5.00g]. Metal: 0.680 silver. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" within above banner design. Flower design in the center. Dates and Paris privy mint marks in the below banner design. Reverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" at the top. "25 PIASTRES" written in Arabic and in English in center circle. "ETAT DE SYRIE" written in below banner design. Mintage: 897,000. Minted Years: 1929 without mint mark, 1933, 1936 and 1937.

KM#74 50 piastres. Year: 1936. Weight: 9.91g [10.00g]. Metal: 0.680 silver. Diameter: 27.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" within above banner design. Flower design in the center. Dates in the below banner design. Reverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" at the top. "50 PIASTRES" written in Arabic and in English in center circle. "ETAT DE SYRIE" written in below banner design. Mintage: 400,000 (including 1937 issue). Minted Years: 1929 without mint mark, 1933, 1936 and 1937.
 
1937
 

KM#73 25 piastres. Year: 1937. Weight: 4.96g [5.00g]. Metal: 0.680 silver. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" within above banner design. Flower design in the center. Dates and Paris privy mint marks in the below banner design. Reverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" at the top. "25 PIASTRES" written in Arabic and in English in center circle. "ETAT DE SYRIE" written in below banner design. Mintage: 393,000. Minted Years: 1929 without mint mark, 1933, 1936 and 1937.

KM#74 50 piastres. Year: 1937. Weight: 9.91g [10.00g]. Metal: 0.680 silver. Diameter: 27.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" within above banner design. Flower design in the center. Dates in the below banner design. Reverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" at the top. "50 PIASTRES" written in Arabic and in English in center circle. "ETAT DE SYRIE" written in below banner design. Mintage: 400,000 (including 1936 issue). Minted Years: 1929 without mint mark, 1933, 1936 and 1937.
 
1940
 

KM#76 2½ piastres. Year: 1940. Weight: 3.00g [3.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "½ piastres" in Arabic at top. Hole in center flanked by lion heads with value "2 PIASTRES ½" and dates below. Privy marks above lion heads. Reverse: Wreath around the center hole. "DULAT SURRIYA" in Arabic at the top. "ETAT DE SYRIE" in French at bottom. Mintage: 2,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#71 1 piastre. Year: 1940. Weight: 3.57g [3.50g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24.25 mm with hole in center. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "One Piastre" in Arabic at top. Hole in center flanked by lion heads with value "1 PIASTRE 1" and dates below. Paris privy mark on both sides, above lion heads. Reverse: "DULAT SURRIYA" in Arabic at the top. "ETAT DE SYRIE" in French at bottom. Wreath around the center hole. Mintage: 2,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#70 5 piastres. Year: 1940. Weight: 4.05g [4.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris with privy marks. Obverse: "ETAT" at the top with date below it. "DULAT SURRIYA" in the center with date. "DE SYRIE" at the bottom. design at the borders. Reverse: "DEUX PIASTRES" at the top. Value in the center with crossed oat sprigs. "QIRSHAN" written at the bottom. Mintage: 500,000. Minted Years: 1926, 1926 without mint marks, 1933, 1935, 1936 and 1940.

Note: Paris privy mint marks are on both sides of ETAT.

 
ND (1941) - World War II Coinage
 

KM#77 1 piastre. Year: ND (1941). Weight: 2.64g. Metal: Brass. Diameter: 17.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "SYRIE" at top. Numeric value "1" in the center. "PIASTRE" at the bottom. Reverse: "SURRIYA" in arabic at top. Numeric value "1" in the center. "PIASTRE" in Arabic at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

Same as above coin but...

Arabic numeric "1" is smaller and thicker in size. Weight: 2.65g.

Same as above coin but...

Smaller size of "غ". Arabic numeric "1" is slightly larger than above coin. Weight: 2.54g. The world "SYRIE" is thicker. The word "PIASTRE" alphabets are increasing from left to right.

Same as above coin but...

Weight: 2.67g. The world "SYRIE" alphabets have irregular sizes. The word "PIASTRE" alphabets are increasing from left to right.

Interestingly the "ش" has one dot above and two dots below. Some coin collectors like Patrick Raffin assume that ∴ (upside triangle) were produced in Damascus and ∵ (downside triangle) in Aleppo (Halab).

KM#78 2½ piastres. Year: ND (1941). Weight: 1.29g. Metal: Aluminum. Diameter: 17.75 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "SYRIE" at top. Numeric value "2½" in the center. "PIASTRE" at the bottom. Reverse: "SURRIYA" in arabic at top. Numeric value "2½" in the center. "PIASTRE" in Arabic at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

Interestingly, you will notice a line on the edge (thickness) of the coin. It indicates that both sides are glued together and sometimes both sides are of different sizes.

Same as above coin but...

It has thinner legends on both sides. Weight: 1.31g. Alignment: Medal.  

 

 
 
  • Presidents
  • Shukri al-Kuwatli (1st time).....................17 Aug 1943 - 30 Mar 1949
  • Husni az-Zaim....................................30 Mar 1949 - 14 Aug 1949
  • Chairman Supreme Military Council
  • Sami al-Hinnawi..................................14 Aug 1949 - 15 Aug 1949
  • Head of State
  • Hashim Khalid al-Atassi (2nd time)...............15 Aug 1949 - 02 Dec 1951
  • Chairman Supreme Military Council
  • Adib al-Shishakli (1st time).....................02 Dec 1951 - 03 Dec 1951
  • Head of State
  • Fawzi as-Silu....................................03 Dec 1951 - 11 Jul 1953
  • Presidents
  • Adib al-Shishakli (2nd time).....................11 Jul 1953 - 25 Feb 1954
  • Maamun al-Kuzbari (1st time - acting)............26 Feb 1954 - 28 Feb 1954
  • Hashim Khalid al-Atassi (3rd time)...............28 Feb 1954 - 06 Sep 1955
  • Shukri al-Kuwatli (2nd time).....................06 Sep 1955 - 22 Feb 1958
  • United Arab Republics - Personal union with Egypt
  • Gamal Abdel Nasser (Pres. of Egypt 1954-1970)....22 Feb 1958 - 29 Sep 1961
  • Beginning in 1957, Syria was close to a communist takeover of political power; it had a highly organized Communist Party and the army's chief of staff, Afif al-Bizri, was a Communist sympathizer. Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser told a Syrian delegation, including President Shukri al-Kuwatli and Prime Minister Khaled al-Azem, that they needed to rid their government of communists, but the delegation countered and warned him that only total union with Egypt would end the "communist threat". According to Abdel Latif Boghdadi, Nasser resisted a total union with Syria, favoring instead a federal union. However, Nasser was "more afraid of a Communist takeover" and agreed on a total merger. The increasing strength of the Syrian Communist Party, under the leadership of Khalid Bakdash, worried the ruling Ba'ath Party (Ba'ath Party founders Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Din al-Bitar), which was also suffering from an internal crisis from which prominent members were anxious to find an escape. Syria had had a democratic government since the overthrow of Adib al-Shishakli's military regime in 1954, and popular pressure for Arab unity was reflected in the composition of parliament.
  • Presidents
  • Maamun al-Kuzbari (2nd time - acting)............29 Sep 1961 - 20 Nov 1961
  • Izzat al-Nuss (acting)...........................20 Nov 1961 - 14 Dec 1961
  • Nazim al-Kudsi...................................14 Dec 1961 - 08 Mar 1963 with...
  • Abdul Karim Zahreddin (Junta Chief)..............28 Mar 1962 - 13 Apr 1962
  • The 08 March Revolution, also referred to the 1963 March Revolution, was a coup which followed a successful Ba'athist coup d'état in Iraq. Syrian party’s military committee succeeded in persuading Nasserist and independent officers to make common cause with it, and successfully carried out a military coup, overthrowing Nazim al-Kudsi and installing the Ba'ath party to power. The bloody revolution resulted in more than 800 killed.
  • Chairman National Revolutionary Command Council
  • Louai al-Atassi..................................09 Mar 1963 - 27 Jul 1963
  • Muhammad Amin al-Hafez...........................27 Jul 1963 - 13 May 1964
  • Chairman Presidential Council
  • Muhammad Amin al-Hafez (continued)...............13 May 1964 - 23 Feb 1966
  • The Syrian coup d'état of 1966 took place on February 23 and was led by neo-Ba'ath Party members against the country's first Baathist regime. It brought to power Syria's most radical government and was precipitated by a heightening in the power struggle between the party's old guard and younger factions. On 21 February, supporters of the old guard in the army ordered the transfer of their rivals. Two days later, the Military Committee, backing the younger factions, launched a coup that involved bloody fighting in Aleppo, Damascus, Deir ez-Zor, and Latakia. As a result of the coup, the party's historical founders fled the country and spent the rest of their lives in exile. The coup also created a permanent schism between the Syrian and Iraqi branches of the party.
  • Head of State
  • Nureddin Mustafa al-Atassi.......................25 Feb 1966 - 18 Nov 1970
  • Sayyid Ahmed al-Hasan al-Khatib..................18 Nov 1970 - 22 Feb 1971
  • President
  • Hafez Ali Sulayman al-Assad......................22 Feb 1971 - 10 Jun 2000
  • Acting from 22 Feb 1971 to 14 Mar 1971. In 1983, Assad suffered a heart attack and was confined to hospital. He named a six-man governing council to run the country in his absence, among them long-time Defense Minister Mustafa Tlass; Hafez-al Assad believed that they were less likely to try to seize power. Despite this, rumors spread that Assad was dead or nearly so, and indeed his condition was serious. In 1984, his brother Rifaat al-Assad attempted to use the security forces under his control to seize power. His Defense Company troops of some 50,000 men, complete with tanks and helicopters, began putting up roadblocks throughout Damascus, and tensions between Hafez loyalists and Rifaat supporters came close to all-out war. The stand-off was not ended until Hafez, still ill, rose from his bed to reassume power and speak to the nation. He transferred command of the Defense Company and, without formal accusations, shortly afterwards Rifaat was exiled to France.
  • Abdul-Halim Khaddam (acting).....................10 Jun 2000 - 17 Jul 2000
  • Bashar al-Assad..................................17 Jul 2000 - date
 
Republic of Syria Coinage
Currency: Livre (Pound) = 100 piastres. Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria with three stars in the center.
A new coinage was introduced between 1947 and 1948 in denominations of 2½, 5, 10, 25 and 50 qirsha and 1 pound, with the 2½, 5 and 10 qirush struck in cupro-nickel and the others in silver. In 1947, the U.S. dollar was adopted as the peg for the Syrian currency, with 2.19148 pounds = 1 dollar, a rate which was maintained until 1961. The Lebanese and Syrian currencies split in 1948. From 1961, a series of official exchange rates were in operation, alongside a parallel, market rate which diverged dramatically from the official rate in the 1980s. Aluminum-bronze replaced cupro-nickel in 1960, with nickel replacing silver in 1968. In 1996, following high inflation, new coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 25 pounds, with the 25 pounds a bimetallic coin. In 2003 5, 10, and 25 pound coins were issued, with latent images. After the war, the Arabic spelling was changed from girsh (غرش) to qirsh (قرش).
 
1947 - AH 1366
 

KM#79 25 piastres. Year: 1947 - AH 1366. Weight: 2.42g [2.50g]. Metal: 0.600 silver. Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value within circle of designed flanked by oat sprigs. "الجمهورية" السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah As-Sūriyyah) written within the design. Dates below the design. Reverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Mintage: 6,300,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#80 50 piastres. Year: 1947 - AH 1366. Weight: 4.97g [5.00g]. Metal: 0.600 silver. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value within circle of designed flanked by oat sprigs. "الجمهورية" السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah As-Sūriyyah) written below the design with dates on both sides. Reverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Mintage: 4,500,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1948 - AH 1367
 

KM#81 2½ piastres. Year: 1948 - AH 1367. Weight: 2.02g [2.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 17.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Date at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية" السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Numeric value "2½" written below it. Value inscription in Arabic written in the rectangle box. Design at the bottom. Mintage: 2,500,000. Minted Years: 1948-AH1367 and 1956-AH1375.

KM#82 5 piastres. Year: 1948 - AH 1367. Weight: 2.99g [3.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Date at the bottom. Reverse: Value within diamond shape above design. "الجمهورية" السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the bottom. One star on each side. Mintage: 8,000,000. Minted Years: 1948-AH1367 and 1956-AH1375.

KM#83 10 piastres. Year: 1948 - AH 1367. Weight: 4.02g [4.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Date at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية" السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value in the center surrounded by three sided design. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: 1948-AH1367 and 1956-AH1375.
 
1950 - AH 1369
 

KM#85 1 Lira (Pound). Year: 1950 - AH 1369. Weight: 9.96g [10.00g]. Metal: 0.600 silver. Diameter: 27.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Date at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية" السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Inscription and value within center of rectangle and sprigs design. Mintage: 7,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.
Two gold coins were also produced this year with the following details.
  • KM#84 ½ Pound. Weight: 3.3793g. Metal: 0.900 Gold. Mintage: 100,000.
  • KM#86 1 Pound. Weight: 6.7586g. Metal: 0.900 Gold. Mintage: 250,000.
 
1956 - AH 1375
 

KM#81 2½ piastres. Year: 1956 - AH 1375. Weight: 2.02g [2.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 17.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Date at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية" السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Numeric value "2½" written below it. Value inscription in Arabic written in the rectangle box. Design at the bottom. Mintage: 5,000,000. Minted Years: 1948-AH1367 and 1956-AH1375.

KM#82 5 piastres. Year: 1956 - AH 1375. Weight: 3.01g [3.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Date at the bottom. Reverse: Value within diamond shape above design. "الجمهورية" السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the bottom. One star on each side. Mintage: 4,000,000. Minted Years: 1948-AH1367 and 1956-AH1375.

KM#83 10 piastres. Year: 1956 - AH 1375. Weight: 3.97g [4.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Date at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية" السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value in the center surrounded by three sided design. Mintage: 4,000,000. Minted Years: 1948-AH1367 and 1956-AH1375.
 
United Arab Republics - Syrian Coinage
Currency: Livre (Pound) = 100 piastres. Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria with two stars in the center.
 
1958 - AH 1377
 

KM#87 25 piastres. Year: 1958 - AH 1377. Weight: 2.46g [2.50g]. Metal: 0.600 silver. Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.

Obverse: "الجمهورية العربية المتحدة" (Al-Jumhuriyah Al-Arabiyah Al-Muttahidah) written at the top. Dates on both sides. Value flanked in the center by oat sprigs and mechanical gear. "Qirsh Surriyah" written in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Mintage: 2,300,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#88 50 piastres. Year: 1958 - AH 1377. Weight: 4.96g [5.00g]. Metal: 0.600 silver. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.

Obverse: "الجمهورية العربية المتحدة" (Al-Jumhuriyah Al-Arabiyah Al-Muttahidah) written at the top. Dates on both sides. Sword divides value within wreath. "Qirsh Surriyah" written in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Mintage: 1,200,000. Minted Years: One year type.

 
1959 - AH 1378
 

KM#89 50 piastres. Year: 1959 - AH 1378. Weight: 5.06g [5.00g]. Metal: 0.600 silver. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.

Obverse: "الجمهورية العربية المتحدة" (Al-Jumhuriyah Al-Arabiyah Al-Muttahidah) written at the top. Dates on both sides. Value in center with date: 22 February 1958. "Qirsh Surriyah" written in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Mintage: 1,500,000. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: First anniversary, founding of United Arab Republics.

 
1960 - AH 1380
 

KM#90 2½ piastres. Year: 1960 - AH 1380. Weight: 2.07g [2.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 17.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Date on both sides. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية المتحدة" (Al-Jumhuriyah Al-Arabiyah Al-Muttahidah) written at the top. Numeric value "2½" written below it. Value inscription in Arabic written in the rectangle box. Design at the bottom. Mintage: 1,100,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#91 5 piastres. Year: 1960 - AH 1380. Weight: 3.02g [3.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Date on both sides. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية المتحدة" (Al-Jumhuriyah Al-Arabiyah Al-Muttahidah) written at the top. Value within diamond shape between design. One star on each side. Mintage: 4,240,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#92 10 piastres. Year: 1960 - AH 1380. Weight: 4.06g [4.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Date on both sides. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية المتحدة" (Al-Jumhuriyah Al-Arabiyah Al-Muttahidah) written at the top. Value in the center surrounded by three sided design. Mintage: 2,800,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
Arab Republic of Syria Coinage
Currency: Livre (Pound) = 100 piastres. Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria with three stars in the center.
 
1962 - AH 1382
 

KM#93 2½ piastres. Year: 1962 - AH 1382. Weight: 1.96g [2.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 17.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-‘Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Numeric value "2½" written below it. Value inscription in Arabic written in the rectangle box. Design at the bottom. Mintage: 8,000,000. Minted Years: 1962-AH1382 and 1965-AH1385.

KM#94 5 piastres. Year: 1962 - AH 1382. Weight: 2.97g [3.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: Value within diamond shape above design. Star on both sides. "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the bottom. Mintage: 7,000,000. Minted Years: 1962-AH1382 and 1965-AH1385.

KM#95 10 piastres. Year: 1962 - AH 1382. Weight: 3.99g [4.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value in the center surrounded by three sided design. Mintage: 6,000,000. Minted Years: 1962-AH1382 and 1965-AH1385.
 
1965 - AH 1385
 

KM#93 2½ piastres. Year: 1965 - AH 1385. Weight: 1.94g [2.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 17.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Numeric value "2½" written below it. Value inscription in Arabic written in the rectangle box. Design at the bottom. Mintage: 8,000,000. Minted Years: 1962-AH1382 and 1965-AH1385.

KM#94 5 piastres. Year: 1965 - AH 1385. Weight: 2.99g [3.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: Value within diamond shape above design. Star on both sides. "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the bottom. Mintage: 18,000,000. Minted Years: 1962-AH1382 and 1965-AH1385.

KM#95 10 piastres. Year: 1965 - AH 1385. Weight: 3.99g [4.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value in the center surrounded by three sided design. Mintage: 22,000,000. Minted Years: 1962-AH1382 and 1965-AH1385.

Same as above coin but...

Weight: 4.11g [4.00g].

Less segments/reeded lines on the edge (thickness) of the coin.

Same as above coin but...

Weight: 4.02g [4.00g].

Coarser segments/reeded lines on the edge (thickness) of the coin.

 
1968 - AH 1387
 

KM#96 25 piastres. Year: 1968 - AH 1387. Weight: 3.38g [3.35g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 19.75 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value written on top. "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written within the rectangular box in the center. Dates on both sides. Design at the bottom. Reverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Mintage: 15,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#97 50 piastres. Year: 1968 - AH 1387. Weight: 4.87g [5.00g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 23.75 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value within the rectangular box in the center. Dates below it and wreath at the bottom. Reverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Mintage: 10,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#98 1 Pound. Year: 1968 - AH 1387. Weight: 7.54g [7.50g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value in diamond at center of rectangular box in the center. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Mintage: 10,000,000. Minted Years: 1968 - AH 1387 and 1971 - AH 1391.
 
1968 - AH 1388
 

KM#99 1 Pound. Year: 1968 - AH 1387. Weight: 7.49g [7.50g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Hands holding rectangle, oats sprigs bouquet above. Dates on both sides. Value at the bottom. Reverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Mintage: 500,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1971 - AH 1391
 

KM#100 5 piastres. Year: 1971 - AH 1391. Weight: 2.85g [3.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: Agricultural related slogan on the top. Value super imposed in the center on upright oat sprig. Springs at the bottom. Mintage: 15,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#98 1 Pound. Year: 1971 - AH 1391. Weight: 7.58g [7.50g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value in diamond at center of rectangular box in the center. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Mintage: 10,000,000. Minted Years: 1968 - AH 1387 and 1971 - AH 1391.
 
1972 - AH 1392 - 25th anniversary of Al-Ba'ath party issues.
Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria without any star in the center from 1972 to 1976.
 

KM#101 25 piastres. Year: 1972 - AH 1392. Weight: 3.29g [3.35g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 19.75 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Flaming torch divides value within oat sprigs. "celebrating 25th anniversary of Al-Ba'ath party" at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#102 50 piastres. Year: 1972 - AH 1392. Weight: 4.98g [5.00g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 23.75 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "celebrating 25th anniversary of Al-Ba'ath party" at the top. Value in the center with "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written above it. Years: 1947-1972 written on the left side of the flame. Flaming torch at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#103 1 Pound. Year: 1972 - AH 1392. Weight: 7.50g [7.50g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Arab countries map with flaming torch and value in the center. "celebrating 25th anniversary of Al-Ba'ath party" at the bottom. Mintage: 10,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1973 - AH 1393
 

KM#104 2½ piastres. Year: 1973 - AH 1393. Weight: 2.01g [2.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 17.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Numeric value "2½" written below it. Value inscription in Arabic written in the rectangle box. Design at the bottom. Mintage: 10,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1974 - AH 1394
 

KM#105 5 piastres. Year: 1974 - AH 1394. Weight: 3.01g [3.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: Value within diamond shape above design. Star on both sides. "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

Same as above coin, but...

Weight: 2.86g [3.00g].

This coin has less segments / reeded line on the edge (thickness).

KM#106 10 piastres. Year: 1974 - AH 1394.  Weight: 4.07g [4.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value in the center surrounded by three sided design. Mintage: 22,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#107 25 piastres. Year: 1974 - AH 1394. Weight: 3.31g [3.35g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 19.75 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value written on top. "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written within the rectangular box in the center. Design at the bottom. Reverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#108 50 piastres. Year: 1974 - AH 1394. Weight: 5.01g [5.00g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 23.75 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom.

Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value within the rectangular box in the center with design above it. Sprigs at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

Same design and weight as above coin, but...

This coin has less segments / reeded line on the edge (thickness).

KM#109 1 Pound. Year: 1974 - AH 1394. Weight: 7.43g [7.50g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value in diamond at center of rectangular box in the center. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1976 - AH 1396 - Euphrates Dam issues.
 

KM#110 5 piastres. Year: 1976 - AH 1396. Weight: 2.99g [3.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: Euphrates dam with 1/2 gear and 1/2 oat sprig.  "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) and value above the dam. Mintage: 2,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#111 10 piastres. Year: 1976 - AH 1396.  Weight: 4.00g [4.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: Euphrates dam with 1/2 gear and 1/2 oat sprig.  "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) and value above the dam. Mintage: 500,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#112 25 piastres. Year: 1976 - AH 1396. Weight: 3.34g [3.35g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 19.75 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: Euphrates dam with 1/2 gear and 1/2 oat sprig. "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) and value above the dam. Mintage: 1,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#113 50 piastres. Year: 1976 - AH 1396. Weight: 5.04g [5.00g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 23.75 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: Euphrates dam with 1/2 gear and 1/2 oat sprig. "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) and value above the dam. Mintage: 1,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#114 1 Pound. Year: 1976 - AH 1396. Weight: 7.43g [7.50g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: Euphrates dam with 1/2 gear and 1/2 oat sprig. "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) and value above the dam. Mintage: 500,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1978 - AH 1398
Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria with three stars in the center from 1978 to 1991.
 

KM#115 1 Pound. Year: 1978 - AH 1398. Weight: 7.52g [7.50g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Portrait of Hafez al-Assad facing left in center circle. Dates on both sides outside the circle. "Winning the re-election for Presidency". Reverse:  "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) at the top and value below; outside the circle. Imperial eagle; Coat of arms in center circle. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1979 - AH 1399
 

KM#116 5 piastres. Year: 1979 - AH 1399. Weight: 2.96g [3.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: Value within diamond shape above design. Star on both sides. "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#117 10 piastres. Year: 1979 - AH 1399. Weight: 3.97g [4.00g]. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value in the center surrounded by three sided design. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#118 25 piastres. Year: 1979 - AH 1399. Weight: 3.31g [3.35g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 19.75 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value written on top. "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written within the rectangular box in the center. Design at the bottom. Reverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#119 50 piastres. Year: 1979 - AH 1399. Weight: 4.98g [5.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 23.75 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom. 

Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value within the rectangular box in the center with design above it. Sprigs at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#120.1 1 Pound. Year: 1979 - AH 1399. Weight: 7.58g [7.50g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom.

Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value in diamond at center of rectangular box in the center. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

 
1991 - AH 1412
 

KM#120.2 1 Pound. Year: 1991 - AH 1412. Weight: 5.05g [5.00g]. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 25.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom.

Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value in diamond at center of rectangular box in the center. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

 
1994 - AH 1414
Imperial eagle; Coat of arms of Syria with two stars in the center from 1994 onwards.
 

KM#121 1 Pound. Year: 1994 - AH 1414. Weight: 5.04g [5.00g]. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 25.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom.

Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value in diamond at center of rectangular box in the center. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

 
ND (1995 - AH 1416)
 

KM#122 25 Pounds. Year: ND (1995 - AH 1416). Weight: 6.45g [6.45g]. Metal: Bi-metallic; Stainless Steel in center and Aluminum-Bronze ring. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms and Dates 1970-1995 (left) and 1370-1416 (right) at the bottom, within center circle.  "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value in words at the bottom. Reverse: Portrait of Hafez al-Assad facing left in center circle. Arabic legends around outer circle. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1996 - AH 1416
The shape of the 10 Syrian pound coin has been found to so resemble the 20 Norwegian krone coin that it can fool vending machines, coins-to-cash machines, arcade machines, and any other coin-operated, automated service machine in the country. While hardly similar to the naked eye, machines are unable to tell the coins apart due to an almost identical weight and size. As of November 23, 2007, ten Syrian pounds converts to 1.07 Norwegian kroner, or about 0.20 United States dollar. 20 NOK, on the other hand, converts to 3.70 USD, almost 18.6 times the value of the Syrian coin. While not easy to find in Norway, the Syr5an cois are still used in automated machines there with such frequency that Posten Norge, the Norwegian postal service, decided to close many of their coins-to-cash machines on February 18, 2006, with plans to develop a system able to differentiate between the two coins. In the summer of 2005, a Norwegian man was sentenced to 30 days, suspended, for having used Syrian coins in arcade machines in the municipality of Bærum.
 

KM#132 1 Pound. Year: 1996 - AH 1416. Weight: 5.00g [5.00g]. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 25.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value in diamond at center of rectangular box in the center. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#125 2 Pounds. Year: 1996 - AH 1416. Weight: 5.98g [6.00g]. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at both sides. Value at the bottom.

Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Ancient ruins in the center. Value at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#123 5 Pounds. Year: 1996 - AH 1416. Weight: 5.03g [5.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Palace in the center. Value at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#124 10 Pounds. Year: 1996 - AH 1416. Weight: 7.00g [7.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 26.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom.

Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Ancient ruins in the center. Value at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#126 25 Pounds. Year: 1996 - AH 1416. Weight: 6.45g [6.45g]. Metal: Bi-metallic; Stainless Steel in center and Aluminum-Bronze ring. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom. Design in the outer circle. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Central Bank building in the center. "25" written on both sides. Value in words at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1997 - AH 1417
 

KM#128 10 Pounds. Year: 1997 - AH 1417. Weight: 6.98g [7.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 26.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: Arab map with flag above sprigs. 50th Anniversary of Al-Ba'ath party 1947-1997. Value at the bottom. Mintage: 100,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
2003 - AH 1424
The standard abbreviation for the Syrian pound is SYP. On 05 December 2005, the selling rate quoted by the Commercial Bank of Syria was 58.4 SYP to the US dollar. A rate of about 50 pounds to one dollar has been usual in the early 2000s, but the exchange rate is subject to fluctuations.During the Syrian Uprising against the president Bashar Al Assad, The exchange rate of Syruan Pound has deteriorated quickly from 47 SYP to i USD in March/2011 to over 100 SYP to 1 USD in March/2012, Hard currencies such as the USD, CAD, GBP or Euro cannot be bought from banks or exchange companies, the Black Market is the only source of foreign currencies to Syrian businessmen, students and those who want to travel abroad, Maximum amount that is allowed to be taken out with the Syrian traveler is 3,000 USD per flight per year, Any amount in excess of 3,000 USD is confiscated by the authorities and the Syrian traveler will risk spending a long time in the what is called "economic affairs court", The Syrian Pound is not a hard currency, and there are restrictions on its export (Maximum amount is 2,500 SYP per person.
 

KM#129 5 Pounds. Year: 2003 - AH 1424. Weight: 7.48g [7.50g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Edge: Reeded and lettering. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Palace in the center. Value at the bottom. Hologram circle displays "CBS" or "5" by changing angles. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.
Note: If the Imperial eagle side is on the top, the edge lettering is readable as "CENTRAL BANK 5 SYP *"

Same as above coin, but...

Weight: 7.56g [7.50g]

Note: If the Imperial eagle side is on the top, the edge lettering is inverted / upside down.

KM#130 10 Pounds. Year: 2003 - AH 1424. Weight: 9.68g [9.50g]. Metal: Nickel-Brass. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Reeded and lettering. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Ancient ruins in the center. Value at the bottom. Hologram gate displays "CBS" or "10" by changing angles. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.
Note: If the Imperial eagle side is on the top, the edge lettering is readable as "10 SYRIAN POUNDS *"

Same as above coin, but...

Weight: 9.52g [9.50g]

Note: If the Imperial eagle side is on the top, the edge lettering is inverted / upside down.

KM#131 25 Pounds. Year: 2003 - AH 1424. Weight: 8.41g [8.45g]. Metal: Bi-metallic; Copper-Nickel in center and Nickel-Brass ring. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Imperial eagle; Coat of arms. Dates at the bottom.  "الجمهورية العربية السورية" (Al-Jumhūriyyah Al-Arabīyah As-Sūriyyah) written at the top. Value in words at the bottom.
Reverse: "SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC" on the top. "25" written on both sides. Central Bank building in the center circle. Hologram circle displays "CBS" or "25" by changing angles. "TWENTY FIVE SYRIAN POUNDS" written at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

Note: If the Imperial eagle side is on the top, the edge lettering is readable as "CENTRAL BANK OF SYRIA 25 *"

Same as above coin, but...

Weight: 8.42g [8.45g]

Note: If the Imperial eagle side is on the top, the edge lettering is inverted / upside down.

 
 
 
 
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