Kalat (Khanate of Kalat)
The Khans of Kalat were founded by a Brahui hill chieftain named Kumbar (or Kambur). His tribe was hired by Sehwa, the Raja of Kalat, a Hindu princely state, to protect against marauding tribes from the Multan, Shikarpur and Upper Sind areas. Kumbar and his troops successfully repressed the incursion, but afterward, they deposed the raja and Kumbar became the first Vali. Kalat state was founded in 1638, then acceded to Pakistan on 31st March 1948 and ceased to exist on 14th October 1955 as it became part of West Pakistan province. It had an area of 141,673 km2 with capital: Kalat City. The khanate of Kalat had originally been a feudatory of Kabul. Its rulers, the Wali, later became a trusted leader in the army of Ahmad Shah Durrani, who in 1761 invaded India and crushed both Mughal and Maratha forces at the battle of Panipat. The territories controlled by the state fluctuated over the centuries but eventually were established by treaties with the British Agent Robert Sandeman in the late 19th century. In 1839 Kalat was taken by the British, and the Wali, Mehrab Khan, was killed. The victors then installed his son, Nasir Khan, as ruler and in 1854 a formal treaty was executed. From that time Kalat came under British control, with the Government of India frequently acting as referees in disputes between the Wali and his chiefs. Parts of the state to the north and northeast were leased or ceded to form the province of British Baluchistan which later gained the status of a Chief Commissioners province. Languages spoken are Persian and Baluchi.

                        1638            Kalat State founded.
     14 May 1854            Under British protection.
            1876            British protectorate.
     12 Aug 1947            Kalat assembly agrees on Independence State.
     15 Aug 1947            de facto Independent State. Recognized by UK and India.
     27 Mar 1948            Pakistan formally annexed Kalat.
     31 Mar 1948            Kalat accedes to Pakistan.
     03 Oct 1952            Joins Baluchistan States Union.
     14 Oct 1955            State extinguished.

  • Mughal Empire...........................................1595 - 1638
  • KAMBARANI, Ahmadzai segment (titles: Wali, Begler Begi Khan)
  • Mir Hassan Khan Mirwari.................................1638 - 1666
  • The Mirwaris, from the whom the Ahmadzais are descended, claim Arab origin. In their earlier legends we find them living at Surab near Kalat, and extending their power thence in wars with the Jats or Jadgals. They then fell under the power of the Mughals; but one of their chiefs, Mir Hassan, regained the capital from the Mughal governor, and he and his successors held Kalat till 1955. The rulers of Kalat were never full independent. There was always a paramount power to whom they were subject. In the earliest times they were merely petty chiefs; later they bowed to the orders of the Mughal emperors of Delhi and to the rulers of Kandahar. They supplied men-at-arms on demand. Most peremptory orders from the Afghan rulers to their vassals of Kalat are still extant, and the predominance of the Sadozais and Barakzais was acknowledged so late as 1838. For the first 150 years, up to the death of Mir Mahmud Khan I, a gradual extension of power took place and building up of a constitution by looking at the condition of the country, marvel of political sagacity and practical statesmanship.
  • Mir Ahmad Khan I........................................1666 - 1695
  • It is from Mir Ahmad that the eponym Ahmadzai is derived. Mir Ahmad made successive descents on the plains of Sibi.
  • Mir Mehrab Khan I..............................................1695
  • Mir Samandar Khan.......................................1695 - 1713
  • He extended his raids to Zhob, Bori and Thal-Chotiali. He levied an annual sum of 40,000 Rupees from the Kalhoras of Sind.
  • Mir Ahmad Khan II.......................................1713 - 1714
  • Mir Abdullah Khan.......................................1714 - 1734
  • He is known as the greatest conqueror of the dynasty. He turned his attention westward to Makran, while in the north-east, captured Pishin and Shorawak from the Ghilzai rulers of Kandahar. He was eventually slain in a flight with the Kalhoras at Jandrihar near Sanni in Kachhi.
  • Mir Mohabat Khan........................................1734 - 1749
  • He was granted the title of Beglar Begi (Chief of Chiefs) by Shahanshah Nadir Shah of Persia in 1739.
  • Mir Mohabat obtained through Nadir Shah in 1740 the cession of Kachhi, in compensation for the blood of Mir Abdullah Khan and the men who had fallen with him.
  • Mir Hosayn Nasir Khan I.................................1749 - 1794
  • He was the brother of Mir Mohabat Khan. Through the wisdom of both brothers, they developed stronghold in their state. Mir Hosayn Nasir Khan ruled 44 years, known to the Brahuis as "The Great", and the hero of their history. In these years, he ruled with strenuous administration and organization interspersed with military expeditions. He accompanied Ahmad Shah in his expeditions to Persia and India, while at home he was continuously engaged in the reduction of Makran. After nine expedition, he obtained the rights from the Gichkis to collect half of the revenues. He was distinguished for his prudence, activity and enterprise. He was essentially a warrior and a conqueror and his space time was spent in hunting. He was most attentive to religion and enjoined on his people strict attention to the precepts of Islamic laws. His rule was also free from internecine conflicts, which were subsequently happening in the past.
  • Mir Mahmud Khan I.......................................1794 - 1816
  • Some revolts happened in his reign. In 1810, Henry Pottinger visited his capital and left a record of his experiences, published in 1816 as "Travels in Beloochistan and Sinde".
  • Mir Mohammad Mehrab Khan II.............................1816 - 13 Nov 1839
  • His reign was a struggling one with his chiefs. He murdered many of them. He became dependent on men of the stamp of Mulla Muhammad Hassan and Sayyid Muhammad Sharif, by whose treachery, at the beginning of the first Afghan War. Sir William Macnaghten and Sir Alexander Burnes were deceived into thinking that Mehrab Khan was a traitor to the British; that he had induced the tribe to oppose the advance of the British army through the Bolan Pass. Finally, when Sir Alexander Burnes was returning from a mission to Kalat, he was robbed, despite an agreement between the British and the Khan. This view determined the diversion of Sir Thomas Willshire's brigade from Quetta to attack Kalat in 1839. It was an act which has been described by Malleson as "more than a grave error, a crime", published in 1878 as "History of Afghanistan". The place was taken by assault and Mir Mehrab Khan was slain.
  • A coin of Kalat of ruler Mir Mehrab Khan II as KM#11 is known (page 655 of 19th Century 1800-1900 Standard Catalog of World Coins, 3rd edition by Krause publication) Falus, Metal: Copper, Edge: Plain, Shape: Round or irregular, Mintage Years: AH 1237-1238 and 1240 (1822 - 1824 CE).
  • Mir Shah Nawaz Khan.....................................1839 - 1840
  • He was appointed to succeed with Lieutenant Loveday as political officer. However it was not in his destined to occupy the throne for long and in 1840, a rebellion of the Sarawan tribesmen caused his abdication. Mir Muhammad Hassan, afterwards known as Mir Nasir Khan II, was placed.
  • Mir Hosayn Nasir Khan II................................1840 - 1857
  • By the effort of Colonel Stacy, Mir Nasir Khan II was induced to submit to the British Government. Mir Nasir Khan II at first acknowledged Shah Shuja as the paramount power in Baluchistan, but subsequent events in Kabul caused this undertaking to be annulled. In 1854, as a consequence of the European imbroglio with Russia, a formal treaty; the first of those with Kalat, was concluded with the British Government. Quarrels broke out between him and the chiefs and perhaps Mir Nasir Khan II died by poison in 1957. He was succeeded by Mir Khudadad Khan, a mere boy.
  • Mir Khudadad Khan (1st time)............................1857 - Mar 1863
  • One of the first acts of the new ruler was to open fire with his guns on the chiefs, who lay encamped near the city of Kalat. Due to this his had seven major and many minor rebellion till 1876.
  • Mir Sherdil Khan (usurped to throne)................Mar 1863 - May 1864
  • In March 1863, through the machinations of Mulla Muhammad Raisani, Sherdil, attempted to assassinate his cousin Mir Khodadad Khan, but succeeded only in wounding him. A general insurrection ensued, Sherdil Khan was declared ruler and Khudadad Khan retired to the frontier. Mulla Muhammad later joined the other side and Mir Khudadad regained the throne in May 1864.
  • Mir Khudadad Khan (2nd time)........................May 1864 - 15 Aug 1893
  • Revolt after revolt followed, until an attempt was made by the Commissioner of Sind to arbitrate between the parties in 1873. It proved abortive and Major Harrison, the British Agent was thereupon withdrawn and Mir Khudadad Khan's subsidy was stopped. At this juncture, Sir Robert (then Major) Sandeman appeared on the scene. His first mission to Kalat in 1875 was not entirely successful. Immediately after his departure from capital, Nur-ud-din, the Mengal chief, with many of his followers, were slain by Mir Khudadad Khan. Mir Khudadad Khan believed that Nur-ud-din and his men were making a plot to kill him and were a major treat to his life. A few months later Major Sandeman was again on spot, accompanied by a large escort. By Major Sandeman's tact and firmness the Mastung agreement, the Magna Charta of the Brahui confederacy, was drawn up on July 13, 1875 and read out formally in Darbar. Thus British Government was now accepted the responsible paramount power for preserving peace in the country and therefore a fresh treaty was concluded with Mir Khudadad Khan in December 1876. In the following year Sir Robert Sandeman was appointed from Agent to Governor-General and a new Province under British India, was created as Baluchistan on October 01, 1877 as Quetta was permanently occupied on June 19, 1877 being it's capital. During Sir Robert Sandeman's lifetime, no serious revolts occurred in spite of these changes in the region. In March 1893, the chief accountant, with his father, his son and a follower were murdered by Mir Khudadad Khan. He suspected that these people were making a plot to kill him. Later Khudadad Khan's abdication was subsequently accepted by Government of India in favour of his son, Mir Mahmud Khan. Mir Khudadad Khan was shortly afterwards removed with his second and third sons to Loralai and they start living in Pishin.
KM#21 (page 655 of 19th Century 1800-1900 Standard Catalog of World Coins, 3rd edition by Krause publication) Falus Year: 1293 AH (1876 CE). Metal: Copper. Weight: 5.57g. Diameter:  27.0 mm x 22.5 mm. Edge: Plain. Shape: Round, irregular or rough-cut octagonal. Ruler: Wali Mir Khudadad Khan [2nd time (AH 1274-1311] citing: Mahmud Khan Durrani. In 1893 the Wali was deposed for misrule and Kalat's mint was closed. Mintage Years: AH 1281-1282, 10786 & 1186 (for 1286), 1290, 1293-1296 and even some without date.
  • Kalat under British influence from 1875 to 1948
  • Mir Mahmud Khan II...............................10 Nov 1893 - 03 Nov 1931
  • In 1897 the wave of unrest, which passed down the frontier, made itself felt in Baluchistan, where a movement among the Sarawan chiefs, which might have had serious consequences, was averted by the arrest and imprisonment of two of the ringleaders. In the same year an outbreak occurred in Makran, and British troops engaged the Makran rebels at Gokprosh in January 1898 and the ringleader with many of his followers were slain. Another outbreak occurred in Makran in 1901, which was also put down by British troops by the capture of Nodiz fort.
  • Nawab Bahadur Mir Mohammad Azam Jan Khan.........03 Nov 1931 - 10 Sep 1933
    • Abdul Karim Baloch, his youngest son, educated in Karachi, served as the governor of Makran province until March 1948. Also known as Prince Abdul Karim Khan was the younger brother of Khan of Kalat , Mir Ahmad Yar Khan, the last ruler of Balochistan. After the British left Balochistan on 13th August 1947. The Khan declared to join Pakistan. However, protests broke out and people demanded internal political sovereignty. The refusal to grant autonomy to Balochistan and the continued existence of the Sandeman system resulted in civil unrest. On the night of 16th May 1948, Prince Abdul Karim Khan, decided to lead a separatist movement against the Pakistan government. The prince asked help from Afghanistan, Iran and Soviet Union (Russia), but did not receive a positive and prompt response.
      The Prince invited the leading members of Baloch nationalist political parties; the Kalat State National Party, the Baloch League, and the Baloch National Workers Party, to join him in the struggle for the creation of an independent "Greater Balochistan." Apart from his political motives, the Prince was a member of the royal family and the former governor of the Makran province; he was upset by Pakistan's recognition of Sardar Bay Khan Gichki as Makran's ruler.
      The Prince was forced to return to the Khanate and negotiate for his demands peacefully. On 08th July 1948, when the news of the Prince's arrival reached Kalat, the Prime Minister and a Kalat State Force went to meet the Prince at Earboi to deliver the Khan's message.
      With Afghan aid, Abdul Karim entered Balochistan and organised a rebellion against Pakistan in the Jhalawan area. He received assistance from Mir Gohar Khan Zehri, an influential tribal leader of the Zarkzai clan. Major General Akbar Khan, who was in charge of the Pakistani army's Seventh Regiment, was ordered to attack the insurgents and force them to surrender. Prince Karim and his 142 followers were arrested and imprisoned in the Mach and Quetta jails.
      After the arrest of the Prince and his party, the Attorney Governor General gave an order for an inquiry, to be conducted by Khan Sahib Abdullah Khan, the Additional District Magistrate of Quetta. He submitted his report on 12th September 1948. His report was based on the Prince's activities and upon the letters and documents published by the separatist force. After the inquiry, R. K. Saker, the District Magistrate of Quetta, appointed a special Jirga (official council of elders of the same and surrounding tribes). This Jirga was instructed to study the circumstances and events which led to the revolt and was asked to give its recommendations to the District Magistrate. On 10th November 1948, the Jirga heard the testimony of the accused and gave its recommendations to the District Magistrate. on 17th November 1948, suggesting the delivery of the Prince to Loralai at the pleasure of the Government of Pakistan and various other penalties. The District Magistrate, in his order dated 27th November 1948, differed with the opinion of the Jirga and sentenced the Prince to ten years of rigorous imprisonment and a fine of 5000 rupees. Other members of his party were given various sentences and fines. He founded Ustman Gal (People’s Party) and took part in the formation of the National Awami Party, he worked as the head of the branch of the ‘Sindhi, Baloch and Pakhtun front in Balochistan and died in 1986.
  • To Pakistan from 1947 - date
  • Capt. Mir Sir Ahmad Yar Khan (1st time)..........10 Sep 1933 - 14 Oct 1955
  • He was the son of Mir Mohammad Azam Jan Khan and the President of Council of Rulers from Apr 1948 to 14 Oct 1955. From 03 Oct 1952 to 14 Oct 1955 the four Baluchistan states (Kalat, Kharan, LasBela and Makran) form the Baluchistan States Union. As he was the Wali of Kalat, became Khan-e-Azam of the Union. He died in 1979.
    • Tom Hickinbotham (British Agent)...................1945 - 1947
  • Mir Ahmad Yar Khan (2nd time, in rebellion)......20 Jun 1958 - 1958
  • Mir Dawood Jan S/o Ahmad Yar Khan (pretender)...........1979 - Jan 1998
  • Mir Agha Suleiman Jan S/o Dawood (pretender)........Jan 1998 - date
Pakistan's Province of Balochistan.
Countries / Territories
Chiefa Coins