Mughal Empire
  • (title Padshah, sometimes Padshah-e Hind = Emperor of India)
  • Eventually, Delhi and almost all the rest of India fell under a dynasty arising out of the far northwest, the Mughals ["Mongols", from the fact that Babur was a great-great-great grandson of Timur (Tamburlane)].
  • Zahir ud-Din Muhammad Babur Mirza S/o Umar Shaykh...27 May 1526 - 26 Dec 1530
  • He was the ruler of Samarqand briefly from 1497-1498 (AH 903) and again 1500 (AH 905-906), Eastern Khorasan and Transoxian 1500-1530. After the Battle of panipat on 21 Apr 1526, the Battle of Khanwa (Khanua) was the second in a series of three major battles, fought near the village of Khanwa, about 60 km west of Agra on March 17, 1527. Babur defeated a formidable army raised by Rana Sanga of Mewar in this ten hour battle and firmly established his rule over northern India. Battle of Ghaghra, which is the third and last battle, occurred on May 6, 1529 mainly Babur, Humayun and Askari on one side while Sultan Mahmud Lodi, Sultan Nusrat Shah, Sultan Jalal ud-Din Lohani and Sher Shah Suri on the other side. Mughal won this battle as well.  Babur died at the age of 47 on December 26, 1530 of an unknown illness and was succeeded by his eldest son, Humayun. Babur's silver Tankas, also known as Shahrukhis were struck at Khorasanian and Transoxianan mints AH 906-933 (1500-1530). After invading India, this Tankas or Shahrukhis were struck principally at Kabul, Lahore, Agra, Jaunpur and Delhi. These first Mughal coins of India are considered reasonably common. See one of his Shahrukh minted at Qanadar AH 933 (1527).
  • Naseer ud-din Muhammad Humayun S/o Babur (1st time).28 Dec 1530 - 17 May 1539 d. 1556
  • Humayun silver shahrukis (4.7g) were struck at various Indian mints and are considered common. Humayun after 1539, was forced to seek Safavid protection as a vassal of the Safavid Tahmasp I at the end of AH 950 and returned with Safavid reinforcement to Qandahar late in AH 951. He had to produce extremely rare Shahruki and half Shahruki at Qandahar with Shiite Kalma. He abandoned the Safavid alliance early in AH 952. A scarce 1/4 gold Ashrafi were also struck at Badakhshan but without mint name AH 937-963 (1530-1556). Humayun lost his Indian territories to the Pashtun noble, Sher Shah Suri, and, with Persian aid, regained them fifteen years later.
  • Kamran Mirza S/o Babur [Kabul & Lahore]....................1530 - 1555
  • According to the Mughal historian Abul Fazl, Babur’s last words to Humayun were “do nothing against your brothers, even though they may deserve it.” His brother Kamran Mirza rebelled against him as he governor of Kabul and Qandahar. In 1538 Kamran first crossed into India, bringing with him 12,000 soldiers, while Humayun was away fighting in Bengal. He appeared to have come in order to put down the rebellion of his brother Hindal against Humayun. However, despite Humayun’s calls for help, Kamran offered him no aid whatsoever. After Humayun returned from his defeat at the Battle of Chausa, Kamran refused to place his troops under Humayun’s command as he was more interested in taking power for himself. Seeing no chance of furthering his ambition, Kamran withdrew back to Lahore. Following his success in the Battle of Kaunaj in 1540, the new ruler of northern India, Sher Shah, ordered Humayun to leave India and settle in Kabul. Kamran was unwilling to hand the city over to his brother though. At this point Kamran went behind Humayun's back and offered to support Sher Shah, if the latter would give him the Punjab in return. His offer was refused. At this point Humayun was urged by his advisors to put his brother to death, but he refused. After a series of disastrous attempts to retake his throne, Humayun crossed the Indus in 1543. Rather than welcoming him, Kamran sent his younger brother Askari out to catch him and bring him to Kabul. Humayun managed to escape his brother’s clutches though and sought refuge in the court of the ruler of Persia, Shah Tahmasp I. When Humayun was in Persia, Kamran offered the Shah, the city of Kandahar if he would hand his brother over to him. Shah Tahmasp favoured Humayun in this fraternal squabble however, and provided him with troops with which he defeated Kamran. Humayun was able to enter Kabul in November 1545 in a bloodless takeover, as Kamran’s rule had been oppressive, and the population of the city was keen to be rid of him. Although Humayun resisted the pressure to put his rebellious brother to death, he was persuaded that something needed to be done about him so he reluctantly had him blinded. Humayun then sent him off to perform the Hajj to Makkah, where he died in 1557. Other brothers of Humayun were Hindal and Askari. An extremely rare 1/4 gold Ashrafi were struck by Kamran Mirza at Badakhshan AH 937-962 (1530-1555). See one of his Shahrukhi minted at Kabul AH 937-962 (1530-1555).
  • Suri Dynasty.........................................17 May 1539 - 1555
  • MUGHAL EMPIRE (restored)
  • Naseer ud-din Muhammad Humayun S/o Babur (2nd time)..22 Feb 1555 - 27 Jan 1556
  • While Sikandar Shah was busy with his struggle against Ibrahim Shah, Humayun captured Lahore in February 1555. Another detachment of his forces captured Dipalpur. Next, the Mughal army occupied Jalandhar and their advanced division proceeded towards Sirhind. Sikandar sent a force of 30,000 horses but they were defeated by the Mughal army in a battle at Machhiwara and Sirhind was occupied by the Mughals. Sikandar, then led an army of 80,000 horses himself and met the Army at Sirhind. On June 22, 1555, Sikandar was defeated by the Mughal army and was compelled to retreat to the Sivalik Hills in northern Punjab. The victorious Mughals marched to Delhi and occupied it. Full title: Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Jam-i-Sultanat-i-haqiqi wa Majazi, Sayyid al-Salatin, Abu'l Muzaffar Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun Padshah Ghazi, Zillu'llah. Coronation on 30 December 1530 at Agra.
  • Hem Chandra Vikramaditya [Hemu] (Hindu Emperor).........Dec 1555 - 05 Nov 1556
  • The son of a food seller, and himself a vendor of saltpetre at Rewari, he rose to become Chief of Army and Prime Minister of Adil Shah Suri of the Suri Dynasty. He fought Afghan rebels across North India from the Punjab to Bengal and the Mughal forces of Akbar and Humayun in Agra and Delhi, winning 22 battles continuously, without a single setback. Hemu is known to struck coins bearing his title. After the victory of the Mughal ruler Humayun over Adil Shah's brother Sikander Suri, Mughals regained Punjab, Delhi and Agra after a gap of 15 years on July 23, 1555. At the battle of Chhapparghatta in December 1555, Hemu routed the Bengal forces under Muhammad Shah, who was killed in the battle. Hemu was in Bengal when Humayun died on January 27, 1556. Humayun's death gave Hemu an ideal opportunity to defeat the Mughals. He started a winning march from Bengal through present day Bihar, Eastern UP and Madhya Pradesh. The Mughal fauzdars evacuated their positions and fled in panic. In Agra, an important Mughal stronghold, the commander of Mughal forces Iskander Khan Uzbeg ran away from Agra hearing about Hemu's invasion without a fight. Etawah, Kalpi, Bayana, in the present day central and western UP, all came under Hemu's dominion. In the words of K.K.Bhardwaj in Hemu the Napoleon of Medieval India, if Vincent A Smith describes Samudragupta as Indian Napoleon, we can certainly call Hemu "the Napoleon of Medieval India" as the victor of 22 battles before dying fighting at Panipat due to sheer bad luck. Hemu won Delhi after a day's battle on October 06, 1556. Some 3000 soldiers died in this battle. However, Mughal forces led by Tardi Beg Khan vacated Delhi after a day's fight and Hemu entered Delhi victorious under a royal canopy. Hemu was crowned at Purana Qila, on 07 October 1556, in the presence of all Afghan Sardars and Hindu Senapatis (military commanders). On hearing about Hemu's continuous victories and fall of large territories like Agra and Delhi from Akbar's control, the Mughal army at Kalanaur lost heart and many commanders refused to fight Hemu. Most of the commanders advised Akbar to retreat to Kabul as he would be safer there. However, Bairam Khan, the guardian of Akbar and chief strategist for army matters, insisted on fighting Hemu in an effort to gain control of Delhi. On November 5, 1556, the Mughal army met Hemu's army at the historic battle field of Panipat. Bairam Khan motivated his army by a religious speech and ordered them to move for battle; Akbar and Bairam Khan stayed back eight miles from the battle ground. However, Hemu led his large army himself, sitting atop an elephant. He was poised to achieve victory, when he was wounded in the eye by an arrow, and collapsed unconscious. This led to extreme confusion in the soldiers, as no commander was able to make coordinated decisions. Thus a sure victory was converted by a stroke of chance into defeat. Unconscious, the almost dead Hemu was captured by Shah Qulin Khan and carried to the camp of Akbar and Bairam Khan to be executed. After Hemu's death, a massacre was ordered by Bairam Khan of the followers of Hemu. Thousands of persons were killed to create terror among Hindus.
  • Abu'l Fath Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar I S/o Humayun...14 Feb 1556 - 29 Oct 1605
  • Akbar had three sons: Jahangir [Salim], Murad and Daniyal. Bairam Khan is known to be Akbar's regent 1556-1561. Akbar was a follower of Salim Chishti, a holy man who lived in the region of Sikri near Agra. Believing the area to be a lucky one for himself, he had a mosque constructed there for the use of the saint. Akbar celebrated the victory over Chittor and Ranthambore by laying the foundation of a new city, 23 miles (37 km) of Agra in 1569. It was called Fatehpur Sikri (city of victory), honoring the Saint. The Mughal army also conquered Kabul (1581), Kashmir (1586), and Kandesh (1601), among others. Akbar installed a governor over each of the conquered provinces. From the discussions he led there in 1575, Akbar concluded that no single religion could claim the monopoly of truth. Therefore inspired and interaction with various religious theologians had convinced him that despite their differences, all religions had several good practices, which he sought to combine into a new religious movement known as Din-i-Ilahi in 1581. On 03 October 1605, Akbar fell ill with an attack of dysentery, from which he never recovered. He is believed to have died on or about 29 October 1605, after which his body was buried at a mausoleum in Sikandra, Agra.
  • Hakim Mirza S/o Humayun (Kabul, Bihar and Bengal)...........1581 - 10 Aug 1581
  • In 1580, some prominent Muslim officers of Akbar, displeased with his liberal religious policies, started to conspire against him. Qazi Muhammad Yazdi declared it the duty of every Muslim to rebel against Akbar. In Bihar and Bengal they declared Mirza Hakim, Akbar's stepbrother and Governor of Kabul, to be the emperor. Akbar sent armies to Bihar and Bengal to crush this rebellion, while he himself started towards Kabul; Man Singh (Kacchwaha King of Amber, a state later known as Jaipur) with him. Akbar himself arrived at Kabul on August 10, 1581. Hakim was pardoned by Akbar, but his sister "Bakhtunissa Begum" was appointed Governor of Kabul. After Akbar returned to Fatehpur Sikri; Bakhtunissa remained as the nominal head of state, while Hakim acted as the Governor (Hakim died in July, 1582).
  • Nur-ud-din Jahangir [Salim] S/o Akbar [Rebel]................1600 - 1605
  • In 1600, when Akbar was away from the capital on an expedition, Salim broke into an open rebellion, and declared himself Emperor. Akbar had to hastily return to Agra and restore order. There was a time when Akbar thought of putting his eldest grandson Khusrau Mirza on the throne instead of Salim. Prince Khusrau Mirza, when he attempted to claim the throne based on Akbar's will to become his next heir. Khusrau Mirza was defeated in 1606 and confined in the fort of Agra. As punishment Khusrau Mirza was blinded, and the Sikh Guru Arjun (the religious fifth guru) tortured for five days until he had disappeared while taking a bath in a river. Coins were produced under Salim's name mainly at Ahmadabad, Kabul and Allahabad during Ilahi year (IE) 45-50 (1600-1605).

KM#13.1 Damri (1/8 Dam). Year: ND (1556-1605). Weight: 2.34g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 12.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Urdu Zafar Qarin. Obverse: mint name. Reverse: Zarb Falus. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: N/A (1556-1605). Ruler: Akbar S/o Humayun (1556-1605).

KM#72.1  Unit / Mahmudi Baglana. Year: ND (1556-1605). Weight: 5.56g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 14.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Mulher. Obverse: la ilaha illa l-Lahi Muḥammadan rasulu l-Lahi [Shahada in center (there is no other god but Allah and Muhammad is the last messenger of Allah)]. Reverse: Muhammad Akbar. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH1009-1027 (1600-1618) and later posthumously AH1215-1217 (1800-1802). Ruler: Akbar S/o Humayun (1556-1605).
This Mahmudi coin was made to trade with Persian merchants at port Surat and were continuously produced even after Akbar's death.

Dam. Year: ND (1556-1605). Weight: 20.30g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.

Unknown coin, probably by Akbar.

MM# 3024 ½ Dam. Year: AH 942 (1535). Weight: 8.94g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 16.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Juanpur. Legends: "Dar al Zarb Khitta Mutabarak Juanpur" with date AH 942. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: N/A. Ruler: Akbar S/o Humayun (1556-1605).

MM# 3120-3121 Dam / Falus. Year: AH 964 (1557). Weight: 20.67g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Narnol. Obverse: legends with date AH 964. Reverse: Zarb Falus Narnol. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: N/A. Ruler: Akbar S/o Humayun (1556-1605).

MM# 3126 Dam / Falus. Year: AH 1000 (1592). Weight: 20.12g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Urdu Zafar-e-Qarin. Obverse: Zarb Falus Aalif. Reverse: mint name. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type. Ruler: Akbar S/o Humayun (1556-1605).

MM# 3049-3050 / Lane-Poole 151-155 / Liddle S-35 / Whitehead 220-222. Dam / Falus. Year: AH 1000 (1592). Weight: 11.35g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 20.00 mm x 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: ?. Mint: Urdu Zafar-e-Qarin. Obverse: khallad Allah te'ala mulkahu alif / Mohammed Akbar badshah / Jalal ed-din ghazi / zarb urdu zafar qarin. Reverse: Centre: Kalima. Around first four Caliph successors: bi-sudq Abi Bekr (left) / bi-adil Umar (top) / bi-haya Uthman (right) / bi-ailm Ali (below). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type. Ruler: Akbar S/o Humayun (1556-1605).

Note: Very Common.

MM# 3149 Nisfi / Half Dam. Year: Ilahi Year 33 [AH 996 or 1588 CE]. Weight: 9.95g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Kabul. Obverse: Ilahi year 33. Reverse: Falus Kabul. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: N/A. Ruler: Akbar S/o Humayun (1556-1605).

Falus (Dam). Year: Ilahi Year 37 [AH 1000 or 1592/1593 CE]. Weight: 20.07g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Multan. Obverse: Ilahi 37 / Bahman. Reverse: Falus / Zarb Multan. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: N/A. Ruler: Akbar S/o Humayun (1556-1605).

Bahman is the eleventh month of Ilahi calendar.

Ilahi months are 1) Farwardin. 2) Ardibihisht. 3) Khurdad. 4) Tir. 5) Amardad. 6) Shahrewar. 7) Mihr. 8) Aban. 9) Azar. 10) Di. 11) Bahman. 12) Isfandarmuz.

Falus (Dam). Year: Ilahi Year 38 [AH 1000/1001 or 1593/1594 CE]. Weight: 19.92g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Delhi. Obverse: Ilahi 38 / Farwardin. Reverse: Falus / Zarb Delhi. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: N/A. Ruler: Akbar S/o Humayun (1556-1605).

Farwardin is the first month of Ilahi calendar.

Falus (Dam). Year: Ilahi Year 40 [AH 1003/1004 or 1595/1596 CE]. Weight: 20.61g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Atak Banaras. Obverse: Ilahi 40 / Isfandarmuz. Reverse: Falus / Zarb Atak Banaras. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: N/A. Ruler: Akbar S/o Humayun (1556-1605).

Isfandarmuz is the last month of Ilahi calendar.

KM#80.1 Rupee. Year: AH 980 [1572]. Weight: 11.16g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Dar-ul-Khilafat, Agra. Obverse: "Jalal ed-din Mohammed Akbar Badshah Ghazi" wriiten from bottom to top in the center. Date at the right bottom side anti-clockwise. Reverse: la ilaha illa l-Lahi Muḥammadan rasulu l-Lahi [Shahada in center (there is no other god but Allah and Muhammad is the last messenger of Allah)]. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 976-985 (1568-1577). Ruler: Akbar S/o Humayun (1556-1605).

Note: Very common type.

  • Nur-ud-din Jahangir [Salim] S/o Akbar (continued)....03 Nov 1605 - 28 Oct 1627
  • Married: Mihrunissa (Nur Jahan) d/o Ghiyath ud-Din Muhammad Himad ud-Daula. He had fours sons: Khusrau, Parwiz, Khurram [Shah Jahan I] and Shahryar. Full title: Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Khushru-i-Giti Panah, Abu'l-Fath Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir Padshah Ghazi [Jannat-Makaani]). Coronation on 24 October 1605 at Agra. In 1622, Khurram (Shah Jahan), younger brother of Khusrau Mirza, had Khusrau murdered in a conspiracy to eliminate all possible contenders to the throne. Taking advantage of this internal conflict, the Persians seized the city of Kandahar and as a result of this loss, the Mughals lost control over the trade routes to Afghanistan, Persian and Central Asia and also exposed India to invasions from the north-west. Jahangir opened first relations with the British East India Company.
  • Nur Jahan [wife of Jahangir]................................1624 - 28 Oct 1627
  • Coins of Nur Jahan by authority of Jahangir were produced from AH 1034-1037 (1624-1627). Nur Jahan died in 1645.
  • Dawar Bakhsh S/o Khusrau S/o Jahangir (Lahore)..........Nov 1627 - Jan 1628
  • Proclimed Badshah, as a stopgap measure in AH 1037 (1627) by Abdul Hasan Asaf Khan (father of Arjumand Banu Begum, also known as Mumtaz Mahal, who was the wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan). Prince Sheharyar was the youngest son of Jahangir by his wife Ladli Begum. Sheharyar was the stepson and son-in-law of Jahangir's empress, Nur Jahan. Following Jahangir's death, Nur Jehan supported Shahriyar's attempt to become emperor, but they were defeated by Shah Jahan. Dewar Bakhsh abdicated in favour of Shah Jahan on his arrival to Agra from Deccan and retired to Persia, ruling for three months. A very rare silver Rupee on the name of Dawar Bakhsh is known dated AH 1037 from Lahore mint.

KM#145.1 Rupee. Year: AH 1026 - RY 13 [1617]. Weight: 9.33g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 22.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Agra. Obverse: Ma Bahman Ilahi - Zarb Agra, 1026 RY 13 (month Bahman of Ilahi year, mint: Agra, year 1026 in the 13th year of the accession). Reverse: Nur-ud-din Jahangir Shah Akbar Shah. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 1020-1028 (1611-1619). Ruler: Nur-ud-din Jahangir [Salim] S/o Akbar (1605-1627).

Note: Scarce type. The reignal year looks more like 11 than 13.

KM#149.16 Rupee. Year: AH 1030 - RY 16 [1621]. Weight: 11.11g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Lahore. Obverse: Ze naame shah jahangir shah akbar noor (Light, by the name of Shah Jahangir, Shah Akbar's [son]) / 1030. Reverse: Hamesha bad abre ruye sikka e lahore (On the money of Lahore may there ever be) / 16th year of the accession. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 1029-1037 (1620-1629). Ruler: Nur-ud-din Jahangir [Salim] S/o Akbar (1605-1627).

Note: Common type. Decoration on both sides. "Bada bar" - Poetic couplet:.

Each mint has a distinctive poetic couplets, a typical word from the center position of the reverse legends of KM# 149 series. There are: Yalt, Muzaiyan, Kishwar, Inayat, Firoz, Fath, Gardun, Hamisha, Din panah, Sakhat Nurani, Khusro, Mihr, Ruy, Bada bar, Ta falak and Ba-sharq wa gharb.
  • Shah Jahan I [Khurram] S/o Jahangir...................24 Feb 1628 - 26 Jun 1658
  • Full  name: Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan I [Khurram]. Malik Ambar assisted Shah Jahan wrestle power in Delhi from his stepmother, Nur Jahan, who had ambitions of seating her son-in-law on the throne. Shah Jahan married Arjumanad Banu Mumtaz Mahaldep [Mumtaz Mahal] d/o Abdul Hassan Asaf Khan S/o Himad ud-Daula on 10 May 1612. Mumtaz Mahal married when she was 14 years old. Mumtaz Mahal died on 17 June 1731 and Shah Jahan order the construction of Taj Mahal. On September 6, 1657, the illness of emperor Shah Jahan triggered a desperate struggle for power among the four Mughal princes, though realistically only Dara Shikoh and Aurangzeb had a chance of emerging victorious. Dara Shikoh was favoured as a successor by his father and his sister Princess Jahanara Begum. Shah Shuja was the first to make his move, declaring himself emperor in Bengal and marching towards Agra while Murad Baksh allied himself with Aurangzeb. Despite strong support from Shah Jahan, who had recovered enough from his illness to remain a strong factor in the struggle for supremacy, and the victory of his army led by his eldest son Sulaiman Dara Shikoh over Shah Shuja in the battle of Bahadurpur on February 14, 1658, Dara was defeated by Aurangzeb and Murad at the battlefield of Samugarh, 13 km from Agra on May 30, 1658. Subsequently Aurangzeb took over Agra fort and deposed emperor Shah Jahan on June 08, 1658. After the defeat Dara Shikoh retreated from Agra to Delhi and thence to Lahore. His next destination was Multan and then to Thatta (Sindh). From Sindh, he crossed the Rann of Kachchh and reached Kathiawar, where he met Shah Nawaz Khan, the governor of the province of Gujarat who opened the treasury to Dara and helped him to recruit a new army. He occupied Surat and advanced towards Ajmer. Foiled in his hopes of persuading the fickle but powerful Rajput feudatory, Maharaja Jaswant Singh of Marwar, to support his cause, the luckless Dara decided to make a stand and fight Aurangzeb's relentless pursuers but was once again comprehensively routed in the battle of Deorai (near Ajmer) on March 11, 1659. After this defeat he fled to Sindh and sought refuge under Malik Jiwan, a Baluch chieftain whose life had on more than one occasion been saved by the Mughal prince from the wrath of Shah Jahan. However, Malik betrayed Dara and turned him (and his second son Sipihr Shikoh) over to Aurangzeb's army on June 10, 1659. Dara Shikoh was brought to Delhi, placed on a filthy elephant and paraded through the streets of the capital in chains. Dara's fate was decided by the political threat he posed as a prince popular with the common people - a convocation of nobles and clergy, called by Aurangzeb in response to the perceived danger of insurrection in Delhi, declared him a threat to the public peace and an apostate from Islam. Dara Shikoh was murdered by assassins on the night of August 30, 1659. Under Shah Jahan, Mughal art and architecture reached their zenith; constructed the Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, Red Fort, Jahangir mausoleum, and Shalimar Gardens in Lahore. He was deposed and imprisoned by his son Aurangzeb. Shah Jahan died on 22 Jan 1666.
  • Muhammad Murad Bakhsh S/o Shah Jahan I (Gujarat)............1657 - 1658 and...
  • Fourth son of Shah Jahan, rebelled and proclaimed himself Badshah at Ahmedabad while he was the governor of Gujarat, Khandesh and Malwa. He was betrayed, imprisoned and executed by Aurangzeb. Ruled some months in AH 1068 (1657-1658). Full name: Murawwij-ud-din Muhammad Murad Bakhsh. Coins were minted during his reign at Surat, Ahmadabad and Khambayat.
  • Shah Shuja S/o Shah Jahan I (Bengal)........................1657 - 1660
  • Third son of Shah Jahan, proclaimed himself Badshah at Rajmahal (Akbarnagar) while he was governor of Bengal. He was defeated at Bahadurpur by Aurangzeb  and Murad Bakhsh. Shah Shuja ruled for some months AH 1068-1070 (1657-1660).  Coins were minted during his reign at Akbarnagar, Patna and Katak.

KM#235.23 Rupee. Year: AH xxxx - RY 19 [1646]. Weight: 11.06g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: probably Surat. Obverse: la ilaha illa l-Lahi Muḥammadan rasulu l-Lahi [Shahada in center (there is no other god but Allah and Muhammad is the last messenger of Allah)] in square. Four caliphs names outside square: bi-sudq Abi Bekr (at the top) wa adil Umar (right) bi-azram Uthman (bottom) wa ailm 'Ali (left).
Reverse: Shah Jahan Badshah Ghazi / 19 (in center square). Qiran-e-Sani (bottom). Muhammad Sahib (left). Mint name out of margin on left. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 1042-1069 (1633-1658). Ruler: Shah Jahan (1628-1658). Note: Extremely Common. This coin could be dated AH 1055 or 1056.

KM#258.2 Mohur. Year: AH 1062 - RY 26 [1652]. Weight: 10.84g. Metal: Gold. Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin; slightly rotated. Mint: Akbarabad. la ilaha illa l-Lahi Muḥammadan rasulu l-Lahi [Shahada/Kalima in center (there is no other god but Allah and Muhammad is the last messenger of Allah)] / 1026 within center. First four caliphs names outside square: abu bakar (top right) - umar (bottom right) - uthman (bottom left) - ali (top left).
Reverse: Shah Jahan Badshah Ghazi / 26 (in center). Muhammad Sahib (top right). Qiran-e-Sani (bottom right). Shahab-ud-Din (top left). Zarb Akbarabad (bottom left). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 1062/RY26 and AH1064/RY28. Ruler: Shah Jahan (1628-1658). Note: Scarce. This coin is has quatrefoil in center on both sides, but having dents in between.
  • Aurangzeb Alamgir [Muhiuddin] S/o Shah Jahan I.......31 Jul 1658 - 02 Mar 1707
  • Title: Abul Muzaffar Muhy-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir Padshah-e-Ghazi. His five sons was known: Muhammad Sultan, Muazzam Shah Alam I Bahadur, Muhammad Azam Shah (killed 1707), Muhammad Akbar (died 1704 in Persia) and Kam Bakhsh (killed 1708). He was the first Mughal Emperor to completely remove the word "Allah", Shahada and Kalima from his coins and the later Mughal rulers followed him. The Battle of Saraighat was fought in 1671 between the Mughal empire (led by the Kachwaha king, Raja Ramsingh I), and the Ahom Kingdom (led by Lachit Borphukan) on the Brahmaputra river at Saraighat, now in Guwahati. Although much weaker, the Ahom Army defeated the Mughal Army by brilliant uses of the terrain, clever diplomatic negotiations to buy time, guerrilla tactics, psychological warfare, military intelligence and by exploiting the sole weakness of the Mughal forces, especially its navy. The Battle of Saraighat was the last battle in the last major attempt by the Mughals to extend their empire in to Assam. Though the Mughals managed to regain Guwahati briefly after a later Borphukan deserted it, the Ahoms wrested control in 1682 and maintained it till the end of their rule. In 1699, on his orders the Mughal governor of Sarhind surrounded the fort of Anandpur in Punjab, which was occupied by Guru Gobind Singh and well armed Sikhs. After oaths of safety by the Mughal forces, Guru Gobind Singh decided to leave the fort. However the Mughal forces broke their promises and attacked the Guru and the Sikhs, causing a great damage to them. He reinterpreted Islamic law and presented the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri; he captured the diamond mines of the Sultanate of Golconda; he spent more than 20 years of his life defeating major rebel factions in India; his conquests expanded the empire to its greatest extent; the over-stretched empire was controlled by Nawabs, and faced challenges after his death. He made two copies of the Qur'an using his own calligraphy.

KM#301.2 Rupee. Year: AH 1079 - RY 14 [1669]. Weight: 11.41g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Junagadh. Obverse: Shah Aurangzeb Alamgir (in center square) / 1079 (above, but upside down). Reverse: Julus maimanat manus zarb (written in center). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 1071-1108 (1661-1697). Ruler: Aurangzeb Alamgir (1658-1707). Note: Common.

KM#300.81 Rupee. Year: AH 1081 - RY 14 [1671]. Weight: 11.33g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Shahjahanabad (with epithet name: Dar-ul-Khilafat). Obverse: Shah Aurangzeb Alamgir sikkah zad dar jehan cho bedr monir (Shah Aurangzeb Alamgir struck coin in world like the shining full moon) / 1081. Reverse: Sanat 14 julus maimanat manus zarb Dar-ul-Khilafat - Shahjahanabad (issued in the year 14 of the accession associated with prosperity, struck at Dar-ul-Khilafat - Shahjahanabad). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 1069-1119 (1759-1707). Ruler: Aurangzeb Alamgir (1658-1707).  Note: Very Common. "Badr" couplet.

KM#300.86 Rupee. Year: AH 1082 - RY 14 [1671]. Weight: 10.95g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Surat (without epithet name: Bandar-i-Mubarak). Obverse: Shah Aurangzeb Alamgir sikkah zad dar jehan cho bedr monir (Shah Aurangzeb Alamgir struck coin in world like the shining full moon) / 1082. Reverse: Sanat 14 julus  maimanat manus zarb Surat (issued in the year 14 of the accession associated with prosperity, struck at Surat). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 1070-1118 (1759-1707). Ruler: Aurangzeb Alamgir (1658-1707). Note: Very Common.

KM#315.3 Mohur. Year: AH 1115 - RY 47 [1704]. Weight: 10.97g. Metal: Gold. Diameter: 20.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Ahsanabad. Obverse: Shah Aurangzeb Alamgir sikkah zad dar jehan cho bedr monir (Shah Aurangzeb Alamgir struck coin in world like the shining full moon) / 1115. Reverse: Sanat 47 julus  maimanat manus zarb Ahsanabad (issued in the year 47 of the accession associated with prosperity, struck at Ahsanabad). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 1113-1118 (1702-1707). Ruler: Aurangzeb Alamgir (1658-1707). Note: Scarce as compared to other mints and years of mintage.
  • Muhammad Azam Shah S/o Aurangzeb.....................14 Mar 1707 - 27 Apr 1707
  • Ruled at Gujarat, Khandesh and Malwa in AH 1118-1119 (1707). Title: Padshah-i-Mumalik Abu'l Faiz Qutb-ud-Din Muhammad Azam Shah-i-Ali Jah Ghazi. Rebelled along with his son Bidar Bakht till both of them were killed on 18 Jun 1707. Silver Rupees were struck at Haidarabad, Khujista Bunyad, Surat, Ahmadnagar, Alamgirpur, Dar-ul-Jihad - Haidarabad, Junagarh, Dar-ul-Fath - Ujjain, Ahmadabad and Burhanpur. Gold Mohur were struck at Alamgirpur, Asir, Burhanpur, Dar-ul-Jihad - Haidarabad, Surat, Ahmadnagar and Khujista Bunyad.
  • Bidar Bakht S/o Muhammad Azam (rebel)................27 Apr 1707 - 18 Jun 1707
  • Sultan Muhammad Bidar Bakht Mirza, Bidar Shah Bahadur, was born at Agra on 16th August 1670 (s/o Jahan Zeb Banu). He was acting Subadar of Agra and Khandesh 1704, Subadar of Malwa 03 August 1704 - March 1706, and Gujarat 01 April 1706-08 February 1707. Granted the title of Bidar Shah Bahadur in March 1707. He was killed in battle with his father at Jajau on 18 June 1707 (buried: Mausoleum of Humayun, Delhi). He had five sons and four daughters. No coins are known on his name.
  • Muhammad Kam Bakhsh S/o Aurangzeb (Bachapur & Deccan)27 Apr 1707 - 13 Jan 1708
  • Ruled during AH 1119-1120 (1707-1708) at Deccan and issued silver Rupees at Ahsanabad, Dar uz-Zafar - Bijapur, Gokak, Imtiyazgarh, Nusratabad, Surat, Toragal, Gulbarga and Dar-ul-Jihad - Haidarabad. Copper paisa coins at Bijapur and gold Mohurs at Dar-ul-Jihad - Haidarabad, Nusratabad and Bijapur. Title: Mohammad Kam Bakhsh-e Dinpanah ibn Aurangzib Alamgir Padshah.
  • Shah Alam I Bahadur Shah I [Muazzam] S/o Aurangzeb...27 Apr 1707 - 27 Feb 1712
  • Title: Qutb ud-din Abu'n Nasr Sayyed Mohammad Shah Alam I Bahadur Shah Padshah-e-Ghazi. Enthroned on 23 Mar 1707 at Lahore. He had four known sons: Jahandar Shah (killed 1713), Azim-ush-Shah, Rafi ul-Qadr (Rafi ush-Shah) and Khujistan Akhtar Jahan Shah. His original name was Qutb ud-Din Muhammad Mu'azzam later titled as Shah Alam by his father. He took the throne name Bahadur Shah in 1707. First of the Mughal emperors to preside over a steady and severe decline in the territories under the empire's control and military power due to the rising strength of the autonomous Nawabs. After his reign, the emperor became a progressively insignificant figurehead. Reigning just five years, he was an old man of 63 when he came to power. He made settlements with the Marathas, tranquilized the Rajputs, and became friendly with the Sikhs in the Punjab. He was traveling throughout his reign and only came to rest in Lahore in the last few months of his life.
  • Azim-ush-Shan S/o Shah Alam I (Bengal)...............29 Feb 1712 - 17 Mar 1712
  • Governor of Bengal, proclaimed Badshah in AH 1124 (1712). Two kinds of rare silver Rupees are known to be struck on his name at Katak and Jahangirnagar. Title: Mohammad Azim-ush-Shan ibn Bahadur Shah Padshah.
  • Jahan Shah [Khujistan Akhtar] S/o Shah Alam I (rebel)29 Feb 1712 - 27 Mar 1712
  • Rafi ush-Shah S/o Shah Alam I (rebel)................29 Feb 1712 - 28 Mar 1712
  • No coin are known for Jahan Shah [Khujistan Akhtar] and Rafi ush-Shah.
  • Jahandar Shah S/o Shah Alam I........................30 Mar 1712 - 10 Jan 1713
  • His title was Shahanshah-i-Ghazi Abu'l Fath Muiz-ud-Din Muhammad Ma'az-ud-Din Jahandar Shah Sahib-i-Quran Padshah-i-Jahan (Khuld Aramgah). His court was depraved. He was a mere puppet in the hands of his favourite wife, Lal Kunwar, who, before her elevation to the position of Queen Consort was a mere dancing girl. Her children were promoted to the highest offices of the Empire. He was also highly influenced by his Grand Vizier Zulfikar Khan. He was defeated in the battle at Agra on 10 January 1713 by Farrukhsiyar, his nephew the second son of Azim-ush-shan, with the support of the Syed Brothers. Various mint have produced coins on his name despite his short reign.

KM#348.6 Rupee. Year: AH 11xx - RY 2 [1708]. Weight: 11.27g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 22.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Akbarabad (epithet name: Mustaqir-ul-Mulk). Obverse: Auspicious coin of the fighter of infidels (Ghazi), the emperor Shah Alam Bahadur / 11xx. Reverse: Struck in Mustaqir-ul-Mulk - Akbarabad in the year 2 of the accession associated with prosperity. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 1119-1123 (1707-1712). Ruler: Shah Alam Bahadur S/o Aurangzeb (1707-1712).

Note: Common. This coin can be of dated AH 1119 or AH 1120 with RY 2.

  • Farrukh-Siyar S/o Azim-ush-Shah......................11 Jan 1713 - 01 Mar 1719
  • Title: Mo'in ad-Din [Jalal ad-Din] Abu'l Mozaffar Mohammad Farrukh-Siyar. The Sayyid Brothers refers to In 1717 he granted a firman to the English East India Company granting them duty free trading rights for Bengal and confirmed their position in India. Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha (afterwards Abdullah Khan) and Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha, powerful army generals in the late Mughal Empire. They turned king-makers in the anarchy following the death of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in 1707 CE and created and dethroned Emperors at their will (1714–1720). First they helped Farrukhsiyar (r. 1713 - 1719) take the throne in 1713, after he defeated his predecessor, Jahandar Shah in the battle at Agra on 10 January 1713. His reign marked the ascendancy of the Brothers, who monopolized state power and reduced the Emperor to an effective figurehead. They officially deposed him as the Emperor in 1719 and got him murdered, establishing his first cousin Rafi ud-Darajat as the next ruler in February 1719; when he died in June, they made his elder brother Rafi ud-Daulah (Shah Jahan II) the ruler till September, 1719 before getting him executed as well. Subsequently, Muhammad Shah (r. 1719 -1748) ascended the throne at the age of seventeen with their help and they remained his regent from 1719 to 1722. Muhhamad Shah, in order to take back control of his rule, got them killed with the help of Nizam-ul-Mulk Chin Qilich Khan; Hussain Ali Khan was murdered at Fatehpur Sikri in 1720. Various mint have produced coins on his name.
  • Rafi-ud-Darajat S/o Rafi ush-Shah....................01 Mar 1719 - 07 Jun 1719
  • He was ruled in AH 1131 with title: Shams ad-Din Abu'l Barakat Sulton Mohammad Rafi-ad-Darajat Padshah-e-Ghazi. Copper paisas are produced on his name at Peshawar, Surat and Kabul. Silver half Rupee at Shahjahanabad. Silver Rupees are reported to be produced by 27 mints and gold Mohur by 11 mints.
  • Muhammad Shah Nikusiyar S/o Muhammad Akbar (rebel)...30 Mar 1719 - 13 Aug 1719
  • One two specimen are known of this ruler minted at Akbarabad. Also an extremely rare coin of Nagpur is known for this ruler.
  • Rafi ul-Daulah Shah Jahan II S/o Rafi ush-Shah...... 08 Jun 1719 - 06 Sep 1719
  • He was ruled in AH 1131 with title: Muhammad Rafi Ad-dawla Shah Jahan Sani Padshah. Copper Dam are produced on his name at Akbarabad and Surat. Silver half Rupee at Surat and Lahore. Silver Rupees are reported to be produced by 33 mints including rare one from Sahib Qiran and gold Mohur by 10 mints.
  • Roshan Akhtar Mohammed Shah S/o Khujistan Akhtar.....28 Sep 1719 - 26 Apr 1748
  • Title: Nasir ad-Din Abu'l Fath (from 1722 Abu'l Mozaffar) Mohammad Shah Padshah-e-Ghazi "Roshan Akhtar". Various mint have produced coins on his name. Suffered the invasion of Nadir-Shah of Persia in 1739.
  • Muhammad Ibrahim S/o Rafi ush-Shah (rebel at Delhi)..12 Oct 1720 - 19 Nov 1720
  • He was ruled in AH 1132-1133 with title: Zahir ad-Din Abu'l Fath Mohammad Ibrahim Shah Padshah. Silver Rupees and gold Mohir were produced by Dar-ul-Khilafat - Shahjanabad only. Silver Rupees known to be dated AH 1132 - RY1 and AH 1133 - RY1, while the gold Mohur is found only dated AH 1132 - RY1.
  • Ahmed Shah Bahadur S/o Muhammad Shah.................29 Apr 1748 - 03 Jun 1754
  • Ruler's title: Mojahed ad-Din Abu'n Nasr Ahmad Shah Bahadur Padshah-e-Ghazi. Mughal forces massacred by the Maratha during the Battle of Sikandarabad in May 1754. This battle resulted in the complete shift of power from the Emperor to their Ministers. He was deposed by Vizier Ghazi ud-Din Khan Feroze Jung III in 1754 and later blinded along with his mother. He spent the remaining years of his life in prison and died of natural causes in January 1775. Copper Dams, various silver Rupees including 1/16, 1/8/ 1/4 and 1/2 silver Rupees also exists. Gold Mohurs were produced by 15 mints. 2 Mohurs, Fanam and Pagoda rare coins are also known.

KM#377.43 Rupee. Year: AH 1125 - RY 2 [1714]. Weight: 11.36g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Lahore (epithet name: Dar-us-Sultanat). Obverse: Farrukhsiyar / 112x. Reverse: Struck in Dar-us-Sultanat - Lahore in the year 2 of the accession associated with prosperity. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 1125-1131 (1714-1719). Ruler: Farrukh-Siyar S/o Azim-ush-Shan (1714-1719).

Note: Very Common. His coins display poetic couplet. This coin also exists as AH 1126 with same RY2.

KM#415.16 Rupee. Year: AH 1131 - RY 1(Ahad) [1719]. Weight: 11.40g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Lahore (epithet name: Dar-us-Sultanat). Obverse: Auspicious coin of the fighter of infidels (Ghazi), the emperor Shah Jahan / 1131. Reverse: Struck in Dar-us-Sultanat - Lahore in the year One of the accession associated with prosperity. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type. Ruler: Rafi ul-Daulah Shah Jahan II S/o Rafi ush-Shah (in 1719 only). Note: Scarce.

KM#437.4 Rupee. Year: AH 115x - RY 20 [1738]. Weight: 11.24g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Shahjahanabad (epithet name: Dar-ul-Khilafat). Obverse: Auspicious coin of the fighter of infidels (Ghazi), the emperor Muhammad Shah / Saheb Qiran-e Sani / 115x. Reverse: Struck in Dar-ul-Khilafat - Shahjahanabad in the year 20 of the accession associated with prosperity. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 1133 - 1161 (1720-1748). Ruler: Roshan Akhtar Mohammed Shah S/o Khujistan Akhtar (1719-1748).

Note: Extremely Common. This coin can be of dated AH 1150 or AH 1151 with RY20.

KM#446.14 Rupee. Year: AH 1165 - RY 4 [1752]. Weight: 11.37g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 20.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Multan. Obverse: Auspicious coin of the fighter of infidels (Ghazi), the emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur / 1165. Reverse: Struck in Multan in the year 4 of the accession associated with prosperity. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 1161 - 1165 (1748-1752). Ruler: Ahmad Shah Bahadur S/o Mohammed Shah (1748-1754). Note: Common.
  • Aziz ud-Din Alamgir II S/o Jahandar Shah.............03 Jun 1754 - 29 Nov 1759
  • Ruler's title: Aziz ad-din Abu'l Adl Mohammad Alamgir II Padshah-e-Ghazi. He was killed in 1759. Various mint have produced coins on his name.
  • Shah Jahan III [Muhyi-e-Millat] S/o Muyhi-e-Sunnat...11 Dec 1759 - 25 Dec 1760
  • Delhi was briefly captured by Marathas in 1759. The Battle of Buxar was fought on 22 October 1764 between the forces under the command of the British East India Company, and the combined armies of Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal; Shuja-ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Awadh; and Shah Alam II, the Mughal Emperor. The battle fought at Buxar, then within the territory of Bengal, a town located on the bank of the Ganges river, was a decisive victory for the British East India Company. Shuja-ud-Daulah, the prime victim, signed the Treaty of Allahabad that secured Diwani Rights for the Company. Ruler title: Mohyi-e Millat [Mohyi ad Din] Shah Jahan III Sani ibn Mohyi-e Sannat Mohammad ibn Kam Bakhsh. Various coins exists on his name.
  • Shah Alam II [Ali Gauhar] S/o Alamgir II (1st time)..25 Dec 1760 - 01 Aug 1788
  • Ruler's title: Abdullah Jalal ud-din Abu'l Muzaffar "Ham ud-din" Muhammad Ali Gauhar Shah-i-'Alam II Padshah. Since the deposition of this last ruler in 1760, Shah Alam II was considered the only and rightful emperor, but he wasn't able to return to Delhi until 1772. Coronation on 24 December 1759 at Gothauli.
  • Muhammad Bidar Bakht S/o Ahmad Shah..................01 Aug 1788 - 09 Oct 1788
  • Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad Kuchuk Jahan Shah IV Padshah Ghazi also called Bidar Bakht Mahmud Shah Bahadur, was Mughal Emperor of India for a brief period in 1788 (AH1202 - 1203) as a puppet of Rohilla revel Ghulam Qadir Khan. Bidar Bakht was the son of the former Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur. He was deposed in the same year by the Marathas and killed in 1790 on the orders of Emperor Shah Alam II, though it was he who had helped Shah Alam II during his brief reign by sending him water and food secretly when Ghulam Qadir had ordered that no food or water be supplied to the deposed Emperor. He had been made Subahdar of Punjab on 12 November 1752 as a child. Extremely rare coins produced by Ahmadabad and Katak mints are known.
  • Muhammad Akbar Shah II S/o Shah Alam II (1st time)...09 Oct 1788 - 16 Oct 1788
  • On his retreat to Saharanpur following the Maratha occupation of Delhi in Oct 1788, the Rohilla rebel Ghulam Qadir Khan deposed Bidar Bakht and substituted his cousin Muhammad Akbar, Shah Alam's favorite son, to rule nominally in exile. After Ghulam Qadir's capture and execution by the Marathas in March 1789, they restored the pathetic Shah Alam II to the Mughal throne at Delhi to reign as a puppet king. Abkar Shah II's only extremely rare known coins were issued from the temporary capital at Saharanpur in AH 1203.
  • Shah Alam II [Ali Gauhar] S/o Alamgir II (2nd time)..16 Oct 1788 - 19 Nov 1806
  • He was restored by the Marathas in March 1789 (AH 1203). Shah Alam's Nazarana Rupees and Mohur are also known. Shah Alam II legends were used by local and Mughal governors:
    • Akbarabad Mint
    • Najat Khan Rohilla, AH 1186-1193 (1773-1779)
    • Muhammad Beg Hamadani, AH 1193-1198 (1779-1784)
    • Mahadji Sindhia, AH 1199-1208 (1785-1794)
    • Ghulam Qadir Rohilla, AH 1202-1203 (1787-1788)
    • Daulat Rao Sindhia (with John and George Hessing in charge), AH 1213-1218 (1799-1803)
    • Gokulgarh Mint
    • Raja of Rewari
    • Rohilla Governor
    • Sindhia Governor
    • Hardwar Mint
    • Saharanpur Governor
    • Hathras Mint
    • Madhoji Sindhia as Amir-ul-Umara, AH 1199-1203 (1784-1788) and AH 1203-1209 (1788-1794)
    • Kora Mint
    • Mirza Najaf Khan
    • Saharanpur Mint
    • Ghani Bahadur, AH 1203-1205 (1788-1791)
    • Bhairon Pant Tantia, AH 1206-1208 (1791-1794)
    • Sikh occupation, AH 1209-1210 (1794)
    • Bapu Sindhia, AH 1211-1212 (1796-1798)
    • Imam Baksh, AH 1213-1214 (1799)
    • local governor General Perron (for Sindhia), AH 1215-1218 (1800-1803)
    • East India Company coins from 18th October 1803 with minted date AH 1218-1220. Coin produced at Madras presidency with frozen date 1172 RY6 (1812-1835).
    • Independent States: Shah Alam II legends were used by some states even long after his death, until AH1314 (1879), for example like at Ujjain. This is not true in case of proper Mughal issues.
  • Mohammed Akbar Shah II S/o Shah Alam II (2nd time)...19 Nov 1806 - 28 Sep 1837
  • Allahabad and Muzaffargarh mint Rupees are known on his name. Shahjahanabad (walled city of Delhi) mint has produced Paisa, 1/4 Rupee, 1/2 Rupee, Rupee, Nazarana Rupees, Mohur and Nazarana Mohur as well. Ruler's title: Moin ad-Din Abu'n Nasr Mohammed Akbar II Padshah Saheb Qiran-e Sani. Coronation on 19 November 1806 at Red Fort, Delhi.
  • Bahadur Shah II Zafar S/o Akbar Shah II..............28 Sep 1837 - 29 Mar 1858
  • Title: Siraj ud-Din Muhammad Badadur Shah II. Nazarana silcer Rupees of 11.444g are known to exist for this ruler from AH 1253-1258 (1837-1842). Ruler's title: Abu Zafar Seraj ad-Din Abu'l Mozaffar Mohammad Bahadur Shah II Zafar Padshah. He rebelled against British Rule from 12 May 1857 to 20 Sep 1857. British forces led by Major William Hodson surrounded the tomb and compelled his surrender on 20 September 1857. The next day British officer William Hodson shot his sons Mirza Mughal, Mirza Khizr Sultan, and grandson Mirza Abu Bakr under his own authority at the Khooni Darwaza (the bloody gate) near Delhi Gate. On hearing the news Zafar reacted with shocked silence along with his wife Zeenat Mahal. Numerous male members of his family were killed by British forces, who imprisoned or exiled the surviving members of the Mughal dynasty. Bahadur Shah II was deposed on 29 Mar 1858 after a show trial. Zafar himself was exiled to Rangoon, Burma (now Yangon, Union of Myanmar) in 1858 along with his wife Zeenat Mahal and some of the remaining members of the family. His departure as Emperor marked the end of more than three centuries of Mughal rule in India. Bahadur Shah II Zafar died at Yangon (Rangoon), Myanmar on 07 Nov 1862.
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