Saudi Arabia
 

 
Below are the rulers of Saudi Arabia before 1932: al-Haasa, al-Hijr (Lihyan, Mada'in Salih), Asir, Buraydah, Hail (Jebal Shammar), Kharj (Khardj), Makkah (Mecca), Medinah (Yathrib), Najran, Nejd, Tayma, Thamud and Unayzah.
Direct links to Hejaz and Saudi Arabia Coins.
 
al-Haasa (Aasa)
 
The east coast of Arabia, primarily the region opposite Qatar and Bahrain, but extending vaguely north along the coast toward Kuwait. Historically this area has held a high concentration of Shi'ites, as opposed to the generally Sunni populations in the rest of Saudi Arabia. An important town in the area is az-Zahran (Dhahran), site of recent Coalition bivouacs during Mesopotamian conflicts. Capital: Damman (to 1905, al-Hufuf).
 
  • Most of the history of this area before the 17th century is conjectural at best - what follows until 1638 is the best that can be done at the moment...
  • al-QASIMI (title: Hakim)
  • Mesopotamian state of "Sealand"......................c. 1700 - c. 1450 BCE
  • Dilmun (Bahrain) ?...................................c. 1450 - 709
  • Assyria ?................................................709 - c. 650 BCE ?
  • Gerrha............................................c. 650 BCE - c. 300 CE
  • Persian orbit of influence.........................c. 300 CE - c. 400 ?
  • Hirah (Persian vassal)............................c. 350/400 - 602
  • Persia...................................................602 - 635
  • The Prophet Muhammad's elected successors................635 - 661
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................661 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................750 - 945
  • The Qarmatians...........................................945 - 1073
  • UYUNID (Alaione)
  • Abdullah ibn Ali al-Uyuni...............................1073 - 1126
  • Fadl I ibn Abdullah.....................................1126 - 1139
  • Muhammad I ibn Fadl.....................................1139 - 1149
  • al-Hussein ibn Abdullah.................................1149 - 1151 with...
  • Ali I ibn Abdullah......................................1149 - 1151
  • Hagras ibn Muhammad............................................1151
  • Shaqr ibn Ali...........................................1152 - 1161
  • Civil war, 1161-1177.
  • Hassan ibn al-Hussein...................................1177 - 1180
  • Muhammad ibn Ahmed......................................1180 - 1209
  • Fadl II ibn Muhammad....................................1209 - 1219
  • Ali II Majid............................................1219 - 1220
  • Moqdam ibn Grir
  • Muhammad II ibn Majid
  • Muhammad III ibn Masud..................................1229 - 1239
  • Fadl III ibn Muhammad
  • Abbasid Caliphate....................................c. 1240 - 1258
  • Usfurid
  • An obscure dynasty - No names of these rulers at this time.
  • The Ottoman Empire......................................1638 - 1723
    • Governors
    • Fati-eh Pasha
    • Ali Pasha
    • Muhammad Pasha
    • Umar Pasha.........................................16.. - 1670
  • BANI KHALID - Sheikhdom of al-Haasa (Ahsa)
  • Ghurair Al-Humaid had three known sons: Barrak, Muhammad and Abdullah.
  • Barrak ibn Ghurair Al-Humaid............................1669 - 1682
  • Muhammad I ibn Ghurair Al-Humaid........................1682 - 1691
  • Sadun I ibn Muhammad I..................................1691 - 1722
  • Sadun had two known sons: Duwaihis and Dudjayn.
  • Vassal to the Najd (al-Diriyah Emirate).................1723 - 1795
    • Ali ibn Muhammad I.................................1722 - 1736 opposed by...
    • Sulayman ibn Muhammad I (1st time as pretender)....1723 - 1726 d. 1752
    • Sulayman ibn Muhammad I (2nd time).................1736 - 1752
    • Urayir ibn Dudjayn ibn Sadun I.....................1752 - 1774 opposed by...
    • Urayir had seven known sons: Butayyin, Dudjayn, Sadun, Duwaihis, Muhammad, Zayid and Majid.
    • Hamada (pretender)........................................1752
    • Butayyin ibn Urayir.......................................1774
    • Dudjayn ibn Urayir........................................1774
    • Sadun II ibn Urayir................................1774 - 1786
    • Duwaihis ibn Urayir................................1786 - 1789 and with...
    • Muhammad II ibn Urayir.............................1786 - 1789
    • Abd al-Muhsin ibn Sirdah (in North)................1787 - 1791 with..
    • He was Regent from 1787 to 1789. Full name: Abd al-Mushin ibn Sirdah ibn Abdullah ibn Ghurair Al-Humaid.
    • Zayid ibn Urayir (1st time in South)...............1789 - 1793
    • Barrak II ibn Abd al-Muhsin (1st time in North)....1791 - 1793
    • Zayid ibn Urayir (2nd time)........................1793 - 1794
    • Barrak II ibn Abd al-Muhsin (2nd time).............1794 - 1796
  • Under Nejd directly.....................................1795 - 1813
    • Wahhabi (Sunni) Governors
    • Nadjim ibn Duhaynim................................1795 - 1798
    • Sulayman ibn Muhammad ibn Madjid...................1798 - 1804
    • Ibrahim ibn Ufaysan................................1804 - 1809
    • Abdallah ibn Ufaysan...............................1809 - 1810
    • Fahd ibn Sulayman ibn Ufaysan......................1810 - 1812
    • Unknown ruler 1813-1818.
  • Ottoman Empire (occupied by Egypt)......................1818 - 1830
    • Madjid I (1st time).......................................1818 with...
    • Muhammad III (1st time)............................1818 - 1819 d. 1830
    • Mehmed Agha (in Hufuf).............................1819 - 1820's with...
    • Halil Agha (in Qatif).....................................1819 and then...
    • Musrif (in Qatif)..................................1819 - 1820's
    • Sheikhs
    • Madjid I (2nd time)................................1823 - 1830 with...
    • Muhammad III (2nd time)...................................1830
  • Officially to Ottoman Empire, but with periodic occupation by Wahhabis of Nejd in 1830 to 1838 and 1843 to Jun 1871.
    • Umar ibn Muhammad (1st time).......................1830 - 1838 with...
    • Abdallah ibn Ghanim (in Qatif).....................1830 - 1839
    • Mehmed Efendi I (in Hufuf)................................1839
    • Mehmed Efendi II (in Hufuf)........................1839 - 1840
    • Hamad ibn Mubarak..................................1840 - 1841
    • Musa al-Hamli.............................................1841
    • Umar ibn Muhammad (2nd time)..............................1842
    • Fahd ibn Abdallah (acting)................................1842
    • Bilal ibn Salim al-Harq............................1842 - 1843
    • Abdallah ibn Muhammad Battal al-Mutayri............1843 - 1844
    • Ahmad ibn Muhammad as-Sudayri (1st time)...........1844 - 1853 d. 1861
    • Muhammad ibn Ahmad (1st time)......................1853 - 1857 d. 1870
    • Ahmad ibn Muhammad as-Sudayri (2nd time)...........1857 - 1861
    • Muhammad ibn Ahmad (2nd time)......................1861 - 1870
    • Nasir ibn Djabir al-Khalidi........................1870 - 1871
  • Under Ottoman Empire without interruptions..............1872 - 1914 as Necd sanjak of Baghdad, from 1875 Basra.
    • Fariq Pasha........................................1871 ­ 1872
    • Mutassarrifs (Lieutenant-governors)
    • Nafiz Pasha...............................................1873
    • Mehmed Pasha.......................................1873 - 1874
    • Faiz Pasha................................................1874
    • Bazib Arayar al-Khalidi Pasha......................1874 - 1875
    • Mazyad Pasha.......................................1875 - 1876
    • Said Bey (1st time)................................1876 - 1877
    • Husyein Pasha.............................................1877
    • Said Pasha (1st time)..............................1877 - 1879
    • Said Bey (2nd time)................................1879 - 1880
    • Abd al-Ghani Pasha.................................1880 - 1881
    • Said Pasha (2nd time)..............................1881 - 1885
    • Nazih Pasha........................................1885 - 1886
    • Mehmed Salih Pasha.................................1886 - 1887
    • Rafaat Pasha.......................................1887 - 1890
    • Akif Bey...........................................1890 - 1891
    • Said Pasha (3rd time)..............................1891 - 1894
    • Ibrahim Pasha......................................1894 ­ 1896
    • Abdullah Pasha............................................1896
    • Said Pasha (4th time)..............................1896 - 1900
    • Musa Kazim Pasha...................................1900 - 1901
    • Tevfiq Bey (acting)................................1901 - 1902
    • Sayyid Talib Bey Annaqib...........................1902 - 1905
    • Mahmud Maher Effendi......................................1905
    • Najib Pasha........................................1905 ­ 1907
    • Reshid Pasha.......................................1907 - 1908
    • Mumtaz Efendi.............................................1908
    • Mahmud Mahir Bey...................................1908 - 1909
    • Arif Bey..................................................1909
    • Ail Suad Bey.......................................1909 - 1911
    • Nedim Bey..........................................1911 - 1912
    • Abbas Hilmi Bey....................................1912 - Apr 1913
    • Abdul Aziz al-Saud Pasha (Ibn Saud)............Apr 1913 - May 1914 d. 1953
  • Annexed by Nejd (nominally Ottoman to 1914), Saudi Arabia from 1926 thereafter...
 
al-Hijr (Lihyan, Mada'in Salih)
 
An early kingdom in northwestern Arabia, 195 miles (313 km.) northwest of Medinah and 68 miles (109 km.) south-southwest of Tayma, the Uwayrid lava fields lie 20 miles (32 km.) to the west. It is mentioned in the Quran, and in earlier times served as the southern capital of the Nabataean kingdom (with Petra as its northern capital).
 
  • Lihyanite Kingdom
  • Zu Asfain Tahmai ben Laudan....................................fl. c. 250 BCE
  • Tolmai I (Ptolemy).............................................fl. c. 200
  • Ha Nuas ben Tolmai
  • Tolmai II ben Ha Nuas
  • Tolmai III Ha Nuas ben Tolmai
  • Masud..........................................................fl. c. 85
  • Nabatea............................................c. 85 BCE - 25 CE
  • Unknown rulers
  • Adnan..........................................................fl. c. 355 CE
  • Unknown rulers
  • The Caliphate from c. 625, northern Hejaz (Makkah) sequence thereafter...
 
Asir
 
Region in Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea, bordered on the north by Hejaz and the south by Yemen. The name Asir means "the Unreachable"; it is a mountainous region with a tradition of regional autonomy. In the 1830,s an emirate, nominally under Yemenite suzereinty, was created in Asir by Ahmad al-Idris, a Sayyid (descendent of Muhammad) from Morocco. Ahmad, who was on pilgrimage to Makkah, settled in the city of Sabija and declared himself both Emir and Imam of Asir.
 
  • Sheikhs of Asir (Largely under Ottoman dominion)
  • Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khayrat..........................1728 - 1762
  • Muhammad................................................1762 - 1809 with...
  • Abd al-Wahhab Muhammad ibn Abu Nuqta ar-Rufayda (in Asir as-Sarat)...1801 - 1809
  • Sharif Hamud ibn Muhammad Abu Mismar....................1809 - 1818 with...
  • Tami ibn Shuayb (in Asir as-Sarat)......................1809 - 1818
  • Unknown ruler(s)
  • al-Husayn ibn Ali ibn Haydar (rebel in Abu Arish).......1840 - 1848
  • Haydar (in rebellion in Abu Arish)......................1848 - 1855
  • Unknown ruler(s)
  • al-Hasan ibn Muhammad (rebel in Abu Arish)...........c. 1860 - 1863
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1863 - 1916
  • Hejaz...................................................1916 - 1925
  • Saudi Arabia............................................1925 - date
  • Upper Asir
  • Mughayd dynasty
  • Said ibn Muslat al-Mughaydi.............................1823 - 1828
  • Ali ibn Mudjattil al-Mughaydi...........................1828 - 1833
  • Alud ibn Mari ibn Musa al-Mughaydi Muhammad.............1857 - 1872
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1872 - 1914
    • Ruled by Ottoman-appointed Walis, names unknown at this time.
  • al-Hasan ibn Ayad (in Abha).............................1914 - 1916
  • Hejaz...................................................1916 - 1923
    • ? ibn al-Hasan.....................................1916 - 1920
    • ? .................................................1920 - 1923
  • Under Nejd, and Saudi Arabia, thereafter...
  • Lower Asir
  • Yemen................................................1700's - 1870
  • ? (ruled by Valies oppointed by Ottomans)..............1872 - 1914
  • Idrisid al-Hasani dynasty
  • Ahmad al-Idris al-Sayyid...............................1830 - 1838
  • Muhammad I ibn Ahmad...................................1838 - 1889
  • Ottoman Empire.........................................1870 - 1914
    • Ali I ibn Muhammad................................1889 - 1904
  • Muhammad II ibn Ali....................................1905 - 20 Mar 1923
  • Hejaz..................................................1923 - 1926
    • Ali II ibn Muhammad........................20 Mar 1923 - Feb 1926
  • Saudi Arabia...........................................1926 - date
    • Sayyid al-Hasan ibn Ali.......................Feb 1926 - 20 Nov 1930 (deposed)
  • Incorporated into Saudi Arabia. The subsequent Emirs of Asir were selected from among the many sons of whichever Saudi king happened to be in power.
 
Buraydah
 
An emirate in central Arabia, roughly equidistant from Riyadh to the southeast and Hail to the northwest, and quite nearby Unayzah.
 
  • al-DURAYBI
  • Hamud..........................................................1768
  • Rashid (1st time).......................................1768 - 1769 d. 1775
  • al-Alaiyan..............................................1769 - 1770
  • Rashid (2nd time).......................................1770 - 1775
  • Abd Allah ibn Hasan al-Alaiyan..........................1775 - 1776
  • Nejd....................................................1776 - 1819
    • Nejdi Governor
    • Hudjaylan ibn Hamad al-Alaiyan.....................1776 – 1819
  • Egypt...................................................1819 - 1823
    • Egyptian Governors
    • Ismail Pasha.......................................1819 - ?
    • Halid Pasha.......................................... ? - 1823
  • Muhammad al-Ali ash-Shayr...............................1823 - 1826
  • Abd al-Aziz al-Muhammad ibn Hasan (1st time)............1826 - 1850 d. 1861
  • Abd al-Muhsin al-Muhammad ibn Turki.....................1850 - 1851
  • Abd al-Aziz al-Muhammad ibn Hasan (2nd time)............1851 – 1859 d. 1861
  • Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Aziz ibn Adwan al-Alaiyan.................1859
  • Muhammad ibn Ghanim............................................1859
  • Abd al-Aziz al-Muhammad ibn Hasan (3rd time)............1859 – 1861
  • Abd ar-Rahman ibn Ibrahim al-Manfuhai...................1861 - 1863
  • Muhammad ibn Ahmad as-Sudayri..................................1863
  • Sulayman ar-Rashid al-Alaiyan..................................1863
  • Nejd....................................................1863 - 1867
  • Zamil as-Sulaym.........................................1867 – 1891
  • Vassal of Nejd..........................................1891 - 1913
    • Najdi viceroys in al-Qasimi (the district in which Burayda and Unayzah are located).
    • Ahmad ibn Nasir as-Sani............................1827 - 1839 d.1861
    • Muhanna as-Salih abal Khayl........................1863 - 1876
    • Hasan al-Muhanna...................................1876 – 1891 d. 1902
    • Salim al-Subhan....................................1891 - 1902
    • Salih al-Muhanna...................................1902 - 1906
    • Muhammad ibn Abd Allah abal Khayl..................1906 - 1908
    • Abd Allah ibn Djalwi ibn Turki.....................1908 - 1913 d.1935
  • Under Nejd/Saudi Arabia directly thereafter...
 
Ha'il (Jebal Shammar)
 
  • An Emirate in central Arabia; the Rashidi were the principal rivals of the Saudi of Nejd. Capital: Ha'il.
  • ar-RASHID - Emirs
  • Ali ibn Rashid.......................................c. 1800 - 1802
  • Muhammad I ibn Abd al-Muhsin............................1802 - 1819
  • Isa I ibn Muhammad......................................1819 - 1820
  • Rashid ibn Ali..........................................1820 - 1827
  • Isa II ibn Ali.................................................1827
  • Salih ibn Abd al-Muhsin.................................1827 - 1835
  • Abdallah I ibn Ali al-Rashid (1st time).................1835 - 1837 d. 1847
  • Isa II ibn Ali..........................................1837 - 1838
  • Abdallah I ibn Ali al-Rashid (2nd time).................1838 - 1847
  • Abdullah came to power after leading a revolt (together with his brother prince Ubayd Al Rashīd) against the ruler of Ha'il, Muhammad bin Ali, who was a fellow member of the Jaafar al-Shammari lineage. As a leader, Abdullah was praised for bringing peace and stability both to Ha'il and to the surrounding region.
  • Talal ibn Abdallah......................................1847 - 1867
  • The son of Abdullah, Talal is remembered for his relative liberalism and interest in building projects. During his rule, the Barzan Palace in Ha'il was completed. He established regular trade connections with Iraq and expanded the Rashidi sphere of influence. Talal was considered relatively tolerant towards foreigners, including traders in Ha'il. Many of these traders belonged to the Shia sect, hated by some Sunni, doubly hated by the Wahabees. But Telal [sic] affected not to perceive their religious discrepansies, and silenced all murmurs by marks of special favour towards these very dissenters, and also by the advantages which their presence was not long in procuring for the town. In the 1860s, internal disputes in the House of Saud allowed a Rashidi/Ottoman alliance to oust them. The Rashidi occupied the Saudi capital of Riyadh in 1865 and forced the leaders of the House of Saud into exile. Talal later died in a shooting incident which has been termed "mysterious". Charles Doughty, in his book Travels in Arabia Deserta, writes that Talal committed suicide. Talal left seven sons, but the oldest, Bandar, was only 18 or 20 when his father died.
  • Mitaab I ibn Abdallah...................................1867 - 1869
  • A younger brother of Talal, he was supported by senior members of the Rashid family and the sheikhs of the Shammar sections. After only a year, he was shot and killed in the Barzan Palace by his nephew and next amir, Bandar. Doughty's version of the events is that Bandar and Badr, the second-oldest son, cast a silver bullet to kill their uncle because they knew he wore an amulet that protected him against lead.
  • Bandar ibn Talal........................................1869 - 1872
  • Ruled for only a short time before he was killed by his uncle, Muhammed, the brother of Mutʿib. Bandar reportedly married his uncle's widow and had a son by her.
  • Muhammad II ibn Abdallah................................1872 - 1897
  • A confrontation outside Ha'il with his nephew, the young Amir Bandar, ended with Muhammed killing Bandar. Muhammed then continued his journey to Ha'il and announced himself as the new amir. In order to prevent the possibility of revenge, Muhammed gave orders for the execution of all of Bandar's brothers (the sons of Talal), Bandar's cousins (the children of Talal's sister), and their slaves and servants. Only one of Talal's sons, Naif, survived. In spite of the inauspicious beginning, his rule turned out to be the longest in the history of the Rashidi dynasty. His rule became "a period of stability, expansion and prosperity" (ref.: p. 61, Al Rasheed). His expansion reached al-Jawf and Palmyra to the north and Tayma and Khaybar to the west. In 1891, after a rebellion, Abd al-Rahman bin Faysal bin Turki Al Saud left Riyadh. The Saud family, including the ten year old Abdul Aziz Al-Saud, went into exile in Kuwait.
  • Abdul-Aziz ibn Mitaab...............................Dec 1897 - 13 Apr 1906
  • A son of Mutʿib. He was adopted by his uncle Muhammed and brought up to be his heir. After Muhammed died of natural causes, Abdul-Aziz succeeded unopposed. However Rashidi rule was insecure as their Ottoman allies were unpopular and weakening. In 1904, the young Ibn Saud, the future founder of Saudi Arabia, returned from exile with a small force and retook Riyadh. Abdul-Aziz died in the battle of Rawdat Muhanna fighting against Ibn Saud in 1906.
  • Mitaab II ibn Abdul-Aziz.........................13 Apr 1906 - Jan 1907
  • Succeeded his father as amir. However, he was not able to win support of the whole family and within a year, he was killed by Sultan bin Hammud.
  • Sultan ibn Hamud....................................Jan 1907 - Jan 1908
  • A grandson of Ubayd (the brother of Abdullah ibn Ali). He was criticized because he ignored the ahd (covenant) between Ubayd ibn Ali and Abdullah ibn Ali. He was unsuccessful in fighting Ibn Saud, and was killed by his own brothers.
  • Saud I ibn Hamud....................................Jan 1908 - Sep 1908 d. 1909
  • Another grandson of Ubayd. Saud was killed by the maternal relatives of Saud bin Abd al-Aziz.
  • Saud II ibn Abdul-Aziz...........................14 Sep 1908 - 1920
  • A boy of 10 when he was made amir, his maternal relatives of the Al Sabhan family ruled as regents on his behalf until he came of age, based on the constitution of Emara. He is known to support German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire in World War I. In 1920, he was assassinated by his cousin, Abdullah bin Talal. Two of his widows remarried: Norah bint Hammud Al Sabhan became Ibn Saud's eighth wife and Fahda bint Asi Al Shuraim of the Abde section of the Shammar tribe became Ibn Saud's ninth wife and the mother of King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia.
  • Abdallah II ibn Mitab II............................May 1920 - 1921 d. 1947
  • He surrendered to Ibn Saud in 1921, after having come to the throne the year before, at the age of thirteen.
  • Muhammad II ibn Talal...................................1921 - 02 Nov 1921 d. 1954
  • A grandson of Naif, the only surviving son of Talal ibn Abdullah. Muhammad bin Talal's wife Nura bint Sibban married King Abdulaziz after he was imprisoned by him. He surrendered to Ibn Saud. One of the daughters of Muhammad bin Talal, Watfa, married Prince Musa'id bin Abdul Aziz, the fifteenth son of Ibn Saud. Prince Musa'id and Watfa became the parents of Prince Faisal bin Musa'id, the assassin of King Faisal. Ha'il was incorporated into Nejd from 02 Nov 1921 onwards.
 
Kharj (Khardj)
 
  • An emirate in central Arabia, founded in the late 1600's.
  • Zamil ibn Uthman Mishari................................1688 - ?
  • Zayid (1st time).....................................c. 1740 - 1776 d. 1783
  • Sulayman ibn Ufaysan (1st time)................................1776 d. 1793
  • Zayid (2nd time)........................................1776 - 1783
  • Barrak..................................................1783 - 1784
  • Turki...................................................1784 - 1785
  • Sulayman ibn Ufaysan (2nd time).........................1785 - 1793
  • Ibrahim ibn Ufaysan.....................................1793 - 1804
  • Nejd....................................................1804 – 1818
  • Egyptian occupation.....................................1818 – 1823
  • Zaqm ibn Zamil..........................................1823 - 1825
  • Umar ibn Muhammad ibn Ufaysan...........................1825 - 1828 d. 1839
  • Fahad ibn Abd Allah ibn Ufaysan.........................1830 - 1847
  • Saud ibn Faysal al-Najdi (Saud II of Najd)..............1847 - 1865
  • Under Nejd, and Saudi Arabia, thereafter...
 
Makkah (Mecca)
 
An ancient city in central Hejaz (western Saudi Arabia) - it is mentioned as a holy place in the Vedic Puranas as Makheshvara, site of a sacred Black Stone dedicated to a divinity the text identifies as Shiva. Home of the Prophet Muhammad, and site (along with Medinah, to the north) of the establishment of Islam. As such, it is the holiest of pilgrimages within the Muslim world, and visiting it is one of the five obligations enjoined upon all Muslims, if they are able. Politically, it has normally been within one or another of the Empires of the region, although it has always retained a high degree of autonomy under the Sharifs (descendents of Muhammad) who have governed the city and district. Hejaz is mainly considered to be the western regions consisting Makkah and Medinah.
 
  • JURHUM tribe
  • Jurhum I ibn Djahla....................................c. 74 - c. 44 BCE
  • Abd Djalil ibn Jurhum..................................c. 44 - c. 14
  • Jurhum II ibn Abd Djalil...........................c. 14 BCE - c. 16 CE
  • Abd ul-Meden ibn Jurhum................................c. 16 - c. 46
  • Thakila ibn Abd al-Meden...............................c. 46 - c. 76
  • Abd ul-Messih ibn Thakila..............................c. 76 - c. 106
  • Moudhadh I ibn Abd ul-Messih, the Great...............c. 106 - c. 136
  • Amr I ibn Moudhadh....................................c. 136 - c. 150
  • Harith ibn Moudharh...................................c. 150 - c. 160
  • Amr II inb al-Harith..................................c. 160 - c. 180
  • Bichr ibn al-Harith...................................c. 180 - c. 190
  • Moudhadh II al-Asgar..................................c. 190 - c. 206
  • KHUZAÂ tribe
  • Amr ibn Amir ibn Luhaï................................c. 207 - c. 215
  • Kaab ibn Amr
  • Salul ibn Kaab
  • Houbchia ibn Salul
  • Houleïl ibn Habachia...........................................fl. c. 350
  • Unknown ruler(s)
  • Ibn Houbchia...................................................fl. c. 450
  • QURAYSH tribe - The Quraysh were the tribe to which Muhammad the Prophet belonged.
  • Qusay.................................................c. 460 - 480
  • Abdu Manaf...............................................480 - 500
  • Hashim...................................................500 - 524
  • al-Mutalib ibn Abdu Manaf
  • Abd al-Mutalib............................................ ? - 578
  • Sheïba ibn Rabiâ
  • Abu Sofien ibn Harb....................................... ? - 630
  • Atteb ibn Ouseïd (opposed by the Prophet)................630 - 634
  • The Prophet Muhammad's elected successors................634 - 661
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................661 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................750 - 868
  • Egypt....................................................868 - 896
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................896 - 935
  • Egypt....................................................935 - 1076
    • MUSABITE - Sharifs of Makkah
    • Abu-Muhammad Djafar ibn Muhammad....................967 - 980
    • Isa I...............................................980 - 994
    • Abu'l-Futuh Hassan (1st time).......................994 - 1010 d. 1039
    • Abu'l-Tayyib Da'ud.................................1010 - 1012
    • Abu'l-Futuh Hassan (2nd time)......................1012 - 1039
    • Abu Abd'ullah Muhammad Shukr.......................1039 - 1061
    • Muhammad ibn Abu Fatich............................1061 - 1063
    • Abu Kamil Ali Muhammad al-Kadi.....................1063 - c. 1067
    • Hamza..............................................1067 - 1069
  • Protectorate of the Seljuqs.............................1076 - 1154
    • HASHEMITE - Sharifs of Makkah
    • Abu-Hashim Mohammed................................1069 - 1094
    • Abu-Fulaita al-Qasim I.............................1094 - 1123
    • Fulaita............................................1123 - 1133
    • Hashim.............................................1133 - 1154
  • Egypt...................................................1154 - 1517
    • al-Qasim II........................................1154 - 1161
    • Isa II.............................................1161 - 1174
    • Daud (1st time)....................................1174 - 1175 d. 1176
    • Mukaththir (1st time)..............................1175 - 1176 d. 1194
    • Daud (2nd time)...........................................1176
    • al-Qasim III..............................................1176
    • Mukaththir (2nd time)..............................1176 - 1194
    • al-Mansur..........................................1194 - 1201
    • Abu-Aziz Qatada....................................1201 - 1220
    • Hassan I...........................................1220 - 1232
    • Rajih (1st time)...................................1232 - 1240 d. 1254
    • Shiha ibn al-Qasim........................................1240
    • Rajih (2nd time)...................................1240 - 1241 d. 1254
    • Abu-Saad al-Hasan ibn Ali..........................1241 - 1245
    • Abu Numai Muhammad I (1st time)...........................1245
    • Rajih (3rd time)...................................1245 - 1254
    • Ganim I...................................................1254
    • Idris I............................................1254 - 1270 with...
    • Abu-Numai Muhammad I (2nd time)....................1254 - 1301 opposed by...
    • Djammaz ibn Shiha.........................................1271 and 1288
    • Rumaitha (1st time)................................1301 - 1302 with...
    • Humaida I (1st time)...............................1301 - 1302
    • Abu'l-Ghais (1st time).............................1302 - 1303 with...
    • Ataifa (1st time)..................................1302 - 1303
    • Rumaitha (2nd time)................................1303 - 1344 with...
    • Humaida I (2nd time)...............................1303 - 1318 and...
    • Abu'l Ghais (1st time)....................................1314 and then...
    • Ataifa (2nd time)..................................1319 - 1329
    • Ajlan..............................................1344 - 1359
    • Mohammad II...............................................1359
    • Ajlan..............................................1359 - 1375 with...
    • Shihab ud-Din Ahmad................................1361 - 1386 with...
    • Muhammad III.......................................1378 - 1386
    • Inan (1st time)....................................1386 - 1387 d. 1392
    • Ali I (1st time)...................................1387 - 1390 d. 1394: with...
    • Inan (2nd time)....................................1390 - 1392
    • Ali I (2nd time)...................................1392 - 1394 with...
    • Muhammad IV........................................1392 - 1396
    • Hasan II (1st time)................................1396 - 1416 d. 1426: with...
    • Barakat I (1st time)...............................1396 - 1416 d. 1455
    • Ahmad III..........................................1397 - 1416
    • Rumaitha II...............................................1416
    • Hasan II (2nd time)................................1416 - 1423 d. 1426
    • Ali II.............................................1423 - 1424
    • Hasan II (3rd time)................................1424 - 1426
    • Barakat I (2nd time)...............................1426 - 1441 d. 1455
    • Ali III............................................1441 - 1443
    • Abu'l Qasim........................................1443 - 1446
    • Barakat I (3rd time)...............................1446 - 1455
    • Malik ul-Adil Muhammad V ibn Barakat...........Aug 1455 - 1497
    • Barakat II ibn Muhammad (1st time).............Sep 1497 - 1501 d. 1525 with...
    • Hazza.....................................................1501
    • Ahmad IV al-Djazan (1st time)......................1501 - 1502
    • Barakat II ibn Muhammad (2nd time).................1502 - 1503
    • Ahmad IV al-Djazan (2nd time).............................1503
    • Humaida II.........................................1503 - 1504
    • Barakat II ibn Muhammad (3rd time).................1504 - Sep 1525 with...
    • Qait...............................................1504 - 1512 and then...
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1517 - 1801
    • Abu-Numai Muhammad VI Nazim ud-din ibn Barakat....Sep 1512 - Feb 1583 with...
    • Ahmad V............................................1539 - 1554 and then...
    • Takaba II..........................................1554 - 1584 with...
    • al-Hasan III ibn Abu-Numai Muhammad................1554 - Dec 1601
    • Abu Talib..........................................1602 - 1603
    • Abu Aun Idris II ibn Hasan.........................1603 - 1624 with...
    • Muhsin I ibn Hussein...............................1603 - May 1628
    • Ahmad VI ibn Abu Talib al-Hasan................May 1628 - Oct 1629
    • Grand Sharifs of Makkah
    • Masud I ibn Idris..............................Oct 1629 - Nov 1630
    • Abdullah I ibn Hasan...........................Nov 1630 - Sep 1631
    • Zaid ibn Mushin (1st time).........................1631 - 1632 with...
    • Mohammad VII.......................................1631 - 1632
    • Nami......................................................1632
    • Zaid ibn Mushin (2nd time).........................1632 - Jul 1666
    • Saad I ibn Zaid (1st time)................Jul 1666 - Apr 1672 d. 1702: with...
    • Mushin ibn Ahmad (1st time)........................1667 - 1668 with...
    • Ahmad VII ibn Zaid (1st time)......................1670 - 1671 d. 1688 with...
    • Humud ibn Abdullah ibn Hasan...................Jun 1670 - Nov 1670 d. 1674
    • Barakat III ibn Muhammad.......................Apr 1672 - Apr 1682
    • Ibrahim ibn Muhammad......................................1682
    • Said I ibn Barakat.................................1682 - 1684
    • Ahmad VII ibn Zaid (2nd time)......................1684 - 1688
    • Said II ibn Saad (1st time)...............................1688 d. 1717
    • Ahmad VIII ibn Ghalib..................04 Jan 1688 - Apr 1690 d. 1701: with...
    • Mushin ibn Ahmad (2nd time)........................1689 - Apr 1690
    • Muhsin II ibn Hussein..........................Apr 1690 - Oct 1691
    • Masud II..................................................1691
    • Said II ibn Saad (2nd time)........................1691 - 1692 d. 1716
    • Saad I ibn Zaid (2nd time).....................Dec 1692 - Aug 1694 d. 1702
    • Abdullah II ibn Hashim.........................Aug 1694 - Dec 1694
    • Saad I ibn Zaid (3rd time).....................Dec 1694 - Mar 1702 with...
    • Abdul Karim ibn Muhammad (1st time)................1694 - 1704 d. 1718
    • Said II ibn Saad (3rd time)....................Mar 1702 - Jul 1704 with...
    • Abdul Muhsin ibn Ahmad....................................Jul 1704 d. 1718
    • Said II ibn Saad (4th time)....................Jul 1704 - Nov 1705 d. 1716
    • Abdul-Karim ibn Muhammad (2nd time)............Nov 1705 - Dec 1711 d. 1718
    • Said II ibn Saad (5th time)....................Dec 1711 - 1716
    • Abdul Karim ibn Muhammad (3rd time).......................1716 d. 1718
    • Abd al-Ilah II ibn Said (1st time).................1716 - Apr 1718 d. 1775
    • Ali V ibn Said.................................Apr 1718 - Nov 1718
    • Yahya I ibn Barakat (1st time).....................1718 - 1719 d. 1722
    • Mubarak ibn Ahmad (1st time).......................1719 - 1721 d. 1727
    • Yahya I ibn Barakat  (2nd time)....................1721 - Sep 1722
    • Barakat IV ibn Yahya...........................Sep 1722 - Oct 1723
    • Mubarak ibn Ahmad (2nd time)...................Oct 1723 - Mar 1724
    • Abd al-Ilah II ibn Said (2nd time).............Mar 1723 - May 1731
    • Muhammad VIII ibn Abdullah (1st time)..........May 1731 - Nov 1732 d. 1756
    • Masud III ibn Said (1st time)..................Nov 1732 - Jan 1733 d. 1752
    • Muhammad VIII ibn Abdullah (2nd time)..........Feb 1733 - 1734
    • Masud III ibn Said (2nd time)......................1734 - 18 Feb 1752
    • Masaid ibn Said (1st time)..................18 Feb 1752 - 24 Aug 1759 d. 1770
    • Djafar ibn Said.............................24 Aug 1759 - Jan 1760 d. 1764
    • Masaid ibn Said (2nd time).....................Jan 1760 - 23 May 1770
    • Ahmad IX ibn Said...........................23 May 1770 - 12 Jul 1770 d. 1781
    • Abdullah III ibn Hussein....................12 Jul 1770 - 05 Feb 1773 d. 1788
    • Surur ibn Masaad............................05 Feb 1773 - 21 Jan 1788 d. 1788
    • Abdul Muin ibn Masaad (1st time)............21 Jan 1788 - 31 Jan 1788 d. 1803
    • Ghalib ibn Masaad (1st time)................31 Jan 1788 - May 1803 d. 1817
  • Nejd (some part of Hejaz areas)................................1801
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1801 - 1806
    • Abdul Muin ibn Masaad (2nd time)...............May 1803 - Jul 1803
  • Nejd (some part of Hejaz areas).........................1806 - 1813
    • Ghalib ibn Masaad (2nd time)...................Jul 1803 - 1813
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1813 - 10 Jun 1916
    • Emirs and Grand sharifs of Makkah
    • Yahya II ibn Surur.................................1813 - Aug 1827 d. 1838
    • Abdul-Mutalib ibn Ghalib (1st time)............Aug 1827 - Sep 1827 d. 1886
    • Muhammad IX ibn Abdul Muin (1st time)..........Sep 1827 - 1836 d. 1858
    • vacant.............................................1836 - 1840
    • Muhammad IX ibn Abdul Muin (2nd time)..............1840 - Jul 1851 d. 1858
    • Abdul-Mutalib ibn Ghalib (2nd time)............Jul 1851 - 06 Jan 1856 d. 1886
    • Muhammad IX ibn Abdul Muin (3rd time).......06 Jan 1856 - 28 Mar 1858 d. 1858
    • Abdullah IV Kamil Pasha ibn Muhammad........01 May 1858 - 04 Jun 1877 d. 1909
    • al-Hussein I ibn Muhammad...................11 Jul 1877 - 14 Mar 1880 d. 1880
    • Abdul-Mutalib ibn Ghalib (3rd time)............Jun 1880 - 1881 d. 1886
    • Abd al-Ilah II.....................................1881 - 17 Aug 1882 d. 1908
    • Aun ar-Rafiq Pasha ibn Muhammad.............30 Aug 1882 - 17 Jul 1905 d. 1905
    • Abdullah V.....................................Jul 1905 - Oct 1905
    • Ali VI Pasha ibn Abdullah...................14 Oct 1905 - 29 Oct 1908 d.af.1932
    • al-Hussein II Pasha ibn Ali.................29 Oct 1908 - 10 Jun 1916 d. 1931
  • Kingdom of Hejaz - al-Hashimi (independence from Ottoman Empire declared)
  • al-Hussein II ibn Ali (continued)................10 Jun 1916 - 03 Oct 1924
  • On 10 Jun 1916, the Grand Sharif assumed title of king. From 29 Oct 1916, "King of the Arabs and Commander of the Faithful". On 06 Nov 1916, he was recognized by the allied powers only as 'King of the Hejaz, Commander of the Faithful, Grand Sharif and Emir of Makkah'. He assumes the title of Caliph 11 Mar 1924 - 03 Oct 1924. He abdicated the kingdom and other secular titles to his eldest son Ali.
  • Ali VII ibn Hussein..............................03 Oct 1924 - 18 Dec 1925 d. 1935
  • With the passing of the kingship from his father he also became the heir to the title of Caliph, but he did not adopt the khalifal office and style.
  • Kingdom of Hejaz - al-Saud of Nejd
  • Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman......................08 Jan 1926 - 22 Sep 1932
  • Saudi Arabia.....................................23 Sep 1932 - date
 
Currency:
  • Turkish Pound (Lira) = 100 Kurush or Qirsh (Piastres) = 4000 para.
  • 20 Piastres (Qirsh) = Riyal = Maria Theresa Thaler.
 
1916
Countermarked Coinage - Minor Coins: Following the defeat of the Ottomans in 1916, Turkish 10, 20 and 40 Para coins of Muhammed V and 40 Para coins of Muhammed VI were countermarked al-Hejaz in Arabic. The countermark was applied to the obverse side effacing the Ottoman Sultan's toughra, and thus refuting Turkish rule in Hejaz. Countermarks on the reverse are rare errors. The 10 Para of Muhammed V and 10 and 20 Para (billon) of Abdul Mejid and Mahmud II exist with a smaller, 6-millimeter countermark. These issues are probably unofficial. Other host coins are considered controversial.

KM#3 20 para. Year: AH1327//RY 3 (1916 by default). Weight: 3.98g. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 21.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Original Mint: Qustantiniyah (Istanbul). Obverse: Toughra; “Reshat” to right. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH1327// RY2 to 6. Ruler: al-Hussein ibn Ali.

Note: Countermark “Hejaz” on Turkey 40 Para, KM#761. Accession date: AH 1327 of Ottoman Emperor Muhammad V.

Same as above coin but...

Year: AH1327//RY 5 (1916 by default). Weight: 3.99g.

Same as above coin but Countermark close to the edge.

Year: AH1327//RY 5 (1916 by default). Weight: 3.99g.

KM#4 40 para. Year: AH1327//RY 4 (1916 by default). Weight: 5.92g. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Original Mint: Qustantiniyah (Istanbul). Obverse: Toughra; “Reshat” to right. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH1327// RY3 to 5. Ruler: al-Hussein ibn Ali.

Note: Countermark “Hejaz” on Turkey 40 Para, KM#766. Accession date: AH 1327 of Ottoman Emperor Muhammad V.

Just another example of the above coin. Weight: 5.75g.

Same year as above coin but...

Year: AH1327//RY 5 (1916 by default). Weight: 6.04g.

KM#5 40 para. Year: AH1327//RY 8 (1916 by default). Weight: 5.92g. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Original Mint: Qustantiniyah (Istanbul). Obverse: Toughra; “Ghazi” to right. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH1327// RY8 to 9. Ruler: al-Hussein ibn Ali.

Note: Countermark “Hejaz” on Turkey 40 Para, KM#779 . Accession date: AH 1327 of Ottoman Emperor Muhammad V.

Same as above coin as "Ghazi" is visible but...

Year: AH1327//RY x (1916 by default). Weight: 5.95g.

Reign year is obliterated (destroyed) because of Countermark.

 
Currency: Riyal = 20 qhirsh (piastres)
 
1920-1924
All the regular coins of Hejaz bear the accessional date AH1334 of Al-Husain Ibn Ali, plus the regnal year. Many of
the bronze coins occur with a light silver wash mostly on thicker specimens. A variety of planchet thicknesses exist.

KM#22 ¼ piastre. Year: AH1334//RY5 (1920). Weight: 1.87g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 17 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Umm al Qura Mint, Makkah. Obverse: "Quarter Qirsh" written in center circle. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH1334//5, AH1334//6/5 and AH1334//6. Ruler: al-Hussein ibn Ali.

Note: Reeded and plain edge varieties exist.

KM#25 ¼ piastre. Year: AH1334//RY8 (1923). Weight: 1.50g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 17 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Umm al Qura Mint, Makkah. Obverse: "Mint Makkah" written in center circle. Reverse: "al-Hussein ibn Ali" written in center circle above reign year "8". Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: al-Hussein ibn Ali.

KM#23 ½ piastre. Year: AH1334//RY5 (1920). Weight: 1.87g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Umm al Qura Mint, Makkah. Obverse: "Half Qirsh" written in center circle. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: al-Hussein ibn Ali.

Note: Reeded edge of the above coin. Reeded and plain edge varieties exist. Size varies 18.00 to 19.00 mm.

KM#24 1 piastre. Year: AH1334//RY6/5 (1921). Weight: 4.64g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 21 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Umm al Qura Mint, Makkah. Obverse: "One Qirsh" written in center circle. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH1334//5 and AH1334//6/5. Ruler: al-Hussein ibn Ali.

Note: Size varies to 22 mm.

KM#30 20 piastres. Year: AH1334//RY8 (1923). Weight: 24.10g. Metal: 0.9170 Silver. Diameter: 37 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Umm al Qura Mint, Makkah. Reverse: "al-Hussein ibn Ali" with date "1334" written in center circle. Obverse: "Hashimi" written in center circle. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH1334//8 and AH1334//9. Ruler: al-Hussein ibn Ali.
 
 
Medinah (Yathrib)
 
A city in western Arabia, 200 miles (322 km.) north of Makkah (Mecca) and 440 miles (708 km.) west of Riyadh, at the northern tip of the extensive Rahad lavafields. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the prophet Muhammad. Muhammad and his followers removed to Yathrib in September 622, following unstable conditions and persecutions in Mecca - from Yathrib, Muhammad's forces conquered Mecca and began Islamic expansion. Yathrib was soon renamed al-Madinat an-Nabi (the City of the Prophet).
 
  • Capital of Muhammad the Prophet and first caliphs, 622-656
  • Abu'l Qassim Muhammad (the Prophet) ibn Abdallah al-Hashimi...622 - 08 Jun 632
  • Abu Bakr Abdallah Attique ibn Uthman at-Taymi..........08 Jun 632 - 23 Aug 634
  • He is also known as Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (Abdallah ibn Abi Qahafa). Full name: Abd Allah ibn Uthman ibn Amir ibn Amru ibn Ka'ab ibn Sa'ad ibn Taim ibn Murrah ibn Ka'ab ibn Lu'ai ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr al-Quraishi at-Taymi.
  • Abu Hafs Umar I ibn al-Khattab al-Adawi................23 Aug 634 - 07 Nov 644
  • He captured present areas of Iraq from Persian ruler; Yazdegerd III in 636 CE. On 03 November 644, Umar was attacked, while leading the morning prayers, Abu Lulu stabbed him six times in the belly and last on the navel, that proved fatal and he died of the wounds on 07 November 644.
  • Abu Amr Uthman ibn Affan al-Umawi......................11 Nov 644 - 17 Jul 656
  • He captured Persia (Iran) from Yazdegerd III in 649 CE. He was assassinated by rebels in Medinah.
  • Abu'l Hasan Ali ibn Abi Talib al-Hashimi......................656 - 660 opposed by...
    • Aysha bint Abu Bakr (female)...................................656 with...
    • Aysha was the favorite wife of Muhammad (one of at least twelve). To Sunni historians she is "Umm ul-Muminin", the "Mother of the Faithful". In 656, the Caliph Uthman was murdered. As Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin, did not do captured and did justice to the ones involved in Uthman's death. An outraged Aysha led a rebellion, attempting to replace Ali with her brother-in-law Zubayr, who was also a nephew of Muhammad's first wife Khadija. The brief civil war culminated in a battle outside Basra in which Aysha led her forces from camelback (hence the name "Battle of the Camel"). She was captured but pardoned and retired to Medina. She died in c. 678 CE.
    • Zubayr ibn al-Awam.............................................656 and...
    • Talhah ibn Ubaidallah..........................................656 and...
    • Yala (deposed governor of Yemen)...............................656
  • Abu Muhammad al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Hashimi.....................660 - 661
  • Umayyad Caliphate.............................................661 - 722
    • Governors of Medina appointed by the Caliphs
    • Sahl ibn Hunaif..........................................658 - 661
    • Abu Ayyub......................................................661
    • Abu Huraira..............................................661 - 662
    • Marvan ibn Abd al-Hakam (1st time).......................662 - 669
    • Said ibn al-As...........................................669 - 675
    • Marvan ibn Abd al-Hakam (2nd time).......................675 - 676
    • al-Walid ibn Uthba (1st time)............................676 - 680
    • Amr ibn Said.............................................680 - 681
    • al-Walid ibn Uthba (2nd time)............................681 - 682
    • Usman ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Sufyan........................682 - 683
    • Ubaydallah ibn Zubair....................................683 - 687
    • Djabar ibn al-Aswad (1st time).................................687
    • al-Abbas ibn Sahl..............................................687
    • Musaab ibn az-Zubair.....................................687 - 688
    • Djabar ibn al-Aswad (2nd time)...........................688 - 692
    • Talha ibn Ubaid................................................692
    • Tarikh ibn Amr...........................................692 - 694
    • al-Hadjjadj ibn Yusuf (Gov. of Barsa 694-715)............694 - 695
    • Aban ibn Usman...........................................695 - 701
    • Hisham ibn Ismael al-Mahzumi.............................701 - 705
    • Umar ibn abd al-Aziz.....................................705 - 711
    • Usman ibn Haiyan.........................................711 - 715
    • Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad....................................715 - 720
    • Abd ar-Rahman ibn az-Zahhakh al-Fihri....................720 - 722
  • Makkah........................................................722 - 732
  • Umayyad Caliphate.............................................732 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate.............................................750 - 862
    • Halid ibn Abd al-Malik...................................732 - 735
    • Muhammad ibn Hisham al-Mahzumi...........................735 - 743
    • Yusuf ibn Muhammad al-Sakafi.............................743 - 744
    • Abd al-Aziz ibn Umar.....................................744 - 745
    • Abd al-Wahid ibn Sulaiman................................745 - 747
    • Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik................................747 - 748
    • al-Wahid ibn Urwa al-Saadi...............................748 - 749
    • Ziyad ibn Ubaid al-Harissi (1st time)....................749 - 754
    • al-Abbas ibn Abd Allah...................................754 - 755
    • Ziyad ibn Ubaid al-Harissi (2nd time)....................755 - 759
    • Muhammad ibn Abd Allah al-Kasri..........................759 - 762
    • Riya ibn Usman al-Mahri..................................762 - 763
    • Abd Allah ibn Rabia al-Harissi...........................763 - 764
    • Djafar ibn Sulaiman al-Abbassi (1st time)................764 - 768
    • al-Hasan ibn Zayd........................................768 - 772
    • Abd as-Samad ibn Ali.....................................772 - 776
    • Muhammad ibn ibn Abd Allah al-Qusayri (1st time)...............776
    • Muhammad ibn Ubaidallah al-Djamali.......................776 - 777
    • Muhammad ibn ibn Abd Allah al-Qusayri (2nd time)...............777
    • Zufar ibn Asim al-Hilali.................................777 - 778
    • Djafar ibn Sulaiman al-Abbassi (2nd time)................778 - 783
    • Ibrahim ibn Yahya al-Abbassi ............................783 - 784
    • Iskhak ibn Isa al-Abbassi................................784 - 785
    • Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz.....................................785 - 786
    • Iskhak ibn Sulaiman............................................786
    • Abd al-Malik ibn Salih...................................786 - 790
    • Muhammad ibn Abd Allah...................................790 - 793
    • Musa ibn Isa al-Abbassi..................................793 - 798
    • Ibrahim al-Abbassi ibn Musa..............................798 - c. 800
    • Muhammad ibn Ibrahim
    • Abd Allah ibn Musaab
    • Bakkar ib n Abd Allah
    • Muhammad ibn Ali
    • Abu'l-Buhtari Wahb ibn Munnabih
    • Daud ibn Isa al-Abbassi..................................809 - 813
    • al-Hasan ibn Sahl........................................813 - 815
    • Harun ibn al-Musayib.....................................815 - 816
    • Hamdun ibn Ali...........................................816 - 819
    • Ubaydallah ibn al-Hasan al-Alawi.........................819 - 824
    • Salih ibn al-Abbas.......................................824 - 829
    • Sulaiman ibn Abd Allah...................................829 - 844
    • Muhammad ibn Salih al-Abbassi............................844 - 848
    • Muhammad al-Muntasir ibn al-Mutawwakil...................848 - 860
    • Salih ibn Ali............................................860 - 861
    • Ali ibn al-Hasan.........................................861 - 862
    • Muhammad ibn Abd Allah.........................................862
  • ALIDS - Emirs of Medina
  • Ismael as-Saffah ibn Yusuf al-Uhaydir.........................862 - c. 867
  • Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Ismael as-Saffah................c. 867 - c. 890
  • Muhammad ibn Yusuf..................................................fl. c. 940
  • Hasan ibn Ismael
  • Abu Djafar
  • Ahmad ibn Hasan
  • Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Ahmad....................................fl. c. 970
  • Muhammad ibn Fulan..................................................fl. c. 980
  • Egypt (Fatamids)...........................................c. 980 - c. 1175
  • HUSAINIDS (Banu Mana)
  • Izz ad-Din Abu Fulayha al-Qasim ibn al-Mana...............c. 1175 - c. 1190
  • Salim ibn Izz ad-Din abu Fulayha al-Qasim.................c. 1190 - c. 1225
  • Egypt (Mamluqs)...........................................c. 1260 - 1517
    • Djammaz ibn Fulan....................................c. 1225 - c. 1305
    • al-Mansur ibn Djammaz................................c. 1305 - c. 1320
    • Hibatullah
    • Muhammad.................................................. ? - 1378
    • Djammal ad-Din
    • Sabit
    • Adjlan I
    • Uzayr
    • Adjlan II
    • al-Hasan
    • Adjlan III
    • Umyan I
    • Mani
    • Wasaban
    • Sulaiman
    • Umyan II
    • Zuhair ibn Umyan
    • Daigam.........................................................fl. c. 1470
    • Qusaytil
    • Zuhri
    • Hasan ibn Zuhri......................................c. 1510 - 1517
  • Ottoman Empire...............................................1517 - 1918
    • Ali Haidar Pasha (in Medinah)....................01 Jun 1916 - Mar 1917
    • Ottoman designee; in opposition to Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi of Hejaz.
  • Hejaz (Makkah)...............................................1918 - 1925
  • Saudi Arabia.................................................1925 - date
 
Najran
 
A town in southwestern Saudi Arabia, near the Yemenite border. From the 1600's until the mid 1900's, Najran was ruled by hereditary cleric-princes (Da'is) under the dominion of the Imams of Yemen.
 
  • Saba'a............................................c. 685 BCE - 25 CE
  • Occupied by the Roman Empire..............................25 - 26
  • Saba'a....................................................26 - c. 200
  • Himyar................................................c. 200 - c. 250
  • Abyssinia.............................................c. 250 - 270
    • Sbqlwm..............................................fl. c. 250
    • This governor's name is in this form because the only evidence for his existence is in a script that does not transcribe vowels.
  • Himyar................................................c. 270 - 525
    • Sheikhs of Najran
    • Unknown rulers
    • al-Harith ibn Kaleb.......................................520's
    • al-Harith rebelled against, and was put to death by, the Jewish king of Yemen, Dhu Nuwas.
  • Abyssinia................................................525 - 599
  • Persia...................................................599 - 629
    • Sayyid Abdul Masih........................................fl. 620's
  • The Prophet Muhammad's elected successors................629 - 661
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................661 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................750 - 819
  • Unclear Chronology, 819-1173.
  • Largely within Yemen thereafter, especially.............1633 - 1936
    • Muhammad ibn Ismail................................1677 - 1717
    • Hibbat-Allah.......................................1717 - 1747
    • Ismail I...........................................1747 - 1760
    • Hasan I Ali........................................1760 – 1774
    • Abd al-Ali ibn Hasan...............................1774 - 1780
    • Abd Allah I ibn Ali................................1780 - 1810
    • Yusuf..............................................1810 - 1819
    • Husayn ibn Hasan ibn Ali...........................1819 - 1826
    • Ismail II ibn Muhammad.............................1826 - 1841
    • Hasan II...........................................1841 - 1846
    • Hasan III ibn Ismail...............................1846 - 1872
    • Ahmad..............................................1872 - 1889
    • Abd Allah II ibn Ali ibn Husayn....................1889 - 1905
    • Ali I ibn Hibbat Allah.............................1905 - 1912
    • Ali II ibn Muhsin ibn Husayn.......................1912 - 1926 d. 1936
  • Yemen directly..........................................1926 - 1936
  • Husayn Ahmad ibn Hasan (pretender).............................1936
  • Saudi Arabia............................................1936 - date
 
Nejd
 
The interior of the Arabian Peninsula, in modern times centered on the city of Riyadh.
 
  • Chieftaincy of Kindah
  • Included here for completeness sake, even though the earliest Kindah sheikhs had nothing to do with central Arabia as such. Kindah originated as a tribe west of Hadramaut, in Southern Arabia - even so, from c. 325- 425 they were associated with Ma'ad, in northern Arabia. Qaryat Al Faw was the capital of the first Kindah kingdom. It is located about 100 km south of Wadi ad-Dawasir, and about 700 km southwest of Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia. The Al Faw archeological site reveals various features such as residential houses, markets, roads, cemeteries, temples and water wells.
  • Malikum...............................................c. 325 - c. 340
  • Murti ibn Muawiyah....................................c. 340 - c. 370
  • Muawiyah ibn Taur.....................................c. 370 - c. 400
  • Amr ibn Muawiyah......................................c. 400 - c. 425
  • Muawiyah ibn Rabiah ? .........................................fl. 400's ?
  • Kingdom of Kindah
  • A protegé state of Himyar (Yemen) - Hujr was granted the style of King over certain tribes by his step-brother Hasan ibn Amr ibn Tubba of Himyar; this is the first instance of a local Arabian ruler to use such a title, which was normally utilized by Arabs to describe foreign rulers.
  • Hujr Akil al-Murar ibn Amr............................c. 425 - c. 458
  • al-Mansur ibn Hudjr......................................458 - c. 489
  • al-Harith Talaban ibn Amr.............................c. 489 - c. 528
  • In about 528, Kindah was partitioned, leading to a civil war which utterly destroyed the state and ushered in an ascendency by Hirah which lasted until the arrival of Islam.
  • Hujr ibn al-Harith (Asad, Kinana, Ghatafan)..................c. 528 - c. 530 and...
  • Shurahbil ibn Amr (Rabia, Tamim, Ribab, Abd Manat, Dabbal)...c. 528 - 540 and...
  • Salama ibn Amr (Taghlib b. Waïl, Namir, Saad ad-Darim).......c. 528 - 540 and...
  • Maadi-Karib (Qais-Ailan).....................................c. 528 - 540 and...
  • Abdullah (Abd al-Qais).......................................c. 528 - 540 with...
  • Imru al-Qais ibn Hujr (Asad, Kinana, Ghatafan, Maad).........c. 530 - c. 540
  • Destroyed by Hirah 540. Remaining Kindahids retreat back into the Hadramaut.
  • Mostly to Hirah..........................................540 - 633
  • The Prophet Muhammad's elected successors................633 - 661
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................661 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................750 - 886
  • The Qarmati (Carmathian) Theocracy in eastern Arabia.
  • Banu al-JANNABI
  • Abu Said al-Hasan I ibn Bahram al-Jannabi................886 - 913
  • Abu al-Qasim Said I ibn Abu Said al-Hasan................913 - 917
  • Abu Tahir Sulayman al-Hadjari ibn Abu Said al-Hasan......917 - 931/944
  • al-Mahdi.................................................931 - 932
  • Abu Mansur Ahmad ibn Abu Said al-Hasan................c. 944 - 970 with...
  • Abu al-Qasim Said II...............................fl. 940's - 950's  and...
  • Sabur ibn Abu Tahir Sulayman.......................fl. 940's - 950's  and...
  • al-Fadl............................................fl. 940's - 950's  and...
  • Abu Yaqub Yusuf ibn Abu Said.............................944 - 977
  • al-Hasan II al-Asam ibn Ahmad.....................fl. c. 970 - 977
  • Joint rule by 6 grandsons of al-Hasan ibn Bahram, late 10th cent.
  • Semi-Republican government...........................c. 1020 - 1078
  • The Qarmati were disrupted by a joint Seljuq-Abbasid invasion in 1078. Nevertheless, the central wastes proved ungovernable to any save the nomad Bedouin clans of the interior, chief among them the Uyunid family of the Banu Murra tribe of eastern Arabia. Ottoman Turkey held a tenuous and largely unpursued claim c. 1517-1918.
  • Local Bedawi (Bedouin) nomad clans...................c. 1050 - c. 1450
  • Sheikhdom of Najd - Capital at ad-Dariyah (Wadi Khanifa)
  • SA'UD - Known as such from the establishment of the Emirate.
  • Mani ibn Rabia al-Muraidi......................................fl. c. 1446
  • Rabia I ibn Mani
  • Musa I ibn Rabia...............................................fl. c. 1500
  • Ibrahim I ibn Musa
  • Marhan I ibn Ibrahim
  • Rabia II ibn Marhan..................................c. 1620 - c. 1645
  • Wasban ibn Rabia.....................................c. 1645 - c. 1654
  • Marhan II ibn Mukrin...........................................1654
  • Muhammad I ibn Mukrin...................................1654 - 1672
  • Nasr ibn Muhammad.......................................1672 - 1673
  • Mahran III ibn Wasban...................................1673 - c. 1690
  • Ibrahim II ibn Wasban................................c. 1690 - c. 1694
  • Idris ibn Wasban.....................................c. 1694 - c. 1699
  • Sultan ibn Hamad al-Qaisi............................c. 1699 - c. 1708
  • Abdallah ibn Hamad al-Qaisi..........................c. 1708 - c. 1709
  • Musa II ibn Rabia....................................c. 1709 - c. 1720
  • Emirate of Nejd - Emirs
  • Saud I ibn Muhammad ibn Mukrin.......................c. 1720 - 1725
  • Saud I had two known sons: Muhammad and Thunayyan.
  • Zayid ibn Marhan........................................1725 - 1726
  • Muhammad II ibn Saud I..................................1726 - 1765
  • Muhammad II had two known sons: Abdullah and Abdul al-Aziz.
  • Abd al-Aziz I ibn Muhammad II...........................1765 - 02 Oct 1803
  • Saud II ibn Abd al-Aziz I, the Great.............02 Oct 1803 - 01 May 1814
  • Abdullah I ibn Saud II...........................01 May 1814 - 1818
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1818 - 1824 opposed by...
    • Muhammad III ibn Mishari al-Ayana (1st time).......1819 - 1820
    • Mishari I ibn Saud II..........................Mar 1820 - Dec 1820
    • Occupied al-Diriyah in Mar 1820, but captured by the Egyptians.
    • Muhammad III ibn Mishari al-Ayana (2nd time).......1820 - 1821
  • Turki ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad II......................1824 - 10 May 1834
  • Mishari II ibn Abd ar-Rahman........................May 1834 - Jun 1834
  • Faisal I ibn Turki (1st time)....................18 Jun 1834 - 1838 d. 1865
  • Faisal I had four known sons: Abdullah, Saud, Muhammad and Abdul al-Rahman.
  • Khalid I ibn Saud II....................................1838 - 1841 d. 1861
  • He ruled as Ottoman Empire viceroy.
  • Abdullah II ibn Thunayan................................1841 - 13 Jul 1843
  • Full name: Abdullah II ibn Thunayan ibn Ibrahim ibn Thunayyan ibn Saud I.
  • Faisal I ibn Turki (2nd time)....................13 Jul 1843 - 02 Dec 1865
  • Abdullah III ibn Faisal I (1st time).............02 Dec 1865 - 09 Apr 1871 d. 1889
  • Saud III ibn Faisal I (1st time)...............................1871 d. 1875
  • Abdullah III ibn Faisal I (2nd time)....................1871 - 1873 d. 1889
  • Saud III ibn Faisal I (2nd time)........................1873 - Jan 1875
  • Abd ar-Rahman ibn Faisal I (1st time)...............Jan 1875 - Aug 1875 d. 1928
  • Muhammad IV al-Arafa ibn Saud III (1st time)...................1875
  • Abdullah III ibn Faisal I (3rd time)....................1875 - 1887 d. 1889
  • Abd ar-Rahman ibn Faisal I (2nd time)..........................1887 d. 1928
  • Muhammad IV al-Arafa ibn Saud III (2nd time)...................1887
  • Hail....................................................1887 - 15 Jan 1902 opposed by...
    • Governors
    • Abdullah III ibn Faisal I (4th time)...............1887 - 1889
    • Abd ar-Rahman ibn Faisal I (3rd time)..............1889 - 1891 d. 1928
    • Muhammad V ibn Faisal al-Mutawi....................1891 - 1892
  • Abdul Aziz ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal I captured Nejd on 15 Jan 1902 and later unified almost all the Arabian peninsula on 23 Sep 1932 as Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. He ruled till 1953.
 
Tayma
 
A town and oasis in northwestern Saudi Arabia, about 230 miles (370 km.) northwest of Medinah, and roughly 170 miles (275 km.) southeast of the Jordanian frontier. It lies on the edge of the Great Northern Wastes, the Nafud, some 160 miles (256 km.) or so from the Red Sea. The place, a stop on the Spice Route from Ubar, is ancient and many ruins and inscriptions are to be found here. The place is mentioned in the Old Testament a number of times - the Hebrews regarded it as the settlement of a descendent of Abraham, Tema, the son of Ishmael. Tayma is a large oasis with a long history of settlement, located in northeastern Saudi Arabia at the point where the trade route between Yathrib (Medinah) and Dumah (al-Jawf) begins to cross the Nefud desert. Tayma is located 264 km southeast of the city of Tabouk, and about 400 km north of Medinah.
 
  • Within Midianite territory...........................c. 1600 - c. 1100 BCE
  • Indigenous Dynasty
  • Unknown rulers
  • Shamsi (female)................................................fl. c. 735
  • Zabibei (female)...............................................fl. c. 735
  • Probably under Assyria................................c. 730 - 609
  • Babylon..................................................609 - 539
  • Unknown rulers
  • Nabataea..........................................c. 300 BCE - 106 CE
  • Jewish Exilarchs
  • Persistent (but nowadays muted) Arabic tradition holds that Tayma was the site of a very old Jewish colony. It is known that when the armies of Muhammad took the place, the inhabitants chose to pay the head-tax of non-Muslims rather than convert, at least initially.
  • Unknown rulers
  • Samuel I..............................................c. 290 - 350
  • Amru..................................................c. 350 - c. 370
  • Unknown rulers
  • Samuel II......................................................c. 550
  • Shuraikh.......................................................c. 570 with...
  • Jarrid.........................................................c. 570 and then...
  • Saba...........................................................fl. late 6th cent.
  • Unknown rulers
  • The Prophet Muhammad's elected successors................630 - 661
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................661 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................750 - 886
  • Egypt....................................................868 - 905
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................905 - 969
  • Egypt (the Fatamids).....................................969 - 1070
  • The Seljuqs.............................................1070 - 1169
  • Mosul (the Zangids).....................................1169 - 1174
  • Egypt...................................................1174 - 1517
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1517 - 1916
  • Hejaz...................................................1916 - 1925
  • Saudi Arabia............................................1925 - date
 
Thamud
 
An important tribal confederation originating in southern Arabia c. 4th century BCE, but expanding into central and northern Arabia at an early date. Although they were a powerful non-Muslim force within the peninsula, they were shattered quickly by the first wave of Muslim armies leaping out of Makkah-Madinah, and thereby were noted in the Quran as a testament to Allah's power to bring the mighty down. Claudius Ptolemy notes at least two versions of the name, and possibly as many as four, at various locales within Arabia ("Thamyditae", "Thaemi", "Thamydeni", "Thanuitae"), lending credence to a loose-knit association of sub-clans. They were a people of ancient Arabia who were known from the 1st millennium BC to near the time of Muhammad. Although they are thought to have originated in southern Arabia, Arabic tradition has them moving north to settle on the slopes of Mount Athlab near Mada'in Saleh. Numerous Thamudic rock writings and pictures have been found on Mount Athlab and throughout central Arabia.
Prophet Salih was send to the dwellings of Thamud, who were worshipping idols. The people asked a see a miracle from Allah, producing a she-camel from the stone. The miracle was done and Allah remind them about their duties towards him and warning the people, not to harm the camel. Eventually they killed her and after three days the people were destroyed. This event is mentioned thrice in Quran; 7: 73-79, 11: 61-68 and 26: 141-159.
 
  • Thamud ibn Jathir ibn Iram ibn Sem ibn Noah.....................4th cent. BCE ?
  • Jathir ibn Thamud
  • Joundo ibn Amr ibn Dhabil ibn Iram ibn Thamud
 
Unayzah
 
  • An emirate in the al-Qasim region of what is now central Saudi Arabia, quite close to Buraydah.
  • Abdallah I ibn Hamad ibn Zamil.................................1768
  • Yahya ibn Ali...........................................1768 - 1788
  • Abdallah II ibn Yahya...................................1788 - ?
  • Abdallah III ibn Rashid al-Alayan......................... ? - 1819
  • Abdallah IV al-Djamai...................................1819 - 1822
  • Sulayman ibn Rashid al-Alaiyan..........................1822 - ?
  • Egypt...................................................1839 - 1840
  • Yahya II.................................................. ? - 1841
  • Abdallah V..............................................1841 - 1845
  • Ibrahim.................................................1845 - 1848
  • Nasr as-Suhaym..........................................1848 - 1849
  • Under Nejd, and Saudi Arabia thereafter; local rulers continue to govern until 1904...
    • Djaalwi ibn Turki..................................1849 - 1854
    • Abdallah VI ibn Yahya..............................1854 - 1867
    • Zamil as-Sulayim...................................1867 - 1891
    • Abdallah VII ibn Yahya ibn Salih...................1891 - 1895
    • Salih al-amir......................................1895 - 1900
    • Hamad ibn Abdallah.................................1900 - 1904
 
 
Saudi Arabia
 
                      1201  Hashimite dynasty beings rule in Hejaz.
                      1258  Part of Mameluke Sultanate of Egypt.
                  Aug 1517  Part of the Ottoman Empire.
        1550 - 1670         al-Haasa becomes part of the Ottoman Empire.
                      1670  Sheikdom of al-Haasa (Ahsa) established.
                      1735  al-Diriyah Emirate (under Wahhabi rule).
        1735 - 1795         al-Haasa, as a vassal of al-Diriyah Emirate.
                      1795  al-Haasa annexed by al-Diriyah.
                      1802  al-Diriyah dominates almost all of central Arabia.
        1813 - 1830         al-Haasa under Egyptian occupation.
 17 Dec 1817 - 1822         al-Diriyah under Egyptian occupation.
                      1819  al-Diriyah part of the Ottoman Empire.
        1819 - 1840         Hejaz under Egyptian occupation.
        1830 - 1838         al-Haasa under al-Diriyah control.
               1835         Emirate of Jebel Shammar (Hail) established.
        1838 - 1843         al-Diriyah (Nejd) inc. al-Hassa under Egyptian occupation.
        1843 - Jun 1871     al-Haasa under al-Diriyah control.
               Jun 1871     Ottoman rule restored (as Necd sanjak of Baghdad; from 1875
                             Basra vilayet).
               1887         Nejd conquest by Jebel Shammar (Hail).
        1891 - 15 Jan 1902  Nejd direct rule by Jebel Shammar (Hail).
               15 Jan 1902  Abdul Aziz ibn Saud takes Riyadh (Emirate of Nejd).
                  May 1913  al-Haasa annexed by Nejd (nominally Ottoman to 1914).
               10 Jun 1916  Hejazi Kingdom (independence from Ottoman Empire declared).
    May 1914 - 1914         Ottoman-Saudi treaty recognizes Ottoman suzerainty (as
                             hereditary Wali of vilyet of Nejd).
               19 Oct 1916  Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi proclaims the independence
                             of all the Arabs from the Ottoman Empire.
               10 Aug 1920  Turkey recognizes independence by Treaty of Sèvres (confirmed
                             24 Jul 1923 by Treaty of Lausanne).
               22 Aug 1921  Sultanate of Nejd and Dependencies.
               02 Nov 1921  Jebel Shammar incorporated into Nejd.
 02 Dec 1922 - 07 Jul 1965  Kuwaiti-Saudi Arabian neutral zone in northeastern border.
 02 Dec 1922 - 26 Dec 1981  Iraqi-Saudi Arabian neutral zone in northcentral border.
               05 Sep 1924  Nejd occupation of Taif.
               13 Oct 1924  Nejd occupation of Makkah.
               05 Dec 1925  Nejd occupation of Medinah.
               19 Dec 1925  Sharif Ali of Hejaz abdicate his throne.
               19 Dec 1925  Hejaz occupied by Nejd.
               23 Dec 1925  Nejd occupation of Jeddah.
               08 Jan 1926  Hejaz annexed (de facto) by Nejd.
               29 Jan 1927  Kingdom of Nejd and Dependencies.
               20 Nov 1930  Asir incorporated into Hejaz.
               22 Sep 1932  Hejaz, Nejd and dependencies united as Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                      1983  Iraqi-Saudi neutral zone formally partitioned between Iraq
                            and Saudi Arabia
  • Emir of Nejd
  • Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud...15 Jan 1902 - 22 Aug 1921
  • Also known as hereditary Wali of Nejd,  May 1914 - 1914.
  • Sultan of Nejd and Its Dependencies; King of Hejaz on 08 Jan 1926.
  • Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud...22 Aug 1921 - 29 Jan 1927
  • King of Hejaz, Nejd and Dependencies (Malik al-Hijaz wa Najd wa Mulhaqatahu)
  • Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud...29 Jan 1927 - 22 Sep 1932
  • He then unified all his territories and named it as Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, titled himself as King on 23 Sep 1932.
AH1343-1344 (1925-1926) - Transition Coinage
Currency: 20 Piastres (Qirsh) = Riyal = Maria Theresa Thaler.
 

KM#1 ¼ Ghirsh (piastre). Year: AH1343 (1925). Weight: 3.12g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Umm al-Qura (Makkah). Obverse: "عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن" (Abdul Aziz ibn Abdul Rahman) written as Tughra in the center with Date below it. "الفيصل آل سعود" (Al-Faisal Al-Saud) written left of Tughra. Reverse: "ضرب في أم القرى" (Struck at Umm al-Qura) written at the top section above the border line. "ربع قرش" (Quarter Piastre) written at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal Al-Saud.
Note: Several varieties exist, including reeded and plain edges; Some specimens struck over bronze Hejaz 1/4 and 1/2 Piastres (KM#23 and KM#26), and some occur with a light silver wash.

KM#2.1 ½ Ghirsh (piastre). Year: AH1343 (1925). Weight: 4.62g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 22.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal, but rotated. Mint: Umm al-Qura (Makkah). Obverse: "عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن" (Abdul Aziz ibn Abdul Rahman) written as Tughra in the center with Date below it. "الفيصل آل سعود" (Al-Faisal Al-Saud) written left of Tughra. Reverse: "ضرب في أم القرى" (Struck at Umm al-Qura) written at the top section above the border line. "نصف قرش" (Half Piastre) written at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal Al-Saud.

Same as above coin, but some difference in size of legend of "الفيصل آل سعود" (Al-Faisal Al-Saud) besides Tughra and Date.

Weight: 3.65g.

Note: This coin occurs with a light silver wash.

Similar to above coin but having different size of legends on both sides. A specimen struck over bronze Hejaz 1 Piastre (KM#24). Various crude types are known for this coin.

Weight: 4.13g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 21.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal.

KM#A3 ½ Ghirsh (piastre). Year: AH1344 RY2 (1926). Weight: 2.85g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 22.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Umm al-Qura (Makkah). Obverse: "ضرب في أم القرى" (Struck at Umm al-Qura) written at the top section with Date above the border lines. "نصف قرش" (Half Piastre) written at the bottom. Reverse: "عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن" (Abdul Aziz ibn Abdul Rahman) written as Tughra in the center with Reignal year "٢" (2) below it. "آل سعود" (Al-Saud) written left of Tughra. Mintage: N/A. Minted Year: One year type. Ruler: Abdul Aziz ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal Al-Saud.
 
AH1344 (1926) - King of Hejaz and Sultan of Nejd
 
Currency: Riyal = 22 qirshes (piastres)
 

KM#4 ¼ Ghirsh (piastre). Year: AH1344 (1926). Weight: 4.05g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.

Obverse: "ربع قرش" (Quarter Piastre) written at the top. Numeral "٤/١" (1/4) written in the center. Date at the bottom.

Reverse: "ملك الحجاز و سلطان نجد" (King of Hejaz and Sultan of Nejd) written at the top. "عبد العزيز آل سعود" (Abdul Al-Aziz Al-Saud) written at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud.

Same as above coin but having thinner obverse legends, especially the line dividing 1 and 4. Some alphabets in the end like "Sheen" and "Hey" are also thin accordingly. Weight: 4.21g.

Minted by another die or mint. Probably proof issue.

KM#5 ½ Ghirsh (piastre). Year: AH1344 (1926). Weight: 4.89g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.

Obverse: "نصف قرش" (Half Piastre) written at the top. Numeral "٢/١" (1/2) written in the center. Date at the bottom.

Reverse: "ملك الحجاز و سلطان نجد" (King of Hejaz and Sultan of Nejd) written at the top. "عبد العزيز آل سعود" (Abdul Al-Aziz Al-Saud) written at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud.

Note: Thicker obverse legends.

Same as above coin but having slightly less thick obverse legends, especially the line dividing 1 and 2. Some alphabets in the end like "Sheen" and "Fay" are also differ accordingly. Weight: 5.95g.

Probably minted by another die or mint.

Same as above coin but having thin obverse legends, especially the line dividing 1 and 2. Some alphabets in the end like "Sheen" and "Fay" are also differ accordingly. Weight: 4.91g.

Same as above coin but having thinner borders on both sides. Unlisted style in Krause publications. Weight: 5.19g.

Minted by another die or mint. Probably proof issue.

KM#6 1 Ghirsh (piastre). Year: AH1344 (1926). Weight: 6.24g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.

Obverse: "قرش واحد" (One Piastre) written at the top. Numeral "١" (1) written in the center. Date at the bottom.

Reverse: "ملك الحجاز و سلطان نجد" (King of Hejaz and Sultan of Nejd) written at the top. "عبد العزيز آل سعود" (Abdul Al-Aziz Al-Saud) written at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud.

 
AH1346 (1928) - King of Hejaz, Nejd and other Dependencies
 
On January 24, 1928 Saudi Arabia established a monetary system based on the Saudi riyal, crown size and valued at 1/
10 of a British sovereign.
 

KM#7 ¼ Ghirsh (piastre). Year: AH1346 (1928). Weight: 4.18g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.

Obverse: "ربع قرش" (Quarter Piastre) written at the top. Numeral "٤/١" (1/4) written in the center. Date at the bottom.

Reverse: "ملك الحجاز و نجد وملحقاتها" (King of Hejaz and Nejd and Accessories) written at the top. "عبد العزيز آل سعود" (Abdul Al-Aziz Al-Saud) written at the bottom. Mintage: 3,000,000. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud.

KM#8 ½ Ghirsh (piastre). Year: AH1346 (1928). Weight: 5.08g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.

Obverse: "نصف قرش" (Half Piastre) written at the top. Numeral "٢/١" (1/2) written in the center. Date at the bottom.

Reverse: "ملك الحجاز و نجد وملحقاتها" (King of Hejaz and Nejd and Accessories) written at the top. "عبد العزيز آل سعود" (Abdul Al-Aziz Al-Saud) written at the bottom. Mintage: 3,000,000. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud.

KM#9 1 Ghirsh (piastre). Year: AH1346 (1928). Weight: 6.45g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.

Obverse: "قرش واحد" (One Piastre) written at the top. Numeral "١" (1) written in the center. Date at the bottom.

Reverse: "ملك الحجاز و نجد وملحقاتها" (King of Hejaz and Nejd and Accessories) written at the top. "عبد العزيز آل سعود" (Abdul Al-Aziz Al-Saud) written at the bottom. Mintage: 3,000,000. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud.

KM#10 ¼ Riyal. Year: AH1346 (1928). Weight: 5.95g (6.05g). Metal: 0.9170 Silver. Diameter: 24.25 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Makkah.

Obverse: "ربع ريال عربي سعودي" (Quarter Riyal of Saudi Arabia) written above. "ضرب في مكة مكرمة" (Struck at Makkah Mukarramah) written within beaded circle with Date below it. Value "٤/١" (1/4) written at the bottom within design flanked by Date tree on both sides.

Reverse: "ملك الحجاز و نجد وملحقاتها" (King of Hejaz and Nejd and Accessories) written at the top.

"عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود" (Abdul Al-Aziz bin Abdul Rahman Al-Saud) written within beaded circle. Crossed swords at the bottom within design flanked by Date tree on both sides. Mintage: 400,000. Minted Years: AH1346 and AH1348. Ruler: Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud.

KM#11 ½ Riyal. Year: AH1346 (1928). Weight: 12.00g (12.05g). Metal: 0.9170 Silver. Diameter: 27.25 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Makkah. Obverse: "نصف ريال عربي سعودي" (Half Riyal of Saudi Arabia) written above. "ضرب في مكة مكرمة" (Struck at Makkah Mukarramah) written within beaded circle with Date below it. Value "٢/١" (1/2) written at the bottom within design flanked by Date tree on both sides.

Reverse: "ملك الحجاز و نجد وملحقاتها" (King of Hejaz and Nejd and Accessories) written at the top.

"عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود" (Abdul Al-Aziz bin Abdul Rahman Al-Saud) written within beaded circle. Crossed swords at the bottom within design flanked by Date tree on both sides. Mintage: 200,000. Minted Years: AH1346 and AH1348. Ruler: Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud.

Probably Heaton mint specimen. Scarce coin.

KM#12 1 Riyal. Year: AH1346 (1928). Weight: 23.86g (24.10g). Metal: 0.9170 Silver. Diameter: 37.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Makkah. Obverse: "ريال عربي سعودي واحد" (One Riyal of Saudi Arabia) written above. "ضرب في مكة مكرمة" (Struck at Makkah Mukarramah) written within beaded circle with Date below it. Value "١" (1) written at the bottom within design flanked by Date tree on both sides.

Reverse: "ملك الحجاز و نجد وملحقاتها" (King of Hejaz and Nejd and Accessories) written at the top.

"عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود" (Abdul Al-Aziz bin Abdul Rahman Al-Saud) written within beaded circle. Crossed swords at the bottom within design flanked by Date tree on both sides. Mintage: 800,000. Minted Years: AH1346 and AH1348. Ruler: Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud.

 
AH1348 (1930)
 

KM#13 ¼ Ghirsh (piastre). Year: AH1348 (1930). Weight: 4.16g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.

Obverse: "ربع قرش" (Quarter Piastre) written at the top. Numeral "٤/١" (1/4) written in the center. Date at the bottom.

Reverse: "ملك الحجاز و نجد وملحقاتها" (King of Hejaz and Nejd and Accessories) written at the top. "عبد العزيز آل سعود" (Abdul Al-Aziz Al-Saud) written at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud.

Same as above coin but having thinner obverse legends, especially the line dividing 1 and 4. Some alphabets in the end like "Sheen" and "Hey" are also thin accordingly. Weight: 4.12g.

Minted by another die or mint. Probably proof issue.

KM#14 ½ Ghirsh (piastre). Year: AH1348 (1930). Weight: 4.97g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.

Obverse: "نصف قرش" (Half Piastre) written at the top. Numeral "٢/١" (1/2) written in the center. Date at the bottom.

Reverse: "ملك الحجاز و نجد وملحقاتها" (King of Hejaz and Nejd and Accessories) written at the top. "عبد العزيز آل سعود" (Abdul Al-Aziz Al-Saud) written at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud.

Same as above coin but having thinner obverse legends, especially the line dividing 1 and 2. Some alphabets in the end like "Sheen" and "Fay" are also thin accordingly. Weight: 5.13g.

Minted by another die or mint. Probably proof issue.

KM#15 1 Ghirsh (piastre). Year: AH1348 (1930). Weight: 6.25g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A.

Obverse: "قرش واحد" (One Piastre) written at the top. Numeral "١" (1) written in the center. Date at the bottom.

Reverse: "ملك الحجاز و نجد وملحقاتها" (King of Hejaz and Nejd and Accessories) written at the top. "عبد العزيز آل سعود" (Abdul Al-Aziz Al-Saud) written at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud.

KM#10 ¼ Riyal. Year: AH1348 (1930). Weight: 5.95g (6.05g). Metal: 0.9170 Silver. Diameter: 24.25 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Makkah.

Obverse: "ربع ريال عربي سعودي" (Quarter Riyal of Saudi Arabia) written above. "ضرب في مكة مكرمة" (Struck at Makkah Mukarramah) written within beaded circle with Date below it. Value "٤/١" (1/4) written at the bottom within design flanked by Date tree on both sides.

Reverse: "ملك الحجاز و نجد وملحقاتها" (King of Hejaz and Nejd and Accessories) written at the top.

"عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود" (Abdul Al-Aziz bin Abdul Rahman Al-Saud) written within beaded circle. Crossed swords at the bottom within design flanked by Date tree on both sides. Mintage: 200,000. Minted Years: AH1346 and AH1348. Ruler: Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud.

KM#11 ½ Riyal. Year: AH1348 (1930). Weight: 11.95g (12.05g). Metal: 0.9170 Silver. Diameter: 27.25 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Makkah.  Obverse: "نصف ريال عربي سعودي" (Half Riyal of Saudi Arabia) written above. "ضرب في مكة مكرمة" (Struck at Makkah Mukarramah) written within beaded circle with Date below it. Value "٢/١" (1/2) written at the bottom within design flanked by Date tree on both sides.

Reverse: "ملك الحجاز و نجد وملحقاتها" (King of Hejaz and Nejd and Accessories) written at the top.

"عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود" (Abdul Al-Aziz bin Abdul Rahman Al-Saud) written within beaded circle. Crossed swords at the bottom within design flanked by Date tree on both sides. Mintage: 100,000. Minted Years: AH1346 and AH1348. Ruler: Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud. Rare coin.

KM#12 1 Riyal. Year: AH1348 (1930). Weight: 23.95g (24.10g). Metal: 0.9170 Silver. Diameter: 37.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Makkah. Obverse: "ريال عربي سعودي واحد" (One Riyal of Saudi Arabia) written above. "ضرب في مكة مكرمة" (Struck at Makkah Mukarramah) written within beaded circle with Date below it. Value "١" (1) written at the bottom within design flanked by Date tree on both sides.

Reverse: "ملك الحجاز و نجد وملحقاتها" (King of Hejaz and Nejd and Accessories) written at the top.

"عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود" (Abdul Al-Aziz bin Abdul Rahman Al-Saud) written within beaded circle. Crossed swords at the bottom within design flanked by Date tree on both sides. Mintage: 400,000. Minted Years: AH1346 and AH1348. Ruler: Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud.

 
 
Click on the links provided on below Rulers to view coinage used in their era.
 
  • King of Saudi Arabia
  • The King is also the Prime Minister of the country from 09 Nov 1953 onwards; otherwise noted below.
  • Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al-Saud...23 Sep 1932 - 09 Nov 1953
  • Saud bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud......................09 Nov 1953 - 02 Nov 1964 d. 1969
  • Prime Minister from 09 Oct 1953 to 16 Aug 1954 and again from 21 Dec 1960 to 31 Oct 1962.
  • Faisal bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud (regent)...........30 Mar 1964 - 02 Nov 1964
  • Faisal bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud....................02 Nov 1964 - 25 Mar 1975
  • Prime Minister from 16 Aug 1954 to 21 Dec 1960 and again from 31 Oct 1962 to 25 Mar 1975.
  • Khalid bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud....................25 Mar 1975 - 13 Jun 1982
  • Fahad bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud.....................13 Jun 1982 - 01 Aug 2005
  • From 1986 prefixed to the name: Khadim al-Haramayn ash-Sharifayn ("Servant of the Two Exalted Holy Places [Mecca and Medina]") was added.
  • Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud (de facto regent)01 Jan 1996 - 21 Feb 1996
  • Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud..................01 Aug 2005 - 23 Jan 2015
  • Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the now fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities; Kuwait and Saudi Arabia continue discussions on a maritime boundary with Iran. A report in April 2014 stated the King had around six months left to live, citing his diagnosis of terminal lung cancer. On 02 January 2015, Abdullah was hospitalized for pneumonia and died on 23 January at 01:00 am.
  • Salman bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud....................23 Jan 2015 - date
  • Salman became King on 23 January 2015 on the death of King Abdullah, his half-brother. He is a full brother of Fahad, who was king from 1982 to 2005. Muqrin is named crown prince. On 29 April 2015, King Salman replaced Prince Muqrin with Prince Muhammad bin Nayef as Crown Prince. The announcement reportedly helped calm fears of dynastic instability over the line of succession.
 
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Chiefa Coins