Tunisia
 
 
Tunisia is situated the coast of central North Africa, where the sea suddenly turns south toward Libya. Capital: Tunis.
Motto: حرية، نظام، عدالة "Ḥurriyyah, Nizām, Adālah" (Liberty, Order, Justice).
 
        1135 - 1158         Djerba Island taken by Norman Kingdom of Sicily.
        1146 - 1160         Tunis occupied by Norman Kingdom of Sicily.
               1236         Hafsid Kingdom.
        1284 - 1333         Lordship of Djerba under the Kingdom of Sicily.
               1520         Inhabitants of Djerba swore vassalage to the king of Spain,
                             but no Spanish occupation takes place.
               1531         Vassal of Ottoman Empire.
 14 Jul 1535 - Jan 1570     Tunis and La Goletta (to 23 Aug 1574) occupied by Spain.
        1535 - 1574         Bizerte (Biserta) occupied by Spain.
               1542         Island of Tabarca granted to the Lomellini family of Genoa.
 08 Mar 1560 - 31 Jul 1560  Djerba Island Occupied by Spain.
    Jan 1570 - 10 Oct 1573  Tunis under Ottoman suzerainty.
 10 Oct 1573 - 03 Sep 1574  Tunis occupied by Spain.
 03 Sep 1574 - 10 Aug 1920  Incorporated into Ottoman Empire, with varying and ultimately
                             increased autonomy (1726-1821 subordinated to Algiers).
               15 Jul 1705  Tunisian Regency under de facto hereditary Husayni dynasty.
               18 Jun 1741  Island of Tabarca Surrendered to the Bey of Tunis.
               25 Oct 1871  While continuing to recognize nominal Ottoman suzerainty, the
                             Bey ceases paying tribute.
               03 May 1881  France takes possession of Bizerte.
               12 May 1881  Tunisia becomes a French protectorate by treaty.
               10 Oct 1881  French occupation of Tunis.
 22 Jun 1940 - 07 May 1943  Administration loyal to Vichy France (from 7 May 1943,
                             Free French).
 10 Nov 1942 - 07 May 1943  Occupied by Germany.
               03 Jun 1955  Autonomous.
               20 Mar 1956  French protectorate terminated. State styled Tunisian Realm
                             (al-Mamlaka at-Tunisiyya - literally Tunisian Kingdom; this
                             style already appears on 1950 coins).
                            France retains Bizerte (Strategic Base of Bizerte).
               25 Jul 1957  Tunisian Republic.
               01 Jun 1959  Tunisian Constitution becomes effective.
               05 Sep 1961  France recognizes Tunisian sovereignty over Bizerte and agrees
                             withdraw upon cessation of hostilities in Algeria.
               15 Oct 1963  France evacuates Bizerte.
               17 Dec 2010  Tunisian street vendor Mohamed Bouazizi set himself on fire
                             in protest to police harassment, triggering the Tunisian
                             Revolution.
 
 
  • IARBID
  • Ruled in eastern Libya, near Carthage
  • Iarbos........................................................fl. c.800 BCE
  • Carthage
  • Elissa Deido (Dido) the Wanderer (fem.)..............c. 814 - c. 760
  • According to legend, Dido was the Tyrian princess who led colonists to North Africa, where they founded Kiriyat Hadasht, or "The New City" (from which the Latin Carthago derives).
  • Unknown rulers
  • MAGONID
  • Hanno I..............................................c. 580 - c. 556
  • Another family
  • Malchus..............................................c. 556 - c. 550
  • MAGONID
  • Mago I...............................................c. 550 - c. 510
  • Hasdrubaal...........................................c. 510 - 499
  • Hamilcar I..............................................499 - 480
  • In 480 BCE the king was forced to turn over most government function to the Council of Elders, a body composed of the nobility and aristocratic merchant clans, and the Tribunal of 109, but they allowed him to keep his title and kings continued to rule, at least in name, until 308.
  • Hanno II the Navigator..................................480 - 440 with...
  • Himilco I (in Sicily)................................c. 460 - c. 410
  • Hannibal................................................440 - 406
  • Himilco II..............................................406 - 396
  • Mago II Barceus.........................................396 - 383
  • Himilco III...................................................383/2
  • Another Family
  • Eshmuniaton...........................................383/2 - c. 382/0 opposed by...
  • HANNONID
  • Hanno II the Great......................................382 - 360
  • MAGONID
  • Mago III................................................360 - 344 d. 343
  • vacant
  • HANNONID
  • Hanno the Great.........................................340 - 339
  • Gisco...................................................339 - 330
  • Hamilcar II.............................................330 - 309
  • Bomelqart...............................................309 - 308
  • Bomilcar attempted to overthrow the Council of Elders but was unsuccessful. They had him crucified and terminated the monarchy altogether.
  • Oligarchic Republic 308-146
    • The republic was dominated by a series of powerful generals, including:
    • Mago Barca
    • Hamilcar...........................................295 - 250 with...
    • Hannibal the Rhodian...............................275 - 259
    • Hanno the Great....................................250 - 241
    • Hamilcar Barca.....................................241 - 229 with...
    • Hasdrubaal.........................................229 - 221
    • Hannibal Barca bar Hamilcar (the famous Hannibal)..221 - 195 d. 182 with...
    • Contrary to popular belief, Hannibal (Hannu-baal)'s career did not end with the Roman victory at Zama. He escaped to Carthage, and after the conclusion of the peace treaty in 201 was even elected suffete (consul) in 196. He reformed the government in order to pay the heavy tribute imposed by Rome. Denounced to the Romans for allegedly intriguing against Rome, he fled (195) to Antiochus III of Syria. He took a small part in Antiochus' war with Rome, and after the Syrian defeat he fled again, this time to Bithynia. About to be delivered to the Romans, he poisoned himself.
    • Mago Barca......................................210's - 206 and...
    • Hasdrubaal Gisgo................................210's - 206
    • Hasdrubaal Haedus (pro-Roman faction).............195 - 160
    • Carthalo the Boetarch (democratic faction)........160 - 152
    • Hasdrubaal........................................152 - 148
    • Hasdrubaal the Boetarch...........................148 - 146
  • Roman Republic.........................................146 - 27
  • Roman Empire........................................27 BCE - 395 CE
  • Western Roman Empire...................................395 - 428
  • Kingdom of the Vandals.................................428 - 534
  • Byzantine Empire.......................................534 - 670
    • Byzantine Governors of Africa Following the reconquest of North Africa by the Byzantines in the mid 500's, the area was organized into an exarchate, or autonomous military region, along the same lines as the Exarchate of Ravenna in Italy. These exarchates in turn lent the model for Emperor Heraclius' reorganization of the entire Empire into themes or military districts.
    • Archelaus.....................................Apr 534 - May 534
    • Military Tribune
    • Belisaurius...................................May 534 - Sep 534
    • Salomon (1st time)................................534 - 536
    • Prefect (from 535)
    • Symacchus...............................................Dec 536
    • Military Tribune
    • Germanus..........................................536 - 539
    • Prefect
    • Salomon (2nd time)................................539 - 543
    • Areobindus........................................544 - 545
    • Guntherius..............................................545
    • Anathasius........................................545 - 546
    • Military Tribune 
    • Artabanus...............................................546
    • John Troglita (1st time)..........................546 - 552
    • Prefect
    • Paul..............................................552 - 555
    • Boethius..........................................555 - 558
    • John Troglita (2nd time)..........................558 - 562
    • Military Tribune
    • John Rogathinus...................................562 - 563
    • Prefect
    • Areobindus..............................................563
    • Military Tribune
    • Marcianus.........................................563 - 565
    • Prefect
    • Thomas..................................................565
    • Lucius Mappius....................................565 - 569
    • Military Tribune
    • Theodore..........................................569 - 570
    • Theoctistus.......................................570 - 571
    • Amabilis..........................................571 - 574
    • Unknown ruler
    • Prefect
    • Thomas..................................................578
    • Military Tribune
    • Gennadius...............................................578
    • Vitalius..........................................578 - 582
    • Prefect
    • Theodore..........................................582 - 590
    • John..............................................590 - 591
    • Gennadius (1st time)..............................591 - 594
    • Exarch
    • Pantaleon.........................................594 - 598
    • Gennadius (2nd time)..............................598 - 600
    • Prefect
    • Innocentius.......................................600 - 602
    • Exarch
    • Heraclius Crispus.................................602 - 611
    • Unknown ruler
    • Caesarius.........................................614 - 617
    • Unknown ruler
    • Heraclius Crispus was the father of the Heraclius who overthrew Phocas and became Byzantine Emperor in 610.
    • Nicetas...........................................619 - 627
    • Prefect
    • Gregory the Patrician (1st time)..................627 - 633
    • Exarch
    • Peter.............................................633 - 641
  • Gregory the Patrician (2nd time).......................641 - 648
  • Gregory revolted against Constans II and established an independent state around Carthage in 641. Eight years later the region fell to the Arabs. The interior remained in the hands of the Berbers however, and they would not be subdued for another two generations...
  • The Caliphate (Prophet Muhammad's elected successors)..647 - 649
  • Byzantine Empire.......................................649 - 667
  • Umayyad Caliphate......................................667 - 697
  • Byzantine Empire.......................................697 - 703
    • Governor
    • John..............................................697 - 703
  • In the hinterland, the Berbers put up their own resistance to both the Byzantines and the Arabs...
  • BERBER - The JARAWA
  • A Berber tribal confederacy in the Aures Mountains in eastern Algeria. The tribe absorbed large numbers of Jews fleeing Visigothic persecution in Spain and Byzantine persecution in North Africa, and converted to Judaism en masse sometime in the 600's.
  • Tifan....................................................mid-late 600's
  • Tabat....................................................fl. late 600's
  • Khusalah.......................................670 - 698 in opp. to the Caliphate...
  • Kahya (Dehya) al-Kahina bat Tabat (female).....690 - 703 continued opposition...
  • Al-Kahina ("the seeress") led Berber resistance to the Arab invasion of the late 600s. She scored stunning victories over the Arabs but was finally defeated in 703 and committed suicide rather than face capture. The Jarawa were reduced to serfdom and most of their allies were forcibly converted to Islam or exterminated. However, Judeo-Berber populations continued to exist throughout North Africa into modern times.
  • The Arab governors - Caliphate.........................647 - 800
    • Walis of Ifriqiyya and the Maghreb
    • Muawiya ibn Hudaij al-Saquni......................665 - 670
    • Oqba ibn Nafi'i al-Fihri (1st time)...............670 - 675
    • Abu-l Mohadjir Dinar al-Makhzumi..................675 - 681
    • Oqba ibn Nafi'i al-Fihri (2nd time)...............681 - 682
    • Zoheir ibn Kais al-Balawi.........................682 - 688
    • Hasan ibn al-Nu'man al-Ghassani...................688 - 698
    • Musa ibn Nusair al-Lakhmi.........................698 - 715
    • Muhammad ibn Yezid................................715 - 718
    • Isma'il ibn Abdallah..............................718 - 719
    • Yezid ibn Dinar...................................719 - 720
    • Muhammad ibn Aws al-Ansari..............................720
    • Bishr ibn Safwan al-Kalbi.........................720 - 728
    • Obeda ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Salami................728 - 732
    • Ubeidallah ibn al-Habhab al-Maousili..............734 - 741
    • Kulthum ibn Iyadh al-Kushayri.....................741 - 742
    • Handhala ibn Safwan al-Kalbi......................742 - 745
    • OQBID dynasty
    • Abd al-Rahman ibn Habib...........................745 - 755
    • Ilyas ibn Habib...................................755 - 755
    • Habib ibn Abd al-Rahman...........................755 - 757
    • Asim ibn Jamil al-Warfajumi.......................757 - 758
    • Abd al-Malik ibn Abi-l-Dja'd............................758
    • Abu-l-Khattab Abd al-Ala ibn Assamh al-Ma'afiri...758 - 761
    • Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath al-Khuza'i................761 - 765
    • Isa ibn Yusef al-Khurassani.............................765
    • al-Aghlab ibn Salim at-Tamimi (1st time)..........765 - 766
    • al-Hasan ibn Harb al-Kindi........................766 - 767
    • al-Aghlab ibn Salim at-Tamini (2nd time)..........767 - 768
    • MUHALLID dynasty
    • A great family of governors from the Arab tribe of Azd in the Umayyad and Abbassid eras all over the Islamic world.
    • Umar ibn Hafs.....................................768 - 771
    • Yezid ibn Hatim...................................771 - 787
    • Daoud ibn Yezid.........................................787
    • Raouh ibn Hatim...................................787 - 791
    • Nasr ibn Habib....................................791 - 793
    • al-Fadhl ibn Raouh................................793 - 795
    • Herthema ibn A'yun................................795 - 797
    • Muhammad ibn Muqatil al-Aqqi (1st time)...........797 - 799
    • Temmam ibn Tamim at-Tamimi........................799 - 800
    • Muhammad ibn Muqatil al-Aqqi (2nd time).................800
  • AGHLABID
  • Ibrahim I..............................................800 - 812
  • Abdallah I.............................................812 - 817
  • Ziyadat-Allah I........................................817 - 838
  • Al-Aghlab..............................................838 - 841
  • Mohammed I.............................................841 - 856
  • Ahmad..................................................856 - 863
  • Ziyadat-Allah II.......................................863 - 864
  • Mohammed II............................................864 - 875
  • Ibrahim II.............................................875 - 902
  • Abdallah II............................................902 - 903
  • Ziyadat-Allah III......................................903 - 909
  • FATAMID
  • al-Mahdi...............................................909 - 934
  • al-Qa'im...............................................934 - 946
  • al-Mansur..............................................946 - 953
  • al-Mu'izz Il Din Allah.................................953 - 975
  • al-Aziz Billah.........................................975 - 996
  • al-Hakim Bi Amr Allah..................................996 - 1021
  • al-Zahir..............................................1021 - 1036
  • al-Mustansir..........................................1036 - 1048 d. 1094
    • ZIRID
    • Fatamid governors (based at Kairouan) until 1048, independent thereafter.
    • Ziri ibn Manad.................................c. 950 - 972
    • Yusuf Buluggin ibn Ziri...........................972 - 984
    • al-Mansur ibn Yusuf...............................984 - 996
    • Nasr ad-Dawla Badis ibn al-Mansur.................996 - 1016
  • Sharaf ad-Dawla al-Mu'izz ibn Badis...................1016 - 1062
  • Tamim ibn al-Mu'izz...................................1062 - 1108
  • Yahya ibn Tamim.......................................1108 - 1116
  • Ali ibn Yahya.........................................1116 - 1121
    • al-Hasan ibn Ali.................................1121 - 1163 d. 1168
    • Tributary to Norman Sicily from 1148, Almohad governor from 1160.
  • Rulers of GABS (Qabis)
  • A town and oasis on the southern Tunisian coast, capital of the central Tunisian Vilayet (province) of the same name. It is the chief port on the Golfe de Gabs, 100 miles (161 km.) from the Libyan border. In Roman times, the oasis was a marketplace called Tacape.
  • Yusuf ibn Ameur..............................................fl. 1001
  • Banu JAMA'
  • Bakr ibn Kamel........................................1097 - ?
  • Rafi' ibn Makn ibn Kamel
  • Rashid ibn Kamel
  • Muhammad ibn Rashid
  • Isa ibn Rashid
  • Mudafi' ibn Rashid.......................................? - 1160
  • Gabes Occupied by Morocco (Almohads) 1160-1172.
  • Sharaf ad-Din Karakush (Tripoli, Cyren., Fezzan)......1172 - 1187 d. 1195
  • Gabes Occupied by Morocco (Almohads) 1187-1190.
  • Sharaf ad-Din Karakush (2nd time).....................1190 - 1195
  • Tashafin ibn al-Ghani (Emir of Tripoli)...............1195 - 1204
  • Gabes Occupied by Morocco (Almohads) 1204-1228. From 1228 onwards under Tunisia.
    • Banu MAKKI also governors of Tripoli 1355-1369
    • Uthman ibn Makki al-Louati.......................1228 - ?
    • Ahmed ibn Makki..................................1355 - 1365
    • Abd al-Rahman ibn Ahmed..........................1365 - 1369
  • Banu KHURASSAN at Tunis
  • The following were rulers of the immediate city in the Zirid Era.

  • Abd al-Haqq ibn Abd al-Aziz.........................1058/9 - 1095
  • Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd al-Haqq...........................1095 - 1106
  • Ahmed ibn Abd al-Aziz.................................1106 - 1128
  • HAMMADID at Tunis
  • Karama ibn al-Mansur..................................1128 - ?
  • Abu Futuh ibn al-Mansur
  • Mohammed ibn Abu Futuh
  • Ma'ad ibn al-Mansur......................................? - 1148/9
  • Banu KHURASSAN at Tunis
  • Abu Bakr ibn Isma'il................................1148/9 - 1150
  • Abdallah ibn 'Abd al-Aziz.............................1150 - 1158
  • Sicily................................................1148 - 1160
  • Morocco...............................................1160 - 1236
    • HAFSID
    • Abd al-Wahid ibn Hafs............................1207 - 1222
    • Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Abd al-Wahid..................1222 - 1222
    • ALMOHAD
    • Idris ibn Yusuf..................................1222 - 1223
    • Abd al-Rahman ibn Idris..........................1223 - 1224
    • HAFSID
    • Abdallah ibn Abdul Wahid.........................1224 - 1228
  • Yahya I ibn Abdul Wahid...............................1228 - 1249
  • Muhammad I............................................1249 - 1276
  • Yahya II..............................................1276 - 1279
  • Ibrahim I.............................................1279 - 1282
  • Abu Faris....................................................1282
  • Ahmad I...............................................1282 - 1284
  • Umar I................................................1284 - 1294
  • Yahya III.............................................1294 - 1301 with...
  • Muhammad II...........................................1294 - 1309
  • Abu Bakr I...................................................17 days in 1309
  • Khalid I..............................................1309 - 1311
  • Zakariyah I...........................................1311 - 1317
  • Muhammad III..........................................1317 - 1318
  • Abu Bakr II...........................................1318 - 1346
  • Umar II...............................................1346 - 1348
    • DJERBA (Jerba, Girba, Jarbah).
    • An island of about 200 sq. miles (510 sq. km.) in the Gulf of Gades, along the southern Tunisian coast. It was known in ancient times as Lotophagitis Nasos (Island of the Lotus-Eaters), and thought to be the place where the Hero Odysseus met with that folk whose diet caused amnesia. Rebellion against Fatamids in 1038. Rebellions against Zirids in 1098 and 1115.
    • de LORIA - Lords of Djerba under Sicily
    • Roger I..........................................1284 - 1305
    • Roger II (1st time)..............................1305 - 1307
      • Simon de Montolieu (Governor).............c.1305 - 1308
    • Sicily direct rule in 1307.
    • Roger II (2nd time)..............................1307 - 1310
      • Raymond Montaner (Governor).................1308 - 1315
    • Charles.................................................1310
    • Francis-Roger III.......................................1310
    • Unknown rulers
    • Independent from 1333-1432. Briefly occupied by Aragon in 1432 for some years and later again became independent till 1520. Occupied by Spain 1520-1524 and by pirates 1524-1550. Expedition of Andrea Doria in 1550. Independent from 1550 to c. 1555. Occupied by Ottoman c. 1555-1560 and then Spain in 1560.
    • Spanish governors
    • Juan de la Cerda, duque de Medinaceli.....08 Mar 1560 - 10 May 1560
    • Alvaro de Sande...........................10 May 1560 - 31 Jul 1560
    • Occupied by Ottoman Empire in 1560.
  • Morocco...............................................1348 - 1350
  • Ahmad II.....................................................1350
  • Ibrahim II (1st time).................................1350 - 1356 d. 1369
  • Morocco......................................................1356
  • Ibrahim II (2nd time).................................1356 - 1369
  • Khalid II.............................................1369 - 1370
  • Ahmad III.............................................1370 - 1393
  • Abd al-Aziz...........................................1393 - 1434
  • Muhammad IV...........................................1434 - 1435
  • Uthman................................................1435 - 1488
  • Yahya III.............................................1488 - 1489
  • Abd al-Mu'min.........................................1489 - 1490
  • Zakariyah II..........................................1490 - 1493
  • Muhammad V............................................1493 - 1526
  • al-Hassan (1st time)..................................1526 - 1534 d. 1543
  • Ottoman Empire........................................1534 - 1535
  • Republic of Monastir c. 1534-1550
  • (Phoen. Miss-Tyr, Rom. Ruspina) A city in Byzacene (the middle east coast of Tunisia), modern Susah province. Located on a small peninsula extending out into the Mediterranean at the southern tip of the Gulf of Hammamet. It was was founded by Carthaginians or Tyrians c. 509 BCE. The second treaty between Carthage and Rome mentionned it as an ally of Carthage. In the Turkish era, Monastir became the capital of the Mansab (region) of Sahel, and became an important port and fortress - in 1864, the town hosted 11 consuls of European states.
    • Ahmad Jallul d. 1550.
    • Monastir was occupied by Spain 1550-1554 and then by Ottoman Empire.
  • Sicily (Spain)........................................1535 - 1539
    • Governors of the Presidio of La Goletta
    • Bernardino de Mendoza y Pacheco................15 Jul 1535 - 1538
    • Francisco de Tovar y Garcia....................30 Apr 1538 - 1545
    • Luis Prez de Vargas...........................01 Nov 1545 - 25 Jul 1550
    • Alonso de la Cueva y Benavides........................1551 - 1565
    • Alonso Pimentel................................29 May 1565 - 1572
    • Pedro Diaz Carrillo de Quesada y Sanchez de Torres....1572 - 1573
    • Pedro de Portocarerro y Noroa........................1573 - 23 Aug 1574
  • al-Hassan (2nd time)..................................1539 - 1543
  • Ahmad IV..............................................1543 - 1570
  • Ottoman Empire....................................Jan 1570 - 10 Oct 1573
  • Sicily (Spain).................................10 Oct 1573 - 03 Sep 1574
    • Muhammad VI......................................1573 - 1574
    • Spanish Governors of Tunis
    • Gabrio Cervelln [Gabriele Serbelloni]....10 Oct 1573 - 10 Oct 1574
    • Spanish Commander at Bizerte
    • Francisco de Ayala [vila] de Sotomayor...24 Oct 1573 - 23 Aug 1574
  • Ottoman Empire........................................1574 - 1881
    • Walis (Viceroys) of Tunis
    • Haidar Pasha (1st time)..........................1574 - 1575
    • Rejeb Pasha......................................1575 - ?
    • Haidar Pasha (2nd time)
    • Ramdhan Pasha.......................................? - 1579
    • Ja'afar Pasha....................................1579 - 1581
    • Mustapha Pasha...................................1581 - 1585
    • Hasan Pasha......................................1585 - 1587
    • Muhammad Pasha...................................1587 - 1590
    • Ja'afar Pasha....................................1590 - 1591
    • Hussein Pasha....................................1591 - 1594
    • Ahmed Pasha......................................1594 - 1596
    • Mustapha Pasha..........................................fl. c. 1604
    • Sulaiman Pasha..........................................fl. c. 1609
    • Abu Bakr Pasha
    • Fadhli Pasha............................................< 1611
    • The Walis authority decayed considerably, and effective control of the region passed to a line of Deys of Tunis 1591-1640. They shared power with Beys circa 1631-1705.
    • Deys of Tunis
    • Ibrahim Rhodesli.................................1591 - 1593
    • Musa.............................................1593 - 1594
    • Karh Othman......................................1594 - 1610
    • Yusuf............................................1610 - 1637
    • Asta Mourad......................................1637 - 1640
    • Ahmed (or Ali Khoudja)...........................1640 - 1647
    • Hadj Muhammad Lez................................1647 - 1653
    • Hadj Mustapha Lez................................1653 - 1665
    • Mustapha Karh Kouch [Kara Kuz]...................1665 - 1666
    • Hadj Muhammad Oughlou [Oghli]....................1666 - 1669
    • Cha'aban Khoudja.................................1669 - 1672
    • Muhammad Mintcheli [Mantecholi]..................1672 - 1673
    • Ali Lez.................................................1673
    • Hadj Mammi Jemal.................................1673 - 1677
    • Muhammad Tabak...................................1677 - 1682
    • Ahmed Chilbi [Chelebi]...........................1682 - 1686
    • Hadj Mohammed Biktech [Baqtach Khodja]...........1686 - 1688
    • Ali Raes [el-Rais]..............................1688 - 1694
    • Ibrahim Koa Khoudja....................................1694
    • Muhammad Khoudja (1st time).............................1694
    • Muhammad Tatar Tabaq.............................1694 - 1695
    • Ya'akoub................................................1695
    • Muhammad Khoudja (2nd time)......................1695 - 1699
    • Deli Muhammad....................................1699 - 1701
    • Kawadj Muhammad..................................1701 - 1702
    • Karh [Kara] Mustapha....................................1702
    • Ibrahim ash-Sharif Bey...........................1702 - 1705
    • Muhammad Khoudja (3rd time)......................1705 - 15 Sep 1705
    • In 1628 a new clan assumed Beylarid authority, and proved powerful enough that they were able to strike a new balance of power with the Deys (listed just above).
    • MURADID - Beys of Tunis (de facto regents 1662 - 15 Jul 1705)
    • Murad I..........................................1628 - 1631
    • Muhammad I [Hammuda] Pasha.......................1631 - 1662
    • Murad II.........................................1662 - 1675
    • Muhammad II.............................................1675 d. 1695
    • Ali I (1st time)........................................1675 d. 1688
    • Muhammad III (1st time).................................1675
    • Muhammad II (2nd time)...........................1675 - 1676 d. 1695
    • Ali I (2nd time).................................1676 - 1688 with ? ...
    • Muhammad El-Hafsi................................1680 - ?
    • Muhammad II (3rd time)...........................1688 - 1695
    • Ramadan..........................................1695 - 1698
    • Murad III ibn Ali................................1698 - May 1702
    • Ibrahim ash-Sharif ad-Dey........................1702 - 15 Sep 1705
    • Umar Pasha..............................................1705
    • HUSAINID
    • al-Husayn (I) ibn Ali at-Turki.............15 Jul 1705 - 07 Sep 1735 with ?
      • The following group of names I cannot reconcile with other sources, although they are spoken of as Beys of Tunis. Perhaps Muradid opponents of the Husainids?
      • Muhammad El-Anz Pasha........................1705 - 1712
      • Kaboujji Pasha...............................1712 - 1714
      • Ali Pasha....................................1714 - 1718
      • Mustapha Pasha...............................1718 - 1725
    • Abu l'-Hasan Ali I Pasha...................07 Sep 1735 - 22 Sep 1756
    • al-Husayn's nephew Ali Pasha,  who had been plotting against him finally defeated Husayn the battle of Smindja on 04 September 1735.
    • Muhammad I ar-Rashid ibn al-Husayn.........22 Sep 1756 - 11 Feb 1759
    • He was in rebellion from Aug 1756.
    • Assumption of the Turkish title of Pasha, 1759-1881.
    • Ali II al-Husayn...........................12 Feb 1759 - 09 Feb 1777
    • Hammuda (Muhammad) ibn Ali II..............09 Feb 1777 - 15 Sep 1814
    • Uthman ibn Ali II..........................16 Sep 1814 - 21 Nov 1814
    • Mahmud ibn Muhammad........................21 Nov 1814 - 28 Mar 1824
    • al-Husayn II ibn Mahmud....................29 Mar 1824 - 20 May 1835
    • al-Mustafa ibn Mahmud......................20 May 1835 - 10 Oct 1837
    • Ahmad I ibn Mustafa........................10 Oct 1837 - 30 May 1855
    • Muhammad II ibn al-Husayn II...............30 May 1855 - 22 Sep 1859
  • From the early 18th century, Tunis had become increasingly autonomous from Istanbul, and by the late 18th-early 19th century, was effectively Independent. The rulers of Tunis ceased tribute payments in 1871, thereby establishing an independent (albeit not formally recognized) state. France established a protectorate over the region 10 years later.
  • Muhammad III as-Sadiq ibn al-Husayn II..........23 Sep 1859 - 27 Oct 1882
 
Ottoman Emperor: Mahmud I coinage of Tunisia: 1730 - 1754 [AH 1143-1168].
Currency:  Riyal Sebili (Piastre) = 16 Khurub (Caroub) = 52 Nasri (Asper) = 104 Fals (Bourbe) = 624 Qafsi (Fals Raqiq or Bourbine).
 

KM#49 Khurab. Year: AH 1167 (1754 CE). Weight: 0.96g [1.33]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 14.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Tunis.

Obverse: "ضرب في تونس" (Struck at Tunis) in Arabic in the center with Date at the bottom. Reverse: "سلطان محمود" (Sultan Mahmud). Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH1167 and AH1168/7.

 
Ottoman Emperor: Mustafa III coinage of Tunisia: 1757 - 1774 [AH 1171-1187].
 

KM#52.2 Burbe / Fals. Year: AH 1172 (1758 CE). Weight: 2.95g [3.30 - 4.60g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 20.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Tunis. Obverse: "ضرب في تونس" (Struck at Tunis) in Arabic in the center with Date at the bottom. Reverse: "سلطان مصطفى خان" (Sultan Mustafa Khan). Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH 1171-1187 (1757-1774).

Same as above coin, KM#52.2...

Year: AH 1173 (1759 CE). Weight: 3.71g. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Alignment: Rotated.

 
Ottoman Emperor: Mahmud II coinage of Tunisia: 1808 - 1839 [AH 1223-1255].
Currency:  Riyal Sebili (Piastre) = 16 Khurub (Caroub) = 52 Nasri (Asper) = 104 Fals (Bourbe) = 624 Qafsi (Fals Raqiq or Bourbine).
 

KM#91 Khurab. Year: AH 1253 (1837 CE). Weight: 0.68g [0.60-0.70g]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 14.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Tunis. Obverse: "ضرب في تونس" (Struck at Tunis) in Arabic in the center with Date at the top. Reverse: "سلطان محمود" (Sultan Mahmud) within center circle. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH 1229, AH 1241-1242 and AH 1249-AH1255 (1814, 1825-1826, 1833-1839).

KM#90 Piastre. Year: AH 1242 (1826 CE). Weight: 11.70g [11.50g]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 33.00 mm. Edge: Decorative. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Tunis. Obverse: Ornamentation at the top. "ضرب في تونس" (Struck at Tunis) in Arabic in the center with Date at the bottom within hexafoil.

Reverse: "سلطان البرين و خاقان البحرين السلطان محمود خان عز نصرة" [sultan al-barain wa khaqan al-bahrain al-sultan Mahmud Khan az nasrah (Sultan of the two lands and Khaqan of the two seas, the Sultan, Muhmud Khan, may his victory be glorious)] in Arabic on ornate field within four linear lozenges; all within circular linear and decorative border. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH 1240-1255 (1824-1839). Note: Varieties in ornamentation exist.

 
Ottoman Emperor: Abdul Mejid Khan coinage of Tunisia: 1839 - 1855 [AH 1255-1271].
Currency:  Riyal Sebili (Piastre) = 16 Khurub (Caroub) = 52 Nasri (Asper) = 104 Fals (Bourbe) = 624 Qafsi (Fals Raqiq or Bourbine).
 

KM#104.2 6 Nasri. Year: AH 1264 (1848 CE). Weight: 11.58g [11.50g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 29.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Tunis. Obverse: "ضرب في تونس" (Struck at Tunis) in Arabic in the center with Date within circular wreath. Reverse: "السلطان عبد المجيد خان" (al-Sultan Abdul Majid Khan) in Arabic in center circle with four leaves design, surrounded by wreath. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH 1263-1271 (1847-1855).

Same as above coin, KM#104.2...

Year: AH 1269 (1853 CE). Weight: 11.62g [11.50g].

KM#108 5 Piastres. Year: AH 1268 (1852 CE). Weight: 15.72g [16.50g]. Metal: 0.900 Silver. Diameter: 33.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Tunis. Obverse: "ضرب في تونس" (Struck at Tunis) in Arabic in the center with Date within circular wreath. Reverse: "السلطان عبد المجيد خان" (al-Sultan Abdul Majid Khan) in Arabic in center circle with four leaves design, surrounded by wreath. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH 1265-1271 (1849-1855).

 
 
  • France..........................................10 Oct 1881 - 20 Mar 1956
    • Bey [Husainid dynasty]
    • Ali Muddat ibn al-Husayn II................28 Oct 1882 - 11 Jun 1902
    • Muhammad IV al-Hadi ibn Ali................11 Jun 1902 - 11 May 1906
    • Muhammad V an-Nasir ibn M. al-Hadi.........11 May 1906 - 10 Jul 1922
    • Muhammad VI al-Habib ibn M. al-Ma'mum......10 Jul 1922 - 11 Feb 1929
    • He succeeded as Bey of Tunis on the death of his cousin Muhammad V an-Nasir.
    • Ahmad II ibn Ali Muddat....................11 Feb 1929 - 19 Jun 1942
    • Muhammad VII al-Munsif ibn M. an-Nasir.....19 Jun 1942 - 15 May 1943 d. 1948
    • Tunisian documents and coinage refer to the state as a Kingdom from 1950.
    • Muhammad VIII al-Amin ibn M. al-Habib......15 May 1943 - 20 Mar 1956 d. 1962
  • Kingdom
  • Muhammad VIII al-Amin (continued)...............20 Mar 1956 - 25 Jul 1957 d. 1962
  • After several arduous negotiations, independence was proclaimed on March 20, 1956, with Habib Bourguiba as president of the "National Constituent Assembly", and Head of the Government. At the same time, he acted as the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Tunisia. On July 25, 1957, a republic was proclaimed abolishing the monarchy and vesting Bourguiba with powers of President of the Republic. Bourguiba's long and powerful presidency was formative for the creation of the Tunisian state and nation.
  • Husain en-Nasr................................................1957
  • Rashad al-Mahdi...............................................1957
  • Republic - Presidents
  • al-Habib Bourguiba ibn Ali Abu Ruqayba..........25 Jul 1957 - 07 Nov 1987
  • He also served as Prime Minister from 11 Apr 1956 to 25 Jul 1957. On November 7, 1987 Prime Minister Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, in a coup d'tat, declared President Habib Bourguiba impeached on medical grounds and constitutionally replaced him as President of Tunisia, on the basis of a strict reading of Article 57.
  • Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.........................07 Nov 1987 - 14 Jan 2011
  • He also served as Prime Minister from 02 Oct 1987 to 07 Nov 1987.
  • Mohamed Ghannouchi (interim)....................14 Jan 2011 - 15 Jan 2011
  • Fouad Mebazaa (interim).........................15 Jan 2011 - 13 Dec 2011
  • Mohamed Moncef Marzouki (interim)...............13 Dec 2011 - 31 Dec 2014
  • Mohamed Bji Cad Essebsi.......................31 Dec 2014 - date
 
 
Further Coinage of Tunisia are listed under:
 
 
 
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins