Mali
 

 
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (French: République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi). The population of Mali is 18 million. Its capital is Bamako. Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers. The country's economy centers on agriculture and fishing. Some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, and salt. About half the population lives below the international poverty line of $1.25 (U.S.) a day. A majority of the population (90%) are Muslims. Motto: "UN PEUPLE · UN BUT · UNE FOI" (One People · One Goal · One Faith).

Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (for which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, and art. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa. In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state.

In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali, in which Tuareg rebels took control of a territory in the north, and in April declared the secession of a new state, Azawad. The conflict was complicated by a military coup that took place in March and later fighting between Tuareg and Islamist rebels. In response to Islamist territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013. A month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second round run-off held on 11 August, and legislative elections were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013.
 

 
               06 Sep 1880  French territory of Haut-Sénégal (Upper Senegal) created
                             (subordinated to Senegal)
               18 Aug 1890  renamed French Sudan (Soudan Français)
               27 Aug 1892  separate colony
               16 Jun 1895  part of French West Africa (under Senegal)
               17 Oct 1899  French Sudan broke up; part becomes territory of Upper
                             Senegal and Middle Niger (Haut-Sénégal et Moyen-Niger)
               10 Oct 1902  becomes colony of Senegambia and Niger (under Senegal)
               18 Oct 1904  renamed Upper Senegal-Niger (Haut-Sénégal-Niger)
               04 Dec 1920  renamed French Sudan
 16 Jun 1940 - 23 Nov 1942  Administration loyal to Vichy France
 23 Nov 1942 - 24 Dec 1942  under François Darlan of Free French
               27 Oct 1946  French Sudan becomes overseas territory of France
               24 Nov 1958  autonomy (Sudanese Republic)
               04 Apr 1959  Sudanese Republic and Senegal form Mali Federation
               20 Jun 1960  independence of Mali Federation
               20 Aug 1960  Senegal withdraws from Mali Federation
               22 Sep 1960  Sudanese Republic becomes Republic of Mali
 24 Dec 1960 - 1962         Part of Union of Independent African States federation
                             (Ghana, Guinea and Mali).
 01 Apr 2012 - 12 Jul 2012  Tuareg secessionists occupy Kidal, Gao and Timbuktu on
                             06 Apr 2012 declare the independence of Azawad.
                             Bilal Ag Acherif was it's President.
 27 Jun 2012 - 26 Jan 2013  Islamist rebels occupy Kidal, Gao and Timbuktu.
               18 Jun 2013  Peace deal signed between the Government and Tuareg rebels.
               20 Feb 2015  Ceasefire signed between Malian government and the
                             Coordination of Azawad Movements. Low-level fighting
                             continues.
 
 
  • MALI
  • An interior country with the upper reaches of the Volta River as a focus, there have been a number of empires to flourish here. Within this land is the fabled city of Timbuktu.
  • Kaya Maja.....................................................fl. c. 350 CE
  • 21 Kings, names unknown, c. 350-c. 622.
  • 21 Kings, names unknown, c. 622-c. 750.
  • Majan Dyabe Sisse.............................................fl. c. 750
  • More Kings, but names unknown, c. 750-c. 1040.
  • Bassi...............................................c. 1040 - 1062
  • Tunka Menin............................................1062 - 1068
  • unknown King: 1068-1076
  • Kambine Diaresso.......................................1076 - c. 1090
  • Suleiman............................................c. 1090 - c. 1100
  • Bannu Bubu..........................................c. 1100 - c. 1120
  • Majan Wagadu........................................c. 1120 - c. 1130
  • Gane................................................c. 1130 - c. 1140
  • Musa................................................c. 1140 - c. 1160
  • Birama..............................................c. 1160 - c. 1180
  • Diara Kante.........................................c. 1180 - c. 1200
  • Sumanguru...........................................c. 1200 - 1234
  • unknown King: 1234-1237.
  • To Mali (Kangaba) in 1237.
    • Mandingo Kingdom of Kangaba - Vassals of (Old) Ghana.
    • The actual name of this state was Wagadu - "Ghana" simply means "King", but it has come to be how this nation is generally referred to. The modern Republic of Ghana is located on the coast of West Africa.
    • Taraore........................................c. 1050 - c. 1090
    • Baraonendana...................................c. 1090 - c. 1150
    • Hamama.........................................c. 1150 - c. 1190
    • Di Jigi Bilali.................................c. 1190 - c. 1200
    • Keita Nari fa Majan............................c. 1200 - c. 1218
    • Danagaram Tumo.................................c. 1218 - 1228
    • Soninke...........................................1228 - 1230
  • EMPIRE of MALI
  • Mari Jata I............................................1230 - 1255
  • Uli....................................................1255 - 1270
  • Wati...................................................1270 - 1274
  • Khalifa.......................................................1274
  • Abu Bakr...............................................1274 - 1285
  • Sakura.................................................1285 - 1300
  • Qu.....................................................1300 - 1305
  • Mohammed...............................................1305 - 1312
  • Musa I.................................................1312 - 1337
  • Magha I................................................1337 - 1341
  • Suleiman...............................................1341 - 1360
  • Qasa..........................................................1360
  • Mari Jata II...........................................1360 - 1374
  • Musa II................................................1374 - 1387
  • Magha II...............................................1387 - 1388
  • Sandaki................................................1388 - 1390
  • Mahmud.................................................1390 - c. 1400 ?
  • Vacant: c. 1400 - c. 1440.
  • To Songhai...

 

  • EMPIRE of SONGHAI - Zuwas of Gao
  • Alayaman......................................................fl. c. 750
  • Zakoi
  • Takoi (or, Takay)
  • Akoi (or, Mata-Kay)
  • Alî-Fay
  • Biyu-Kumoy
  • Biyu
  • Za-Kuroy
  • Yama-Karaway
  • Yama
  • Yama-Danka-Kiba’u
  • Kukuray
  • Kinkin
  • Kusoy Muslim Dam..............................................fl. c. 1000
  • Han-Kuz-Wanku-Dam
  • Biyu-Kî-Kîma
  • Nintâsanay
  • Biyu-Kayna-Kinba
  • Kayna-Shanyunbu
  • Tib
  • Yama-Dâd
  • Fâdazu
  • 'Ali-Kuru]
  • Bîr-Fuluku
  • Yasiboy
  • Dûru
  • Zenku-Bâru
  • Bisi-Bâru
  • Badâ
  • Bisi Baro Ber.................................................fl. c. 1150
  • unknown King(s)
  • To Mali.............................................c. 1260 - c. 1275
  • SUNNI
  • 'Ali Kolon....................................................fl. c. 1275
  • Salman Nari
  • Ibrahim Kabayao
  • 'Uthman Gifo Kanafa...........................................fl. c. 1320
  • Bâr-Kayna-Ankabi
  • Musa
  • Bakr Zanku
  • Bakr Dala-Buyunbu
  • Mâr-Kiray
  • Muhammad Da’u
  • Muhammad Kukiya
  • Muhammad Fari
  • Karbifu
  • Mar-Fay-Kuli-Jimu
  • Mar-Arkana
  • Mar Arandan
  • Sulayman Dama Dandi.................................c. 1410 - c. 1440
  • Silman Dandi........................................c. 1440 - 1464
  • 'Ali...................................................1464 - 1492
  • Abu-Bakr Baro..........................................1492 - 1493
  • ASKIYA
  • Muhammad Touré the Great...............................1493 - 1528
  • Musa...................................................1528 - 1531
  • Muhammad Benkan........................................1531 - 1537
  • Isma'il................................................1537 - 1539
  • Ishaq I................................................1539 - 1549
  • Dawud..................................................1549 - 1582
  • al-Hajj................................................1582 - 1586
  • Muhammad Bana..........................................1586 - 1588
  • Ishaq II...............................................1588 - 1591
  • For a continuation of this dynasty, refer to Dendi, a nation and ethnic group located in the Niger watershed in southern Niger and northern Dahomey. They speak a dialect of Songhai, and became organized as a distinct political entity following the absorption of Songhai into the Moroccan Empire at the end of the 16th century.
  • Morocco................................................1591 - 1670
    • Muhammad Gao......................................1591 - 1618
    • Pashas of Timbuktu, appointed by the Sa'adi Sharifs of Morocco
    • Timbuktu it is today a dusty market town in central Mali, just north of the Niger River, nowadays within the desert, although formerly it was the terminus to trans-Sahel trade routes at the edge of the wastes. Founded perhaps in the 12th century, as a Tuareg summer pasturage encampment, around which merchants and other Tuareg clients gradually established permanent structures. Timbuktu was under various rules:
    • Mali...........................................c. 1275 - c. 1330
    • Mossi Empire...................................c. 1330 - c. 1340
    • Mali...........................................c. 1340 - 1433
    • The Tuareg........................................1433 - 1468
    • Songhai...........................................1468 - 1589
    • Morocco...........................................1589 - 1670
    • Judar.............................................1589 - 1590/1
    • Mahmud..........................................1590/1 - 1594/5
    • al-Mansur.......................................1594/5 - 1597/8
    • Mahmud Taba'....................................1597/8 - 1598/9
    • 'Ammar al-Fita..................................1598/9 - 1599/1600
    • Sulaiman.....................................1599/1600 - 1603/4
    • Mahmud Longo....................................1603/4 - 1611/2
    • 'Ali............................................1611/2 - 1617
    • Ahmad al-'Ilji...........................................1617
    • Haddu al-Ajnasi...................................1617 - 1618
    • Mohammed al-Massi.................................1618 - 1621/2
    • Yusuf al-Qasri..................................1621/2 - 1626/7
    • Ibrahim al-Jarrari..............................1626/7 - 1627/8
    • 'Ali al-Qadir...................................1627/8 - 1631/2
    • 'Ali al-Massi...................................1631/2 - 1631/2
    • Sa'ud 'Ajrud al-Sharqi..........................1631/2 - 1633/4
    • 'Abd al-Rahman..................................1633/4 - 1634/5
    • Sa'id al-Mahmudi................................1634/5 - 1636/7
    • Mas'ud al-Za'ari................................1636/7 - 1642/3
    • Mohammed........................................1642/3 - 1646/7
    • Ahmad al-Tilimsani..............................1646/7 - 1647/8
    • Hamid al-Haiyuni................................1647/8 - 1648
    • Yahya al-Gharnati.................................1648 - 1650/1
    • Hammadi al-Ajnasi...............................1650/1 - 1653/4
    • Muhammad ibn Musa...............................1653/4 - 1654/5
    • Muhammad al-Shiadami............................1654/5 - 1656/7
    • Muhammad al-Shatuki Qa'id Buya (1st time).......1656/7 - 1660
    • 'Allal al-Harusi.........................................1660 (1 day)
    • al-Haj al-Mukhtar.................................1660 - 1660/1
    • Hammu al-'Ilji..................................1660/1 - 1660/1
    • 'Ali al-Faraji..................................1660/1 - 1661/2
    • 'Ali al-Tazarkini...............................1661/2 - 1662/3
    • 'Ammar 'Ajrud al-Sharqi.........................1662/3 - 1665/6
    • Muhammad al-Shatuki Qa'id Buya (2nd line).......1665/6 - 1666/7
    • Nasr al-A'mashi al-Dar'i........................1666/7 - 1666/7
    • 'Abd al-Rahman al-Andalusi......................1666/7 - 1667/8
    • Nasr al-Tilimsani...............................1667/8 - 1670
    • Timbuktu occupied by Segu dynasty 1670 - 1787.
    • Mohammed al-Kuihil al-Sharqi......................1670 - 1671/2
    • Mohammed al-Mubarak al-Dar'i....................1671/2 - 1672/3
    • 'Ali al-Dar'i I.................................1672/3 - 1675/6
    • Sa'id al-Fasi...................................1675/6 - 1678/9
    • 'Abdallah al-Dar'i..............................1678/9 - 1679/80
    • Dhu'l-Nun al-Mukhtar al-Sharqi (1st time)......1679/80 - 1680/1
    • Mohammed al-'Ilji (1st time)....................1680/1 - 1680/1
    • Yahya al-Mubarak al-Dar'i (1st time)............1680/1 - 1681/2
    • Dhu'l-Nun al-Mukhtar al-Sharqi (2nd line).......1681/2 - 1682
    • Mohammed al-Mubarak al-Dar'i (2nd line)..................1682
    • Ba-Haddu Salim al-Hassani................................1682
    • al-Fa' Benkano al-Sharqi al-Mudasani.....................1682 (3 days)
    • Zenka 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fasi......................1682 - 1683/4
    • Mohammed al-'Ilji (2nd line)....................1683/4 - 1683/4
    • 'Ali al-'Amri...................................1683/4 - 1684/5
    • al-Mubarak al-Za'ari (1st time).................1684/5 - 1685/6
    • Sa'ud Bokarna (1st time)........................1685/6 - 1685/6
    • al-Hassan al-Munabbih...........................1685/6 - 1686/7
    • 'Abdallah al-Qa'id Hassan al-Dar'i..............1686/7 - 1687/8
    • al-'Abbas al-'Amri..............................1687/8 - 1687/8
    • al-Mansur al-Za'ari Sanibar (1st time)..........1687/8 - 1688/9
    • Ahmad al-Tazarkini..............................1688/9 - 1689/90
    • Sa'ud Bokarna (2nd line).......................1689/90 - 1690/1
    • Sanibar Buya (1st time).........................1690/1 - 1690/1
    • Ibrahim al-Dar'i (1st time).....................1690/1 - 1692/3
    • Baba Sayyid Hammadi al-Sharqi...................1692/3 - 1692/3
    • al-Mubarak al-Za'ari (2nd time).................1692/3 - 1693/4
    • Ibrahim al-Dar'i (2nd time).....................1693/4 - 1693/4
    • Dhu'l-Nun al-Mukhtar al-Sharqi (3rd line).......1693/4 - 1693/4
    • Ahmad al-Khalifa al-Tilimsani...................1693/4 - 1694/5
    • Sanibar Buya (2nd time).........................1694/5 - 1695/6
    • 'Abdallah al-A'mashi al-Dar'i...................1695/6 - 1695/6
    • Hammadi al-Tazarkini (1st time).................1695/6 - 1696/7
    • al-Mubarak al-Dar'i.............................1696/7 - 1696/7
    • Mohammed al-Sharqi al-Sana'uni (1st time)................1696/7 (1 day)
    • 'Ali al-Dar'i II................................1696/7 - 1697/8
    • Yahya al-Fishtani (1st time)....................1697/8 - 1697/8
    • 'Abdallah al-Tilimsani (1st time)...............1697/8 - 1697/8
    • al-Mansur al-Za'ari Sanibar (2nd time)..........1697/8 - 1699/1700
    • Hammadi al-Tazarkini (2nd time)..............1699/1700 - 1700/1
    • 'Abdallah al-Tilimsani (2nd time)...............1700/1 - 1700/1
    • Yusuf al-Dar'i..................................1700/1 - 1701/2
    • Mohammed al-Fasi................................1701/2 - 1702/3
    • Ahmad al-Sharqi.................................1702/3 - 1702/3
    • 'Ali al-Dar'i III...............................1702/3 - 1702/3
    • Santa'a al-Fasi.................................1702/3 - 1703/4
    • Mami al-Tazarkini (1st time)....................1703/4 - 1703/4
    • Mohammed ibn Sa'id..............................1703/4 - 1703/4
    • Mohammed al-Sharqi al-Sana'uni (2nd time).......1703/4 - 1704/5
    • Yahya al-Fishtani (2nd time)....................1704/5 - 1704/5
    • 'Abdallah al-Tilimsani (3rd time)...............1704/5 - 1704/5
    • Sa'id al-Khabbazi...............................1704/5 - 1704/5
    • Mami al-Tazarkini (2nd time)....................1704/5 - 1706/7
    • al-Mubarak al-Gharnati..........................1706/7 - 1706/7
    • Nasr al-A'mashi al-Dar'i........................1706/7 - 1707/8
    • 'Abdallah al-Tilimsani (4th time)...............1707/8 - 1707/8
    • 'Ali al-Munabbih................................1707/8 - 1708/9
    • Mohammed al-Tazarkani I.........................1708/9 - 1708/9
    • Hammadi Zenko...................................1708/9 - 1709/10
    • Yahya al-Fishtani (3rd time)...................1709/10 - 1709/10
    • Yahya al-Dar'i (1st time)......................1709/10 - 1710/1
    • Ba-Bakribn Mohammed Sayyidi.....................1710/1 - 1711/2
    • Yusuf al-Dar'i (2nd time).......................1711/2 - 1711/2
    • 'Abd al-Qadir al-Tazarkani......................1711/2 - 1712/3
    • 'Abdallah al-Tilimsani (5th time)...............1712/3 - 1712/3
    • 'Ali al-Dar'i IV................................1712/3 - 1712/3
    • al-Mansur al-Za'ari Sanibar (3rd time)..........1712/3 - 1713/4
    • Mami al-Tazarkini (3rd time)....................1713/3 - 1713/4
    • 'Ali al-Munabbih (3rd time).....................1713/3 - 1713/4
    • 'Abdallah al-'Imrani (1st time).................1713/4 - 1714/5
    • 'Ammar ibn Sa'ud Bokarna........................1714/5 - 1714/5
    • Ba-Haddu al-Dar'i I (1st time)..................1714/5 - 1714/5
    • 'Abdallah al-'Imrani (2nd time).................1714/5 - 1715
    • Ba-Haddu al-Dar'i I (2nd time)...........................1715
    • Muhammad al-Tazarkini II.................................1715
    • 'Ali bin `Abd al-Ra`uf bin Salih al-Dar'i IV....1715/6 - 1715/6
    • 'Abdallah al-'Imrani (3rd time).................1715/6 - 1715/6
    • al-Mansur al-Za'ari Sanibar (4th time)..........1715/6 - 1718/9
    • Ba-Haddu al-Dar'i I (3rd time)..................1718/7 - 1720/1
    • 'Abd al-Ghaffar al-Tazarkani....................1720/1 - 1721/2
    • 'Abdallah al-'Imrani (4th time).................1721/2 - 1725/6
    • Mahmud Buya.....................................1725/6 - 1725/6
    • 'Abd al-Rahman al-Tazarkani.....................1725/6 - 1726/7
    • 'Abdallah al-'Imrani (5th time).................1726/7 - 1726/7
    • Ba-Haddu al-Dar'i I (4th time)..................1726/7 - 1728/9
    • Yusuf al-Dar'i (3rd time).......................1728/9 - 1729/30
    • 'Abdallah al-'Imrani (6th time)................1729/30 - 1731/2
    • Muhammad Bohhu al-Za'ari........................1731/2 - 1732/3
    • al-Hassani al-Tazarkani.........................1732/3 - 1733/4
    • Muhammad al-Tazarkani III (1st time)............1733/4 - 1734/5
    • Sa'id al-Tazarkani (2nd time)...................1734/5 - 1735/6
    • Hammadi al-Za'ari (1st time)....................1735/6 - 1736/7
    • Sa'id al-Tazarkani (2nd time)...................1736/7 - 1737/8
    • Hammadi al-Za'ari (2nd time)....................1737/8 - 1737/8
    • Muhammad al-Tazarkani III (2nd time)............1737/8 - 1737/8
    • al-Fa' Ibrahim al-Dar'i.........................1737/8 - 1738/9
    • Hammadi al-Dar'i................................1738/9 - 1738/9
    • al-Fa' Ibrahim al-Tazarkani.....................1738/9 - 1738/9
    • Sa'id al-Za'ari (1st time)......................1738/9 - 1739/40
    • Yahya al-Tazarkani.............................1739/40 - 1740/1
    • Baba-Sayyid Zenko (1st time)....................1740/1 - 1741/2
    • al-Hassan al-'Amri..............................1741/2 - 1741/2
    • Sa'id al-Za'ari (2nd time)......................1741/2 - 1742/3
    • Sa'id al-Tazarkani (1st time)...................1742/3 - 1743/4
    • Sa'id al-Za'ari (3rd time)......................1743/4 - 1745/6
    • Baba-Sayyid Zenko (2nd time)....................1745/6 - 1746/7
    • al-Fa' Mahmud al-Shatuki........................1746/7 - 1748
    • 'Abd al-Ghaffar ibn Usama al-Tazarkani...................1748
    • Ba-Bakr al-Dar'i.........................................1748
    • Sa'id al-Tazarkani (2nd time).....................1748 - ?
    • 'Ali al-Dar'i V
    • 'Ali Bokarna
    • Ba-Haddu al-Dar'i II
    • Baba-'Ali al-Tazarkini...............................? - 1787
    • The Tuareg........................................1787 - 1813
    • Macina (Masina)...................................1813 - 1814
    • The Tuareg........................................1814 - 1826
    • Macina (Masina)...................................1826 - 1844
    • KUNTA
    • al-Bakka'i........................................1844 - aft. 1854
    • The Tuareg...................................aft. 1854 - 1862
  • Tuareg Nomads..........................................1670 - 1854
  • DINA (the Sise Jihad state at Masina) - title: Imams (also styled Amir al-Muslimin)
  • Shaykhu Ahmadu ibn Muhammadu Lobbo Sise al-Masini......1818 - 19 Mar 1845 d. 1845
  • Ahmadu Shaykhu ibn Ahmadu.......................19 Mar 1845 - 27 Feb 1853
  • Ahmadu ibn Ahmadu......................................1853 - 16 May 1862 d. 1862
  • On 16 May 1862, it was conquered by the Tijaniyya Jihad state (known by French as Tukulor Empire).
  • TUKULOR EMPIRE (The Tijaniyya Jihad state)
  • TALL - title: Imams (also styled Amir al-Muslimin)
  • `Umar ibn Sa`id (in Segu 1854-1861).............10 Mar 1861 - 12 Feb 1864 d. 1864
  • title: Amir al-Mu´minin - Segu and Masina rulers were split  from 1864 to 1888. They again merged in 1888.
  • Ahmad ibn `Umar (at Segu)..............................1864 - 1888 d. 1898
  • He styled as Amir al-Mu`minin from 1869.
  • Ahmad ibn Ahmad al-Tijani (at Masina)..................1864 - 1887
  • Sa`id ibn `Umar al-Tafsir (at Masina)..................1887 - 1888
  • Muniru ibn `Umar.......................................1888 - 1891
  • Ahmad ibn `Umar........................................1891 - 29 Apr 1893
  • Tijaniyya Jihad state was extinguished by France on 29 Apr 1893.
  • France.................................................1894 - 1960
    • Commandants-superior
    • Charles Émile Boilève (1st time)...........27 Feb 1880 - 29 Jul 1880 d. 1889
    • Gustave Borgnis-Desbordes..................06 Sep 1880 - 03 Sep 1883 d. 1900
    • Charles Émile Boilève (2nd time)...........03 Sep 1883 - 18 Jun 1884
    • Antoine Vincent Auguste Combes.............18 Jun 1884 - Sep 1885 d. 1913
    • He was acting to 04 Sep 1884.
    • Henri Nicolas Frey............................Sep 1885 - Aug 1886 d. 1932
    • Joseph Simon Galliéni.........................Aug 1886 - 10 Sep 1888 d. 1916
    • Louis Archinard (1st time).................10 Sep 1888 - 1891 d. 1932
    • Pierre Marie Gustave Humbert......................1891 - 27 Aug 1892 d. 1921
    • Louis Archinard (2nd time).................27 Aug 1892 - 02 Aug 1893
    • François Xavier Louis Henri Gaëtan Bonnier.02 Aug 1893 - 26 Dec 1893 d. 1944
    • He was acting Commandant-superior.
    • Governors
    • Louis Alphonse Grodet......................26 Dec 1893 - 16 Jun 1895 d. 1933
    • Louis Edgard de Trentinian.................16 Jun 1895 - 17 Oct 1899 d. 1942
    • Marie Michel Alexandre René Audéoud........01 Jan 1898 - 19 Nov 1898 d. 1909
    • He was acting for Trentinian.
    • Delegate
    • William Merlaud-Ponty......................17 Oct 1899 - 20 Oct 1904 d. 1915
    • Lieutenant governors
    • William Merlaud-Ponty (continued)..........20 Oct 1904 - 18 Feb 1908
    • acting for Merlaud-Ponty
      • Jean Jules Émile Peuvergne (1st time).01 Sep 1906 - 01 Jan 1907 d. 1916
      • Jean Jules Émile Peuvergne (2nd time).28 Aug 1907 - 12 Jan 1908
    • Marie François Joseph Clozel...............18 Feb 1908 - 16 Jun 1915 d. 1918
    • acting for Clozel
      • Henri Alphonse Joseph Lejeune.........17 Dec 1909 - 17 Aug 1910
      • Philippe Marius Henry (1st time)......13 Jan 1912 - Aug 1912 d. 1915
      • Philippe Marius Henry (2nd time)......12 Dec 1912 - Aug 1913
    • Philippe Marius Henry (acting).............16 Jun 1915 - 26 Jun 1915
    • Louis Thiebaut François Vincent Digue (act)..01 Jul 1915 - 28 Jul 1916 d. 1926
    • Raphaël Valentin Antonetti (acting)........23 Sep 1916 - 20 Apr 1917 d. 1938
    • Albert Nebout (acting).....................20 Apr 1917 - 21 May 1917 d. 1939
    • Louis Eugène Periquet (acting).............21 May 1917 - 20 Feb 1918 d. 1929
    • Auguste Brunet.............................20 Feb 1918 - 16 May 1919 d. 1957
    • Marcel Achille Olivier.....................16 May 1919 - 20 Aug 1921 d. 1945
      • acting for Olivier
      • Camille Théodore Daniel Maillet.......10 Aug 1920 - Jan 1921 d. 1954
    • Governors
    • Jean Henri Terrasson de Fougères...........21 Aug 1921 - 31 Dec 1930 d. 1930
    • He was acting to 26 Feb 1924.
      • acting for Terrasson
      • Jean Joseph Henri Carreau.............23 Apr 1924 - May 1924
      • Albéric Auguste Fournier.................May 1924 - Feb 1925
      • Gabriel Omar Descemet (1st time).........Apr 1926 - Nov 1926 d. 1961
      • Gabriel Omar Descemet (2nd time)......22 Jun 1928 - 28 Jan 1929
    • Joseph Urbain Court (acting)...............31 Dec 1930 - 04 Apr 1931 d. 1948
    • Gabriel Omar Descemet (acting).............04 Apr 1931 - 21 May 1931
    • Louis Jacques Eugène Fousset...............21 May 1931 - 19 Feb 1935 d. 1949
      • acting for Fousset
      • René Desjardins.......................31 Mar 1933 - 22 May 1933
      • Léon Solomiac.........................22 May 1933 - 30 Nov 1933 d. 1960
    • Félix Sylvestre Adolphe Éboué (acting).....19 Feb 1935 - 20 Nov 1935 d. 1944
    • Matteo Mathieu Maurice Alfassa.............20 Nov 1935 - 09 Nov 1936 d. 1942
    • Ferdinand Jacques Louis Rougier............09 Nov 1936 - 28 Mar 1938 d. 1940
    • He was acting to 04 Dec 1936.
    • Jean Desanti...............................28 Mar 1938 - 22 Dec 1940 d. 1944
    • He was acting to 15 Nov 1940.
    • Jean Alexandre Léon Rapenne (acting).......22 Dec 1940 - 17 Apr 1942 d. 1952
    • Auguste Marie Léon Calvel..................17 Apr 1942 - 15 May 1946 d. 1981
    • He was acting to 29 Dec 1942.
    • Edmond Jean Louveau........................15 May 1946 - Apr 1952 d. 1973
      • Lucien Eugène Geay (act. for Louveau).23 Feb 1949 - Feb 1950 d. 1976
    • Camille Victor Bailly.........................Apr 1952 - 10 Jul 1952 d. 1984
    • Salvador Jean Étcheber (acting)............10 Jul 1952 - 23 Feb 1953 d. 1967
    • Albert Jean Mouragues......................23 Feb 1953 - 02 Dec 1953 d. 1976
    • Lucien Eugène Geay.........................02 Dec 1953 - 03 Nov 1956
    • He was acting to 10 Feb 1954.
    • High commissioners
    • Henri Victor Gipoulon......................03 Nov 1956 - 24 Nov 1958 d. 1989
    • Jean Charles Sicurani......................24 Nov 1958 - 20 Jun 1960 d. 1977
  • Republic of Mali................................20 Jun 1960 - date
  • Chief of State
  • Modibo Keïta....................................20 Jun 1960 - 1965 d. 1977
  • Modibo Keïta devoted his entire life to African unity. He first played a part in the creation of the Federation of Mali with Léopold Sédar Senghor of Senegal. He was also President of Mali Federation 04 Apr 1959 - 20 Aug 1960. After its collapse, he moved away from Léopold Sédar Senghor, but with Sékou Touré, the president of Guinea, and Kwame Nkrumah, the President of Ghana, he formed the Union of the States of Western Africa. In 1963, he played an important role in drafting the charter of the Organization of African Unity (OAU). In 1963, he invited the king of Morocco and the president of Algeria to Bamako, in the hope of ending the Sand War, a frontier conflict between the two nations. Along with Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, Keïta was successful in negotiating the Bamako Accords, which brought an end to the conflict. As a result, he won the Lenin Peace Prize that year. From 1963 to 1966, he normalized relations with the countries of Senegal, Upper Volta and Côte d'Ivoire. An advocate of the Non-Aligned Movement, Modibo defended the nationalist movements like the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN). He also served as the Prime Minister from 05 Apr 1959 to 1965. On November 19, 1968, General Moussa Traoré overthrew Modibo Keïta in a coup d'état, and sent him to prison in the northern Malian town of Kidal. After being transferred back to the capital Bamako in February 1977 in what was claimed to be an action by the government towards national reconciliation in preparation for his release, Modibo Keïta died, still a prisoner, on May 16, 1977. A monument to Modibo Keïta was dedicated in Bamako on June 06, 1999.
  • President
  • Modibo Keïta (continued)...............................1965 - 19 Nov 1968
  • Chairman of the Military National Liberation Committee
  • Moussa Traoré...................................19 Nov 1968 - 19 Sep 1969
  • Moussa Traoré (born 25 September 1936) is a Malian soldier and politician who was President of Mali from 1968 to 1991. As a Lieutenant, he led the military ousting of President Modibo Keïta in 1968. Thereafter he served as head of state until March 1991, when he was overthrown by popular protests and a military coup. He was twice condemned to death in the 1990s, but eventually pardoned on both occasions and freed in 2002. He has since retired from political life.
  • Head of State
  • Moussa Traoré (continued).......................19 Sep 1968 - 19 Jun 1979
  • President
  • Moussa Traoré (continued).......................19 Jun 1979 - 26 Mar 1991
  • Chairman National Reconciliation Council
  • Amadou Toumani Touré (1st time).................26 Mar 1991 - 31 Mar 1991
  • Chairman Transitional Committee for the Salvation of the People
  • Amadou Toumani Touré (continued)................31 Mar 1991 - 08 Jun 1992
  • Presidents
  • Alpha Oumar Konaré..............................08 Jun 1992 - 08 Jun 2002
  • Amadou Toumani Touré (2nd time).................08 Jun 2002 - 22 Mar 2012
  • Chairman National Committee for the Restoration of Democracy and State
  • Amadou Haya Sanogo..............................22 Mar 2012 - 12 Apr 2012
  • Amadou Haya Sanogo (born 1972 or 1973) is a Malian military officer who was leader of the 2012 Malian coup d'état against President Amadou Toumani Touré. He proclaimed himself the leader of the National Committee for Recovering Democracy and Restoring the State (CNRDRE). Sanogo was also said to be involved in the arrest and resignation of acting Prime Minister Cheick Modibo Diarra in December 2012, leading to the appointment of civil servant Django Sissoko as Prime Minister on 11 December 2012.
  • Presidents
  • Dioncounda Traoré (interim).....................12 Apr 2012 - 04 Sep 2013
  • Dioncounda Traoré (born 23 February 1942) is a Malian politician who was President of Mali in an interim capacity from April 2012 to September 2013. Previously he was President of the National Assembly of Mali from 2007 to 2012, and he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1994 to 1997. He was President of the Alliance for Democracy in Mali-African Party for Solidarity and Justice (ADEMA-PASJ) beginning in 2000, and he was also President of the Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP), an alliance of parties that supported the re-election of President Amadou Toumani Touré in 2007.
  • Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta..........................04 Sep 2013 - date
  • Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta (born January 29, 1945), is often known, IBK, is a Malian politician who has been President of Mali since 2013. Previously he was Prime Minister of Mali from 04 February 1994 to 15 February 2000 and President of the National Assembly of Mali from 2002 to 2007. He founded a political party, Rally for Mali (RPM), in 2001. Keïta again ran for President in the July–August 2013 presidential election and was considered a front-runner. He won the election in a second round of voting, defeating Soumaïla Cissé, and he was sworn in as President on 04 September 2013.
 
 
Mali Coinage
Currency: Mali was using French Franc = 100 centimes before 1946. On 26 December 1945, The West African CFA franc (French: franc CFA; Portuguese: franco CFA or simply franc, ISO 4217 code: XOF) was introduced. From 1946 to 1958, the acronym CFA Franc was known as "Franc des Colonies Françaises d'Afrique". In 1958 it became "Communauté Française d'Afrique" and from 1962 as "Communauté Financière d'Afrique" (Financial Community of Africa) or "Communauté Financière Africaine" (African Financial Community). It is currently the currency of eight independent states in West Africa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo. The currency is issued by the BCEAO (Banque Centrale des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, "Central Bank of the West African States"), located in Dakar, Senegal, for the members of the UEMOA (Union Économique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine, "West African Economic and Monetary Union"). The franc is nominally subdivided into 100 centimes but no centime denominations have been issued. The Central African CFA franc is of equal value to the West African CFA franc, and is in circulation in several central African states. They are both called the CFA franc.
The CFA franc was introduced to the French colonies in West Africa in 1945, replacing the French West African franc. The West African colonies and territories using the CFA franc were Ivory Coast, Dahomey (now Benin), French Sudan (now Mali), Mauritania, Niger, Sénégal, Togo and Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso).
The currency continued in use when these colonies gained their independence, except in Mali (formerly French Sudan), which replaced at par the CFA franc with its own franc in 1961. In 1973, Mauritania replaced the CFA franc with the ouguiya at a rate of 1 ouguiya = 5 francs. Mali readopted the CFA franc on 01 June 1984, at a rate of 1 CFA franc = 2 Malian francs. The former Portuguese colony of Guinea-Bissau adopted the CFA franc in 1997, replacing the Guinea-Bissau peso at a rate of 1 CFA franc = 65 pesos. In the beginning CFA Franc = 1.70 French. On 17 December 1948: CFA Franc = 2 French Francs. On 01 January 1959: 50 CFA Francs = (New) French Franc. On 12 January 1994: 100 CFA Francs = French Franc. On 01 January 1999: 655.957 CFA Franc = Euro. From 02 July 1962 to 31 May 1984, Mali used Mali Francs.
 
 
1961
 

KM#2 5 Francs. Year: 1961. Weight: 0.99g [1.00 g]. Metal: Aluminum. Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Mincovňa Kremnica, š. p. (Kremnica, Slovakia). Obverse: “REPUBLIQUE DU MALI” (Republic of Mali) written in French at the top section. Hippo facing straight, head floating above water in the center. Date at the bottom. Reverse: Numeral "5" at the top and Value "FRANCS MALIENS" written below it. Two crossed leaves at the bottom. Mintage: N.A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#3 10 Francs. Year: 1961. Weight: 1.51g [1.50 g]. Metal: Aluminum. Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Mincovňa Kremnica, š. p. (Kremnica, Slovakia). Obverse: “REPUBLIQUE DU MALI” (Republic of Mali) written in French at the top section. Horse head facing left in the center. Plant branch at bottom left and bottom right sides. Date at the bottom. Reverse: Numeral "10" at the top and Value "FRANCS MALIENS" written in two lines below it. Six Crossed leaves around. Mintage: N.A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#4 25 Francs. Year: 1961. Weight: 2.52g [2.50 g]. Metal: Aluminum. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Mincovňa Kremnica, š. p. (Kremnica, Slovakia). Obverse: “REPUBLIQUE DU MALI” (Republic of Mali) written in French at the top section. Lion head facing left in the center. Plant branch at bottom left and bottom right sides. Date at the bottom. Reverse: Numeral "25" at the top and Value "FRANCS MALIENS" written in two lines below it. Six Crossed leaves around. Mintage: N.A. Minted Years: One year type.
 
ND (1968)
 

KM#1 10 Francs. Year: ND (1968). Weight: 25.08g [25.00 g]. Metal: 0.900 Silver. Diameter: 37.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Stabilimento Stefano Johnson S.p.A., Milano (Milan, Italy). Obverse: “PRESIDENT MODIBO KEITA” written at the top section. Modibo Keita portrait in the center facing straight. One dot on each side. "INDEPENDANCE 22 SEPT. 1960" written at the bottom section. Reverse: “REPUBLIQUE DU MALI” (Republic of Mali) written in French at the top section. Mali Coat of arms within circle and Value "10 FR." written below the circle. One star on each side. Motto: "UN PEUPLE·UN BUT·UNE FOI" (One People · One Goal · One Faith) written in French at the bottom section. Mintage: 10,000 Proof. Minted Years: One year type. KM#PE1 exist as pattern (Piedfort ESSAI) with mintage: 10.
 
1975
 

KM#9 50 Francs. Year: 1975. Weight: 4.02g [4.00 g]. Metal: Nickel-Brass. Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris (dolphin mintmark). Obverse: “BANQUE CENTRALE DU MALI” (Central Bank of Mali) written in French at the top section. Value "50 FRANCS" in the center surrounded by four triangles. Date at the bottom with mintmarks on both sides.
Reverse: Millet plant in the center, surround by "NOURRITURE POUR TOUS" (Food For All) written in French. Mintage: 10,000,000. Minted Years: 1975 and 1977. Subject: F.A.O. issue. Engraver: Raymond Joly (both sides). KM#E1 exist as pattern (ESSAI) with unknown mintage.

KM#10 50 Francs. Year: 1975. Weight: 7.97g [8.00 g]. Metal: Nickel-Brass. Diameter: 27.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris (dolphin mintmark). Obverse: “BANQUE CENTRALE DU MALI” (Central Bank of Mali) written in French at the top section. Value "100 FRANCS" in the center surrounded by four triangles. Date at the bottom with mintmarks on both sides.
Reverse: Three Corn plants in the center, surround by "DEVELOPPONS LA PRODUCTION" (improve the production) written in French. Mintage: 23,000,000. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: F.A.O. issue. Engraver: Raymond Joly (both sides). KM#E2 exist as pattern (ESSAI) with unknown mintage.
 
1976 - ESSAI (pattern) issue
 

KM#E3 10 Francs. Year: 1976. Weight: 1.50g [1.50 g]. Metal: Aluminum. Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris (dolphin mintmark). Mintage: N.A.

Note: Pattern coin of KM#11 as below. "ESSAI" written at the bottom right of Rice plants horizontally.

KM#E4 25 Francs. Year: 1976. Weight: 2.50g [2.50 g]. Metal: Aluminum. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris (dolphin mintmark). Mintage: N.A.

Note: Pattern coin of KM#12 as below. "ESSAI" written at the bottom of Rice plants vertically.

 
1976
 

KM#11 10 Francs. Year: 1976. Weight: 1.51g [1.50 g]. Metal: Aluminum. Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris (dolphin mintmark). Obverse: “BANQUE CENTRALE DU MALI” (Central Bank of Mali) written in French at the top section. Value "10 FRANCS" in the center surrounded by four triangles. Date at the bottom with mintmarks on both sides.
Reverse: Rice plants in the center. Mintage: 10,000,000. Minted Years: One year type. Engraver: Raymond Joly (both sides). KM#E3 exist as pattern (ESSAI) with unknown mintage (see above).

KM#12 25 Francs. Year: 1976. Weight: 2.56g [2.50 g]. Metal: Aluminum. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris (dolphin mintmark). Obverse: “BANQUE CENTRALE DU MALI” (Central Bank of Mali) written in French at the top section. Value "25 FRANCS" in the center surrounded by four triangles. Date at the bottom with mintmarks on both sides.
Reverse: Rice plants in the center. Mintage: 10,000,000. Minted Years: One year type. Engraver: Raymond Joly (both sides). KM#E4 exist as pattern (ESSAI) with unknown mintage (see above).
 
1977
 

Same as KM#9 above, but...

Year: 1977. Weight: 4.01g [4.00 g]. Mintage: 10,000,000.

 
 
2003 IDAO - Bureau Africain d'Emission issue
 

1500 CFA Francs (1 Africa). Year: 2003. Weight: 5.82g. Metal: Nickel plated Steel. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Africa Mint.

Obverse: "* 1500 CFA · AFRIQUE DE L'OUEST 2003 · EMISSION MALIENNE *" written in the top section. A Gazelle eating grass under a tree, in the center. "GF" initials of the engraver at the center left side.

Reverse: "· IDAO · EMISSION MONETAIRE DE L'INSTITUT DE DEVELOPPEMENT DE L'AFRIQUE DE L'OUEST" (clockwise). Elephant face on West African Map (in center). Value "1 AFRICA" written below the map. Mintage: 1,200. Minted Years: One year type. This coin is also made in Silver and has a mintage of 5 pieces only. This coin was listed as KM#17 and the silver one as KM#17a in Krause publications during 2003 to 2005.
 
 
 
States before French occupation.
 
KAARTA
 
                        c.1630  Kulubali (Masa-si) dynasty founded.
                          1754  Ka`arta state established by Kulubali dynasty.
                          1861  Partially incorporated into Tijaniyya Jihad state.
                          1888  Ka`arta state fully re-established.
                         1890s  Ka`arta state extinguished by French colonial government.
 
  • A Bambara state in the interior of southern Mauretania, south of Tagant, in the Hodh. Founded by a brother of the founder of Segu, to the southeast.
  • KULUBALI (MASA-SI) (title: Fama)
  • Nya Ngolo...........................................c. 1610 - c. 1640
  • Sunsa...............................................c. 1640 - c. 1670
  • Massa...............................................c. 1670 - c. 1690
  • Sekolo "Bemfa"......................................c. 1690 - c. 1700
  • Foro-Kolo...........................................c. 1700 - 1709
  • Seba Mana..............................................1709 - 1760
  • Denibabo...............................................1760 - 1780
  • Sirabo.................................................1780 - 1789
  • Desse-Koro.............................................1789 - 1799
  • Musakura "Fulafo"......................................1799 - 1808
  • Ntinkoro...............................................1808 - 1811
  • Sakhaba................................................1811 - 1818
  • Bodyan Moriba..........................................1818 - 1832
  • Nyaralen Garan.........................................1832 - 1843
  • Mamadi "Kandyan" ......................................1843 - 1854
  • Diringa Mori...........................................1854 - 1867
  • Bussei.................................................1867 - 1870
  • The Tukulor Empire.....................................1870 - 1894
    • Dama
    • Allahi
    • Moriba
    • Gossi
  • France.................................................1894 - 1960
  • Most to Mauritania (southern areas to Mali)............1960 - date
 
KENEDUGU
 
                       bf.1650  Kenedugu state founded by Nanka Traore.
                   02 May 1898  Kenedugu state extinguished by French colonial government.
 
  • Kenedugu (Sikasso), a small kingdom in far southern Mali, near the Cote d'Ivoire frontier - the town of Sikasso itself is a provincial capital about 20 miles (32 km.) from the Burkina Faso border and about 183 miles (294 km.) southeast of the national capital of Bamako.
  • TARAORE - (title: Fama)
  • Nanka...............................................c. 1650 - ?
  • A series of Kings, perhaps 5 to 7 names and dates unknown.
  • Daoula I Ba Taraore .................................c. 1750 - ?
  • unknown King ? -c. 1800
  • Tapri...............................................c. 1800 - c. 1820
  • Musa Toroma.........................................c. 1820 - c. 1825
  • Famorhoba...........................................c. 1825 - 1835
  • Nyanamagha.............................................1835 - 1845
  • Tyemonkonko...................................................1845
  • Daoula II Ba...........................................1845 - 1862
  • Molokunansa............................................1862 - 1877
  • Tyeba..................................................1877 - 28 Jan 1893 d. 1893
  • Babemba.........................................28 Jan 1893 - 01 May 1898 d. 1898
  • France..........................................02 May 1898 - 20 Jun 1960
  • Mali............................................20 Jun 1960 - date
 
MACINA (MASSINA)
 
                      1400  Masina state founded.
                      1824  Incorporated into Dina, the Sise Jihad state.
               16 May 1862  Incorporated into the Tijaniyya Jihad state.
               04 May 1893  Masina state re-established.
               26 Dec 1902  Masina state extinguished by French colonial government.
 
  • Macina (Massina), a marshy region of the upper Niger, southwest of Timbuktu, in what is now central Mali.
  • FULANI - Kings of Macina - (title: Ardo)
  • Majan Dyallo........................................c. 1400 - 1404
  • Birahim I..............................................1404 - 1424
  • 'Ali I.................................................1424 - 1433
  • Kanta..................................................1433 - 1466
  • 'Ali II................................................1466 - 1480
  • Nguia..................................................1480 - 1510
  • Sawadi.................................................1510 - 1539
  • Ilo....................................................1539 - 1540
  • Amadi Sire.............................................1540 - 1543
  • Hammadi I..............................................1543 - 1544
  • Bubu I.................................................1544 - 1551
  • Ibrahim................................................1551 - 1559
  • Bubu II................................................1559 - 1583
  • Hammadi II.............................................1583 - c. 1595
  • Morocco.............................................c. 1595 - 1599
  • Hammadi II.............................................1599 - 1603
  • Bubu II................................................1603 - 1613
  • Ibrahim II.............................................1613 - 1625
  • Silamaran..............................................1625 - 1627
  • Hammadi III............................................1627 - 1663
  • Hammadi IV....................................................1663
  • 'Ali III...............................................1663 - 1673
  • Gallo..................................................1673 - 1675
  • Gurori I...............................................1675 - 1696
  • Gueladio...............................................1696 - 1706
  • Guidado................................................1706 - 1761
  • Hammadi V..............................................1761 - 1780
  • DYALLO (RARI)
  • Ya Gallo...............................................1780 - 1801
  • Ahmadi Dikko Gurori II.................................1801 - 1818
  • Nguru..................................................1818 - 1824
  • Sheiks of Macina
  • Hamadu I...............................................1814 - 1844
  • Hamadu II..............................................1844 - 1852
  • Hamadu III.............................................1852 - 1862
  • The Tukulor Empire.....................................1862 - 1893
  • TALL
  • Muhammadu `Ajibu ibn `Umar......................04 May 1893 - 26 Dec 1902
  • France..........................................26 Dec 1902 - 20 Jun 1960
  • Mali............................................20 Jun 1960 - date
 
SEGU
 
                    1652  Kulubali (Biton-si-u) dynasty founded.
                    1712  Segu state established by Kulubali dynasty.
             1748 - 1750  Period of anarchy.
             10 Mar 1861  Partially incorporated into Tijaniyya Jihad state.
             11 Apr 1890  Segu state fully re-established.
                    1893  Segu state extinguished by French colonial government.
 
  • Segu, a Bambara state in what is now south-central Mali, southwest of Macina and approximately where modern Ségou Province is today. Founded by a brother of the founder of Kaarta, to the northwest.
  • (title: Fama)
  • Barama-Ngolo........................................c. 1600 - c. 1620
  • Soma................................................c. 1620 - c. 1640
  • Fa Sine.............................................c. 1640 - c. 1660
  • Mamari Biton........................................c. 1660 - c. 1710
  • Bakari..............................................c. 1710 - 1712
  • De-Koro................................................1712 - 1736
  • Tonmassa Dembele "Tonmansa"............................1736 - 1740
  • Kanuba-Nyuma Bari......................................1740 - 1744
  • Kafadyugu..............................................1744 - 1748
  • vacant: 1748-1750.
  • DYARA (NGOLO-SI-U)
  • Ngolo Dyara............................................1750 - 1787
  • Manson Makoto (to 1792 in Segu Sikoro only)............1787 - 1808
  • Da Kaha "Tonkomo"......................................1808 - 1827
  • Tye-Folo...............................................1827 - 1839
  • Nyene-Mba I............................................1839 - 1840
  • vacant 1839-1843.
  • Ben Keryengole.........................................1843 - 1849
  • Kon-Maran Kuma "Naluma"................................1849 - 1851
  • Masala Demba...........................................1851 - 1854
  • Turo-Koro Mari.........................................1854 - 1856
  • Bina Ali...............................................1856 - 10 Mar 1861
  • The Tukolor Empire.....................................1861 - 1894
    • Kege Mari..................................13 Apr 1861 - 1870
    • Nyenemba II.......................................1870 - 1878
    • Mamuru...................................................1878
    • Masaloma..........................................1878 - 1883
    • Karamoko..........................................1883 - 1887
    • Mari..............................................1887 - 29 May 1890
    • KULUBALI (MASA-SI)
    • Bodyan............................................1890 - 1893
  • France.................................................1894 - 20 Jun 1960
  • Mali............................................20 Jun 1960 - date
 
 
 
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins