Mihailo Obrenović III
(Serbian: Mihajlo Obrenović; September 16, 1823 – June 10, 1868) was Prince
of Serbia from 1839 to 1842 and again from 1860 to 1868. His first reign
ended when he was deposed in 1842, and his second when he was assassinated
in 1868. He is stated as being the most enlightened ruler of modern Serbia.
He advocated the idea of a Balkan federation against the Ottoman Empire.
Mihailo was the son of Prince Miloš Obrenović (1780–1860) and his wife
Ljubica Vukomanović (1788–1843, Vienna). He was born in Kragujevac, the
second surviving son of the couple. He spent his childhood in Kragujevac,
then in Požarevac and Belgrade. Having finished his education in Požarevac,
Mihailo left Serbia with his mother to go to Vienna. His elder brother Milan
Obrenović II was born in 1819 but was frequently in poor health.
Initially, Prince Miloš abdicated in favour of his firstborn Milan Obrenović
II, who was by then terminally ill and died after just month of rule. So
Mihailo came to the throne as a minor, having been born in 1823, and
acclaimed prince on June 25, 1839 upon the abdication of his father and
death of his elder brother. He was declared of full age the following year.
Few thrones appeared more secure, and his rule might have endured throughout
his life but for his want of energy and inattention to the signs of the
times. In his first reign he showed as very unexperienced ruler. Mihailo
didn’t cope best with complicated situation in which Serbia was at the time.
In 1842 his reign came to a halt when he was overthrown by a rebellion led
by Toma Vučić-Perišić, which enabled the Karađorđević dynasty to accede to
the Serbian throne.
After the overthrow, Prince Mihailo withdrew from
Serbia with around one thousand of his sympathizers across Sava and Danube.
His destiny was decided by Austria and Turkey. Prince Mihailo was directed
to the estate of his sister Savka Nikolić, while Princess Ljubica was sent
to Novi Sad. She died there in 1843. Mihailo organized her burial at
He addressed Vučić through a letter in 1853 saying that he doesn’t want to
take the throne back by violence. Prince later moved to Vienna with his
father, Prince Miloš Obrenović, and everybody who knew him. There he
disposed of large father's estate. He traveled Europe looking for a wife. At
that time he wrote, Što se bore misli moje. At Vienna Mihailo married
Countess Júlia Hunyady de Kéthely (August 26, 1831 – February 19, 1919), the
daughter of Count Ferenc Hunyady de Kéthely and Countess Júlia Zichy de Zich
and Vásonkeő. The marriage was childless, although he did have at least one
illegitimate child by a mistress whose identity has not been ascertained.
While in exile he learned French and German fluently.
Finally, Mihailo was accepted back as Prince of Serbia in September 1860,
after the death of his father who had regained the throne in 1858. For the
next eight years he ruled as an enlightened absolute monarch. During his
second reign the People's Assembly was convened just three times, in 1861,
1864 and 1867. Prince Mihailo's greatest achievement was in persuading the
Turkish garrisons to leave Serbia, in 1862 (when the Ottoman Army left the
fortresses of Užice and Soko Grad) and 1867 (when the Turks left their
fortifications in Belgrade, Šabac, Smederevo and Kladovo). This was done
with major diplomatic support from Russia and Austria. In 1866 Mihailo began
campaign of forging The First Balkan Alliance by signing the series of
agreements with other Balkan entities in period 1866-1868.
Mihailo wished to divorce his wife Julia in order to
marry his young mistress, Katarina Konstantinović, who was the daughter of
his first cousin, Princess Anka Obrenović. Both resided at the royal court
at his invitation. His plans for a divorce and subsequent remarriage to
Katarina met with much protest from politicians and clergy, as well as the
general public. His astute and gifted Prime Minister Ilija Garašanin was
dismissed from his post in 1867 for daring to voice his opposition to the
divorce. However, his divorce from Julia never took place.
While Prince Mihailo Obrenović was gradually introducing absolutism in the
country, a conspiracy was formed against him. The main organizers and
perpetrators of the conspiracy were the brothers Radovanović, who wanted to
avenge Ljubomir Radovanović who was in prison. Kosta Radovanović, the main
perpetrator of the murder, was a wealthy and respected merchant. His
brother, Pavle Radovanović, was with him during the assassination attempt,
and the third of the brothers was Djordje Radovanović.
On June 10, 1868, Mihailo was travelling through the park of Košutnjak in a
carriage, near his country residence on the outskirts of Belgrade, with
Katarina and her mother Princess Anka, when they were shot by assassins. In
the park appeared Pavle and Kosta Radovanović in formal black suits, and
with a loaded gun pointed in the direction of the Prince's carriage. Kosta
approached the carriage. Prince Mihailo Obrenović recognized him, because of
a dispute over his brother Ljubomir. The last words of the Prince, which
Kosta himself admitted when on trial were: "Well, it's true." Mihailo and
Anka were both killed, and Katarina was wounded. The plot behind the
assassination has never been clarified; the sympathizers of the Karađorđević
dynasty were suspected of being behind the crime, but this has not been
Anka's granddaughter Natalija Konstantinović was married in 1902 to the
Montenegrin Prince Mirko Petrović-Njegoš (1879–1918), whose sister Zorka had
married King Petar Karađorđević I in 1883.
|Dinar = 100 para
The dinar (Serbian Cyrillic: динар, pronounced [dînaːr];
paucal: dinara / динара) is the currency of Serbia. The earliest use of the
dinar dates back to 1214.
The first mention of a "Serbian dinar" dates
back to the reign of Stefan Nemanjić in 1214. Until the fall of Despot
Stjepan Tomašević in 1459, most of the Serbian rulers minted silver dinar
coins. The first Serbian dinars, like many other south-European coins,
replicated Venetian grosso, including characters in Latin (the word 'Dux'
replaced with the word 'Rex'). For many years it was one of the main export
articles of medieval Serbia, considering the relative abundance of silver
coming from Serbian mines. Venetians were weary of this, and Dante Alighieri
went so far as to put the Serbian king of his time, Stephen Uroš II Milutin
of Serbia, in Hell as forgerer (along with his Portuguese and Norwegian
counterparts): "E quel di Portogallo e di Norvegia lě si conosceranno, e
quel di Rascia che male ha visto il conio di Vinegia".
Following the Ottoman conquest, different foreign currencies were used up to
the mid 19th century. The Ottomans operated coin mints in Novo Brdo, Kučajna
and Belgrade. The subdivision of the dinar, the para, is named after the
Turkish silver coins of the same name (from the Persian پاره pāra, "money,
coin"). After the Principality of Serbia was formally established (1817)
there were many different foreign coins in circulation. Eventually, Prince
Miloš Obrenović decided to introduce some order by establishing exchange
rates based on the groat (Serbian groš, French and English piastre, Turkish
kuruş) as money of account. In 1819 Miloš published a table rating 43
different foreign coins: 10 gold, 28 silver, and 5 copper. After the last
Ottoman garrisons were withdrawn in 1867, Serbia was faced with multiple
currencies in circulation. Thus, prince Mihailo Obrenović (Michael
Obrenovic) ordered a national
currency be minted. The first bronze coins were introduced in 1868. In 1868,
bronze coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 5 and 10 paras. The
obverses featured the portrait of Prince Mihailo Obrenović III.
|Serbia KM#1.2 1 para.
Weight: 0.94 g [1.00
Diameter: 15.25 mm [15.00 mm]. Edge:
Crown at the top. Numeral "1" in the center
with "ПАРА" (para) written below. Date "1868" below the Value.
Wreath surrounds the Value and Date.
Mihailo's portrait facing left in the center. "ОБРЕНОВИЋ III."
(Obrenović III) written clockwise at the left side. "КЊАЗ СРЋСКИ"
(Prince of Serbia) written clockwise
at the right side. "A.S." (Anton Scharff) initials below the neck. Mintage:
7,500,000 (including KM#1.1 type). Mintage Years:
One year type.
Karl Rudolf Scharff (both sides).
Note: This type has "КЊАЗ СРЋСКИ"
legend instead of KM#1.1 legend "КЊАЗ СРБСКИ".
Anton Karl Rudolf Scharff (10 June 1845
in Vienna - 05 July 1903 in Brunn am Gebirge ) was an Austrian
medalist. Anton Scharff was the son of the medalist and
Steinschneider Johann Michael Scharff (11 November 1806 in
Hüttelsdorf - 22 May 1855 in Vienna). From 1860 he studied at the
Viennese Academy with Carl Radnitzky . In 1862 he was a pupil of the
Graveurakademie in the main coin office of Joseph Daniel Böhm . In
1866 he was an engraver, and two years later he was appointed a kk
mint engraver. He was a director from 1881, and from 1896 he was
director of the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts, earning special merit
in the Viennese medalist art, since in those years Scharff's work
had seen a period of prosperity and renewal. The coins of the crown
currency were created by him in 1892. On September 22, 1884, medal
(gold, silver, bronze) awarded for the first time by the Land, Fruit
and Vegetable Production Association of Berndorf ; Drawing: Joseph
Anton Bauer (1820-1905); Client: Arthur Krupp. His medals revived
the Austrian medal art, which up to that time had been characterized
by the strictly academic conception of his teacher Böhm. From 1879,
Scharff also created a large number of medals for Munich , including
those with the portraits of King Ludwig II and Prince Regent
Luitpold of Bavaria. In 1887 he received an order from the city of
London for the official dedication medal on the occasion of the 50th
anniversary of Queen Victoria's government. His main focus was on
the portrait . "Less fortunate," Thieme-Becker argued, were "his
allegories," but: "His work on coinage, among them the series of
coins of the Austrian crown currency, is of particularly clean
work." In 1882 Anton Scharff became a chamber medalist, and in 1886
he received the Archduke Carl Ludwig Medal in gold, in addition to
Gyula Benczúr. In 1888 he became an honorary member of the Academy
of Fine Arts in Vienna. In 1893 he was awarded the Franz Joseph
Order. Scharff received numerous other domestic and foreign prizes
and awards. In 1906 the Anton-Scharff-Gasse in Vienna- Meidling was
named after him.
Click on below links to view coinage used by Serbia:
- Actual Ottoman rule: 1389-1717, 1739-1789,
1791-1804, 1813-1817. Governors at Niš 1719-1739.
Mihailo [Michael] Obrenović
Sep 1860 - 10 Jun 1868
II [Milan Obrenović IV] (King
Jul 1868 - 06 Mar 1889
Mar 1889 - 11 Jun 1903
Peter I (King
of Serbs, Croats, & Slovenes from 1918).15
Jun 1903 - 16 Aug 1921
of Yugoslavia from 1929)..........16
Aug 1921 - 09 Oct 1934
II..............................................09 Oct 1934 - 29 Nov 1945
- Occupied Territory and Federal Republic
occupation.....................................13 Apr 1941 - 20 Oct 1944
Yugoslavia......................29 Nov 1943 - 29 Nov 1945
Republic of Yugoslavia............29 Nov 1945 - 07 Apr 1963
- Socialist Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia..............07 Apr 1963 - 27 Apr 1992
- Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia........................27 Apr 1992 - 04 Feb 2003
- Serbia and
Montenegro.................................04 Feb 2003 - 03 Jun 2006
- Republic of
Serbia....................................05 Jun 2006 - date