Mihailo Obrenović III coinage: 1868.
Mihailo Obrenović (Serbian: Mihajlo Obrenović; September 16, 1823 – June 10, 1868) was Prince of Serbia from 1839 to 1842 and again from 1860 to 1868. His first reign ended when he was deposed in 1842, and his second when he was assassinated in 1868. He is stated as being the most enlightened ruler of modern Serbia. He advocated the idea of a Balkan federation against the Ottoman Empire.

Mihailo was the son of Prince Miloš Obrenović (1780–1860) and his wife Ljubica Vukomanović (1788–1843, Vienna). He was born in Kragujevac, the second surviving son of the couple. He spent his childhood in Kragujevac, then in Požarevac and Belgrade. Having finished his education in Požarevac, Mihailo left Serbia with his mother to go to Vienna. His elder brother Milan Obrenović II was born in 1819 but was frequently in poor health.

Initially, Prince Miloš abdicated in favour of his firstborn Milan Obrenović II, who was by then terminally ill and died after just month of rule. So Mihailo came to the throne as a minor, having been born in 1823, and acclaimed prince on June 25, 1839 upon the abdication of his father and death of his elder brother. He was declared of full age the following year. Few thrones appeared more secure, and his rule might have endured throughout his life but for his want of energy and inattention to the signs of the times. In his first reign he showed as very unexperienced ruler. Mihailo didn’t cope best with complicated situation in which Serbia was at the time. In 1842 his reign came to a halt when he was overthrown by a rebellion led by Toma Vučić-Perišić, which enabled the Karađorđević dynasty to accede to the Serbian throne.

After the overthrow, Prince Mihailo withdrew from Serbia with around one thousand of his sympathizers across Sava and Danube. His destiny was decided by Austria and Turkey. Prince Mihailo was directed to the estate of his sister Savka Nikolić, while Princess Ljubica was sent to Novi Sad. She died there in 1843. Mihailo organized her burial at Krušedolo monastery.

He addressed Vučić through a letter in 1853 saying that he doesn’t want to take the throne back by violence. Prince later moved to Vienna with his father, Prince Miloš Obrenović, and everybody who knew him. There he disposed of large father's estate. He traveled Europe looking for a wife. At that time he wrote, Što se bore misli moje. At Vienna Mihailo married Countess Júlia Hunyady de Kéthely (August 26, 1831 – February 19, 1919), the daughter of Count Ferenc Hunyady de Kéthely and Countess Júlia Zichy de Zich and Vásonkeő. The marriage was childless, although he did have at least one illegitimate child by a mistress whose identity has not been ascertained. While in exile he learned French and German fluently.

Finally, Mihailo was accepted back as Prince of Serbia in September 1860, after the death of his father who had regained the throne in 1858. For the next eight years he ruled as an enlightened absolute monarch. During his second reign the People's Assembly was convened just three times, in 1861, 1864 and 1867. Prince Mihailo's greatest achievement was in persuading the Turkish garrisons to leave Serbia, in 1862 (when the Ottoman Army left the fortresses of Užice and Soko Grad) and 1867 (when the Turks left their fortifications in Belgrade, Šabac, Smederevo and Kladovo). This was done with major diplomatic support from Russia and Austria. In 1866 Mihailo began campaign of forging The First Balkan Alliance by signing the series of agreements with other Balkan entities in period 1866-1868.

Mihailo wished to divorce his wife Julia in order to marry his young mistress, Katarina Konstantinović, who was the daughter of his first cousin, Princess Anka Obrenović. Both resided at the royal court at his invitation. His plans for a divorce and subsequent remarriage to Katarina met with much protest from politicians and clergy, as well as the general public. His astute and gifted Prime Minister Ilija Garašanin was dismissed from his post in 1867 for daring to voice his opposition to the divorce. However, his divorce from Julia never took place.

While Prince Mihailo Obrenović was gradually introducing absolutism in the country, a conspiracy was formed against him. The main organizers and perpetrators of the conspiracy were the brothers Radovanović, who wanted to avenge Ljubomir Radovanović who was in prison. Kosta Radovanović, the main perpetrator of the murder, was a wealthy and respected merchant. His brother, Pavle Radovanović, was with him during the assassination attempt, and the third of the brothers was Djordje Radovanović.

On June 10, 1868, Mihailo was travelling through the park of Košutnjak in a carriage, near his country residence on the outskirts of Belgrade, with Katarina and her mother Princess Anka, when they were shot by assassins. In the park appeared Pavle and Kosta Radovanović in formal black suits, and with a loaded gun pointed in the direction of the Prince's carriage. Kosta approached the carriage. Prince Mihailo Obrenović recognized him, because of a dispute over his brother Ljubomir. The last words of the Prince, which Kosta himself admitted when on trial were: "Well, it's true." Mihailo and Anka were both killed, and Katarina was wounded. The plot behind the assassination has never been clarified; the sympathizers of the Karađorđević dynasty were suspected of being behind the crime, but this has not been proven.

Anka's granddaughter Natalija Konstantinović was married in 1902 to the Montenegrin Prince Mirko Petrović-Njegoš (1879–1918), whose sister Zorka had married King Petar Karađorđević I in 1883.
Dinar = 100 para
Currency: The dinar (Serbian Cyrillic: динар, pronounced [dînaːr]; paucal: dinara / динара) is the currency of Serbia. The earliest use of the dinar dates back to 1214.

The first mention of a "Serbian dinar" dates back to the reign of Stefan Nemanjić in 1214. Until the fall of Despot Stjepan Tomašević in 1459, most of the Serbian rulers minted silver dinar coins. The first Serbian dinars, like many other south-European coins, replicated Venetian grosso, including characters in Latin (the word 'Dux' replaced with the word 'Rex'). For many years it was one of the main export articles of medieval Serbia, considering the relative abundance of silver coming from Serbian mines. Venetians were weary of this, and Dante Alighieri went so far as to put the Serbian king of his time, Stephen Uroš II Milutin of Serbia, in Hell as forgerer (along with his Portuguese and Norwegian counterparts): "E quel di Portogallo e di Norvegia lě si conosceranno, e quel di Rascia che male ha visto il conio di Vinegia".

Following the Ottoman conquest, different foreign currencies were used up to the mid 19th century. The Ottomans operated coin mints in Novo Brdo, Kučajna and Belgrade. The subdivision of the dinar, the para, is named after the Turkish silver coins of the same name (from the Persian پاره pāra, "money, coin"). After the Principality of Serbia was formally established (1817) there were many different foreign coins in circulation. Eventually, Prince Miloš Obrenović decided to introduce some order by establishing exchange rates based on the groat (Serbian groš, French and English piastre, Turkish kuruş) as money of account. In 1819 Miloš published a table rating 43 different foreign coins: 10 gold, 28 silver, and 5 copper. After the last Ottoman garrisons were withdrawn in 1867, Serbia was faced with multiple currencies in circulation. Thus, prince Mihailo Obrenović (Michael Obrenovic) ordered a national currency be minted. The first bronze coins were introduced in 1868. In 1868, bronze coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 5 and 10 paras. The obverses featured the portrait of Prince Mihailo Obrenović III.


Serbia KM#1.2 1 para. Year: 1868. Weight: 0.94 g [1.00 g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 15.25 mm [15.00 mm]. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Vienna, Austria. Obverse: Crown at the top. Numeral "1" in the center with "ПАРА" (para) written below. Date "1868" below the Value. Wreath surrounds the Value and Date.
Reverse: Mihailo's portrait facing left in the center. "ОБРЕНОВИЋ III." (Obrenović III) written clockwise at the left side. "КЊАЗ СРЋСКИ" (Prince of Serbia) written clockwise at the right side. "A.S." (Anton Scharff) initials below the neck. Mintage: 7,500,000 (including KM#1.1 type). Mintage Years: One year type. Engraver: Anton Karl Rudolf Scharff (both sides).

Note: This type has "КЊАЗ СРЋСКИ" legend instead of KM#1.1 legend "КЊАЗ СРБСКИ".

Anton Karl Rudolf Scharff (10 June 1845 in Vienna - 05 July 1903 in Brunn am Gebirge ) was an Austrian medalist. Anton Scharff was the son of the medalist and Steinschneider Johann Michael Scharff (11 November 1806 in Hüttelsdorf - 22 May 1855 in Vienna). From 1860 he studied at the Viennese Academy with Carl Radnitzky . In 1862 he was a pupil of the Graveurakademie in the main coin office of Joseph Daniel Böhm . In 1866 he was an engraver, and two years later he was appointed a kk mint engraver. He was a director from 1881, and from 1896 he was director of the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts, earning special merit in the Viennese medalist art, since in those years Scharff's work had seen a period of prosperity and renewal. The coins of the crown currency were created by him in 1892. On September 22, 1884, medal (gold, silver, bronze) awarded for the first time by the Land, Fruit and Vegetable Production Association of Berndorf ; Drawing: Joseph Anton Bauer (1820-1905); Client: Arthur Krupp. His medals revived the Austrian medal art, which up to that time had been characterized by the strictly academic conception of his teacher Böhm. From 1879, Scharff also created a large number of medals for Munich , including those with the portraits of King Ludwig II and Prince Regent Luitpold of Bavaria. In 1887 he received an order from the city of London for the official dedication medal on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of Queen Victoria's government. His main focus was on the portrait . "Less fortunate," Thieme-Becker argued, were "his allegories," but: "His work on coinage, among them the series of coins of the Austrian crown currency, is of particularly clean work." In 1882 Anton Scharff became a chamber medalist, and in 1886 he received the Archduke Carl Ludwig Medal in gold, in addition to Gyula Benczúr. In 1888 he became an honorary member of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. In 1893 he was awarded the Franz Joseph Order. Scharff received numerous other domestic and foreign prizes and awards. In 1906 the Anton-Scharff-Gasse in Vienna- Meidling was named after him.

Click on below links to view coinage used by Serbia:
  • Ottoman Empire 1389-1867
  • Actual Ottoman rule: 1389-1717, 1739-1789, 1791-1804, 1813-1817. Governors at Niš 1719-1739.
  • Mihailo [Michael] Obrenović III (2nd time)............26 Sep 1860 - 10 Jun 1868
  • Milan II [Milan Obrenović IV] (King from 1882)........02 Jul 1868 - 06 Mar 1889
  • Aleksandar............................................06 Mar 1889 - 11 Jun 1903
  • Peter I (King of Serbs, Croats, & Slovenes from 1918).15 Jun 1903 - 16 Aug 1921
  • Aleksandar (Kingdom of Yugoslavia from 1929)..........16 Aug 1921 - 09 Oct 1934
  • Peter II..............................................09 Oct 1934 - 29 Nov 1945
  • Occupied Territory and Federal Republic
  • German occupation.....................................13 Apr 1941 - 20 Oct 1944
  • Democratic Federative Yugoslavia......................29 Nov 1943 - 29 Nov 1945
  • Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia............29 Nov 1945 - 07 Apr 1963
  • Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia..............07 Apr 1963 - 27 Apr 1992
  • Federal Republic of Yugoslavia........................27 Apr 1992 - 04 Feb 2003
  • Serbia and Montenegro.................................04 Feb 2003 - 03 Jun 2006
  • Republic of Serbia....................................05 Jun 2006 - date
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