Khans of Kalat were founded by a Brahui hill chieftain named Kumbar (or
Kambur). His tribe was hired by Sehwa, the Raja of Kalat, a Hindu
princely state, to protect against marauding tribes from the Multan,
Shikarpur and Upper Sind areas. Kumbar and his troops successfully
repressed the incursion, but afterward, they deposed the raja and Kumbar
became the first Vali.
Kalat state was founded in 1638, then acceded to Pakistan on 31st March 1948 and ceased
to exist on 14th October 1955 as it became part of West Pakistan province. It had an area of 141,673 km2 with
capital: Kalat City. The khanate of Kalat had originally been a feudatory of
Kabul. Its rulers, the Wali, later became a trusted leader in the
army of Ahmad Shah Durrani, who in 1761 invaded India and crushed
both Mughal and Maratha forces at the battle of Panipat. The territories controlled by
the state fluctuated over the centuries but eventually were established by
treaties with the British Agent Robert Sandeman in the late 19th century.
In 1839 Kalat was taken by the British, and the Wali, Mehrab Khan,
was killed. The victors then installed his son, Nasir Khan, as ruler
and in 1854 a formal treaty was executed. From that time Kalat came
under British control, with the Government of India frequently
acting as referees in disputes between the Wali and his chiefs. Parts of the state to the north and northeast were leased or ceded to form
the province of British Baluchistan which later gained the status of a Chief
Commissioners province. Languages spoken are Persian and Baluchi.
1638 Kalat State founded.
14 May 1854 Under British protection.
1876 British protectorate.
12 Aug 1947
Kalat assembly agrees on Independence State.
15 Aug 1947
de facto Independent State. Recognized by UK and India.
27 Mar 1948
Pakistan formally annexed
31 Mar 1948 Kalat accedes to Pakistan.
03 Oct 1952 Joins Baluchistan States Union.
14 Oct 1955 State extinguished.
Empire...........................................1595 - 1638
KAMBARANI, Ahmadzai segment
(titles: Wali, Begler Begi Khan)
Mir Hassan Khan Mirwari.................................1638 -
The Mirwaris, from the whom the Ahmadzais are descended, claim Arab origin.
In their earlier legends we find them living at Surab near Kalat, and
extending their power thence in wars with the Jats or Jadgals. They then
fell under the power of the Mughals; but one of their chiefs, Mir Hassan,
regained the capital from the Mughal governor, and he and his successors
held Kalat till 1955. The rulers of Kalat were never full independent. There
was always a paramount power to whom they were subject. In the earliest
times they were merely petty chiefs; later they bowed to the orders of the
Mughal emperors of Delhi and to the rulers of Kandahar. They supplied
men-at-arms on demand. Most peremptory orders from the Afghan rulers to
their vassals of Kalat are still extant, and the predominance of the
Sadozais and Barakzais was acknowledged so late as 1838. For the first 150
years, up to the death of Mir Mahmud Khan I, a gradual extension of power
took place and building up of a constitution by looking at the condition of
the country, marvel of political sagacity and practical statesmanship.
Khan I........................................1666 - 1695
It is from Mir Ahmad that the eponym Ahmadzai is derived. Mir Ahmad made
successive descents on the plains of Sibi.
Mir Mehrab Khan
- Mir Samandar
Khan.......................................1695 - 1713
He extended his raids to Zhob, Bori and Thal-Chotiali. He levied an annual
sum of 40,000 Rupees from the Kalhoras of Sind.
- Mir Ahmad
Khan II.......................................1713 - 1714
- Mir Abdullah
Khan.......................................1714 - 1734
He is known as the greatest conqueror of the dynasty. He turned his
attention westward to Makran, while in the north-east, captured Pishin and
Shorawak from the Ghilzai rulers of Kandahar. He was eventually slain in a
flight with the Kalhoras at Jandrihar near Sanni in Kachhi.
- Mir Mohabat
Khan........................................1734 - 1749
- He was granted the title of
Beglar Begi (Chief of Chiefs) by Shahanshah Nadir
Shah of Persia in 1739.
Mir Mohabat obtained through Nadir Shah in 1740 the
cession of Kachhi, in compensation for the blood of Mir Abdullah Khan and the men
who had fallen with him.
- Mir Hosayn Nasir Khan
I.................................1749 - 1794
- He was the brother of Mir Mohabat Khan. Through
the wisdom of both brothers, they developed stronghold in their state. Mir
Hosayn Nasir Khan ruled 44 years, known to the Brahuis as "The Great", and
the hero of their history. In these years, he ruled with strenuous
administration and organization interspersed with military expeditions. He
accompanied Ahmad Shah in his expeditions to Persia and India, while at home
he was continuously engaged in the reduction of Makran. After nine
expedition, he obtained the rights from the Gichkis to collect half of the
revenues. He was distinguished for his prudence, activity and enterprise. He
was essentially a warrior and a conqueror and his space time was spent in
hunting. He was most attentive to religion and enjoined on his people strict
attention to the precepts of Islamic laws. His rule was also free from
internecine conflicts, which were subsequently happening in the past.
Mir Mahmud Khan
I.......................................1794 - 1816
- Some revolts happened in his reign. In 1810, Henry
Pottinger visited his capital and left a record of his experiences,
published in 1816 as "Travels in Beloochistan and Sinde".
- Mir Mohammad Mehrab Khan
II.............................1816 - 13 Nov 1839
- His reign was a struggling one with his chiefs. He
murdered many of them. He became dependent on men of the stamp of Mulla
Muhammad Hassan and Sayyid Muhammad Sharif, by whose treachery, at the
beginning of the first Afghan War. Sir William Macnaghten and Sir Alexander
Burnes were deceived into thinking that Mehrab Khan was a traitor to the
British; that he had induced the tribe to oppose the advance of the British
army through the Bolan Pass. Finally, when Sir Alexander Burnes was
returning from a mission to Kalat, he was robbed, despite an agreement
between the British and the Khan. This view determined the diversion of Sir
Thomas Willshire's brigade from Quetta to attack Kalat in 1839. It was an
act which has been described by Malleson as "more than a grave error, a
crime", published in 1878 as "History of Afghanistan". The place was taken
by assault and Mir Mehrab Khan was slain.
of Kalat of ruler Mir Mehrab Khan II as KM#11 is known
(page 655 of 19th Century 1800-1900 Standard Catalog of World Coins, 3rd
edition by Krause publication) Falus,
Shape: Round or irregular, Mintage Years: AH 1237-1238 and 1240 (1822 - 1824
- Mir Shah Nawaz Khan.....................................1839 -
- He was appointed to succeed with Lieutenant
Loveday as political officer. However it was not in his destined to occupy
the throne for long and in 1840, a rebellion of the Sarawan tribesmen caused
his abdication. Mir Muhammad Hassan, afterwards known as Mir Nasir Khan II,
- Mir Hosayn Nasir Khan II................................1840 -
- By the effort of Colonel Stacy, Mir Nasir Khan II
was induced to submit to the British Government. Mir Nasir Khan II at first
acknowledged Shah Shuja as the paramount power in Baluchistan, but
subsequent events in Kabul caused this undertaking to be annulled. In 1854,
as a consequence of the European imbroglio with Russia, a formal treaty; the
first of those with Kalat, was concluded with the British Government.
Quarrels broke out between him and the chiefs and perhaps Mir Nasir Khan II
died by poison in 1957. He was succeeded by Mir Khudadad Khan, a mere boy.
- Mir Khudadad Khan (1st
- Mar 1863
- One of the first acts of the new ruler was to open
fire with his guns on the chiefs, who lay encamped near the city of Kalat.
Due to this his had seven major
and many minor rebellion till 1876.
- Mir Sherdil Khan (usurped
1863 - May 1864
- In March 1863, through the machinations of Mulla
Muhammad Raisani, Sherdil, attempted to assassinate his cousin Mir Khodadad
Khan, but succeeded only in wounding him. A general insurrection ensued,
Sherdil Khan was declared ruler and Khudadad Khan retired to the frontier.
Mulla Muhammad later joined the other side and Mir Khudadad regained the
throne in May 1864.
- Mir Khudadad Khan (2nd
- 15 Aug 1893
- Revolt after revolt followed, until an attempt was
made by the Commissioner of Sind to arbitrate between the parties in 1873.
It proved abortive and Major Harrison, the British Agent was thereupon
withdrawn and Mir Khudadad Khan's subsidy was stopped. At this juncture, Sir
Robert (then Major) Sandeman appeared on the scene. His first mission to
Kalat in 1875 was not entirely successful. Immediately after his departure
from capital, Nur-ud-din, the Mengal chief, with many of his followers, were
slain by Mir Khudadad Khan. Mir Khudadad Khan believed that Nur-ud-din and
his men were making a plot to kill him and were a major treat to his life. A
few months later Major Sandeman was again on spot, accompanied by a large
escort. By Major Sandeman's tact and firmness the Mastung agreement, the
Magna Charta of the Brahui confederacy, was drawn up on July 13, 1875 and
read out formally in Darbar. Thus British Government was now accepted the
responsible paramount power for preserving peace in the country and
therefore a fresh treaty was concluded with Mir Khudadad Khan in December
1876. In the following year Sir Robert Sandeman was appointed from Agent to
Governor-General and a new Province under British India, was created as
Baluchistan on October 01, 1877 as
Quetta was permanently occupied on June 19, 1877 being it's capital. During
Sir Robert Sandeman's lifetime, no serious revolts occurred in spite of
these changes in the region. In March 1893, the chief accountant, with his
father, his son and a follower were murdered by Mir Khudadad Khan. He
suspected that these people were making a plot to kill him. Later Khudadad
Khan's abdication was subsequently accepted by Government of India in favour
of his son, Mir Mahmud Khan. Mir Khudadad Khan was shortly afterwards
removed with his second and third sons to Loralai and they start living in
(page 655 of 19th Century 1800-1900 Standard Catalog of World Coins, 3rd
edition by Krause publication) Falus
Year: 1293 AH
(1876 CE). Metal: Copper.
Diameter: 27.0 mm x 22.5 mm. Edge: Plain.
Shape: Round, irregular or rough-cut octagonal. Ruler:
Wali Mir Khudadad Khan [2nd time (AH 1274-1311] citing: Mahmud Khan
Durrani. In 1893 the Wali was deposed for
misrule and Kalat's mint was closed. Mintage
Years: AH 1281-1282, 10786 & 1186 (for
1286), 1290, 1293-1296 and even some without date.
- Kalat under British influence from 1875 to 1948
- Mir Mahmud Khan
II...............................10 Nov 1893 - 03 Nov 1931
- In 1897 the wave of unrest, which passed down the
frontier, made itself felt in Baluchistan, where a movement among the
Sarawan chiefs, which might have had serious consequences, was averted by
the arrest and imprisonment of two of the ringleaders. In the same year an
outbreak occurred in Makran, and British troops engaged the Makran rebels at
Gokprosh in January 1898 and the ringleader with many of his followers were
slain. Another outbreak occurred in Makran in 1901, which was also put down
by British troops by the capture of Nodiz fort.
- Nawab Bahadur Mir Mohammad Azam Jan
Khan.........03 Nov 1931 - 10 Sep 1933
- Abdul Karim Baloch, his youngest son, educated in Karachi, served as
the governor of Makran province until March 1948. Also known as Prince Abdul Karim Khan was the younger brother of Khan of Kalat , Mir
Ahmad Yar Khan, the last ruler of Balochistan. After the British left
Balochistan on 13th August 1947. The Khan declared to join Pakistan. However,
protests broke out and people demanded internal political sovereignty.
The refusal to grant autonomy to Balochistan and the continued existence of
the Sandeman system resulted in civil unrest. On the night of 16th May 1948,
Prince Abdul Karim Khan, decided to lead a separatist movement against the
Pakistan government. The prince asked help from Afghanistan, Iran and Soviet
Union (Russia), but did not receive a positive and prompt response.
The Prince invited the leading members of Baloch nationalist political
parties; the Kalat State National Party, the Baloch League, and the Baloch
National Workers Party, to join him in the struggle for the creation of an
independent "Greater Balochistan." Apart from his political motives, the
Prince was a member of the royal family and the former governor of the
Makran province; he was upset by Pakistan's recognition of Sardar Bay Khan
Gichki as Makran's ruler.
The Prince was forced to return to the Khanate and negotiate for his demands
peacefully. On 08th July 1948, when the news of the Prince's arrival reached Kalat, the Prime Minister and a Kalat State Force went to meet the Prince at
Earboi to deliver the Khan's message.
With Afghan aid, Abdul Karim entered Balochistan and organised a rebellion
against Pakistan in the Jhalawan area. He received assistance from Mir Gohar
Khan Zehri, an influential tribal leader of the Zarkzai clan. Major General
Akbar Khan, who was in charge of the Pakistani army's Seventh Regiment, was
ordered to attack the insurgents and force them to surrender. Prince Karim
and his 142 followers were arrested and imprisoned in the Mach and Quetta
After the arrest of the Prince and his party, the Attorney Governor General
gave an order for an inquiry, to be conducted by Khan Sahib Abdullah Khan,
the Additional District Magistrate of Quetta. He submitted his report on
12th September 1948. His report was based on the Prince's activities and upon
the letters and documents published by the separatist force. After the
inquiry, R. K. Saker, the District Magistrate of Quetta, appointed a special
Jirga (official council of elders of the same and surrounding tribes).
This Jirga was instructed to study the circumstances and events which led to
the revolt and was asked to give its recommendations to the District
Magistrate. On 10th November 1948, the Jirga heard the testimony of the
accused and gave its recommendations to the District Magistrate. on 17th November 1948,
suggesting the delivery of the Prince to Loralai at the pleasure of the
Government of Pakistan and various other penalties. The District Magistrate, in his order
dated 27th November 1948, differed with the opinion of the Jirga and
sentenced the Prince to ten years of rigorous imprisonment and a fine of
5000 rupees. Other members of his party were given various sentences and
fines. He founded Ustman Gal (People’s Party) and took
part in the formation of the National Awami Party, he worked as the
head of the branch of the ‘Sindhi, Baloch and Pakhtun front in Balochistan
- To Pakistan from 1947 - date
- Capt. Mir Sir Ahmad Yar Khan (1st
time)..........10 Sep 1933 - 14
- He was the son of Mir
Mohammad Azam Jan Khan and the President of
Council of Rulers from Apr 1948 to 14 Oct 1955. From 03 Oct 1952 to 14 Oct
1955 the four Baluchistan states (Kalat, Kharan, LasBela and Makran) form
the Baluchistan States Union. As he was the Wali of Kalat, became Khan-e-Azam
of the Union. He died in 1979.
- Tom Hickinbotham (British
- Mir Ahmad Yar Khan (2nd
time, in rebellion)......20 Jun 1958 - 1958
- Mir Dawood Jan S/o Ahmad
Yar Khan (pretender)...........1979
- Jan 1998
- Mir Agha Suleiman Jan
S/o Dawood (pretender)........Jan
1998 - date
Pakistan's Province of Balochistan.