Central African Republic
 

 

The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; French: République centrafricaine) is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Chad to the north, Sudan to the northeast, South Sudan to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south, the Republic of the Congo to the southwest and Cameroon to the west. The CAR covers a land area of about 620,000 square kilometres (240,000 sq mi) and had an estimated population of around 4.6 million as of 2016. As of 2019, the CAR is the scene of a civil war, ongoing since 2012.
Most of the CAR consists of Sudano-Guinean savannas, but the country also includes a Sahelo-Sudanian zone in the north and an equatorial forest zone in the south. Two thirds of the country is within the Ubangi River basin (which flows into the Congo), while the remaining third lies in the basin of the Chari, which flows into Lake Chad.
What is today the Central African Republic has been inhabited for millennia; however, the country's current borders were established by France, which ruled the country as a colony starting in the late 19th century. After gaining independence from France in 1960, the Central African Republic was ruled by a series of autocratic leaders, including an abortive attempt at a monarchy; by the 1990s, calls for democracy led to the first multi-party democratic elections in 1993. Ange-Félix Patassé became president, but was later removed by General François Bozizé in the 2003 coup. The Central African Republic Bush War began in 2004 and, despite a peace treaty in 2007 and another in 2011, civil war resumed in 2012.
Despite its significant mineral deposits and other resources, such as uranium reserves, crude oil, gold, diamonds, cobalt, lumber, and hydropower, as well as significant quantities of arable land, the Central African Republic is among the ten poorest countries in the world, with the lowest GDP per capita at purchasing power parity in the world as of 2017. As of 2015, according to the Human Development Index (HDI), the country had the lowest level of human development, ranking 188th out of 188 countries. It is also estimated to be the unhealthiest country as well as the worst country in which to be young. The Central African Republic is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Economic Community of Central African States, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie and the Non-Aligned Movement.

Motto: "Unité, Dignité, Travail" (French) [translation: "Unity, Dignity, Work"].
Capital: Bangui (Abiras 1903 - 11 Feb 1906; Fort-de-Possel 11 Feb 1906 - 11 Dec 1906) [Haut-Oubangui: Mobaye 1891-1894, Abiras 1894-1903; Haut-Chari: Fort Crampel 1900-1940].
Territorial Disputes: Periodic skirmishes over water and grazing rights among related pastoral populations along the border with southern Sudan persist.
 

 
 
The sultans ruled large conquered populations in the north and east of the present-day Central African Republic (CAR). They included the famous slave-trader al-Sanusi, eventually killed in battle with the French in 1911, and the sultans Labassou, Zemio, and Hetman, heads of conquering dynasties. The Banda in the central part of the CAR generally had no grands chefs and have been called "anarchistic" because of their various subgroupings and divisions. The Mandjia and Baya in the west and the riverine peoples along the Oubangui and Mbomou in the south had no grands chefs either. They had leaders of different kinds, however, for the settlement of disputes or to lead men in battle against an enemy, or as heads of kinship groupings.
 
BANGASSU
 
A provincial capital (Mbomu province) located on the Mbomu river and the border with Congo (Kinshasa) in southeastern Central African Republic.
 
      c.1780  Ndounga founds the Bandia kingdom of Nzakara.
 14 Jun 1890  Congo Free State protectorate over the Sultanate of Bangassou.
        1894  French protectorate over the Sultanate of Bangassou.
        1917  Sultanate suppressed by the French
 
  • Tribal state of Sabhanga
  • Ngbanda................................................c. 1700 - ?
  • Kpube..................................................c. 1730 - ?
  • Ngubenge...............................................c. 1740 - ?
  • Nzagba.................................................c. 1760 - c. 1780
  • Kingdom of Nzakara
  • Ndounga (Dunga)........................................c. 1780 - c. 1800
  • Mbilinga (Berunga).....................................c. 1800 - c. 1830
  • Boendi (Gbandi)........................................c. 1830 - c. 1860
  • Mbali (M'Bari).........................................c. 1860 - c. 1878
  • Sultanate of Bangassu
  • Bangassu...............................................c. 1878 - 08 Jun 1907 d. 1907
  • Congo Free State protectorate......................14 Jun 1890 - 1894
  • French protectorate.......................................1894 - 1917
    • Labassu (Luba, Labaso)...............................1907 - c. Jan 1917 d. 1917
    • Banzanga....................................................1917 d. 1920
    • Suppressed by the French 1917, and incorporated into the French colony of Equatorial Africa. Locally though, the Sultans retained considerable influence...
    • Kelenga..............................................1917 - 1932 d. 1932
    • Antoine Gounga.......................................1932 - 1936 d. 1942
  • Central African Republic...........................13 Aug 1960 - date
    • Sayo.................................................1936 - 1966
 
 
DAR al-KUTI
 
A district in northeastern Central African Republic, comprising the area on the frontier with Chad, south of the Aouk River in modern Bamingui-Bangoram province. It was the site of a local Sultanate founded in the 19th century by an exiled Baguirmid prince.
KENGA Omar, a brother of Abdul Qadir II, Sultan of Baguirmi (d. 1858), was exiled and fled southeast to the Aouk River, establishing himself there.
 
      c.1830  Djougoultoum (or Omar), an exiled Baguirmian prince, founds
               Dar al-Kuti south of the Aouk river
        1890  Sultanate of Dar al-Kuti and Dar Rounga is established by
               conqueror Rabah
 12 Dec 1897  French protectorate over Dar al-Kuti
        1912  sultanate suppressed
 
  • Sultans
  • Omar Djougoultoum.......................................c.1830 - ?
  • Muhammad Kober.............................................. ? - 1890
  • ZOBEIR
  • Rabah the Conqueror (also in Baguirmi & Bornu)............1890 - 1900
  • French protectorate.......................................1900 - 1912
  • KENGA
    • Muhammad al-Sanusi...................................1900 - 11 Jan 1911 d. 1911
    • Kamoun...........................................Jan 1911 - 17 Dec 1912
  • France.............................................17 Dec 1912 - 13 Aug 1960
  • Part of Central African Republic thereafter...
 
 
RAFAI
 
A small town in southeastern Central African Republic, Mbomou province, roughly 75 miles (120 km.) east of Bangassu. It was the site of a local Kingdom and later Sultanate.
Kassanga founded a Bandia tribal Kingdom in the Chinko River valley, c. 1800.
 
      c.1800  Kassanga founds a Bandia kingdom in the Chinko river valley
 08 Apr 1892  Congo Free State protectorate over the Sultanate of Rafai
 31 Mar 1909  French protectorate over the Sultanate of Rafai
        1939 sultanate suppressed by the French
 
  • Sultans
  • Kassanga...............................................c. 1760 - ?
  • Sangou.................................................c. 1800 - ? with...
  • Tosi...................................................c. 1800 - ?
  • Baingui (Bayangi)......................................c. 1830 - c. 1875
  • Sultanate of Rafai
  • Rafai..................................................c. 1875 - 15 Jun 1900 d. 1900
  • Congo Free State protectorate......................08 Apr 1892 - 31 Mar 1909
    • Hetman...............................................1900 - 1939 d. 1939
  • French protectorate............................... 31 Mar 1909 - 1939
  • Incorporated into French Equatorial Africa in 1939. The Sultan retained local influence, however.
    • Fatrane Hetman (Vermaud).............................1939 - 1966
  • Part of Central African Republic from 13 Aug 1960 afterwards...
 
 
ZEMIO
 
A local state in extreme southeastern Central African Republic, in Haute Mbomou province.
Nounga founded a Voungara tribal Kingdom between the Chinko and the Ouelle Rivers.
 
      c.1830  Nounga founds a Voungara kingdom between the Chinko and the Ouelle rivers.
 11 Dec 1894  Congo Free State protectorate over the Sultanate of Zemio.
 12 Apr 1909  Fench protectorate over the Sultanate of Zemio.
        1923  Sultanate suppressed by the French.
 
  • Sultans
  • Nounga.................................................c. 1830 - c.1835
  • Zangabirou.................................................. ? - c.1855 d. c. 1858
  • Tikima.................................................c. 1855 - c. 1872
  • Sultanate of Zemio
  • Zemio (Zemio-Ikpiro)...................................c. 1872 - 12 Oct 1912 d. 1912
  • Congo Free State protectorate......................11 Dec 1894 - 12 Apr 1909
  • French protectorate................................12 Apr 1909 - 1923
    • Zemio-Mbomou.........................................1912 - 1921
    • Momi.................................................1921 - 1923
  • Suppressed and annexed to Fr. Equatorial Africa...........1923 - 13 Aug 1960
  • Part of Central African Republic...................13 Aug 1960 - date
 
 
               09 Dec 1891  Haut-Oubangui (Upper Ubangi) region within French Congo.
               13 Jul 1894  Haut-Oubangui govern separately by French.
        1892 - 25 Feb 1895  Oubangui-Bomu territory claimed by the Congo Free State.
               13 Jul 1894  Haut-Oubangui colony (autonomy suppressed 10 Dec 1899 -
                             29 Dec 1903).
 10 Dec 1899 - 29 Dec 1903  Haut-Oubangui province, within French Congo.
 05 Sep 1900 - 11 Jun 1904  Haut-Chari region created within French Congo.
               29 Dec 1903  Oubangui-Chari (Ubangi-Shari) colony.
               11 Feb 1906  Oubangui-Chari territory, part  of Oubangui-Chari-Tchad colony.
               15 Jan 1910  Oubangui-Chari, Middle Congo (now Congo [Brazzaville]), Gabon
                             and Chad form French Equatorial Africa [AEF].
               12 Apr 1916  Oubangui-Chari colony (Oubangui-Chari-Tchad colony dissolved).
               30 Jun 1934  Oubangui-Chari region of French Equatorial Africa
                            (part of AEF colony).
               31 Dec 1937  Oubangui-Chari overseas territory (part of AEF colony).
 16 Jun 1940 - 29 Aug 1940  Administration loyal Vichy France (from 29 Aug 1940,
                             under Free French).
               27 Oct 1946  Oubangui-Chari overseas territory of France.
                            (still part of AEF colony).
               01 Dec 1958  Central African Republic (République Centrafricaine)
                            (autonomy granted).
                            Member state of the Communauté (French Community).
    17 May 1960 - Aug 1960  Part of Union of Central African Republics (L'Union
                             des Républiques d'Afrique Centrale), a loose
                             federation of Chad, Central African Republic and
                             Republic of Congo (to Jul 1960).
               13 Aug 1960  Independence from France.
 04 Dec 1976 - 21 Sep 1979  Central African Empire (Empire Centrafricain).
               27 Dec 2004  Constitution in French. Suspended on 25 Mar 2013.
               30 Aug 2015  Constitution drafted in French.
 
  • Haut-Oubangui
  • Delegate of the Commissioner-general of Oubangui
  • Paul Crampel.......................................25 Sep 1890 - 09 Apr 1891 d.1891
  • Delegates of the Commissioner-general and Directors of Haut-Oubangui
  • Edmond Ponel.......................................09 Aug 1890 - 01 Jan 1892 d. 1928
  • He was Station Chief in charge of Haut-Oubangui zone.
  • Victor Liotard.....................................01 Jan 1892 – 13 Jul 1894 d. 1916
  • Commandant Superiors
  • Parfait-Louis Monteil..............................13 Jul 1894 – 22 Aug 1894 d. 1925
  • He did not take office.
  • Eugène Louis Frédéric Decazes (acting).............22 Aug 1894 - 22 Feb 1895 d. 1913
  • He was Commissioner 10 Feb 1894 - 20 Oct 1894 and Director 10 Feb 1894 - 13 Jul 1894.
  • Leonce Ditte (acting)..............................22 Feb 1895 - 1895 d. 1899
  • Commissioner of the government
  • Victor Liotard............................................1895 - 27 Sep 1897
  • Lieutenant governor
  • Victor Liotard (continued).........................27 Sep 1897 - May 1898
  • Commandant-delegate
  • Adolphe Louis Cureau..................................May 1898 - 18 Jun 1899 d. 1913
  • Delegate of the Commissioner-general
  • Henry..............................................18 Jun 1899 - 10 Dec 1899 d. 1899
  • Chiefs of the Province
  • Henri Bobichon.....................................10 Dec 1899 – 31 Dec 1900 d. 1939
  • Lucien Emile Pierre Prins..........................31 Dec 1900 - 1902 d. 1945
  • Lucien Schneider..........................................1902 - 31 Mar 1903 d. 1903
  • Dic................................................c. Apr 1903 - Oct 1904
 
  • Oubangui-Bomu
        1892  Oubangui-Bomou (Haut-Ubangui-Bomu) territory administered
               by the Congo Free State.
 14 Aug 1894  Franco-Congolese border treaty.
 25 Feb 1895  End of Congo Free State administration.
 
  • Commandant Supérieurs
    (subordinated to the Governors-general of Congo Free State)
  • Georges Le Marinel (1st time)......................18 Jun 1892 - 09 Oct 1892 d. 1914
  • Georges Adolphe Balat.....................................1893 – 15 Apr 1893 d. 1893
  • Léon Charles Édouard Hanolet..............................1893 - Nov 1893 d. 1908
  • Georges Le Marinel (2nd time).........................Nov 1893 - 25 Feb 1895
 
  • Haut-Chari (Ubangi-Shari)
  • Commissioners of the government of Haut-Chari
  • Émile Gentil..........................................Aug 1899 - c. Mar 1901 d. 1914
  • Georges Matthieu Destenave (acting to July 1901)...c. Mar 1901 - c. Dec 1902 d. 1928
  • Commandant
  • Georges-Gilbert Bruel.................................Dec 1902 - 11 Jul 1904 d. 1944
 
 
Oubangui-Chari
 
  • A land-locked region north of the Congo Basin, and south of Chad.
  • Governors-delegate
  • Alphonse Joseph Jaeck (acting).....................30 Jun 1904 - c. Jan 1905 d. 19..
  • Adolphe Louis Cureau...............................c. Jan 1905 - 22 Aug 1905 d. 1913
  • Victor Emmanuel Merlet (1st time - acting).........22 Aug 1905 - 16 Feb 1906 d. 19..
  • Louis Paul Émilien Lamy (acting from 04 Apr 1906)..16 Feb 1906 - 25 Dec 1906 d. 19..
  • Lieutenant governors
  • Émile Joseph Merwart...............................25 Dec 1906 - 28 Feb 1909 d. 1960
    • Acting for Merwart
    • Léon Herménégilde Maran.....................................1908 d. 1912
  • Lucien Louis Fourneau (acting).....................28 Feb 1909 - 05 Aug 1910 d. 1930
  • Paul Pierre Marie Georges Adam (1st time - acting).05 Aug 1910 - 10 Jun 1911 d. 1916
  • Frédéric Estèbe....................................10 Jun 1911 - 24 Nov 1913 d. 1936
  • Paul Pierre Marie Georges Adam (2nd time - acting).24 Nov 1913 - 05 Aug 1916
  • Victor Emmanuel Merlet (2nd time)..................12 Oct 1916 - 17 Jul 1917
    • Acting for Merlet
    • Auguste Lamblin...............................12 Oct 1916 - 17 Jul 1917 d. 1946
  • Auguste Lamblin (1st time).........................17 Jul 1917 - 26 Sep 1929
  • He was acting to 16 May 1919.
    • Acting for Lamblin
    • Alphonse Diret................................31 Aug 1920 - Dec 1921 d. 1973
    • Pierre Claude Emmanuel François...............17 Aug 1923 - Nov 1924 d. 1933
    • Georges David Pierre Marie Prouteaux..........01 Jul 1926 - Jul 1928 d. 1942
  • Georges David Pierre Marie Prouteaux (acting)......22 Oct 1929 - 30 Oct 1930
  • Adolphe Deitte.....................................30 Oct 1930 - 17 Aug 1934 d. 1949
    • Acting for Deitte
    • Pierre Simon Antonin Bonnefont................08 Mar 1933 - Feb 1934 d. 1950
  • Governors-delegate
  • Adolphe Deitte (continued).........................17 Aug 1934 - 21 May 1935
  • Richard Edmond Maurice Édouard Brunot..............21 May 1935 - 30 May 1936 d. 1958
    • Acting for Brunot
    • Louis de Poyen-Bellisle......................................1936 d. 1937
  • Pierre Simon Antonin Bonnefont (acting)............30 May 1936 - 23 Oct 1936
  • Émile Buhot-Launay (acting)........................23 Oct 1936 - 24 Oct 1936 d. 1970
  • Max de Masson de Saint-Félix.......................24 Oct 1936 - 31 Dec 1937 d. 1958
  • Governors
  • Max de Masson de Saint-Félix (continued)...........31 Dec 1937 - 28 Mar 1939
  • Pierre de Saint-Mart (acting)......................28 Mar 1939 - 21 Feb 1941 d. 1965
  • Chefs de territoire
  • Pierre de Saint-Mart (continued)...................21 Feb 1941 - 30 May 1942
  • He was acting to 15 Jul 1941.
  • André Jean Gaston Latrille.........................30 May 1942 - 30 Jul 1942 d. 1987
  • Henri Camille Sautot...............................30 Jul 1942 - 03 Apr 1946 d. 1963
  • Jean Victor Louis Joseph Chalvet...................03 Apr 1946 - 25 Apr 1948 d. 1975
    • Acting for Chalvet
    • Henri Lacour..................................24 May 1946 - Oct 1946 d. 1960
  • Jean Mauberna (acting).............................25 Apr 1948 - 01 Dec 1948 d. 1983
  • Auguste Léon Valentin Éven (1st time - acting).....01 Dec 1948 - 27 Jan 1949 d. 1980
  • Pierre Jean Marie Delteil..........................27 Jan 1949 - 04 Jan 1950 d. 2002
  • Auguste Léon Valentin Éven (2nd time - acting).....04 Jan 1950 - 01 Mar 1950
  • Ignace Jean Aristide Colombani.....................01 Mar 1950 - 09 Jul 1951 d. 1988
  • Pierre Jean Raynier (acting).......................09 Jul 1951 - 19 Oct 1951 d. 1979
  • Aimé Marius Louis Grimald..........................19 Oct 1951 - 31 Mar 1954 d. 2000
  • Louis Marius Pascal Sanmarco.......................31 Mar 1954 - 29 Jan 1958 d. 2009
  • He was acting to 02 Dec 1954.
  • Paul Camille Bordier...............................29 Jan 1958 - 09 Jan 1959 d. 2003
  • High Commissioner
  • Paul Camille Bordier (continued)...................09 Jan 1959 - 13 Aug 1960
 
Central African Republic
 
  • Presidents
  • David Dacko (1st time).............................14 Aug 1960 - 01 Jan 1966 d. 2003
  • He was acting to 12 Nov 1960. After independence on 13 August 1960, Dacko became Provisional President of the Republic (14 August–12 December 1960), and then, with the active French support against rival Abel Goumba, became the first President of the Central African Republic (12 December 1960 – 31 December 1965). In 1960, he also served as President of the Conference of Prime Ministers of Equatorial Africa.
    Dacko began to consolidate his power soon after taking office in 1960. He retained the portfolio of Minister of Defense (17 August 1960 – 1 January 1966) and Keeper of the Seals (17 August 1960 – 2 January 1963) and amended the Constitution to transform his regime into a one-party state with a strong presidency elected for a term of seven years. On 5 January 1964, Dacko was elected in an election in which he ran alone.
  • Jean-Bédel Bokassa.................................01 Jan 1966 - 04 Dec 1976 d. 1996
  • He was known from 18 Oct 1976, Salah Eddine Ahmed Bokassa.
  • Emperor
  • Bokassa I (continued)..............................04 Dec 1976 - 20 Sep 1979
  • Full style: Empereur de Centrafrique ("Emperor of Central Africa"); description- Empereur de Centrafrique par la volonté du peuple Centrafricain, uni au sein du parti politique national, le MESAN ("Emperor of Central Africa by the will of the Central African people, united within the national political party, the MESAN").
    President Jean-Bédel Bokassa proclaimed himself Emperor Bokassa I on 4 December 1976, and was crowned on 04 December 1977 in a lavish coronation ceremony that was estimated to cost his country one-third budget of about US$20 million ($80 million today). Although nominally a constitutional monarchy, in practice Bokassa ruled with absolute power. For all intents and purposes, the country was still a military dictatorship, as had been the case since Bokassa took power in the 1966 coup d'état.
  • Presidents
  • David Dacko (2nd time).............................21 Sep 1979 - 01 Sep 1981
  • After his second removal from power in a coup d'état led by General André Kolingba, he pursued an active career as an opposition politician and presidential candidate with many loyal supporters; Dacko was an important political figure in the country for over 50 years.
  • André-Dieudonné Kolingba...........................01 Sep 1981 - 22 Oct 1993 d. 2010
  • He took power from President David Dacko in a bloodless coup d'état in 1981 and lost power to Ange-Félix Patassé in a democratic election held in 1993. Kolingba retained the strong support of France until the fall of the Berlin Wall, after which both internal and external pressure forced him to hold presidential elections which he lost.
    He was Chairman of Military Committee for National Recovery and Chief of State to 21 Sep 1985. President and Head of State: 21 September 1985 - 21 November 1986. Kolingba established the Central African Democratic Rally (RDC) as the country's only party in May 1986.
  • Ange-Félix Patassé.................................22 Oct 1993 - 15 Mar 2003 d. 2011
  • François Bozizé launched an unsuccessful coup d'état against the Patassé government on 28 May 2001. Bozizé seized power from Patassé in a successful coup d'état. Shortly after, he appointed Abel Goumba as Prime Minister. Goumba had served as acting Prime Minister in 1959, before being overthrown by Dacko.
  • François Bozizé Yangouvonda........................15 Mar 2003 - 24 Mar 2013
  • He participated in a failed 1982 coup attempt against President André Kolingba and subsequently fled the country. Years later, he served as Army Chief of Staff under President Ange-Félix Patassé, but he began a rebellion against Patassé in 2001.
    Bozizé's forces captured the capital, Bangui, in March 2003, while Patassé was outside the country, and Bozizé took power, ushering in a transitional period of government. He won the March–May 2005 presidential election in a second round of voting, and he was re-elected in the January 2011 presidential election, winning the vote in the first round.
    In December 2012, the CAR was plunged into an uprising by rebel forces who condemned the Bozizé government for not honoring peace agreements after the Central African Republic Bush War in 2007. On 24 March 2013, Bozizé fled to Cameroon via the Democratic Republic of the Congo after the rebel forces attacked Bangui and took control of the presidential palace. There, he was housed by Paul Biya, President of the Republic. On May 29, 2013, an international arrest warrant was issued against Bozizé by the Central African Justice.
    Kwa Na Kwa announced on 10 August 2015 that Bozizé would return to the country and stand as a candidate in the October 2015 presidential election. On 8 December 2015, the Constitutional Court announced the list of approved presidential candidacies. Bozizé, who was still in exile, was barred from standing. Officially, he was excluded on the grounds that he was not registered on the voter list and because he had agreed not to run again as part of the peace agreement in January 2013. Gunfire was subsequently reported in parts of Bangui, as his supporters reacted angrily to the news. The KNK said that Bozizé's exclusion was "the result of internal and external pressure", with many of his supporters alleging that the French government was involved in the decision.
  • Michel Djotodia Am-Nondroko........................24 Mar 2013 - 10 Jan 2014
  • Chief of State of the Transition from 18 Aug 2013. Chief of State of the interim transition 10-23 Jan 2014. He was the first Muslim to hold that office in the predominantly Christian country. When the peace agreement unraveled, Séléka rebel coalition captured Bangui and Djotodia took power on 24 March 2013. He promised to lead a transition to new elections in which he would not be a candidate, but his time in office was marked by escalating sectarian violence and he was ultimately pressured into resigning by regional leaders on 10 January 2014.
  • Transitional Chiefs of State
  • Alexandre-Ferdinand Nguendet (acting)..............10 Jan 2014 - 23 Jan 2014
  • When the Séléka rebel coalition captured Bangui in March 2013, ousting President François Bozizé, Nguendet's party was reportedly the first party to recognize the leadership of Michel Djotodia, the rebel leader who declared himself President after Bozizé fled the country.
    In April 2013, under pressure from regional leaders, Djotodia attempted to legitimize his rule by creating the National Transitional Council, a 105-member provisional parliament, and then being elected by the new CNT as President, to serve during a planned 18-month transitional period, on 13 April 2013. The CNT subsequently elected Nguendet as President of the CNT on 15 April 2013; he defeated four other candidates for the post, receiving 48 votes, well ahead of the second place candidate, who received 28. The body was to act as both a parliament and a constituent assembly.
    When the CNT began working in early May 2013, Nguendet explained to the body that it would have all normal legislative powers during its existence, with the exception of the right to hold a vote of no confidence in the government.
    After Djotodia resigned following a CEEAC summit on 10 January 2014 as a result of his failure to contain escalating sectarian violence, Nguendet took over as Acting President. In August 2015, following the adoption of a proposed new constitution, Nguendet called on the people to approve the proposed constitution in a referendum "to allow our country to get back on the path to a normal constitutional order".
  • Catherine Samba-Panza (female).....................23 Jan 2014 - 30 Mar 2016
  • Prior to becoming head of state, she was Mayor of Bangui.
  • President
  • Faustin-Archange Touadéra..........................30 Mar 2016 - date
  • He was previously Prime Minister of the country from January 2008 to January 2013. In the December 2015 – February 2016 presidential election, he was elected as President in a second round of voting against former Prime Minister Anicet Georges Dologuelé.
 
 
Currency: The Central African CFA franc (French: franc CFA or simply franc, ISO 4217 code: XAF) is the currency of six independent states in Central Africa: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. The Bank of Central African States (French: Banque des États de l'Afrique Centrale, BEAC) is a central bank, located at Cameroon's capital: Yaoundé, that serves these six central African countries which form the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa. These six countries have also issued normal circulation coins on their name in various years as well.
CFA Franc pegging:
  • 26 December 1945: CFA Franc = 1.70 French Francs.
  • 17 December 1948: CFA Franc = 2 French Francs.
  • 01 January 1959: 50 CFA Francs = (New) French Franc.
  • 12 January 1994: 100 CFA Francs = French Franc.
  • 01 January 1999: 655.957 CFA Franc = Euro.
 
1975
 

KM#7 / Schön# 7 100 Francs. Year: 1975. Weight: 6.92g [7.00g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monnaie de Paris (mintmark: dolphin).
Obverse: "BANQUE DES ETATS DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE" (Bank of the Central African States) written in two lines banner at the top. Numerals "100" written in the center. "FRANCS" written below numeral 100 and Date written below it in the center. Design on both sides and at the bottom. Reverse: "REPUBLIQUE CENTRAFRICAINE" (Central African Republic) written in French at the top. Heads of three Giant Elands facing left in the center with grassland below them. Engraver initials "G.B.L.BAZOR" written at right side in smaller characters anti-clockwise. Mintage: 2,000,000. Minted Years: 1975, 1976, 1979, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1988, 1990, 1996 and 1998 (dolphin mintmark: 1975-1990; bee mintmark: 1996-1998). Engraver: Gabriel Bernard / Lucien Georges Bazor.

Note: ESSAI (pattern) type also exists as KM#E4 dated 1975, having mintage: 1,700.

 
1983
 

Same as above coin KM#7 100 Francs, but...

Year: 1983. Weight: 7.04g [7.00g]. Mint: Monnaie de Paris (mintmark: dolphin). Mintage: 3,000,000.

 
1985
 

KM#11 / Schön# 11 500 Francs. Year: 1985. Weight: 10.99g [11.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 30.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monnaie de Paris (mintmark: dolphin).

Obverse: "REPUBLIQUE CENTRAFRICAINE" (Central African Republic) written in French at the top section. Numerals "500" written in the top center with "FRANCS" written below it. Several local plants in the center. Date written at the bottom with mintmarks on both sides. Reverse: African Woman head 3/4 facing left in the center. "BANQUE DES ETATS DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE" (Bank of States of Central Africa) written in French in five lines at the bottom right side. Mintage: 200,000. Minted Years: 1985 and 1986 (dolphin mintmark). Engraver: Gabriel Bernard / Lucien Georges Bazor.

Note: ESSAI (pattern) type also exists as KM#E6 dated 1985, having mintage: 1,700.

 
IDAO - Bureau Africain d'Emission issues
Two design of coins of limited mintage were produced by African mint for Central Africa Republic: African Primitive "3 Lances" in 2005 and Pope John Paul II in 2007.
 
2005
 

X#12 1500 CFA Francs (1 Africa). Year: 2005. Weight: 7.34g [7.35g]. Metal: Iron plated Nickel. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Africa Mint.

My coin is slightly rotated (11 o' clock).

Obverse: "REP. CENTRAFRICAINE" (Central African Republic) written in French at the top section. African Primitive Coin "3 Lances" in the center. "AM" (African mint) initials above the Date. Date at the bottom.

Reverse: Elephant face on Africa Map in the center. Value "1500 CFA" and "1 AFRICA" written at the left side below the map. "EMISSION MONETAIRE DE L'INSTITUT DE DEVELOPPEMENT DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE * IDAC *" (clockwise) starting from 3 o'clock around the map. Mintage: 2,005. Minted Years: One year type. This coin is also made in Silver as X#12a with mintage of 25 pieces only.

Pope John Paul II 4500 CFA Francs 2007 details:

  • Bi-metallic: Iron plated Nickel center and Brass ring. mintage: 2,007.
  • Silver: mintage: 27.
  • Bi-metal Silver center and 24 carats gold plated ring: mintage: 27.
 
 
  • Vice President of the Government Council
  • Abel Nguéndé Goumba................................14 May 1957 - 26 Jul 1958 d. 2009
  • President of the Government Council
  • Abel Nguéndé Goumba (continued)....................26 Jul 1958 - 08 Dec 1958
  • President of the Provisional Government
  • Barthélemy Boganda.................................08 Dec 1958 - 16 Feb 1959 d. 1959
  • Presidents of the Government
  • Barthélemy Boganda (continued).....................16 Feb 1959 - 29 Mar 1959
  • Abel Nguéndé Goumba (1st time).....................02 Apr 1959 - 30 Apr 1959
  • Substitute acting to 08 Apr 1959.
  • David Dacko........................................30 Apr 1959 - 01 Jan 1966
  • Jean-Bédel Bokassa.................................01 Jan 1966 - 04 Sep 1976
  • Prime ministers (subordinated to the President of the Government to 07 Dec 1976)
  • Élisabeth Domitien (female)........................06 Jun 1974 - 04 Apr 1976 d. 2005
  • Ange-Félix Patassé.................................05 Sep 1976 - 14 Jul 1978
  • Henri Maïdou.......................................14 Jul 1978 - 26 Sep 1979
  • Bernard Christian Ayandho..........................26 Sep 1979 - 22 Aug 1980 d. 1993
  • Jean-Pierre Lebouder...............................12 Nov 1980 - 04 Apr 1981
  • Simon Narcisse Bozanga.............................04 Apr 1981 - 01 Sep 1981 d. 2010
  • André-Dieudonné Kolingba...........................01 Sep 1981 - 15 Mar 1991
  • He also served as Chief of government to 15 Jan 1991.
  • Édouard Frank......................................15 Mar 1991 - 04 Dec 1992
  • Timothée Malendoma.................................04 Dec 1992 - 26 Feb 1993 d. 2010
  • Enoch Dérant Lakoué................................26 Feb 1993 - 25 Oct 1993
  • Jean-Luc Mandaba...................................25 Oct 1993 - 12 Apr 1995 d. 2000
  • Jean Edouard Gabriel Koyambounou...................12 Apr 1995 - 06 Jun 1996
  • Jean-Paul Ngoupandé................................06 Jun 1996 - 30 Jan 1997 d. 2014
  • He arrives in Bangui 11 Jun 1996.
  • Michel Gbézéra-Bria................................30 Jan 1997 - 04 Jan 1999
  • Anicet Georges Dologuélé...........................04 Jan 1999 - 01 Apr 2001
  • Martin Ziguélé.....................................01 Apr 2001 - 15 Mar 2003
  • Abel Nguéndé Goumba (2nd time).....................23 Mar 2003 - 12 Dec 2003
  • Célestin Leroy Gaombalet...........................12 Dec 2003 - 13 Jun 2005 d. 2017
  • Élie Doté..........................................13 Jun 2005 - 22 Jan 2008
  • Faustin-Archange Touadéra..........................22 Jan 2008 - 17 Jan 2013
  • Nicolas Tiangaye...................................17 Jan 2013 - 25 Jan 2014
  • André Nzapayeké....................................25 Jan 2014 - 14 Aug 2014
  • Mahamat Kamoun.....................................14 Aug 2014 - 02 Apr 2016
  • Simplice Mathieu Sarandji..........................02 Apr 2016 - 27 Feb 2019
  • Firmin Ngrébada....................................27 Feb 2019 - date
 
 
Force Commanders of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA)
 
  • Martin Chomu Tumenta (Cameroon)...................15 Sep 2014 - 30 Nov 2015 d. 2015
  • He was commandant of AU MISCA: 19 Dec 2013 - 15 Sep 2014.
  • Balla Keïta (Senegal).............................07 Nov 2015 - date
  • He was acting for Tumenta to 30 Nov 2015 and continued as acting till 11 Feb 2016.
 
 
Logone

               14 Aug 2014  State of Dar al-Kuti (État de Dar el-Kouti) was declared by
                             independent by Nouredine Adam with its de facto capital at
                             Tiringoulou (not recognized by C.A.R.)
                  Dec 2014  Heads of state of CEEAC forced Adam to withdraw Dar al-Kuti's
                             declaration of independence.
 14 Dec 2015 - 2016 ?       Republic of Logone proclaimed by Noureddine Adam as an autonomous
                             state in north-east Central African Republic at Kaga-Bandoro.
                             Name is soon changed to Dar el-Kouti to avoid confrontation with
                             other Chadian armed groups (not recognized by C.A.R.)
 
  • President
  • Michel Djotodia Am-Nondroko (in exile).............14 Aug 2014 - Dec 2014
  • Leader
  • Noureddine Adam....................................14 Dec 2015 - 2016 ?
  • He was de facto leader 14 Aug 2014 - Dec 2014. He belong to FDPC = Front Démocratique du Peuple Centrafricain (Democratic Front of the Central African People, anti-government militia, est.2004).
 
 
 
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins