Jordan
 
 
The eastern shore of the River Jordan and the Dead Sea, together with the arid interior of northern Arabia west of Mesopotamia and south of Syria.
 
 
  • House of Nahash at Ammon
  • Nahash..........................................fl. c.1050's - 1000
  • Hanun ben Nahash...............................................fl. early 900's
  • Israel................................................c. 980 - 928
    • Sobi ben Nahash...................................early - mid 900's
  • The Northern Kingdom of Israel...........................928 - c. 880
  • Ruhubi.................................................870's - 860's
  • Ba'sha.........................................................fl. c. 853
  • Unknown Ruler(s)
  • Budili (Assyrian name; Ammonite name unknown)..................fl. c. 740
  • Shanip.........................................................fl. c. 735
  • Assyria...............................................c. 715 - 585
  • o Pado'el (Pudu'ilu)...........................................fl. bfr. 701
    o Kabus-Gabri..................................................fl. 680's
    o * ELSM ?
    o Barak-el.....................................................fl. c. 675
    o * MNHRN ?
    o Amminadab....................................................fl. c. 650
    o Hissal'el I ben Amminadab....................................fl. c. 625
    o Amminadab II ben Hissal'el...................................fl. c. 600
    o Baalis............................................c. 590's - 585
    o Milcomur.....................................................fl. c. 585
 
  • Kingdom of Kedar (capital at Adumattu)
  • Gindibu...............................................c. 870 - c. 850 BCE
  • Gindibu, king of the Arab forces at the battle of Karkar (853 BCE), fought by a coalition of 12 Levantine monarchs against Shalmaneser III of Assyria. Little else is known of him or the Arabs of his time, but it is likely that he was from the region of Kedar.
  • 5 or 6 rulers, names unknown
  • Zabibe (female).......................................c. 750 - c. 735
  • Samsil (female).......................................c. 746 - c. 710
  • Iati'e (female).......................................c. 710 - c. 695
  • Te'elkhunu (female)...................................c. 690 - 678 with...
  • Hazail...................................................690 - 676 with...
  • Tabua (female)........................................c. 678 - c. 675
  • Yauta ibn Hazail.........................................676 - 652
  • Abyate ibn Teri..........................................652 - 644 opposed by...
  • Ammuladi.......................................................c. 652 and also...
  • Uayte ben Birdadda....................................c. 650 - c. 644
  • Kedar was occupied by Assyria in C. 644 - 610 BCE and under Babylon from 610 - 539 BCE. Under Persia the Kedarite Bedawi kings were made client rulers of much of southern Jordan as well as the Negev Desert.
    • 4 or 5 client rulers, names unknown, 539 - c. 470.
    • Shahru (Shahr)...................................c. 470 - c. 450
    • Geshem (Gashmu) ben Shahr........................c. 450 - c. 430
    • Kaynau (Qaynu) bar Geshem........................c. 430 - c. 410
    • 4 or 5 client rulers, names unknown, to 332 BCE.
  • Kedar became under Lihyan 323 - c. 250, Nabataea c. 250 BCE - 106 CE, Tayma 106  - c. 630, Caliphate from c. 630 and then follow the general sequence.
 
  • Moab - Moab is located in south-central Jordan; the southeastern shore of the Dead Sea, together with the interior; basically much of the modern province of al-Karak. The Moabites were a West Semitic people very closely related to the Hebrews, and normally at fierce odds with them.
  • Moab...........................................................c. 18th cent. BCE
  • Unknown Rulers
  • Saraph.........................................................1400's ?
  • Unknown Ruler(s)
  • Sheth..........................................................late 1300's ?
  • Zippor.........................................................fl. c. 1300
  • Balak..........................................................fl. c. 1280 ?
  • Unknown Rulers
  • Eglon the Corpulent............................................c. 1150
  • Israel................................................c. 980 - 922
  • Pahath-Moab the Shilonite......................................mid 900's
  • Unknown Ruler(s)
  • The Northern Kingdom of Israel........................c. 900 - c. 870
  • DIBONITE Dynasty
    • Chemosh-Gyt......................................c. 900 - 870
  • Mesha the Great.......................................c. 870 - 840
  • Salamanu.......................................................840 >
  • Chemosh-Nadab I................................................c. 800 ?
  • Unknown Ruler(s)
  • Chemosh-Nadab II...............................................fl. c. 735
  • Chemosh-Nadab III..............................................fl. c. end of 700's
  • Assyria...............................................c. 710 - 582
    • Musuri....................................................fl. c. 700
    • Kamalshaltu......................................c. 668 - 633
    • Unknown Rulers
    • Chemosh-Haleth............................................fl. 590's
  • Babylon..................................................582 - 539
  • Persia...................................................539 - 332
  • Most of this area assigned to the Kedar, under Persian hegemony.
  • Macedonia................................................332 - 323
  • Nabataea.................................................323 - 106 CE
  • The Roman Empire.........................................106 - 395
  • The Byzantine Empire.....................................395 - 638
  • The Caliphate............................................638 - 868
  • Egypt....................................................868 - 1071
  • The Seljuq Empire.......................................1071 - 1104
  • The Kingdom of Jerusalem................................1104 - 1189
  • Lordship of Outrejourdain (Krak des Moabites) al-Karak is a province in the modern Kingdom, a roughly rectangular swath of desert stretching from the southeast corner of the Dead Sea, to the eastern frontier with Saudi Arabia. The town of Karak is still a predominately Christian town; many of the families in the area trace their ancestry back the the Crusaders. Not to be confused with the much better-known Krak des Chevaliers (the center of the Hospitalers in southern Syria), this castle of Krak des Moabites was built in the 1130's to dominate the Crusader province of Outrejourdain (Trans-Jordan), a vague region with the Jordan river to the west and an undefined frontier to the east. In it's time it was one of the chief sources of wealth for the Crusader states, inasmuch as it was positioned astride a main caravan route for Pilgrims traveling to Makkah.
    • de MONTREAL
    • Roman de Puy......................................1118 - 1126
    • Payen le Bouteiller de Montreal...................1126 - 1147
    • Maurice..................................................c. 1150
    • de MILLY
    • Philip............................................1161 - 1168
    • Miles de Plancy..................................... ? - 1174
    • Etiennette de Milly (female)...................c. 1174 - 1188 with...
    • de CHATILLON
    • Reynald the Wolf (Prince of Antioch 1153-63)......1176 - 1187 and then...
    • Reynald of Chatillon was the most infamous of the Crusading knights. Even by the violent standards of the day he was considered cruel, and to the Muslims he seemed evil incarnate. His history of violating treaties, raiding caravans and slaughtering noncombatants made him so notorious that when he was finally captured by Saladin, the usually-merciful Sultan personally beheaded him.
    • von TORON
    • Humfried von Toron................................1187 - 1188
  • Egypt..................................................1189 - 1517
    • al-Nasr Daud (Emir of Karak)....................1230's - 1240's
  • general sequence afterwards...
 
JORDAN
 
  • Peraea under various Canaanite peoples..................c.1800 - 1300's BCE
  • The area of Transjordan along the eastern bank of the Jordan River, between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea. The main cities in ancient times were Amathus and Betharamphtha. The main city in modern times is al-Salt, which was the original capital of Jordan before the government was moved to the new railroad hub of Amman.
  • Ben Ammi (at Ammon)..............................................c. 18th cent. BCE
  • Ammon is located in north-central Jordan, and based on what is now the capitol of Amman. The Ammonites were a West Semitic folk quite closely related to Hebrews and Moabites.
  • Ishmael ben Abraham (at Kedar)...................................1600's
  • Kedar ben Ishmael (at Kedar)
  • In Biblical historiography, Kedar was the second son of Ishmael. The Kedarites were a nomadic Arabic tribe, the Bedouins generally, living in the deserts of eastern Syria and Jordan. They were known for living in tents made of black goat hair and made a living by raising goats and raiding sedentary populations in the Levant.
  • Pella under Egypt......................................c. 1500 - 1230
  • An exceedingly ancient city in northeast Jordan, on the Jordan River.
    • Ayyab.......................................................1400's
    • Mutbaal ben Labayu..........................................mid 1300's
    • Mutbaal was the son of Labayu, the Canaanite warlord who tried to carve out an empire in the Samarian highlands. Like his father he was accused of hiring mercenaries from "among the Hapiru"- i.e., Hebrews.
    • Apiru-Anu...................................................fl. c. 1250
    • Incursions by various West Semitic peoples; mostly within Peraea thereafter.
  • Sihon the Amorite (at Heshbon and Peraea)........................early 1200's
  • Israel..................................................c. 980 - 928
  • The Northern Kingdom of Israel.............................928 - c. 880
  • Assyria.................................................c. 715 - 585
  • The Nabatu - A nomadic Arabic people inhabiting the northern part of Arabia and Transjordan, about whom little is known. This Arab nation (South Semitic) originating from the deserts in the south at some time before 312 BCE. Assyrian sources indicate that they were close associates of the Kedarites.
  • Nabayot ibn Ishmael (Eponymous folk-ancestor
  • Natnu...........................................................fl. 650's
  • Nuhuru ibn Natnu
  • Babylon................................................c. 585 - 539
    • Tobiah I [at Philadelphia (Amman)].........................fl. c. 580's
    • Mati-il (at Dedan)................................c. 580 - c. 565
    • Kabaril ibn Mati-il (at Dedan)....................c. 565 - c. 550
    • Nabonidus (at Teima)..............................c. 550 - 539
  • Persia....................................................539 - 332
    • Tobiah II [at Philadelphia (Amman)]........................fl. c. 520's
    • Tobiah III [at Philadelphia (Amman)].......................fl. mid 400's
  • Macedon...................................................332 - 305
  • Gerasa (Jarash) under Ptolemaic Egypt control..........c. 300 - c. 198
  • The Antigonid Empire......................................305 - 301
  • The Seleucid Empire.......................................301 - 110
    • Tobiah IV [at Philadelphia (Amman)]........................fl. c. 270
    • Tobiah V [at Philadelphia (Amman)].........................fl. c. 200
  • Judea..................................................c. 160 - 63
  • Philadelphia (Amman) in c. 160 only. Peraea 160 - 27 BCE.
  • Timotheus [at Philadelphia (Amman)]....................... ? - 160
  • Hyrcanus [at Philadelphia (Amman)].............................mid 100's
  • Zoilus Cotylas (Tyrant of Philadelphia).................120s - 110's
  • Mostly within the Dekapolis..............................110 - 85
  • Gerasa (Jarash) till 63 BEC.
    • Theodoros (Tyrant of Philadelphia)............late 100s - early 1st c. BCE
    • Zeno Cotylas (Tyrants of Gerasa)..........................fl. 60's
    • Theodoros (Tyrants of Gerasa).............................fl. 60's
  • The later Kingdom of Nabataea
  • The Nabataean civilization which left rich archaeological remains at Petra, one of the New Seven Wonders of the World located in the Ma'an Governorate. The ruler names are given below are in two forms - the first is the correct Arabic form, the next, parenthesized, is the typically encountered Hellenized form.
  • Harithath (Aretas) I.....................................169 - c. 150
  • Two kings, the second one perhaps named ar-Rabil.
  • Harithath (Aretas) II....................................110 - 96/2 with...
  • Erotim................................................c. 110 - c. 100
  • Ubaidah (Obodas) I......................................96/2 - c. 88/6
  • ar-Rabil (Rabbel) I....................................c. 88 - c. 86
  • Harithath III (Aretas Philhellen)......................c. 86 - 62
  • Ubaidah (Obodas) II.......................................62 - 59
  • Maliku (Malichus) I.......................................59 - 30
  • Ubaidah (Obodas) III......................................30 - 09
  • Harithath IV (Aretas Philopatris).....................09 BCE - 40 CE
  • Maliku (Malichus) II......................................40 - 70 with...
  • Shakilat (female)......................................c. 40 - c. 60
  • ar-Rabil II (Rabbel Soter)................................70 - 106 with...
  • Gamilat (female).......................................c. 71 - 90 and...
  • Maliku (Malichus) III..........................................106
  • Some parts under The Maccabaean Kingdom...........c. 100 BCE - 63 BCE
  • The Roman Republic....................................63 BCE - 27 BCE
  • The Roman Empire......................................26 BCE - 261 CE
    • Some parts within Judaea.........................30 BCE - 04 BCE
    • Some parts within Galilee........................04 BCE - 39 CE
    • Simon of Peraea...........................................04 BCE opposed by...
    • Simon, a slave of Herod the Great, claimed the kingship of Israel after the death of his master. He led a revolt which culminated with the burning of Jericho. Thereafter Herodian and Roman forces hunted him down and exterminated his followers.
    • Herod Antipas (Tetrarch of Galilee)............04 BCE - 39 CE
    • Herod Agrippa I (Batanaea 37-44; Galilee 40-44)....40 - 44
  • The Palmyran Kingdom.....................................261 - 271
  • The Roman Empire.........................................271 - 395
  • Tanukh Dynasty
  • An Arab tribal kingdom of the second through fourth centuries CE. The Tanukhids were a Christian tribe, originally from South Arabia, who settled in northern Arabia, eastern Jordan and southern Syria. They were the dominant Arabian foederati of Rome until their displacement by the Salihids around the year 400.
  • Gadhimat
  • Mawiyya "The Queen of the Arabs" (female)......................fl. c. 373
  • The Byzantine Empire.....................................395 - 529
  • Kingdom of GHASSAN
  • A Byzantine client state utilized as a buffer against the Persian client at Hirah. It's rulers were granted the title of Patricius, but were gravely harassed by their erstwhile patrons in that they professed Monophysite Christianity instead of Alexandrian orthodoxy, and encouraged the Syrian Church. This suppression was a factor in Muslim victories in the 7th century.
  • AMRID
  • Jafnah I ibn Amr......................................220 - 265
  • Amr I ibn Jafnah......................................265 - 270
  • Tha'labah ibn Amr.....................................270 - 287
  • al-Harith I ibn Th'alabah.............................287 - 307
  • Jabalah I ibn al-Harith I.............................307 - 317
  • al-Harith II ibn Jabalah "ibn Maria"..................317 - 327
  • al-Mundhir I Senior ibn al-Harith II..................327 - 330 with...
  • al-Aiham ibn al-Harith II.............................327 - 330 and...
  • al-Mundhir II Junior ibn al-Harith II.................327 - 340 and...
  • al-Numan I ibn al-Harith II...........................327 - 342 and...
  • Amr II ibn al-Harith II...............................330 - 356 and...
  • Jabalah II ibn al-Harith II...........................327 - 361
  • Jafnah II ibn al-Mundhir I............................361 - 391 with...
  • al-Numan II ibn al-Mundhir I..........................361 - 362
  • al-Numan III ibn Amr ibn al-Mundhir I.................391 - 418
  • Jabalah III ibn al-Numan..............................418 - 434
  • al-Numan IV ibn al-Aiham..............................434 - 455 with...
  • al-Harith III ibn al-Aiham............................434 - 456 and...
  • al-Numan V ibn al-Harith..............................434 - 453
  • al-Mundhir II ibn al-Numan............................453 - 472 with...
  • Amr III ibn al-Numan..................................453 - 486 and...
  • Hijr ibn al-Numan.....................................453 - 465
  • al-Harith IV ibn Hijr.................................486 - 512
  • Jabalah IV ibn al-Harith..............................512 - 529
  • al-Harith V ibn Jabalah...............................529 - 569
  • al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith..........................569 - 581 with...
  • Abu Kirab al-Numan ibn al-Harith......................570 - 582
  • al-Numan VI ibn al-Mundhir............................582 - 583
  • al-Harith VI ibn al-Harith..................................583
  • al-Numan VII ibn al-Harith Abu Kirab..................583 - ?
  • Byzantine Empire directly.............................584 - 638
    • al-Aiham ibn Jabalah.............................. ? - 614
    • al-Mundhir IV ibn Jabalah........................614 - ?
    • Sharahil ibn Jabalah.............................. ? - 618
    • Amr IV ibn Jabalah...............................618 - 628
    • Jabalah V ibn al-Harith..........................628 - 632
    • Jabalah VI ibn al-Aiham..........................632 - 638
  • Prophet Muhammad's elected successors...................638 - 661
  • Umayyad Caliphate.......................................661 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate.......................................750 - 868
  • Egypt (Tulunid Dynasty).................................868 - 905
  • Abbasid Caliphate.......................................905 - 935
  • Egypt (Ikhshidid Dynasty)...............................935 - 969
  • Egypt (Fatamid Dynasty).................................969 - 1071
  • The Seljuq Empire......................................1071 - 1154 and
  • Gerasa (Jarash) under Burid Damascus...................1104 - 1154 and with..
  • some parts under The Kingdom of Jerusalem..............1098 - 1144
  • Gadara (Umm Qays) under Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1124.
  • Egypt (Fatamid Dynasty)................................1144 - 1171
  • Egypt (Ayyubid Dynasty)................................1171 - 1253
  • Egypt (Bahri Mamluq)...................................1253 - 1390
  • Egypt (Burji Mamluq)...................................1390 - 1517
  • Ottoman Empire.........................................1517 - 1918
  • British Mandate.................................25 Sep 1918 - 25 May 1946
 
               1517         Part of the Ottoman Empire.
               17th cent.   Ottoman rule lapses.
               1867         Direct Ottoman rule restored.
               1893         Karak a separate district, attached to Damascus.
               25 Sep 1918  British occupy Amman.
               12 May 1920  Part of British mandate of Palestine.
               Aug 1920     British create autonomous local administrations at Ajloun,
                             Salt and Karak (or Moabite Government)
               11 Apr 1921  Emirate of Transjordan (under British mandate).
               23 May 1923  British recognize Transjordan as a separate state
                            (Emirate of Transjordan).
               25 May 1923  Transjordan formally separated from Palestine.
               May 1925     Aqaba and Ma'an districts of Hejaz become part of Transjordan.
               28 Feb 1928  British recognize Transjordan mandate as independent, but
                             maintain a protectorate.
               22 Mar 1946  End of British mandate.
               25 May 1946  Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan.
               17 Jun 1946  Britain formally recognizes independence.
               03 Apr 1949  Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
               24 Apr 1950  Jordan annexes the West Bank and East Jerusalem
                             (occupied since May 1948).
 14 Feb 1958 - 14 Jul 1958  Federation with Iraq (Arab Union).
 06 Jun 1967 - 12 Jun 1967  West Bank and East Jerusalem occupied by Israel.
               31 Jul 1988  Abandons claim to the West Bank and East Jerusalem.
 
Currency:
Before 1949, Jordan used the Palestinian pound as its currency. The dinar was introduced at par with this pound. The Jordanian dinar is divided into 10 dirham, 100 qirsh (also called piastres) or 1000 fils.

Dinar = 10 dirhams = 100 piastres (qirsh) = 1000 fils.

The Jordanian dinar continued to be used in the West Bank along with Israeli currency after Israel took control of it in 1967. During Israel's hyperinflation in the 1970s and 1980s, the Jordanian currency provided stability. Until 1992, coins were denominated in Arabic using fils, qirsh, dirham and dinar but in English only in fils and dinar. Since 1992, the fils and dirham are no longer used in the Arabic denominations and the English denominations are given in dinar and either qirsh or piastres.

 
Click on the links provided on below Rulers to view coinage used in their era.
 
  • HASHEMITE
  • Abdullah I bin al-Hussein.......................11 Apr 1921 - 20 Jul 1951
  • He was the second of three sons of Sherif Hussein bin Ali, Sharif and Emir of Mecca. Between 1916 to 1918, working with the British guerrilla leader Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence, he played a key role as architect and planner of the Great Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule. Ruled as Emir under British mandate. 25 Mar 1923 - 25 May 1946: Amir Imarat Sharqi al-Urdunn ("Emir of the Emirate of Transjordan"). 25 May 1946 - 03 Apr 1949: Malik Mamlakat Sharqi al-Urdunn al-Hashimiyya ("King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan"). He became King on 25 May 1946 upon Jordan's independence. From 03 Apr 1949: Malik al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashimiyya ("King of the Hashemite. Kingdom of Jordan"). On 20 July 1951, Abdullah, while visiting Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, was shot dead by a Palestinian. On 16 July, Riad Bey al-Solh, a former Prime Minister of Lebanon, had been assassinated in Amman, where rumors were circulating that Lebanon and Jordan were discussing a joint separate peace with Israel. Abdullah during the incident was with his grandson, Prince Hussein.
    • Albert Abramson (British Adviser)..........27 Mar 1921 - 21 Nov 1921
    • British Residents
    • Harry St. John Bridger Philby..............21 Nov 1921 - Apr 1924
    • Philby was able to advise Ibn Saud in 1924 on how far he could go in occupying all Arabia without incurring the wrath of the British government.
    • Charles Henry F. Cox..........................Aug 1924 - Mar 1939
    • Alec Seath Kirkbride..........................Mar 1939 - 17 Jun 1946
  • Naif bin Abdullah (Regent)......................20 Jul 1951 - 05 Sep 1951
  • He was the youngest son of King Abdullah. Naif became regent of Jordan on July 20, 1951, following the assassination of Abdullah, because his brother, Crown Prince Talal, was reportedly suffering from poor health known as schizophrenia (mental disorder) at Switzerland.
  • Talal bin Abdullah..............................05 Sep 1951 - 11 Aug 1952
  • He was forced to abdicate in favour of his son Hussein due to health reasons. He died in Istanbul on 07 July 1972.
  • Hussein bin Talal...............................11 Aug 1952 - 07 Feb 1999
  • He recognized Israel in 1994, becoming the second Arab head of state to do so. Just before his death, on 25 January 1999, Hussein made a constitutionally allowable change to his will, disinheriting the heir-apparent of several decades, his brother Hassan, in favor of his eldest son Abdullah.
    • Regency Council
    • Ibrahim Hashim (ex-Prime Minister).........04 Jun 1952 - 02 May 1953
    • In 1958 he was working on the newly-established union between Jordan and Iraq and traveled to Baghdad with Minister of Defense Suleiman Tukan and Minister of State for the External Affairs Khlusi Al Khairi. Their party was attacked by revolutionaries near the Baghdad airport, and Hashem and Tukan were killed.
    • Suleiman Toukan (Minister of Defense)......04 Jun 1952 - 02 May 1953
    • Abdul Rahman Rusheidat.....................04 Jun 1952 - 02 May 1953
    • Amira Zain al-Sharaf (female)..............04 Jun 1952 - 02 May 1953
    • She chaired the Regency Council. She was the Queen of Jordan, wife of King Talal and the mother of King Hussein.
    • Regent
    • Hassan bin Talal...........................14 Jul 1998 - 19 Jan 1999
    • Abdullah II bin Hussein....................06 Feb 1999 - 07 Feb 1999
  • Abdullah II bin Hussein.........................07 Feb 1999 - date
  • Approximately two million Iraqis have fled the conflict in Iraq, with the majority taking refuge in Syria and Jordan; 2004 Agreement settles border dispute with Syria pending demarcation.
 
 
 
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins