Balochistan
 
Baluchistan (Balochistan) is part of Pakistan surrounded by Iran in the west, Afghanistan in the north and the Indian Ocean in the south. It was under British India 1875-1948. In ancient times this was the land of Mokran, a transit between the Persian Gulf and the Indus Valley civilization. Mentioned by Herodotus (5th century BCE) as the land of the Ichthyophagi ("Fish-Eaters") - to Ptolemy in the 2nd century CE, it was the land of Gedrosia. The region is harsh, hilly, and semi-arid; the Baluchi people themselves, first referred to in Arabic sources of the 10th century, are nomad herders who migrated into the region from the western Iranian highlands in the 11th century as a result of the Seljuq conquests.
Balochistan was the site of the earliest known farming settlements in Indus Valley Civilization, the earliest of which was Mehrgarh dated at 6500 BCE. Balochistan corresponds to the ancient Achaemenid province of Gedrosia. Balochistan was sparsely populated by various tribes, of Dravidian and Indo-Aryan origin, for centuries following the decline of the nearby Harappa-Mohenjo-daro civilisation to the east. Over time, Balochistan was invaded by various Eurasian groups including the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, Mughals, Afghans, and the British. Aryan invasions appear to have led to the eventual demise of the Elamo-Dravidian Brahui tribes who were original people of the land where Balochs arrived later but now have mixed together. Aryan invasions appear to likely they are an Iranian group who have possibly absorbed Arab ancestry and cultural traits instead, it is also believed that Baloch are of Arab blood, it could be they left the Arab world when Iraq broke from Persia in 652 AD and there is historical evidence that suggests they lived in (Khuzestan) and (Bushehr) before moving to Kerman and Hormozgan. The Balochs began to arrive from their homeland in north-west Iran and appear to be an offshoot of the Medes, another branch being that of Kurdish tribes that would mainly populate the western end of the Iranian plateau. The Baloch tribes eventually became a sizeable group rivalled only by another Iranian group where Brohis and Pashtuns came under influences of Balochs.
 
  • Unknown rulers or conditions.....................c. 2500 BCE - c. 500 BCE
  • Persia................................................c. 520 - 326
  • Macedon..................................................326 - 310
  • Seleucid Empire..........................................310 - 306
  • The Mauryan Empire (India)...............................306 - c. 250
  • Local conditions only, c. 250 BCE-1st century CE. Ptolemy mentions the following peoples - the Parsirae in the west, the Arbitari along the coast, the Musarnaei in the north and northeast, and the Rhamnae to the east.
  • Prata Rajas
  • Prata Rajas were Indo-Parthian governors (a local dynasty in the Loralai district) of Saurashtra in Balochistan. They probably were later known to be a dynasty of Indo-Scythian kings who ruled in the Balochistan region of today's Pakistan and Iran, from the 1st century to the 3rd century CE. They are known through their coins, which typically exhibit the bust of the ruler on the observe, with long hair within a headband, and a swastika within a Brahmi legend on the reverse (usually silver coins) or Kharoshthi (usually copper coins). The coins can mainly be found in the Loralai area of northeast of Balochistan, Pakistan. Only a few rulers are known from this dynasty. Their name betray the Iranian origin of the dynasty.
  • Kuvhusuvhume
  • Spajhana (or probably Spajhayam)........................ca.0 - 50 CE
  • Badriyasha
  • Bhimajhunasa S/o Yolatanam.....................................ca.70 CE
  • Nahapana (Kshaharatas of Saurashtra)...................ca.50 - 70 CE
  • Bagavera.......................................................fl. c. 100
  • Yolamira S/o Bagavera
  • Arjuna S/o Yolamira
  • Hvaramira S/o Yolamira
  • Mirahvara S/o Hvaramira
  • Miratakhma S/o Hvaramira.......................................fl. c. 200

Prata Rajas AE Unit (billion drachm). Weight: 2.1g. Diameter: 13mm.

Ruler: probably Bhimajhunasa S/o Yolatanam

Lead Drachm. Fire flames. Weight: 8.12g. Discovered at Dalbandin Western Balochistan formerly part of Eastern Siestan and Zaranj. Probably from 1st century CE.

They are known as Fire Altar/attendants type [Barbaric Sassanide] coins.

 
  • The Kushanshahs.......................................c. 300 - c. 410
  • The White Huns (Hephthalites)............................410 - 565
  • Persia...................................................565 - 636
  • Sindh....................................................636 - 644
  • Prophet Muhammad's elected successors....................644 - 661
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................661 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................750 - 990's
  • In the 7th century the region was divided into two, the south was part of Kerman Province of the Persian Empire and the north was part of the Persian province Sistan. In early 644, Caliph Umar sent Suhail ibn Adi from Busra to conquer the Kerman region of Iran; he was made governor of Kerman. From Kerman he entered the western Baluchistan and conquered the region near to Persian frontiers. South Western Baluchistan was conquered during the campaign in Sistan the same year. During Caliph Uthmanís reign in 652, Baluchistan was re-conquered during the campaign against the revolt in Kerman, under the command of Majasha ibn Masood, it was first time when western Baluchistan came directly under the Laws of Caliphate and gave tribute on agriculture. In those days western Baluchistan was included in the dominion of Kerman. In 654 Abdulrehman ibn Samrah was made governor of Sistan, an Islamic army was sent under him to crush the revolt in Zarang, which is now in southern Afghanistan. Conquering Zarang a column moved north ward to conquer areas up to Kabul and Ghazni in Hindu Kush Mountains, while another column moved towards North western Baluchistan and conquered area up to the ancient city of Dawar and Qandabil (Bolan), by 654 the whole of what is now Baluchistan province of Pakistan was under the rule of Rashidun Caliphate except for the well defended mountain town of QaiQan (now Kalat), which was conquered during Caliph Aliís reign. Abdulrehman ibn Samrah made Zaranj his provincial capital and remained governor of these conquered areas from 654 to 656, until Caliph Uthman was murdered. During the Caliphate of Ali, the areas of Baluchistan, Makran again broke into revolt. Due to civil war in the Islamic empire Ali was unable to deal with these areas until 660 when he sent a large force under the command of Haris ibn Marah Abdi towards Makran, Baluchistan and Sind. Haris ibn Marah Abdi arrived in Makran and conquered it by force then moved north ward to north eastern Baluchistan and re-conquered Qandabil (Bolan), then again moving south finally conquered Kalat after a fierce battle.
  • Locally within Kerman and Seistan provinces
  • The Ghaznavid Empire...................................990's - 1150
  • The Ghurid Empire....................................c. 1150 - 1215
  • Local conditions........................................1215 - 1223 opposed by...
  • Khwarazm Empire in the western regions..................1218 - 1223
  • Mongol Empire...........................................1223 - 1225
  • Delhi [Shams ud-Din Iltutmish]..........................1225 - 1227
  • Mongol Empire...........................................1227 - 1281
    • Locally within Ilkhanate Persia....................1256 - 1281
  • Herat...................................................1281 - 1389
  • The Timurid Empire......................................1389 - 1428
  • Timurid of Herat........................................1438 - 1480 opposed by...
  • Qandahar [Dhuíl-Nun Arghun and later Shah Beg Arghun]...1470 - 1522
  • Mir Chakar Khan Rind was the first Baloch chieftan in the 15th century. He is considered a folk hero of the Baloch people and an important figure in the Baloch epic Hani and Sheh Mureed. Mir Chakar lived in Sevi (modern city of Sibi) in the hills of Balochistan and became the head of Rind tribe at the age of 18 after the death of his father Mir Shahak Khan. Mir Chakar's fiefdom was shortlived because of a civil war between the Lashari and Rind tribes of Balochistan. Mir Chakar and Mir Gwaharam Khan Lashari, head of the Lashari tribe, went to war that resulted in thousands dead, including Mir Chakar's brother. The war and the gallantry of the two tribe leaders continues to be a part of the Baloch peoples' history. After the "Thirty Years' War" against the Lashari Tribe, Mir Chakar after his defeat at the hands of Lashari tribe left Balochistan and settled in the Punjab region in 1518. Mir Chakar settled in Satghara and gained power and respect in the area. Afghan King Sher Shah Suri approached Mir Chakar to unite with him to consolidate his gains. Mir Chakar appreciated the offer but refused to help Sher Shah Suri and managed to elude Afghan armies. Under the command of his son, Mir Shahdad Khan, his forces instead joined the Mughal army of Emperor Humayun in 1555 after a long exile in Persia. Emperor Humayun came back, recaptured Delhi, and ousted the Suri dynasty in 1556. As a reward, Emperor Humayun conferred a vast Jagir, including horses and slaves, to Mir Chakar. He died in 1565. People who accompanied Mir Chakar to Satghara after leaving Balochistan constructed a tomb for his body. Mir Chakar's tribe still live in southern Punjab to this day and speak the Seraiki language. Balochistan subsequently was dominated by empires based in Iran and Afghanistan as well as the Mughal Empire based in India. Nadir Shah won the allegiance of the rulers of Baluchistan, and later the successor of Nadir Shah, Ahmed Shah Durrani also won allegiance of that areas rulers. The area would eventually revert to local Baloch control, while parts of the northern regions would continue to be dominated by Pashtun tribes.
  • The Mughal Empire.......................................1522 - 1558
  • Persia..................................................1558 - 1595
  • The Mughal Empire.......................................1595 - 1622
  • Persia..................................................1622 - 1638
  • From 1638, mainly to Kalat and later under British and also some part to Makran.
 
 

               1839         Eastern Baluchistan was within British sphere of influence;
                             while Western Baluchistan is under Iran.
        01 Oct 1887         Baluchistan a British protectorate, part of British India.

 
Baluchistan during the British India period contained four princely states: Makran, Kharan, Las Bela and Kalat. There was also a Omani port Gwadar (which later became part of Pakistan on 08 Dec 1958). Las Bela was nominally subject to Kalat, whose ruler could call on it for an armed force when required and claimed the right of control over the amount of the dues levied on goods in transit from Sonmiani. Las Bela chiefs (Jams) have always asserted and maintained a greater or less degree of independence, their position being strengthened by matrimonial alliances with the Khans of Kalat. Since the advent of the British, the bond of connection between the two states has been almost entirely severed.

The political influence of the British Government with Baluchistan commences from the outbreak of the first Afghan War in 1839, when it was traversed by the Army of the Indus and was afterwards occupied until 1842 to protect the British lines of communications. The districts of Kachhi, Quetta and Mastung were handed over to Shah Shuja ul-Mulk and political officers were appointed to administer the country and organize a system of intelligence. Continual trouble occurred with the tribes in Kachhi and in 1840 Kahan, in the Marri hills was occupied by Captain Lewis Brown. Here has was besieged for five months by the Marris, who were defeated a relieving force under Major Clibborn. In the meantime the garrison at Quetta was attacked by the neighbouring tribes. On the retreat of this gathering to Dadhar and its defeat by a British force, Lieutenant Loveday, the assistant political agent at Kalat was murdered. The year 1841 opened auspiciously, but closed with the disaster at Kabul. This event reacted on the Baluchistan tribesmen. Fortunately the country was in charge of a man of brilliant abilities, Sir James Outram, and all remain quiet while England's column was pushed up to the Bolan Pass to Quetta at the beginning of 1842, only to be defeated in the unfortunate affairs of Haikalzai in Pishin. Then began thw withdrawal from Afghanistan; the districts which had been assigned to Shah Shuja were handed over to the Khan of Kalat and Quetta was finally evacuated in October.

 

Below are the ruler details of these princely states with Omani port Gwadar. Click Kalat for some more brief history of this region.

 
 
Baluchistan - Province of British India
 
 19 Jun 1877                British India Baluchistan Province and Tribal Areas.
        1896                Province of British India.
 15 Aug 1947                Baluchistan becames province of Pakistan.
 15 Aug 1947 - 1948         Ruler of Kalat declares Baluchistan independent.
03 Oct 1952 - 14 Oct 1955  The four Baluchistan states form the Baluchistan States
                            Union, with the Wali of Kalat as Khan-e A`zam of the Union.
20 Jun 1958 - 1958         Ruler of Kalat again declares Baluchistan independent.
 
On 19 Jun 1877, British occupies Quetta. Baluchistan becomes British India's province on 01 Oct 1877. From 01 Nov 1877 incorporated into British India.
 
  • Chief commissioners
  • Major Robert Groves Sandeman in 1866 was appointed district officer of Dera Ghazi Khan, and there he first showed his capacity in dealing with the Baluch tribes, Marris and Bugtis. His tact and firmness the Mastung agreement, the Magna Charta of the Brahui confederacy, was drawn up on July 13, 1875 and read out formally in Kalat's Darbar. Thus British Government was now accepted the responsible paramount power for preserving peace in the country and therefore a fresh treaty was concluded with Mir Khudadad Khan of Kalat in December 1876 and brought his territories including Kharan, Makran and Las Bela under British suzerainty. In February 1871, he was given the political control over the warring Marri, Bugti and Mazari tribes of Sulaiman Hills at the Mithankot(e) conference between the governments of Punjab and Sindh provinces. In 1877 he was made agent to the governor-general in Baluchistan, an office which he held until his death. A new Province under British India, was created as Baluchistan on June 19, 1877 and Quetta was permanently occupied as it's capital.
  • Sir Oliver Beauchamp Coventry St. John (1st time).19 Jun 1877 - 11 Dec 1887
  • Acting Chief commissioner.
  • Sir Robert Groves Sandeman (1st time).............11 Dec 1887 - 03 Apr 1889
  • During the Second Afghan War in 1878 his influence over the tribesmen was of the utmost importance, since it enabled him to keep intact the line of communications with Kandahar, and to control the tribes after the British disaster at Maiwand. The Treaty of Gandamak was concluded in May 1879, the Afghan Emir ceded the districts of Quetta, Pishin, Sibi, Harnai, and Thal Chotiali to the British. For these services he was made K.C.S.I. in 1879. In 1883 the British leased the Bolan Pass, southeast of Quetta, from the Khan of Kalat on a permanent basis.  In 1887 some areas of Balochistan were declared British territory. In 1889 he occupied the Zhob valley, a strategic advantage which opened the Gomal Pass through the Waziri country to caravan traffic. Sandeman's system was not so well suited to the Pashtun as to his Baluch neighbour. But in Baluchistan he was a pioneer, a pacificator and a successful administrator, who converted that country from a state of complete anarchy into a province as orderly as any in British India. He died at Bela, the capital of Las Bela state, on the January 29, 1892. He was universally mourned and buried under a handsome tomb.
  • Sir Harry North Dalrymple Prendergast (acting)....03 Apr 1889 - 08 Oct 1889
  • Sir Robert Groves Sandeman (2nd time).............08 Oct 1889 - 23 Apr 1891
  • Sir Hugh Shakespear Barnes (1st time, acting).....23 Apr 1891 - 08 May 1891
  • Sir Oliver Beauchamp Coventry St. John (2nd time).09 May 1891 - 04 Jun 1891
  • Sir Hugh Shakespear Barnes (2nd time, acting).....05 Jun 1891 - 09 Jul 1891
  • John Biddulph (acting)............................10 Jul 1891 - 16 Nov 1891
  • Sir Robert Groves Sandeman (3rd time).............16 Nov 1891 - 29 Jan 1892
  • Sir Hugh Shakespear Barnes (3rd time, acting).....29 Jan 1892 - 21 Mar 1892
  • Sir James Browne..................................22 Mar 1892 - 13 Jun 1896
  • A large earthquake crack has been traced for no less than 120 miles along the Khwaja Amran and Sarlath ranges, and near this range of hills a disastrous earthquake occurred on December 20, 1892.
  • In 1893, Sir Mortimer Durand negotiated an agreement with Amir Abdur Rahman Khan of Afghanistan to fix the Durand Line running from Chitral to Balochistan to as the boundary between the Afghans and the British.
  • James Adair Crawford (acting).....................14 Jun 1896 - 14 Nov 1896
  • Sir Hugh Shakespear Barnes (4th time).............15 Nov 1896 - 12 Apr 1899
  • In 1897 the wave of unrest, which passed down the frontier, made itself felt in Baluchistan, where a movement among the Sarawan chiefs, which might have had serious consequences, was averted by the arrest and imprisonment of two of the ringleaders. In the same year an outbreak occurred in Makran, and British troops engaged the Makran rebels at Gokprosh in January 1898 and the ringleader with many of his followers were slain.
  • Henry Wylie (acting)..............................12 Apr 1899 - 21 Dec 1899
  • Sir Hugh Shakespear Barnes (5th time).............21 Dec 1899 - 20 Nov 1900
  • Charles Edward Yate...............................20 Nov 1900 - 04 Nov 1904
  • Another outbreak occurred in Makran in 1901, which was also put down by British troops by the capture of Nodiz fort. The floods are generally very sudden and have been known to rise to a great height in the Nari. The only known cyclone was that which visited Las Bela in June 1902, destroying many cattle..
  • John Ramsay (1st time, acting)....................04 Nov 1904 - 23 Jan 1905
  • Alexander Lauzun Pendock Tucker (acting)..........23 Jan 1905 - 02 Apr 1907
  • Sir Arthur Henry McMahon (1st time)...............02 Apr 1907 - 03 Jun 1909
  • Charles Archer (1st time, acting).................03 Jun 1909 - 06 Sep 1909
  • Sir Arthur Henry McMahon (2nd time)...............06 Sep 1909 - 25 Apr 1911
  • John Ramsay (2nd time)............................25 Apr 1911 - 21 Oct 1912
  • Charles Archer (2nd time, acting).................21 Oct 1912 - 14 Nov 1912
  • John Ramsay (3rd time)............................14 Nov 1912 - 02 Apr 1914
  • Charles Archer (3rd time, acting).................02 Apr 1914 - 23 May 1914
  • John Ramsay (4th time)............................23 May 1914 - 15 Jun 1915
  • Charles Archer (4th time, acting).................15 Jun 1915 - 05 Jul 1915
  • John Ramsay (5th time)............................05 Jul 1915 - 05 Dec 1917
  • Sir Henry Robert Conway Dobbs.....................05 Dec 1917 - 01 Sep 1919
  • Armine Brereton Dew...............................01 Sep 1919 - Jun 1922
  • Henry Beauchamp St. John (1st time, acting)..........Jun 1922 - 15 Sep 1923
  • Frederick William Johnston........................15 Sep 1923 - 07 Jul 1926
  • Edmond Henry Salt James (1st time, acting)........07 Jul 1926 - 04 Nov 1927
  • Henry Beauchamp St. John (2nd time, acting).......04 Nov 1927 - 02 Feb 1929
  • Edmond Henry Salt James (2nd time, acting)........02 Feb 1929 - 01 Oct 1929
  • Charles Edward Bruce (acting).....................01 Oct 1929 - 17 Dec 1931
  • Alexander Norman Ley Cater (1st time, acting).....17 Dec 1931 - 10 May 1932
  • John Aloysius Brett (acting)......................10 May 1932 - 01 Oct 1932
  • Alexander Norman Ley Cater (2nd time).............01 Oct 1932 - 01 Apr 1936
  • There were two devastating earthquakes in Balochistan during British colonial rule: The 31 May 1935 Balochistan Earthquake of magnitude of 7.7 Mw at 3:02 am devastated Quetta and the 27 Nov 1945 at 21:56 Balochistan Earthquake, with its epicentre in Makran region, was felt in other regions of South Asia.
  • Ronald Evelyn Leslie Wingate (1st time, acting)...01 Apr 1936 - 18 Apr 1936
  • Arthur Edward Broadbent Parsons (1st time, acting)18 Apr 1936 - 20 Jun 1937
  • Ronald Evelyn Leslie Wingate (2nd time, acting)...20 Jun 1937 - 28 Nov 1937
  • Olaf Kirkpatrick Caroe (acting)...................28 Nov 1937 - 14 Mar 1938
  • Arthur Edward Broadbent Parsons (2nd time)........14 Mar 1938 - 11 Aug 1939
  • Sir Herbert Aubrey Francis Metcalfe...............11 Aug 1939 - 24 Nov 1943
  • William Rupert Hay................................24 Nov 1943 - 1946
  • Henry Mortimer Poulton............................14 May 1946 - 1946
  • Sir Geoffrey Prior.......................................1946 - 15 Aug 1947
  • Continued to be the Chief Commissioner of Pakistan's Province of Baluchistan till 03 Oct 1947.
 
 
Pakistan or refer to Pakistan's Balochistan Governors and Chief Ministers.
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins