Libya
 
 
Libya is a country in North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west. With an area of almost 1.8 million square kilometres (700,000 sq mi), Libya is the third largest country in Africa by area, and the 17th largest in the world. The largest city and capital is Tripoli. The three traditional parts of the country are Cyrenaica, Fezzan and Tripolitania.
Territorial Disputes: Libya has claimed more than 32,000 sq km in southeastern Algeria and about 25,000 sq km in the Tommo region of Niger in a currently dormant dispute; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya.
 
                      1521  Cyrenaica part of the Ottoman Empire.
               14 Aug 1551  Tripolitania part of the Ottoman Empire.
               29 Jul 1711  Tripoli Regency under de facto hereditary Qaramanli dynasty.  
               26 May 1835  Direct Ottoman rule restored.
                      1911  Independent government in Tripolitania
                             (in rebellion against Ottoman sovereignty).
               03 Oct 1911  Italian occupation.
               18 Oct 1912  Ceded to Italy by the Ottoman Empire.
 16 Nov 1918 - 1923         Tripolitanian Republic (in revolt against Italy).
               12 Nov 1922  Annexed to Italy (nominally 18 May 1919).
               01 Jan 1934  Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, Fezzan united as Colony of Libya.
                 1941/1942  Tripolitania and Cyrenaica occupied by Britain,
                             Fezzan occupied by France.
               13 May 1943  End of Italian rule.
               15 Feb 1947  Italy formally cedes Libya to the Allies.
               21 Nov 1949  United Nations supervision, under British and French.
               24 Dec 1951  Independence as United Libyan Kingdom.
               25 Apr 1963  Libyan Kingdom (federal arrangement abolished).
               01 Sep 1969  Libyan Arab Republic
 01 Jan 1972 - 19 Nov 1977  Part of Federation of Arab Republics (Egypt, Libya and Syria).
 28 Nov 1972 - 30 May 1994  Libya occupies (and 1975 annexes) the Aozou (Aouzou) Strip
                             region in Chad.
               02 Mar 1977  Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
                  Apr 1986  Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
               23 Aug 2011  Libya (proclaimed on 10 Aug 2011).
                             Provisional parliamentary Republic.
 
 
CYRENAICA
 
               1521         Cyrenaica part of the Ottoman Empire (under Tripolitania).
               1843         Sanusiya Order founded.
               15 Oct 1912  Italian protectorate declared Cirenaica (Cyrenaica).
               18 Oct 1912  Ceded to Italy by the Ottoman Empire.
               17 May 1919  Italian Cirenaica colony.
               25 Oct 1920  Italian government recognizes Sheikh Sidi Idriss as the
                             leader of the Sanusiya (Sensussi); with authority only in
                             regions of Koufrah, Djarabouh, Audjila and Djalo, with
                             Adjedabia (Agedabia) as capital.
               1920         Italy claims sovereignty.
               1929         Italy derecognizes the Order.
               01 Jan 1934  Tripolitania, Cirenaica, and Fezzan united as Libya.
    Dec 1940 - Mar 1941     British forces occupy Bardia (5 Jan 1941), Tobruk (22 Jan 
                             1941), Derna (Feb 1941), El Agheila and Benghazi (Feb 1941).
               Feb 1941     British administration (Cyrenaica district).
    Mar 1941 - Nov 1941     Axis forces retake El Agheila (24 Mar 1941), Benghazi (3 Apr),
                             Derna (Apr 1941), and Tobruk 30 (Apr 1941).
 18 Nov 1941 - 31 Dec 1941  British forces retake Benghazi (24 Dec 1941), Derna
                             (Dec 1941), Tobruk (4 Dec 1941) and Gazala (15 Dec 1941).
 21 Jan 1942 - 07 Jul 1942  Axis forces retake Benghazi (29 Jan 1942), Derna (Dec 1941),
                             Tobruk (21 Jun 1942), and Bardia (June 1942).
               11 Nov 1942  British forces occupy Bardia, Tobruk (13 Nov 1942),
                             Derna (15 Nov 1942) and Benghazi (20 Nov 1942).
                  Oct 1946  Sanusi emir recognized by Britain.
               01 Mar 1949  Independence proclaimed (Emirate of Cyrenaica).
               01 Jun 1949  Independence (Emirate of Cyrenaica) recognized by Britain.
               21 Nov 1949  Cyrenaica autonomous.
               24 Dec 1951  Incorporated into Libya.
               25 Apr 1963  Autonomy abolished.
               06 Mar 2012  Autonomy declared (not recognized by Libya) by Ahmed al-Zubair
                             al-Senussi (Head of Cyrenaica Transitional Council) 
 
  • On the coast of eastern Libya, a Greek Colony-Kingdom founded from Thera in the 7th century BCE. The interior just behind the coastal settlements was the scene of intense fighting during WWII between FM. Montgomery and FM Rommel. Capital: Benghazi (Barce 1942-1943).
  • Libya-Egypt, to c. 635/630.
  • BATTIAD
  • Battus I..............................................c. 632 - c. 600
  • Arcesilaus I..........................................c. 600 - c. 583
  • Battus II Eudaemon....................................c. 583 - c. 554
  • Arcesilaus II the Cruel...............................c. 554 - c. 550
  • Learchus the Usurper...........................................c. 550
  • Battus III the Lame...................................c. 550 - c. 525
    • Vassals of Persia 525-440
    • Arcesilaus III...................................c. 530 - 515
    • Battus IV the Handsome..............................515 - 465
    • Arcesilaus IV.......................................465 - 460
  • Republic of Cyrene.......................................460 - 331
  • Macedon..................................................331 - 322
  • Egypt....................................................323 - 308
    • Thibron of Sparta...................................323 - 322
    • Ptolemy Soter (Pharaoh 323-305).....................322 - 313
    • Ophellas............................................313 - 308
  • Magas....................................................308 - 258
  • Demetrius the Handsome...................................258 - 257
  • Republic of Cyrene.......................................257 - 246
  • Egypt....................................................246 - 240
  • Ecdelos........................................................240
  • Demophanes.....................................................240
  • Egypt....................................................240 - 205
  • Philemon.................................................205 - 204
  • Egypt ? .................................................204 - 200
  • Numidia..................................................200 - 149
  • Egypt....................................................149 - 116
  • Ptolemy Aspion (1st time)................................116 - 110
  • Nikostratos the Tyrant.........................................110
  • Ptolemy Aspion (2nd time)................................110 - 96
  • Republic (Free port under Roman influence)................96 - 75/4
  • Roman Republic..........................................75/4 - 37/6
  • Egypt...................................................37/6 - 30
  • Cleopatra Selene (dau. Cleop. VII; also Libya)............34 - 30
  • Roman Republic............................................30 - 27
  • Roman Empire..........................................27 BCE - 395 CE
  • Byzantine Empire.........................................395 - 670
  • The Prophet Muhammad's elected successors................647 - 661
    • Oqba ibn Nafi'i al-Fihri (1st time).................647 - 654
    • unknown ruler
    • Oqba ibn Nafi'i al-Fihri (2nd time).................658 - 666
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................661 - 750
    • Ruwaifi' ibn Thabit al-Ansari.......................666 - 667
    • Zoheïr ibn Kaïs al-Balawi...........................667 - ?
    • Ibrahim ibn an-Nasrani................................? - c. 697
    • Talid al-Fata (the Slave)........................c. 697 - c. 718
    • Fehd ibn Kathir..................................c. 718 - 752
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................750 - 879
    • Abu 'Awn 'Abd al-Malik ibn Yezid....................752 - 753
    • unknown ruler
    • Ibn Dabbes..........................................757 - 765
    • 'Abd as-Salem as-Sabaï..............................765 - ?
    • unknown ruler
    • Isa ibn Mansur......................................830 - 842
    • Muhammed ibn 'Abdaweïh al-Jili......................842 - 871
    • Muhammed ibn Harthama ibn A'yun.....................871 - 875
    • Ahmed ibn Issa as-Sa'di.............................875 - 876
    • Muhammed ibn Farrukh al-Farghani..........................876
    • Shu'ba ibn Kharriken................................876 - 879
  • al-Abbas ibn Ahmed ibn Tulun (revolt)....................879 - 881
    • Tulunid (Egypt) gov. appointed by Capt. Tabargi.....881 - ?
  • Fatimids.................................................910 - 1004
    • Abu an-Nasr Ahmed ibn Salih...............................910
    • Kheïr al-Mansuri....................................910 - 916
    • Abu Medyen ibn Farrukh al-Lahissi...................916 - 918
    • Aflah an-Nashib al-Kutami...........................918 - ?
    • unknown rulers
    • Yanus as-Siqilli..........................................1000
    • unknown ruler
    • Sandal al-Aswad (the Black)...............................1004
  • Abu Rakwa (revolt)......................................1004 - 1007
  • Unknown ruler
  • Mukhtar ibn al-Kassim......................................? - 1029
  • Mukarreb ibn Mafi....................................c. 1029 - c. 1048
  • Jabara ibn Mukhtar...................................c. 1048 - c. 1049
  • Madhi ibn Mukarreb.............................................c. 1049
  • Banu Suleïm tribe.......................................1049 - 1172
  • Sharaf al-Din Karakush al-Mudhaffari an-Nassiri.........1172 - 1182
  • Banu Suleïm tribe.......................................1182 - c. 1359
    • Sayf ad-Din Ata Allah ibn Azzaz....................1264 - ?
    • unknown ruler
    • Jafar ibn Umar al-Jafari
    • Arif ibn Amru......................................2nd half of 14th cent.
    • Amru ibn Arif......................................2nd half of 14th cent.
  • Egypt................................................c. 1359 - 1517
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1517 - 1911
    • Awlad Sayyidi Abd Allah dynasty
    • Sheikhs of al-Khattabi al-Mujahiri al-Hasani al-Idrisi lineage
    • Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Sanusi.............................1843 - 07 Sep 1859
    • Sayyid Muhammad ibn Sayyid Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Sanusi.07 Sep 1859 - 02 Jun 1902
    • Sayyid Ahmad ibn Sayyid Muhammad ash-Sharif as-Sanusi..02 Jun 1902 - 21 Aug 1918
    • Sayyid Muhammad Idris as-Sanusi........................21 Aug 1918 - 25 Oct 1920
    • Emir
    • Sayyid Muhammad Idris as-Sanusi (continued - 1st time).25 Oct 1920 - 1929
    • exile in Egypt from 1923.
    • Sayyid Muhammad ar-Rida (acting)..............................1923 - 1928
    • Umar Muhtar (acting)..........................................1928 - 1929
  • Italy...................................................1911 - 1941
    • Governors
    • Ottavio Briccola...................................1911 - Oct 1913
    • Giovanni Battista Ameglio......................Oct 1913 - 05 Aug 1918
    • Vincenzo Garioni............................05 Aug 1918 - 05 Aug 1919
    • Giacomo De Martino..........................05 Aug 1919 - 23 Nov 1921
    • Luigi Pintor................................23 Nov 1921 - Oct 1922
    • Eduardo Baccari................................Oct 1922 - Dec 1922
    • Luigi Bongiovanni...........................07 Jan 1923 - May 1924
    • Ernesto Mombelli............................04 May 1924 - 02 Nov 1926
    • Attilio Teruzzi.............................08 Nov 1926 - 31 Dec 1928
    • Vice-Governors
    • Domenico Siciliani.............................Jan 1929 - Mar 1930
    • Rodolfo Graziani, marchese di Neghelli.........Mar 1930 - May 1934
    • Guglielmo Nasi.................................Jun 1934 - Apr 1935
  • Occupied by Great Britain...........................Jan 1941 - Apr 1941
    • Military Governors
    • Sir Henry Maitland Wilson......................Dec 1940 - 1941
    • Philip Neame................................28 Feb 1941 - 08 Apr 1941
    • Sir John Dudley Lavarack..................................1941
  • Germany (Afrika Korps under Rommel).................Apr 1941 - Nov 1941
  • Occupied by Great Britain...........................Nov 1941 - June 1942
  • Germany (Afrika Korps under Rommel).................Jun 1942 - Dec 1942
  • Occupied by Great Britain...............................1942 - 1945
    • Military Governors
    • Anthony Sillery...........................................1943
    • Angus Lyell Collier.......................................1943
    • H.R. Hall...................................19 Dec 1943 - 1944
    • Administrators
    • Duncan Cameron Cumming......................21 Dec 1942 - 30 Oct 1945
    • He was military administrator to 10 Mar 1943.
  • Anglo-French authority..................................1945 - 1951
    • Administrators
    • Peter Bevil Edward Acland...................30 Oct 1945 - 1946
    • James William Norris Haugh.........................1946 - 1948
    • Eric Armar Vully de Candole........................1948 - 1951
    • He was resident from 17 Sep 1949.
    • Emir
    • Sayyid Muhammad Idris as-Sanusi (2nd time).....Oct 1946 - 24 Dec 1951
      • Prime Ministers
      • Umar Mansur Kikhia.....................09 Nov 1949 - 18 Mar 1950
      • Muhammad Sakizli.......................18 Mar 1950 - 24 Dec 1951
  • Under Libya thereafter...
 
 
FEZZAN
              
               918          Sultanate of Fezzan founded.
        1190 - 12..         Annexed by Egypt.
               1212         Annexed by Borno (Kanem).
               13..         Independence recovered.
        1580 - 1582         Incorporated into Ottoman Empire.
        1612 - 1614         Incorporated into Ottoman Empire.
        1623 - 1626         Incorporated into Ottoman Empire.
        1689 - 1690         Incorporated into Ottoman Empire.
               1843         Incorporated into Ottoman Empire (Fezzan Paskalik).
        1909 - 1914         Sanusi rule.
 15 Oct 1912 - 11 Jan 1943  Annexed by Italy.
    Aug 1914 - Jan 1915     Italian occupation.
        1915 - 1923         Sanusi rule (restored).
        1923 - 1930         Anarchy, ruled by Arab nomads.
               01 Jan 1934  Fezzan, Tripolitania, and Cyrencia united as Libya.
               08 Jan 1943  Fezzan occupied by Free French, forces enter Sebha.
                      1946  UN administration
               10 Jan 1947  Fezzan Territory, under French administration.
               01 Jan 1948  Fezzan-Ghadamès Territory, under French administration.
               24 Dec 1951  Incorporated into Libya, with autonomy.
               25 Apr 1963  Autonomy abolished.
 
  • Fezzan is the arid interior of western Libya. Capital: Sebha 1943-1951 (Murzuq c.1566-1912).
  • Garamantes dynasty
  • Roman Empire..........................................19 BCE - 395 CE
  • Western Roman Empire.....................................395 - 428
  • Kingdom of Phazana - dynasty current in the 6th and 7th centuries, the Berauna.
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................667 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................750 - 918
  • Banu Khattab dynasty
  • al-GHUZZI
  • Sharaf al-Din Karakush..................................1190 - 1195 d. 1212
  • Yahya ibn Ghaniya.......................................1195 - 1209 d. 1209 >
  • Borno (Kanem)...........................................1209 - 1578
    • NESUR
    • The Nesur were a local clan who claimed a connection to the old Berauna dynasts. They governed Fezzan on behalf of the Kanem-Bornu (Chad) Empire.
    • KHORMAN
    • The Khorman were an Arab tribe who overthrew the Nesur and reduced the local population to that chattal slaves.
  • Beni MUHAMMAD (Awlad Muhammad dynasty)
  • The Beni Muhammad were derived from a Moroccan Sharif who broke the power of the Khorman in the mid-16th century and established a Sultanate in Fezzan. His descendants were at times tributary to the Pasha of Tripoli, (the Ottoman Governor of Libya), but just as often at war with the Ottomans. Even in times of obedience, their power within their own borders was effectively absolute.
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1578 - 1831
    • al-Mustansir ibn Muhammad..........................1566 - 1580
    • an-Nasir...........................................1580 - 1599
    • al-Mansur..........................................1599 - 1612
    • Governed from Tripoli 1612-1614.
    • Tahir I............................................1614 - 1623
    • Governed from Tripoli 1623-1626.
    • Muhammad I.........................................1626 - 1658
    • Nagib..............................................1658 - 1682
    • Muhammad II an-Nasir (1st time)....................1682 - 1689
    • Muhammad al-Mukni (Tripoli Governor)......................1689
    • Temmam....................................................1689
    • Muhammad III.......................................1689 - 1690
    • Ali al-Mukni (Tripoli Governor)...........................1690
    • Muhammad Ii an-Nasir (2nd time)....................1690 - 1709/18
    • Ahmad I.........................................1709/18 - 1767
    • Tahir II...........................................1767 - 1776
    • Ahmad II al-Munsur.................................1776 - 1789
    • Sharif Muhammad ibn al-Mansur al-Hakim.............1789 - 1804
    • Sharif Muhammad ibn al-Mansur al-Muntasr...........1804 - 1811
  • Yusuf al-Mukkani (usurper)..............................1811 - 1831
  • BERBER (Banu Sulayman dynasty)
  • Sayf an-Nasr Abd al-Jalil ibn Rad.......................1831 - 1842 opposed by...
  • ibn KHALIFA
  • Jumah ibn Khalifa (1st time in rebellion)...............1835 - 1842 d. 1856
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1842 - 1854
    • Walis (Viceroys)
    • Bekir Pasha........................................1842 - 1846
    • Hasan Pasha al-Bal`azi.............................1846 - 1855
  • ibn KHALIFA
  • Jumah ibn Khalifa (2nd time in rebellion)...............1854 - 1856
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1856 - 1914
    • Walis (Viceroys)
    • Halim Pasha (1st time).............................1859 - 1865
    • Hamid Bey (acting)........................................1865
    • Halim Pasha (2nd time).............................1865 - 1870
    • unknown ruler
    • Mustafa Faik Pasha...............................1870's - 1882
    • unknown ruler
    • Mahmud Bey.........................................1900 - c. 1906
    • Samih Bey.......................................c. 1906 - 1909
    • unknown ruler
  • Sanusi Governor
  • Sayyid Muhammad al-Abid (1st time)......................1909 - 15 Oct 1912
  • Italy...............................................Aug 1914 - Jan 1915
  • Anarchic times punctuated by Berber raids...............1915 - 1929
  • Sayyid Muhammad al-Abid (2nd time)......................1915 - 1923
  • Italy...................................................1929 - 1943
  • Allied Military Occupation..............................1943 - 1945
    • French Military Governor
    • René Delange................................08 Jan 1943 - c. Jan 1944
    • R. Thiriet..................................c. Jan 1944 - 1940s
    • Terri.....................................................1940s
  • Anglo-French authority..................................1945 - 24 Dec 1951
    • French Military Governor
    • Maurice Sarazac................................Mar 1947 - 1950
    • French Resident
    • Maurice Sarazac (continued)........................1950 - 24 Dec 1951
    • Auguste Cauneille (acting for Sarazac)....................1951
    • Hakim (from 12 Feb 1950, Wali [Chef du territoire])
    • Ahmad Sayf an-Nasr.................................1946 - 24 Dec 1951
    • Later he became Governor of Fezzan: 24 Dec 1951 - 12 Jun 1954.
  • Under Libya thereafter...
 
 
TRIPOLI (Tripolitania)
 
 26 Mar 909 - 977           Incorporated into Egypt.
               977          Part of Zirid Kingdom.
        1146 - 22 Jan 1160  Tripoli under Norman rule (subordinated to Kingdom of Sicily).
        1160 - 1248         Incorporated into Morocco (Almohad Empire).
        1172 - 1190         Egyptian rule.
        .... - 1202         Egyptian rule.
        1248 - 1327         Incorporated into Tunis.
               1327         Sultanate
        1401 - 1482         Incorporated into Tunis.
        1412 - 1421         Egyptian rule.
               24 Jul 1510  Spanish rule in Tripoli (subordinated to Sicily).
               23 Mar 1530  Spanish transfer Tripoli to the Knights of St. John
                             Hospitaller (Knights take possession 25 Jul 1530).
               14 Aug 1551  Province of the Ottoman Empire.
               29 Jul 1711  Tripoli Regency under de facto hereditary Qaramanli dynasty.
               26 May 1835  Tripoli Ottoman province (direct Ottoman rule).
                      1911  Independent government (in rebellion against Ottoman
                             sovereignty).
               03 Oct 1911  Italian occupation.
               05 Nov 1911  Italian Tripolitania protectorate.
               18 Oct 1912  Ceded to Italy by the Ottoman Empire.
               16 Nov 1918  Tripolitanian Republic
               12 Nov 1922  Annexed to Italy (Italian Tripolitania colony)
                             (nominally from 18 May 1919).
               01 Jan 1934  Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, Fezzan united as Libya.
               23 Oct 1942  British administration (Tripolitania district).
               20 Nov 1942  British forces occupy Benghazi, Sirte (25 Dec 1942) and
                             Tripoli (23 Jan 1943).
                      1946  UN administration.
               24 Dec 1951  Incorporated into Libya, with autonomy.
               25 Apr 1963  Autonomy abolished.
 
  • A port in western Libya, it is the country's largest city. Capital: Tripoli (Republic: Aziziyah 1918-1923).
  • Phoenician colony of Oea - It was founded as a Carthaginian trading post.
  • "Tripoli" is named as such because Oea formed one settlement within an extended tri-cities district. The other settlements were Sabratha (now al-Khums) and Leptis Magna (sometimes transcribed as Lepcis; the nearest modern town of any size is Misratah). Leptis Magna city had been in a downward spiral since the 360's, suffering much from Barbarian attacks, disastrous Winter flooding, and encroaching sand dunes; by the time of the Arab conquest in 642, there was essentially nothing left of the community. By the end of the 7th century, references to Misratah, a caravanserai way-station, begin to occur. Leptis Magna remains one of the best-preserved Roman cities, owing to it being more-or-less buried under the shifting sands until quite recently.
  • Carthage..............................................c. 500 - 146
  • Leptis Magna taken by Numidia............................202 - 111
  • Roman Republic...........................................146 - 27
  • Roman Empire..........................................27 BCE - 442 CE
  • Vandals..................................................442 - 534
  • Leptis Magna under Vandals in c. 455 and Sabratha c. 450.
  • Byzantine Empire.........................................534 - 647
  • The Prophet Muhammad's elected successors................647 - 649
  • Byzantine Empire.........................................649 - 667
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................667 - 697
  • Byzantine Empire.........................................697 - 703
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................703 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................750 - 800
  • In this era, the governors of Tripoli were appointed by those of Ifriqiyya and not by the Caliphs directly.
    • Oqba ibn Nafi'i al-Fihri (1st time).................643 - 666
    • Ruwaifi' ibn Thabit al-Ansari.......................666 - 669
    • Oqba ibn Nafi'i al-Fihri (2nd time).................669 - 683
    • Zoheïr ibn Kaïs al-Balawi...........................683 - 695
    • Atiya ibn Yurbu' am-Madhhidgi.......................695 - 696
    • Hassene ibn al-Nu'man al-Ghassani...................696 - 705
    • Bakr ibn Issa al-Kaïsi............................713/4 - ?
    • Without walis until 728.
    • Yezid ibn Abi Muslim al-Kindi.......................728 - 741
    • Safwan ibn Abi Malik................................741 - 742
  • Revolt of Ukasha ibn Ayyub al-Fazari...........................741
    • Muawiya ibn Safawan.................................742 - 747
    • Ilyas ibn Habib al-Fihri............................747 - 755
    • Hamid ibn Abdallah al-'Aqqi.........................755 - ?
    • Yezid ibn Safwan al-Ma'afiri..........................? - 759
  • Revolt of Ismaïl ibn Zied an-Nafusi............................759
    • Amr ibn Suwayd al-Muradi............................759 - 761
    • Abdallah ibn Rahima.................................758 - 761
    • al-Mukhariq ibn Ghifar at-Taii......................761 - 768
    • al-Junayd ibn Bashar al-Assedi......................768 - ?
    • Saïd ibn Shadded......................................? - 793
    • Yahya ibn Musa......................................793 - 795
    • Sofiene ibn Abi-l Muhadjir..........................795 - 805
    • Ibadhite Imams
    • Djebel Nefusah is a hill country in the interior of western Libya, south of Tripoli. The district was in the hands of a group of Kharijite Imams of the Ibadhiyah sect during the 8th through 10th centuries CE. The Kharijites ("Withdrawers", "Seceders") are Muslims who rejected both Sunni and Shi'ite interpretations of Caliphate succession and developed an idealist and deed-oriented version of Islam. The Ibadhiyah are the moderate wing of the Kharijtes, as opposed to the radical Azariqah movement of Basra, in Iraq.
    • Abu-l-Khattab Abd al-A'la ibn Assamh al-Ma'afiri....758 - 761
    • Umar................................................761 - 771
    • Abu Hatim al-Malzuzi................................771 - 777
    • Occupied by Tahert..................................777 - 880
    • as-Samh ibn Abi-l Khattab al-Ma'afiri...............777 - 812
    • Khlaf ibn as-Samh al-Ma'afiri.......................812 - ?
    • Abu-l Hassan Ayyub
    • Abu Oubeïda Abd al-Hamid al-Janawni
    • Revolt of Khalaf.
    • al-Abbas ibn Ayyub
    • Abu Dharr Aben..............................(for 7 months, latter 9th c.)
    • Abu Mansur Ilyas......................................? - 880
    • al-Abbas ibn Ahmed Tulun............................880 - ?
    • al-Aflah ibn al-Abbas (1st time)......................? - 896
    • Revolt in 896.
    • al-Aflah ibn al-Abbas (2nd time)....................896 - ?
    • Abu Zakariyah Yahya al-Urjani.........................? - 923
    • Fatamid conquest of Djebel Nefusah in 923 and below sequence afterwards...
  • Aghlabids (Tunisia)......................................800 - 909
    • Ibrahim ibn Sofiene at-Tamimi.......................805 - 811
    • Abdallah ibn Ibrahim at-Tamimi (E. Ifriqiyya).............811
    • Sofiene ibn Abi-l Muhadjir (restored)...............811 - 838
    • unknown ruler
    • Abdallah ibn Muhammed at-Tamimi (E. Ifriqiyya)......859 - ?
    • Muhammed ibn Qahrub.................................868 - 888
    • vacant
    • Shukr as-Siqilli....................................891 - ?
    • Ahmed ibn Abdallah al-Aghlabi.......................903 - 909
  • Fatamids.................................................909 - 976
    • Makanun ibn Dhubara al-Lihiani......................909 - 912
  • Revolt of Muhammed ibn Ishaq al-Qurash, Ibn al-Qirlin..........912
    • Abu-l Futuh Zayyen as-Siqilli
    • Bassil as-Siqilli...................................953 - 973
    • Abdallah ibn Yakhluf al-Kutami......................973 - 977
  • Tunisia (Zirids).........................................977 - 1001
    • Ousla ibn Bakkar....................................977 - 1000
    • Yanus as-Siqilli (appointed by Fatamids)..................1000
    • Fattuh ibn Ali.....................................1000 - 1001
  • Banu KHAZRUN
  • Fulful ibn Saïd (1st time)..............................1001 - 1002
  • Fatamids................................................1002 - 1003
    • Yahya ibn Hamdun al-Andalusi.......................1002 - 1003
  • Fulful ibn Saïd (2nd time)..............................1003 - 1009
  • Warru ibn Saïd..........................................1009 - 1012
  • Tunisia.................................................1012 - 1023
    • Muhammad ibn al-Hassan.............................1012 - 1014
    • Abu Abdallah ibn al-Hassan.........................1014 - 1022
  • Khalifa ibn Warru.......................................1022 - 1028
  • Saïd ibn Khazrun........................................1028 - 1037
  • Abu'l Hasan Ali.........................................1037 - 1038
  • Khazrun ibn Khalifa.....................................1038 - ?
  • Muhammad...................................................? - 1053
  • Abu Muhammad Abdallah...................................1053 - 1058
  • al-Muntasir ibn Khazrun.................................1058 - 1068
  • Khalifa ibn Khazrun.....................................1068 - 1078
  • Muqallab................................................1078 - ?
  • Shah Malik at-Turki............................................fl. c. 1095
  • Muhammad ibn Khazrun....................................1095 - 1146
  • Sheikh Abu Yahya........................................1146 - 1148
  • Sicily..................................................1148 - 22 Jan 1160
    • Norman Kings
    • Roger II of Sicily.................................1146 - 26 Feb 1154
    • William I of Sicily.........................26 Feb 1154 - 22 Jan 1160
    • Norman Governor
    • Abu Yahya Rafi ibn Matruh..........................1148 - 1172
    • He continued to rule under Morocco (Almohad) till 1172.
  • Morocco (Almohad).......................................1160 - 1172
  • Egypt (Ayyubid).........................................1172 - 1190
    • Sharaf al-Din Qaraqush (1st time)..................1172 - 1190
  • Morocco (Almohad).......................................1190 - ?
    • Yakut al-Iftikhar.........................................fl. 1190's
  • Egypt (Ayyubid)............................. ? -1202
    • Sharaf al-Din Qaraqush (2nd time).........................fl. c. 1200
  • Morocco (Almohad).......................................1202 - c. 1247
    • Yahya al-Miruki....................................1204 - 1207
    • Abu Muhammad Abd al-Wahid..........................1207 - 1221
    • Abu Saïd Abd ar-Rahman.........................Mar 1221 - Jun 1221
    • Saïd Abu'l Ala Idris (1st time)...........................1221
    • Ibrahim ibn Ismail al-Hafsi (acting)...............1221 - 1222
    • Saïd Abu'l Ala Idris (2nd time)....................1222 - 1223
    • Abu Yahya Amran...........................................1223
    • Abu Zaiyid................................................1224
    • Abu Amran Musa.....................................1224 - 1226
    • unknown ruler
    • Yahya..............................................1228 - 1236
    • Abd ar-Rahman Yaqub................................1236 - c. 1247
  • Tunis (Hafsid).......................................c. 1247 - 1324
    • Muhammad "Silver Neck" ibn Isa al-Hafsi............1247 - 1279
    • Murjim.............................................1279 - 1282
    • Muhammad "Silver Neck" (2nd time)..................1282 - 1285
    • Yusef ibn Tahir al-Yourbu'i........................1285 - 1309
    • Zakariyah ibn Ahmed al-Hafsi.......................1309 - 1318
    • Muhammad ibn Musa al-Hafsi.........................1318 - 1324
    • Muhammad ibn Ka'abour.....................................1324
    • Saïd ibn Tahir............................................1324
    • Thabit ibn Muhammed (1st time)............................1324 d. 1326
    • Ahmed ibn Tahir...........................................1324
  • Banu THABIT
  • Thabit I ibn Muhammad al-Wishahi (2nd time).............1324 - 1327
  • Muhammed ibn Thabit.....................................1327 - 1348
  • Thabit II ibn Muhammad..................................1348 - 1355
  • Banu MAKKI (also governors of Gabes in Tunisia)
  • Ahmed ibn Makki.........................................1355 - 1365
  • Abd al-Rahman ibn Ahmed.................................1365 - 1371
  • Banu THABIT
  • Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad...................................1371 - 1392
  • Ali ibn Ammar...........................................1392 - 1397
  • Yahya ibn Abu Bakr......................................1397 - 1401 with...
  • Abd al-Wahid............................................1397 - 1401
  • Tunis...................................................1401 - 1470
  • Hafsid
    • Abd al-Aziz........................................1401 - 1420
    • al-Mansur Muhammad ibn Abd al-Aziz.................1420 - 1429
    • Abu Muhammed Abd al-Wahid ibn Hafs.................1429 - 1456
    • Abu Bakr ibn Othman................................1456 - 1470
  • Cheikh Mansur...........................................1470 - 1472
  • Yusef...................................................1472 - 1480
  • Mammi (or Mohammed).....................................1480 - 1492
  • Abdallah ibn Sharef.....................................1492 - 1510
  • Spain............................................26 Jul 1510 - 25 Jul 1530
    • Commander
    • Pedro de Navarra............................26 Jul 1510 - 1510 d. 1529
    • Governor
    • Diego de Vierra...........................................1510
    • Don Jaime de Requesens.............................1510 - 1511
    • Giovanni Francesco Paterno [Guillem de Moncada]....1511 - 1520
    • François Velasquès................................1520s - 25 Jul 1530
  • Malta............................................25 Jul 1530 - 14 Aug 1551
    • Gaspare de Sanguessa...............................1530 - 1531 and...
    • Bernardino Macado..................................1530 - 1532
    • Aurelio Bottigella (1st time)......................1532 - 1533
    • Garcia Cortès......................................1533 - 1535
    • Georg Schiling.....................................1535 - 1537
    • Aurelio Bottigella (2nd time)......................1537 - 1539
    • Hernando de Breacamonte............................1539 - 1544
    • Cristofano de Solis Farfan.........................1544 - 1546
    • Jean Parisot de la Valette (G. Master 1557-68).....1546 - 1549
    • Pitro Nuñez de Harrera.............................1549 - 14 Aug 1551
    • Gaspare de Vallie..............................Apr 1551 - Aug 1551
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1551 - 1711
    • Murad Agha.........................................1551 - 1553
    • Torgut (Dragut) Rais Pasha.........................1553 - 23 Jun 1565
    • Yahya Pasha...............................................1565
    • el-Euldj Ali Pasha (Lucciali)......................1565 - 1568
    • Ja'afar Pasha......................................1569 - 1580
    • Murad Pasha........................................1580 - 1581
    • Qa'id Ramadan Pasha................................1581 - 1584
    • Mustafa Pasha......................................1584 - 1588
    • Hussein Pasha......................................1588 - 1595
    • Ibrahim Pasha......................................1595 - 1600
    • Iskander Pasha.....................................1600 - 1606
    • Selim Pasha........................................1606 - 1607
    • Ali Pasha..........................................1607 - 1609
    • Ahmed Pasha...............................................1609
    • Suleiman Sfer Dey..................................1610 - 1620
    • Mustafa Sherif Pasha Dey...........................1620 - 1631
    • Kasim Pasha...............................................1631
    • Ramadan Agha Dey..........................................1631
    • Mehmed Saqizli Dey.................................1631 - 07 Nov 1649
    • Osman Saqizli Dey...........................07 Nov 1649 - 1672
    • Osman Reis as-Suhali Dey...........................1672 - 28 Nov 1672
    • Bali Janush [Javush] Dey....................28 Nov 1672 - 26 Apr 1673
    • Arnavut Halil Pasha.........................26 Apr 1673 - 1675
    • Mustafa Pehlevan Dey...............................1675 - May 1675
    • Ibrahim Misrli-Oglu Dey........................May 1675 - 03 Apr 1676
    • Ibrahim Jelebi Dey Annebli..................05 Apr 1676 - 07 Apr 1676
    • Mustafa el-Kbir Dey Estenquilli.............07 Apr 1676 - 04 Apr 1677
    • Osman Baba Wakil Al Khardj Dey..............04 Apr 1677 - 27 Apr 1678
    • Aq Mehmed Bey al-Hadded.....................27 Apr 1678 - 09 Sep 1679
    • Hasan Abaza Dey.............................09 Sep 1679 - 11 Jun 1683
    • Yulk Muhammad Dey...........................11 Jun 1683 - 13 Jun 1683
    • Ali al-Jezairli.............................13 Jun 1683 - 18 Jun 1684
    • Hajji Abdallah Dey Izmirli..................18 Jun 1684 - 08 Feb 1687
    • Ibrahim Terzi Dey..............................May 1687 - Nov 1687
    • Mehmed Pasha al-Imam Kerdeki (1st time)........Nov 1687 - 19 May 1701
    • Osman al-Kahwadji Dey Dragutli..............19 May 1701 - 11 Aug 1701
    • Mustafa Gallipoli Dey.......................11 Aug 1701 - 29 Jul 1702
    • Mehmed Pasha al-Imam Kerdeki (2nd time).....29 Jul 1702 - Oct 1706
    • Khalil [or Hilal] Pasha Karh Deghli............Oct 1706 - Nov 1709
    • Ibrahim al-Arkli Aleyli [Alayali]..............Nov 1709 - 23 Nov 1710
    • Ibrahim (or Ismaïl) Khoudja [Hoça]..........23 Nov 1710 - 20 Jan 1711
    • Hajji Rejeb Dey [Haçi Reçeb]................20 Jan 1711 (3 hours)
    • Mehmed Husein Javush [Hüseyin Çavush] Bey...20 Jan 1711 - 04 Jul 1711
    • Abu Umais Mehmed............................04 Jul 1711 - 29 Jul 1711
  • KARAMANLI
  • Nominally Ottoman governors (Beys), the Karamanli in fact ruled as de facto independents.
  • Ahmad I [Sidi Hamid Qaramanli Quluglu]...........29 Jul 1711 - 04 Nov 1745
  • Muhammad I [Mehmed Pasha]........................04 Nov 1745 - 24 Jul 1754
  • Ali I............................................24 Jul 1754 - 30 Jul 1793 d. 1795
  • BURGHUL
  • Ali II Burghul Pahsa Çezayrli (usurper)..........30 Jul 1793 - 20 Jan 1795
  • KARAMANLI
  • Ahmad II Pasha...................................20 Jan 1795 - 11 Jun 1795
  • Yusuf Pasha ibn Ali..............................11 Jun 1795 - 20 Aug 1832 d. 1838
  • In 1801, Yusuf demanded a tribute of $225,000 from United States President Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson, confident in the ability of the new United States Navy to protect American shipping, refused the Yusuf Pasha's demands. Yusuf Pasha unofficially declare war in May 1801 by chopping down the flagpole before the American consulate. The US Navy successfully blockaded Tripoli's harbors in 1803. After some initial military successes, most notably the capture of the USS Philadelphia, the pasha soon found himself threatened with invasion by American ground forces following the Battle of Derna (April 27 - May 13, 1805) and the reinstatement of his deposed brother, Hamet Karamanli, recruited by the American army officer William Eaton. Yusuf Pasha signed a treaty ending the war on June 10, 1805. The Battle of Derne was the first recorded land battle of the United States on foreign soil after the American Revolutionary War.
  • Mehmed (1st time in rebellion).................................1817
  • Muhammad II [Mehmed ibn Ali] (1st time in rebellion)...........1824
  • Mehmed (2nd time in rebellion).................................1826
  • Mehmed (3rd time in rebellion).................................Jul 1832
  • Ali III..........................................20 Aug 1832 - 26 May 1835
  • By 1819, the various treaties of the Napoleonic Wars had forced the Barbary states to give up corsair activity almost entirely, and Tripoli's economy began to crumble. As Yusuf Pasha weakened, factions sprung up around his three sons; though Yusuf abdicated in 1832 in favor of his son Ali III, civil war soon resulted. Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II sent in troops ostensibly to restore order, but instead deposed and exiled Ali III, marking the end of both the Karamanli dynasty and an independent Tripoli.
  • Muhammad II [Mehmed ibn Ali] (2nd time in rebellion)...........1835
  • Ottoman Empire...................................26 May 1835 - 1911
    • Walis of Tripoli
    • Mustafa Negib Pasha.........................27 Jun 1835 - 07 Sep 1835
    • Mehmed Reis Pasha...........................07 Sep 1835 - Apr 1837
    • Tahir Pasha....................................Apr 1837 - 1838
    • Hassan Pasha.......................................1838 - 03 Aug 1838
    • Ali Asker Pasha.............................03 Aug 1838 - Apr 1842
    • Pepe Mehmed Emin Pasha.........................Jul 1842 - Apr 1847
    • Sarayli Mehmed Ragib Pasha.....................Apr 1847 - Oct 1848
    • Haçi Ahmed Izzet Pasha.........................Oct 1848 - 1849
    • Mustafa Asim Pasha.................................1849 - Aug 1852
    • Sirkatibi Mustafa Nuri Pasha...................Aug 1852 - Sep 1855
    • Arnavud Nazhar Osman Pasha.....................Sep 1855 - Sep 1858
    • Ahmed Izzet Pasha (1st time).......................1858 - Aug 1860
    • Mahmud Nedim Bey...............................Aug 1860 - Apr 1867 d. 1883
    • Hassan Pasha (acting)..........................Apr 1867 - Jul 1867
    • Cezayrli Ali Reza Pasha (1st time).............Jul 1867 - May 1870
    • Mustafa Asim Pasha (acting - 1st time).........May 1870 - Jun 1870
    • Mehmed Halid [Halet] Pasha.....................Jan 1870 - Sep 1871
    • Bostancibahizade Mehmed Rashid Pasha...........Sep 1871 - Apr 1872
    • Cezayrli Ali Reza Pasha (2nd time).............Apr 1872 - 06 Jun 1873
    • Hasan Samih Pasha...........................06 Jun 1873 - Nov 1874
    • Mustafa Asim Pasha (2nd time)..................Nov 1874 - Feb 1875
    • Fosfor Mustafa Sidki Pasha.....................Feb 1875 - Aug 1877
    • Mehmed Çelaleddin Pasha...................................1877
    • Söylemezoglu Ali Kemali [Savfet]...............Dec 1877 - Feb 1878
    • Mehmed Sabri Pasha.............................Feb 1878 - Jul 1879
    • Ahmed Izzet Pasha (2nd time)...................Jul 1879 - May 1880
    • Mehmed Nazif Pasha.............................May 1880 - Oct 1881
    • Ahmed Rasim Pasha..............................Oct 1881 - Jun 1896
    • Nemik Bey......................................Jun 1896 - Mar 1899
    • Haçim Bey......................................Mar 1899 - Jul 1900
    • Hafiz Mehmed Pasha.............................Jul 1900 - Dec 1903
    • Hasan Husni Pasha (Hüseyin Effendi)............Dec 1903 - May 1904
    • Abderrahman Bey (acting).......................May 1904 - Aug 1904
    • Reçeb Pasha....................................Aug 1904 - Aug 1908
    • Ahmed Favzi Pasha..............................Dec 1908 - Aug 1909
    • Hüseyin Husni Pasha............................Aug 1909 - Aug 1910
    • Ibrahim Pasha..................................Aug 1910 - 05 Nov 1911
    • Neshet Bey................................................Nov 1911
    • Bekir Samih Bey................................Nov 1911 - 1912
    • Ahmed Bassim Bey (acting)..........................1912 - 1915
    • Osman Bey..........................................1915 - 1917
    • Nuri Bey...........................................1917 - 1918
    • Ishaq Bey.................................................1918
    • Osman Fuad Pasha...................................1918 - 16 Nov 1918
  • Italy...................................................1911 - 1943
    • Sulayman ibn Abd Allah al-Baruni...................1911 - Mar 1913
    • Governor-General of Tripolitania
    • Sulayman ibn Abd Allah al-Baruni (continued).......1915 - 16 Nov 1918
    • Chairman of the Council of the Republic
    • Ahmad Tahir al-Murayyid.....................16 Nov 1918 - Nov 1920
    • Chairman of the Central Reform Board of the Republic
    • Ahmad Tahir al-Murayyid........................Nov 1920 - 1923
    • Governors
    • Raffaele Borea Ricci d'Olmo.................05 Oct 1911 - 11 Oct 1911
    • Carlo Francesco Giovanni Battista Caneva....11 Oct 1911 - 1912
    • Ottavio Ragni......................................1912 - 02 Jun 1913
    • Vincenzo Garioni (1st time).................02 Jun 1913 - Oct 1914
    • Luigi Druetti..................................Oct 1914 - Jan 1915
    • Giulio Cesare Tassoni..........................Jan 1915 - Jul 1915
    • Giovanni Battista Ameglio...................15 Jul 1915 - 05 Aug 1918
    • Vincenzo Garioni (2nd time).................05 Aug 1918 - 17 May 1919
    • Vittorio Menzinger..........................01 Aug 1919 - 06 Jun 1920
    • Luigi Mercatelli............................01 Aug 1920 - Jul 1921
    • Giuseppe Volpi, conte di Misurata..............Jul 1921 - Jul 1925
    • Emilio De Bono..............................03 Jul 1925 - 24 Jan 1929
    • Pietro Badoglio.............................24 Jan 1929 - 31 Dec 1933
  • Occupied by Great Britain........................15 Dec 1942 - 24 Dec 1951
    • British Military Governor
    • Maurice Stanley Lush........................15 Dec 1942 - 26 Jan 1943
    • Travers Robert Blackley.....................26 Jan 1943 - 1943
    • Administrator (from Apr 1949, resident)
    • Travers Robert Blackley (continued)................1943 - 24 Dec 1951
  • Under Libya thereafter...
 
 
 
LIBYA (general sequence)
 
  • DANAID Mythical ancestor-kings
  • Danaos
  • Belus
  • Amraon
  • Bocchus
  • Ephaphus
  • Lycus...........................................................fl. c. 1200
  • Early Historical kings
  • Merirey.........................................fl. c. 1230's - 1220's
  • Merirey is spoken of as being the leader of the Labu, a coalition of folk associated with the Sea-Peoples.
  • Unknown rulers
  • SHESHONQID (Meshwesh, or Ma)
  • Buyuwawa........................................................c. 1200
  • Buyuwawa is spoken of as being the leader of a Sea-People called the Meshwesh. See the Sea Peoples for additional info on that tribe.
  • Mawasun
  • Neb-Neshi
  • Pasouti
  • Sheshonq.......................................................fl. c. 1000
  • Nimlot.........................................................fl. early 900's
  • Sheshonq I (1st Pharaoh, 22nd Egyptian Dyn.).............945 - 924
  • Osorkon I (2nd Pharaoh, 22nd Dynasty)....................924 - 889 with...
  • Sheshonq II (3rd Pharaoh)......................................fl. c. 890
  • Takelot I (4th Pharaoh)..................................889 - 874
  • Osorkon II (5th Pharaoh).................................874 - 850
  • Takelot I (6th Pharaoh)I.................................850 - 825
  • Sheshonq III (7th Pharaoh)...............................825 - 773
  • Pami (8th Pharaoh).......................................773 - 767
  • Sheshonk IV (9th Pharaoh)................................767 - 730
  • Osorkon IV (10th and final Pharaoh, 22nd Dyn.)...........730 - 715
  • Tarqu..........................................................early 600's
  • Adicran...........................................late 600's - early 500's
  • Unknown ruler
  • Psammetichus I.................................................earlier 400's
  • Inaros.................................................463/2 - 454
  • Psammetichus II................................................fl. 445/4
  • Psammetichus III...............................................fl. 400
  • Cyrene.........................................................to 332
  • Macedon..................................................332 - 323
  • Egypt....................................................323 - 96
  • PTOLEMID
  • Ptolemy Euergetes (Egy. 170-64,145-16; + Cyr.)...........163 - 145 d. 116
  • Egypt....................................................145 - 96
  • Roman Republic............................................96 - 37/6
  • Egypt...................................................37/6 - 34
  • Cleopatra Selene (dau. Cleop. VII; also Cyr.).............34 - 30
  • Roman Republic............................................30 - 27
  • Roman Empire..........................................27 BCE - 395 CE
  • Byzantine Empire.........................................395 - 670
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................670 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................750 - 909
  • Fatamids.................................................909 - 1159
  • Morocco.................................................1159 - 1235
  • Egypt...................................................1235 - 1517
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1517 - 1911
  • See Fezzan and Tripoli for local conditions indicated above.
  • Italy.........................................,.........1911 - 1943
  • Italian Governors-general
  • Italo Balb.......................................01 Jan 1934 - 28 Jun 1940
  • Rodolfo Graziani, marchese di Neghelli...........01 Jul 1940 - 25 Mar 1941
  • Italo Gariboldi..................................25 Mar 1941 - 19 Jul 1941
  • Ettore Bastico...................................19 Jul 1941 - 02 Feb 1943
  • Giovanni Messe (acting)..........................02 Feb 1943 - 13 May 1943
  • Allied Military Occupation..............................1943 - 1945
  • Anglo-French authority..................................1945 - 24 Dec 1951
  • UN Commissioner
  • Adrian Pelt (Netherlands)........................10 Dec 1949 - 24 Dec 1951
  • He arrived in Tripoli on 18 Jan 1950.
  • SANUSI (Kingdom)
  • Sayyid Muhammad Idris as-Sanusi..................24 Dec 1951 - 01 Sep 1969
  • The discovery of significant oil reserves in 1959 and the subsequent income from petroleum sales enabled the Kingdom of Libya to transition from one of the world's poorest nations to a wealthy state. It also discontent mounted with the rise of Nasserism and Arab nationalism/socialism throughout North Africa and the Middle East. Coup d'état on 01 sep 1969 by a group of about 70 young army officers lead by Muammar Gaddafi, known as the Free Officers Movement and enlisted men mostly assigned to the Signal Corps, seized control of the government and in a stroke abolished the Libyan monarchy. The coup was launched at Benghazi, and within two hours the takeover was completed. Army units quickly rallied in support of the coup, and within a few days firmly established military control in Tripoli and elsewhere throughout the country. Popular reception of the coup, especially by younger people in the urban areas, was enthusiastic. Fears of resistance in Cyrenaica and Fezzan proved unfounded. No deaths or violent incidents related to the coup were reported.
 
1952 coinage under Idris I (Libyan Kingdom)
Currency: Pound = 100 piastres (قرش, qirsh) = 1000 milliemes (مليم).
When Libya was a part of the Ottoman Empire, the country used the Ottoman qirsh (XOTP), issuing some coins locally until 1844. When Italy took over the country in 1911, the Italian lira was introduced. In 1943, Libya was split into French and British mandate territories. Algerian francs were used in the French mandate, whilst Tripolitanian lira issued by the British Military Authorities were used in the British mandate. In 1951, the pound was introduced, replacing the franc and lira at rates of 1 Pound = 480 Lire = 980 Francs. Coins were issued in 1952 in denominations of 1, 2 and 5 milliemes, 1 and 2 piastres. "P.V." designer initials below the bust of King Idris I on all 1952 issues.
 

KM#1 1 millieme. Year: 1952. Weight: 2.99g [3.00g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Crown on the top. "Millieme" in Arabic on both sides anti-clockwise. Value "1 Millieme" in Arabic with date in the center. "ONE MILLIEME" at the bottom. Reverse: King Idris I's portrait facing right in the center. "King of Libya" at right side in Arabic anti-clockwise. "Al-Idris I" at left side in Arabic anti-clockwise. Mintage: 7,750,000 + 32 Proof. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#2 2 milliemes. Year: 1952. Weight: 5.96g [6.00g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Crown on the top. "Millieman" in Arabic on both sides anti-clockwise. Value "2 Milliemes" in Arabic with date in the center. "TWO MILLIEMES" at the bottom. Reverse: King Idris I's portrait facing right in the center. "King of Libya" at right side in Arabic anti-clockwise. "Al-Idris I" at left side in Arabic anti-clockwise Mintage: 6,650,000 + 32 Proof. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#3 5 milliemes. Year: 1952. Weight: 9.72g [10.00g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 28.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Crown on the top. "Khamasa" at right side in Arabic anti-clockwise. "Milliemat" on left side in Aerabic anti-clockwise. Value "5 Milliemes" in Arabic with date in the center. "FIVE MILLIEMES" at the bottom. Reverse: King Idris I's portrait facing right in the center. "King of Libya" at right side in Arabic anti-clockwise. "Al-Idris I" at left side in Arabic anti-clockwise Mintage: 7,680,000 + 32 Proof. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#4 1 piastre. Year: 1952. Weight: 3.77g [3.75g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Crown on the top. "Qirsh" on both sides in Arabic anti-clockwise. Value "1 Qirsh Libi" in Arabic with date in the center. "ONE PIASTRE" at the bottom. Reverse: King Idris I's portrait facing right in the center. "King of Libya" at right side in Arabic anti-clockwise. "Al-Idris I" at left side in Arabic anti-clockwise Mintage: 10,200,000 + 32 Proof. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#5 2 piastres. Year: 1952. Weight: 7.46g [7.50g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Crown on the top. "Qirshan" on both sides in Arabic anti-clockwise. Value "2 Qirshan Libyan" in Arabic with date in the center. "TWO PIASTRES" at the bottom. Reverse: King Idris I's portrait facing right in the center. "King of Libya" at right side in Arabic anti-clockwise. "Al-Idris I" at left side in Arabic anti-clockwise Mintage: 6,075,000 + 32 Proof. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1965 - AH 1385 coinage under Idris I (Libyan Kingdom)
In 1965, a second series of coins was issued in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 milliemes. The pound was replaced, at par, by the dinar in 1971 following the Libyan Revolution of 1969. These coins continued to circulate after 1971 as no new coins were issued until 1975.
 

KM#6 1 millieme. Year: 1965-AH1385. Weight: 1.69g [1.75g]. Metal: Nickel-Brass. Diameter: 16.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "Libyan Kingdom" at the top in Arabic. Crowned national arms in the center. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "1 Miillieme" value in Arabic with wreath below. "ONE MILLIEME" at the bottom. Mintage: 11,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#7 5 milliemes. Year: 1965-AH1385. Weight: 2.53g [2.50g]. Metal: Nickel-Brass. Diameter: 12 sided; 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "Libyan Kingdom" at the top in Arabic. Crowned national arms in the center. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "5 Miilliemat" value in Arabic with wreath below. "FIVE MILLIEMES" at the bottom. Mintage: 8,500,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#8 10 milliemes. Year: 1965-AH1385. Weight: 2.99g [3.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "Libyan Kingdom" at the top in Arabic. Crowned national arms in the center. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "10 Miilliemat" value in Arabic with wreath below. "TEN MILLIEMES" at the bottom. Mintage: 17,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#9 20 milliemes. Year: 1965-AH1385. Weight: 5.84g [6.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "Libyan Kingdom" at the top in Arabic. Crowned national arms in the center. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "20 Miilliema" value in Arabic with wreath below. "TWENTY MILLIEMES" at the bottom. Mintage: 8,750,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#10 50 milliemes. Year: 1965-AH1385. Weight: 6.93g [7.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 12-sided; 26.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "Libyan Kingdom" at the top in Arabic. Crowned national arms in the center. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "50 Miilliema" value in Arabic with wreath below. "FIFTY MILLIEMES" at the bottom. Mintage: 8,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#11 100 milliemes. Year: 1965-AH1385. Weight: 10.74g [11.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 29.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "Libyan Kingdom" at the top in Arabic. Crowned national arms in the center. Dates at the bottom. Reverse: "100 Miillieme" value in Arabic with wreath below. "ONE HUNDRED MILLIEMES" at the bottom. Mintage: 8,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

 
 
  • Guide of the Revolution (de facto Chief of State)
  • Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi...........01 Sep 1969 - 23 Aug 2011
  • He contiues in rebellion at Sirte to 20 Oct 2011.
  • Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council
  • Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi...........08 Sep 1969 - 01 Mar 1979
  • Secretaries of the General People's Congress (nominal chiefs of state)
  • Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi...........02 Mar 1977 - 01 Mar 1979
  • He also served as Prime Minister from 16 Jan 1970 to 16 Jul 1972.
  • Abdul Ati al-Obeidi..............................01 Mar 1979 - 07 Jan 1981
  • Muhammad az-Zaruq Rajab..........................07 Jan 1981 - 15 Feb 1984
  • Mifta al-Usta Umar...............................15 Feb 1984 - 07 Oct 1990
  • Abdul Razzaq as-Sawsa............................07 Oct 1990 - 18 Nov 1992
  • Zentani Muhammad az-Zentani......................18 Nov 1992 - 03 Mar 2008
  • Muftah Muhammad al-Sanusi Kaiba..................03 Mar 2008 - 05 Mar 2009
  • Mubarak Abdallah al-Shamikh......................05 Mar 2009 - 26 Jan 2010
  • Muhammad Abul-Qasim al-Zwai......................26 Jan 2010 - 23 Aug 2011
 
1975 - AH1395 coinage (Libyan Arab Republic)
Currency: Libyan Dinar (LYD) = 1000 dirhams
The dinar (Arabic: دينار‎) is the currency of Libya. Its ISO 4217 code is "LYD". The dinar is subdivided into 1000 dirham (درهم). It was introduced in 1971 and replaced the pound at par. It is issued by the Central Bank of Libya, which also supervises the banking system and regulates credit. In 1972, the Libyan Arab Foreign Bank was established to deal with overseas investment. Until 1975, old coins denominated in milliemes (equal to the dirham) circulated. In 1975, coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 dirham which bore the coat of arms of the Federation of Arab Republics. "الجماهيرية العربية الليبية" [Libyan Arab Republic] is written on all 1975 issues.
 

KM#12 1 dirham. Year: 1975-AH1395. Weight: 1.69g [1.75g]. Metal: Brass Clad Steel. Diameter: 16.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Coat and Arms in the center. Dates on both sides. "Libyan Arab Republic" in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: "1 dirham" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: 20,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#13 5 dirhams. Year: 1975-AH1395. Weight: 2.48g [2.50g]. Metal: Brass Clad Steel. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Coat and Arms in the center. Dates on both sides. "Libyan Arab Republic" in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: "5 dirham" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: 23,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#14 10 dirhams. Year: 1975-AH1395. Weight: 2.98g [3.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel Clad Steel. Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Coat and Arms in the center. Dates on both sides. "Libyan Arab Republic" in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: "10 dirham" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: 52,750,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#15 20 dirhams. Year: 1975-AH1395. Weight: 5.41g [5.50g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel Clad Steel. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Coat and Arms in the center. Dates on both sides. "Libyan Arab Republic" in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: "20 dirhama" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: 25,500,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#16 50 dirhams. Year: 1975-AH1395. Weight: 6.21g [6.25g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Coat and Arms in the center. Dates on both sides. "Libyan Arab Republic" in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: "50 dirhama" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: 25,640,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#17 100 dirhams. Year: 1975-AH1395. Weight: 8.00g [8.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 27.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Coat and Arms in the center. Dates on both sides. "Libyan Arab Republic" in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: "100 dirham" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: 15,433,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1979 - AH1399 coinage (Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)
These were followed in 1979 by a second series of coins, in the same denominations, which bore a design of a horseman in place of the arms. ¼ and ½ dinar coins were issued in 2001 and 2004, respectively. In 2009, new 50, 100 dirhams, ¼ and ½ dinar coins were issued. 1, 5, 10, and 20 dirham coins are rarely used as units of exchange. However, they still retain their status as legal tenders.
On 2 March 1977, the GPC, at Gaddafi's behest, adopted the "Declaration of the Establishment of the People's Authority" and proclaimed the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (Arabic: ‏الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الاشتراكية‎, al-Jamāhīrīyah al-Arabīyah al-Lībīyah ash-Sha‘bīyah al-Ishtirākīyah). In the official political philosophy of Gaddafi's state, the "Jamahiriya" system was unique to the country, although it was presented as the materialization of the Third International Theory, proposed by Gaddafi to be applied to the entire Third World. Jamahiriya (Arabic: جماهيرية‎ jamāhīrīyah) is an Arabic term generally translated as "state of the masses"; Lisa Anderson has suggested "peopledom" or "state of the masses" as a reasonable approximations of the meaning of the term as intended by Gaddafi.
 

KM#18 1 dirham. Year: 1979-AH1399. Weight: 1.74g [1.75g]. Metal: Brass Clad Steel. Diameter: 16.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Horseman in the center with dates on his both sides. "Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: "1 dirham" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: 1,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#19 5 dirhams. Year: 1979-AH1399. Weight: 2.46g [2.50g]. Metal: Brass Clad Steel. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Horseman in the center with dates on his both sides. "Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: "5 dirham" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: 2,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#20 10 dirhams. Year: 1979-AH1399. Weight: 2.99g [3.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel Clad Steel. Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Horseman in the center with dates on his both sides. "Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: "10 dirhama" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: 4,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#21 20 dirhams. Year: 1979-AH1399. Weight: 5.51g [5.50g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel Clad Steel. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Horseman in the center with dates on his both sides. "Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: "20 dirhama" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: 6,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#22 50 dirhams. Year: 1979-AH1399. Weight: 6.30g [6.25g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Horseman in the center with dates on his both sides. "Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: "10 dirham" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: 9,120,000. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#23 100 dirhams. Year: 1979-AH1399. Weight: 7.98g [8.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 27.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Horseman in the center with dates on his both sides. "Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: "100 dirham" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: 15,000,000. Minted Years: One year type.
 
1369 solar years after Prophet Muhammad's death (2001 CE) coinage
(Greater Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)
Libya was renamed in Apr 1986 as Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya [(الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الإشتراكية العظمى) al-Jamāhīrīyah al-‘Arabīyah al-Lībīyah ash-Sha‘bīyah al-Ishtirākīyah al-‘Uẓmá]. This phrase  is written on all the coins issued in 2001, 2004 and 2009.
 

KM#26 1/4 Dinar. Year: 1366 solar years after Prophet Muhammad's death [2001 CE]. Weight: 11.27g [11.25g]. Metal: Nickel-Brass. Diameter: 29.00 mm. Edge: Reeded and Plain; 5 patched each. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Horseman in the center with date above him. "Greater Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: "Quarter Dinar" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

 
1372 solar years after Prophet Muhammad's death (2004 CE) coinage
(Greater Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)
 

KM#27 1/2 Dinar. Year: 1372 solar years after Prophet Muhammad's death [2004 CE]. Weight: 11.62g [11.65g]. Metal: Bi-metallic; Copper-Nickel outer ring and Brass in the center. Diameter: 29.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Horseman in the center with date above him. "Greater Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: "Half Dinar" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

 
1377 solar years after Prophet Muhammad's death (PD) - 2009 CE coinage of Greater Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
 
 

KM#28 50 dirhams. Year: 1377 PD -2009. Weight: 5.44g [5.50g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24.75 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "Greater Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" in Arabic at the top. Horseman in the center. Dates at the bottom.  Reverse: "50 dirhama" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#29 100 dirhams. Year: 1377 PD -2009. Weight: 6.94g [7.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "Greater Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" in Arabic at the top. Horseman in the center. Dates at the bottom.  Reverse: "100 dirham" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#30 1/4 Dinar. Year: 1377 solar years after Prophet Muhammad's death - 2009 CE. Weight: 8.14g [8.15g]. Metal: Nickel-Brass. Diameter: 29.00 mm. Edge: Reeded and Plain; 5 patched each. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "Greater Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" in Arabic at the top. Horseman in the center. Dates at the bottom.  Reverse: "Quarter Dinar" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

Note: Besides the design and legend size difference from 1369 PD issue, this coin has a horizontal edge on the top instead of the pointed one. The thickness of the coin is also reduced as indicated from the weight.

KM#31 1/2 Dinar. Year: 1377 solar years after Prophet Muhammad's death - 2009 CE. Weight: 10.33g [10.50g]. Metal: Bi-metallic; Copper-Nickel outer ring and Brass in the center. Diameter: 29.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "Greater Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" in Arabic at the top. Horseman in the center. Date at the bottom. Reverse: "Half Dinar" value in Arabic with wreath below, surrounded by design. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.
 
  • Chairman of the National Transitional Council
  • Mustafa Muhammad Abdul Jalil.....................05 Mar 2011 - 08 Aug 2012
  • in rebellion to 23 Aug 2011 in Benghazi.
  • President of the General National Congress of Libya
  • Mohammed Ali Salim (acting)......................09 Aug 2012 – 10 Aug 2012
  • Mohamed Yousef el-Magariaf.......................10 Aug 2012 - 28 May 2013
  • Giuma Ahmad Atigha (acting)......................28 May 2013 - 25 Jun 2013
  • Nouri Abusahmain.................................25 Jun 2013 - date
 
 
 
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