Chad
 

 

Chad (Arabic: تشاد‎ Tshād; French: Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad (Arabic: جمهورية تشاد‎ Jumhūriyyat Tshād; French: République du Tchad "Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in north-central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west. It is the fifth largest country in Africa and the second-largest in Central Africa regarding area. "La Tchadienne" is the official anthem of Chad.
Chad has several regions: a desert zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre and a more fertile Sudanian Savanna zone in the south. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the largest wetland in Chad and the second-largest in Africa. The capital N'Djamena is the largest city. Chad's official languages are Arabic and French. Chad is home to over 200 different ethnic and linguistic groups. The most popular religion of Chad is Islam (at 55%), followed by Christianity (at 40%).
Beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved into the Chadian basin in great numbers. By the end of the 1st millennium AD, a series of states and empires had risen and fallen in Chad's Sahelian strip, each focused on controlling the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region.
France conquered the territory by 1920 and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. In 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership of François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a long-lasting civil war in 1965. In 1979 the rebels conquered the capital and put an end to the South's hegemony. But, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves until Hissène Habré defeated his rivals. He was overthrown in turn in 1990 by his general Idriss Déby. Since 2003 the Darfur crisis in Sudan has spilt over the border and destabilised the nation. Poor already, the nation and people struggled to accommodate the hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees who live in and around camps in eastern Chad.
While many political parties are active, power lies firmly in the hands of President Déby and his political party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement. Chad remains plagued by political violence and recurrent attempted coups d'état. Chad is one of the poorest and most corrupt countries in the world; most inhabitants live in poverty as subsistence herders and farmers. Since 2003 crude oil has become the country's primary source of export earnings, superseding the traditional cotton industry.
Motto: "Unité, Travail, Progrès" (French) "Unity, Work, Progress" (English) "الاتحاد، العمل، التقدم" (Arabic).
Capital: N'Djamena (Fort Lamy 1900 - 06 Sep 1973). N’Djamena was founded as Fort-Lamy by French commander Émile Gentil on 29 May 1900 and named after Amédée-François Lamy, an army officer who had been killed in the Battle of Kousséri a few days earlier. On 06 April 1973, President François Tombalbaye changed its name to N’Djamena (taken from the Arabic name of a nearby village, Niǧāmīnā, meaning "place of rest") as part of his authenticité program of Africanization.
Territorial Disputes: Since 2003, ad hoc armed militia groups and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries.
 

 

 
               05 Sep 1900  French rule (Military Territory of the Lands and
                             Protectorates of Chad).
               05 Jul 1902  Circumscription of the Lands and Protectorates
                             of Chad.
               29 Dec 1903  Territory of Chad
               11 Feb 1906  Military Territory of Chad, part of the
                             Oubangui-Chari-Tchad colony (under
                             the Central African Republic).
               15 Jan 1910  Chad, Middle Congo (now Congo [Brazzaville],
                             Oubangui-Chari, and Gabon form French Equatorial
                             Africa [AEF]; [under Congo (Brazzaville)] control).
               14 May 1915  Territory of Chad (part of Oubangui-Chari-Tchad
                             colony).
               12 Apr 1916  Oubangui-Chari-Tchad dissolved, thereafter separate
                             part of French Equatorial Africa (see AEF colony)
               17 Mar 1920  Colony of Chad (part of AEF colony).
               30 Jun 1934  Region of Chad (part of AEF colony).
               31 Dec 1937  Territory of Chad (part of AEF colony).
 16 Jun 1940 - 26 Aug 1940  Administration loyal to Vichy France
                            (from 26 Aug 1940, under Free French).
               27 Oct 1946  Chad an overseas territory of France
                             (part of AEF colony).
               28 Nov 1958  Autonomy (Republic of Chad)(République du Tchad).
 28 Nov 1958 - 11 Aug 1960  Member State of the Communauté (French Community).
               Jan 1960     Text of National Anthem Adopted
 17 May 1960 - Aug 1960     Part of Union of Central African Republics (L'Union
                             des Républiques d'Afrique Centrale), a loose
                             federation of Chad, Central African Republic and
                             Republic of Congo (to Jul 1960).
               11 Aug 1960  Independence from France.
 11 Aug 1960 - 23 Jan 1965  France continues to administer Borkou-Ennedi-
                             Tibesti prefecture, which is formally
                             under sovereignty of Chad.
    Jul 1975 - 30 May 1994  Libya occupies and annexes the Aozou Strip.
 15 Dec 1980 - Nov 1981     Libya occupies northern Chad.
    Jun 1983 - Mar 1987     Libya and pro-Libyan forces occupy the country
                             north of Koro Toro.
               13 Feb 1994  Aozou Strip definitively allocated to Chad
                             by International Court of Justice.
 31 Mar 1996 - 04 May 2018  Former Constitution.
               04 May 2018  New Constitution in French.
 
 
Among the many, mostly minor, traditional polities there are two that clearly stand out, and they are listed here: Baghirmi and Wadai.
 
BAGHIRMI
 
The Sultanate or Kingdom of Bagirmi or Baghermi (French: Royaume du Baguirmi) was a kingdom and Islamic sultanate southeast of Lake Chad in central Africa. It was founded in either 1480 or 1522 and lasted until 1897, when it became a French protectorate. Its capital was Massenya, north of the Chari River and close to the border to modern Cameroon. The kings wore the title Mbang.
 
                                      c.1480  Baghirmi state founded
              20 Sep 1897  French protectorate
                     1960  state suppressed by national government of Chad
              14 Jun 1970  state reconstituted
 
  • KENGA (title Mbang, often referred to as Sultan)
  • Birni Besse...............................................1522 - 1536
  • Lubatko...................................................1536 - 1548
  • Malo......................................................1548 - 1568
  • Abdallah..................................................1568 - 1608
  • Umar......................................................1608 - 1625
  • Dalai.....................................................1625 - 1635
  • Burkomanda I..............................................1635 - 1665
  • Abdul Rahman I............................................1665 - 1674
  • Dalo Birni................................................1674 - 1680
  • Abdul Qadir I.............................................1680 - 1707
  • Bar.......................................................1707 - 1722
  • Wanja.....................................................1722 - 1736
  • Burkomanda II Tad Lele....................................1736 - 1741
  • Loel......................................................1741 - 1751
  • Hajji Mohammed al-Amin....................................1751 - 1785
  • Abdul Rahman II Gauranga..................................1785 - 1806
  • Malam Ngarmaba Bira (1st time)...................................1806
  • Uthman Burkomanda III al-Kabir (1st time).................1806 - 1807
  • Malam Ngarmaba Bira (2nd time)...................................1807
  • Uthman Burkomanda III al-Kabir (2nd time)........................1807
  • Muhammad III.....................................................1807
  • Uthman Burkomanda III al-Kabir (3rd time).................1807 - 1846
  • Abdul Qadir II al-Mahdi...................................1846 - 1858
  • Muhammad IV Abu Sekkin (1st time).........................1858 - 1870
  • Abdul Rahman III (1st time)...............................1870 - 1871
  • Muhammad IV Abu Sekkin (2nd time).........................1871 - 1884
  • Burkomanda IV al-Saghir...................................1884 - 1885
  • Ngarmane Ermanala (regent).......................................1885
  • Abdul Rahman III (2nd time)...............................1885 - 24 Jan 1918
  • ZOBEIR
  • Rabah the Conqueror (+ Bornu & Dar al-Kuti)...............1897 - 1900
  • KENGA
  • France....................................................1912 - 11 Aug 1960
    • Muhammad Urada.......................................1918 - 1936
    • Yusuf................................................1936 - 1960
    • Abdul Qadir III......................................1918 - 1935
  • Chad...............................................11 Aug 1960 - date
    • Mahamat Yusuf.................................14 Jun 1970 - date
 
 
KANEM-BORNU
 
An old realm lying north of Lake Chad, on the edge of the desert.
 
  • Bornu
  • Zaghawa............................................until mid 9th century
  • Rulers names unknown....................................c. 850 - c. 1260
  • Kanem..................................................c. 1260 - c. 1400
  • Capital transferred to Bornu owing to turbulence in Kanem - from c. 1400 or a little earlier the state is known as the Empire of Bornu.
  • Biri II...................................................1389 - 1421
  • Othman Kalinuama..........................................1421 - 1422
  • Dunama IV.................................................1422 - 1424
  • Abdullah II...............................................1424 - 1432
  • Ibrahim II................................................1432 - 1440
  • Kadai.....................................................1440 - 1446
  • Dunama V..................................................1446 - 1450
  • Mohammed II...............................................1450 - 1451
  • Amarma....................................................1451 - 1453
  • Mohammed III..............................................1453 - 1458
  • Ghazi.....................................................1458 - 1463
  • Othman III................................................1463 - 1473
  • Omar II...................................................1473 - 1474
  • Mohammed IV...............................................1474 - 1479
  • Ali Gazi..................................................1479 - 1507
  • Idris II Katakarmabe......................................1507 - 1529
  • Mohammed V................................................1529 - 1544
  • Ali I.....................................................1544 - 1548
  • Dunama VI.................................................1548 - 1566
  • Abdullah III..............................................1566 - 1573
  • Aissa Kili N'guirmamaramama (female)......................1573 - 1580
  • Idris III Alaoma..........................................1580 - 1617
  • Mohammed VI Bukalmarami...................................1617 - 1632
  • Ibrahim III...............................................1632 - 1639
  • Hadj Omar.................................................1639 - 1657
  • Ali II....................................................1657 - 1694
  • Idris IV..................................................1694 - 1711
  • Dunama VII................................................1711 - 1726
  • Hadj Hamdan...............................................1726 - 1738
  • Mohammed VII..............................................1738 - 1751
  • Dunama VIII Gana..........................................1751 - 1753
  • Ali III...................................................1753 - 1793
  • Ahmad.....................................................1793 - 1808
  • Dunama IX Lefiami.........................................1808 - 1811 d. 1817
  • Mohammed VIII.............................................1811 - 1814
  • Mohammed el Amin I........................................1814 - 1835
  • Omar (1st time)...........................................1835 - 1853 d. 1880
  • Abdul Rahman..............................................1853 - 1854
  • Omar (2nd time)...........................................1854 - 1880
  • Bukara Kura...............................................1880 - 1884
  • Ibrahim...................................................1884 - 1885
  • Hashimi...................................................1885 - 1893
  • Great Britain.............................................1890 - 1893
  • Muhammad el Amin II..............................................1893
  • Sanda Limananbe Wuduroma.........................................1893
  • ZOBEIR
  • Rabah the Conqueror (Baguirmi & Dar al-Kuti)..............1893 - 1900
  • al-KANEMI
  • Fad el Allah.....................................................1900
  • France....................................................1900 - 11 Aug 1960
  • Chad...............................................11 Aug 1960 - date
  • Kanem
  • Zaghawa..........................................................to late 8th cent.
  • Benu DUKU Known as SAIFAWA from Islamicization in 1098.
  • Duku.............................................................fl. c. 785
  • Saef
  • Ibrahim I ibn Saef
  • Duku ibn Ibrahim
  • Funé ibn Duku....................................................fl. c. 835
  • Aritso ibn Funé..................................................fl. c. 893
  • Katuri ibn Aristo................................................fl. c. 942
  • Ayouma ibn Katouri...............................................fl. c. 961
  • Bulu ibn Ayouma...........................................1019 - 1035
  • Arki ibn Bulu.............................................1035 - 1078
  • Shua ibn Arki.............................................1078 - 1082
  • Selma I abd el Djalil ibn Shua............................1082 - 1086
  • Benu HUMÉ
  • Humé......................................................1085 - 1097
  • Dunama I..................................................1098 - 1150
  • Abdallah I ibn Biri.......................................1150 - 1176
  • Bikoru....................................................1176 - 1193
  • Abd al-Djel Selma.........................................1193 - 1210
  • Dunama II Dibbalem........................................1210 - 1224
  • Kade......................................................1224 - 1242
  • Kachim Biri...............................................1242 - 1262
  • Djil.............................................................1262
  • Dari......................................................1262 - 1281
  • Ibrahim I Nikale..........................................1281 - 1301
  • Abdullah I................................................1301 - 1320
  • Selma.....................................................1320 - 1323
  • Kure Gana.................................................1323 - 1325
  • Kure Kura.................................................1326 - 1327
  • Mohammed I................................................1327 - 1329
  • Idris I...................................................1329 - 1353
  • Daoud.....................................................1353 - 1356
  • Othman I..................................................1356 - 1369
  • Othman II.................................................1369 - 1371
  • Abu Bakr Lagatu...........................................1371 - 1372
  • Idris Dunama III..........................................1372 - 1380
  • Omar I....................................................1380 - 1388
  • Said.............................................................1388
  • Kade Alunu................................................1388 - 1389
  • Capital transferred to Bornu owing to turbulence in Kanem, from c. 1400 or a little earlier the state is known as the Empire of Bornu (see above). In 1814 a branch of the dynasty returns to the old capital.
  • Dunama IX Lefiami (restored)..............................1814 - 1817
  • Ibrahim IV................................................1817 - 1846
  • Ali IV Dalatumi..................................................1846
  • Under Bornu afterwards...
 
 
WADAI
 
A Sultanate located in what is now central Chad, between Darfur in the east, and Kanem-Bornu to the west. As such, it was an important link in caravan routes plying the southern verge of the Sahara from west to east, and back again.
 
                     1635  Wadai replaces the old Birgu state under a new dynasty.
                     1912  state suppressed by colonial power France.
                     1935 state reconstituted.
                     1960 state suppressed by national government of Chad.
                     1970 state reconstituted.
 
  • Occupied by migrating Shuwa Arabs......................c. 1550 - c. 1600
  • Darfur ? ..............................................c. 1600 - c. 1635
  • AL-ABBASI (title Kolak, often referred to as Sultan)
  • Abdul-Karim............................................c. 1635 - 1655
  • Kharut al-Kabir...........................................1655 - 1678
  • Kharif....................................................1678 - 1681
  • Yaqub Arus................................................1681 - 1707
  • Kharut as-Saghir..........................................1707 - 1745
  • Joda Kharif at-Timan......................................1745 - 1795
  • Muhammad Salih Derret ibn Jawda...........................1795 - 1803
  • Abd al-Karim Sabun ibn Salih Derret.......................1803 - 1813
  • Muhammad Busata ibn Abd al-Karim.................................1813
  • Yusuf Kharifayn ibn Abd al-Qadir..........................1813 - 1829
  • Raqib ibn Yusuf Abd al-Qadir.....................................1829
  • Muhammad Abd al-Aziz Dhawiyi ibn Radama...................1829 - 1835
  • Adham ibn Muhammad Abd al-Aziz...................................1835
  • Izz al-Din Muhammad al-Sharif ibn Salih Derret............1835 - 1858 d. 1858
  • Ali ibn Muhammad..........................................1858 - 1874
  • Yusuf ibn Muhammad........................................1874 - Aug 1898 d. 1898
  • Ibrahim ibn Yusuf.....................................Aug 1898 - Feb 1901
  • Ahmad Abu al-Ghazali ibn Ali..........................Feb 1901 - 1902
  • Muhammad Daud Murra ibn Yusuf.............................1902 - 02 Jun 1909 d. 1927
  • Asil......................................................1909 - 09 Jun 1912 d. 1917
  • France....................................................1912 - 11 Aug 1960
    • Muhammad Urada ibn Ibrahim...........................1935 - 1945 d. 1945
    • Ali Silek ibn Muhammad Daud Murra (1st time).........1945 - 1960
  • Chad...............................................11 Aug 1960 - date
    • Ali Silek ibn Muhammad Daud Murra (2nd time).........1970 - 1977
    • Ibrahim ibn Muhammad Urada...........................1977 - 11 Aug 2004 d. 2004
 
 
ZAGHAWA (Tibesti)
 
A Mediaeval kingdom in northern Chad, in the Tibesti Highlands beyond the Bodele Depression, established by Berber nomads and especially influential from c. 1000 to c. 1350 CE. Almost no hard data is known about this place, although the Zaghawa as an identifiable Berber ethnic group exist to this day - they are now nomads, living in northern and northeastern Chad, and in neighbouring Darfur region of Sudan. It is known that Zaghawa was important in the Islamicization of Kanem, to the south, c. 1100.
 
  • Unknown number of rulers, names not recorded............c. 900 - c. 1400 CE
  • Kanem..................................................c. 1400 - 1578
  • The Ottoman Empire........................................1578 - 1811
  • Fezzan....................................................1811 - 1856
  • The Ottoman Empire........................................1856 - 1914
  • France....................................................1914 - 11 Aug 1960
  • Chad...............................................11 Aug 1960 - date
 
 
 
Chad
  • France....................................................1900 - 11 Aug 1960
  • Commissioners
  • Émile Gentil.......................................29 May 1900 - 02 Jul 1902 d. 1914
    • acting for Gentil
    • Félix Robillot................................25 Aug 1900 - 08 Mar 1901 d. 1943
    • Georges Matthieu Destenave....................08 Mar 1901 – 02 Jul 1902 d. 1928
  • Georges Matthieu Destenave (continued).............02 Jul 1902 - 15 Jul 1902
  • Administrators
  • Victor Emmanuel Étienne Largeau (acting)...........08 Aug 1902 – 19 Oct 1902 d. 1916
  • Alfred Fourneau....................................19 Oct 1902 - Nov 1903 d. 1930
  • Commandants (subordinated to the lieutenant governors of Oubangui-Chari)
  • Victor Emmanuel Étienne Largeau (1st time)............Nov 1903 – 17 Jul 1904
  • Henri Joseph Eugène Gouraud........................17 Jul 1904 - 11 Aug 1906 d. 1946
  • Victor Emmanuel Étienne Largeau (2nd time).........11 Aug 1906 - 25 Jul 1908
  • Constant Millot....................................25 Jul 1908 - 01 Nov 1909 d. 1916
  • Alexandre Marie Henry Moll.........................01 Nov 1909 - 09 Nov 1910 d. 1910
  • Joseph Édouard Maillard (acting)...................09 Nov 1910 - 12 Mar 1911
  • Victor Emmanuel Étienne Largeau (3rd time).........12 Mar 1911 - 08 Sep 1912
  • James Édouard Hirtzman (acting)....................08 Sep 1912 - 03 Sep 1913 d. 1924
  • Victor Emmanuel Étienne Largeau (4th time).........03 Sep 1913 - 29 Jul 1915
  • Administrator
  • Victor Emmanuel Merlet.............................29 Jul 1915 - 28 Nov 1917 d. 19..
  • Commandants (subordinated to the lieutenant governors of Oubangui-Chari)
  • Clément Léon Martelly (acting).....................28 Nov 1917 - 22 May 1918 d. 19..
  • Albert Ducarre (acting)............................22 May 1918 - 24 Mar 1920 d. 1954
  • Lieutenant Governors
  • Bertrant (acting - de facto).......................24 Mar 1920 - 10 Jan 1921
  • Fernand Marie Joseph Antoine Lavit.................10 Jan 1921 - 20 Apr 1923 d. 1956
  • Dieudonné François Joseph Marie Reste..............07 May 1923 - 25 Jan 1926 d. 1976
  • He was acting to 09 Apr 1925.
  • François Joseph Henri Terraz..........................Oct 1925 - Jan 1926 d. 19..
  • Antoine Touzet (did not take office)...............05 Jan 1925 - 27 Feb 1925
  • Albéric Auguste Fournier (did not take office).....05 Apr 1925 - 09 Apr 1925
  • Jules Marcel de Coppet (1st time - acting).........26 Jan 1926 - 18 Mar 1929 d. 1968
    • acting for de Coppet
    • Jacques Auguste Maurice Cléret................03 Dec 1927 - 09 Feb 1928 d. 19..
  • Adolphe Deitte (did not take office)...............13 Jan 1928 - 21 Apr 1929 d. 1949
  • Maurice Assier de Pompignan (acting)...............18 Mar 1929 - 18 Apr 1929 d. 1952
  • Émile Buhot-Launay (acting)........................18 Apr 1929 - Feb 1930 d. 1970
    • acting for Buhot-Launay
    • Maurice Assier de Pompignan (2nd time)...........Sep 1929 - Dec 1929
  • Jules Marcel de Coppet (2nd time).....................Feb 1930 - 20 Apr 1932
    • acting for de Coppet
    • Louis de Poyen-Bellisle.......................11 Oct 1930 - 24 Dec 1930 d. 1937
  • Joseph Georges Alexandre Bouvet (acting)...........20 Apr 1932 - 04 May 1932
  • Georges David Pierre Marie Prouteaux (acting)......04 May 1932 - 14 Jun 1933 d. 1942
    • acting for Prouteaux
    • Louis de Poyen-Bellisle (2nd time)............24 Sep 1932 - 20 Dec 1932
  • Louis de Poyen-Bellisle (acting)...................14 Jun 1933 – 27 Jun 1933
  • Richard Edmond Maurice Brunot......................27 Jun 1933 - 15 Oct 1934 d. 1958
    • acting for Brunot
    • Louis de Poyen-Bellisle (3rd time)............11 Dec 1933 - Feb 1934
  • Commandants (subordinated to the governor-delegate of Oubangui-Chari to 31 Dec 1937)
  • Charles Dagain.....................................15 Oct 1934 - 14 Dec 1938 d. 1969
    • acting for Dagain
    • Maurice Falvy....................................Jun 1935 - Feb 1936 d. 1970
    • Gabriel Fortuné...............................08 Mar 1938 - Apr 1938 d. 1971
    • Émile Buhot-Launay...............................Apr 1938 - Nov 1938
  • Chefs de territoire
  • Charles Dagain (acting)............................14 Dec 1938 - 04 Jan 1939
  • Adolphe Félix Sylvestre Éboué......................04 Jan 1939 - 10 Dec 1940 d. 1944
  • Philippe Leclerc (acting)..........................02 Jan 1941 - 21 Jan 1941 d. 1947
  • Pierre-Olivier Lapie...............................21 Jan 1941 - 12 Dec 1942 d. 1994
  • André Jean Gaston Latrille.........................12 Dec 1942 - 05 Sep 1943 d. 1987
  • Jacques Camille Marie Rogué........................05 Sep 1943 - 13 Oct 1946 d. 1980
  • He was acting to 07 Jan 1944.
    • acting for Rogué
    • François Casamatta (1st time)....................Jan 1944 - Feb 1944 d. 1961
    • Auguste Léon Valentin Éven....................28 Aug 1945 - Oct 1945 d. 1980
    • Adrien Léger (1st time).......................17 May 1946 - 13 Oct 1946 d. 1948
  • Governors
  • Jacques Camille Marie Rogué (continued)...........13 Oct 1946 - Jan 1949
    • acting for Rogué
    • Adrien Léger (continued).....................13 Oct 1946 - 21 Nov 1946
  • François Casamatta (2nd time - acting)...............Jan 1949 - Feb 1949
  • Paul Hippolyte Julien Marie Le Layec (acting)........Feb 1949 - Jul 1949 d. 1965
  • Henry Jean Marie de Mauduit..........................Aug 1949 - Feb 1951 d. 1975
  • He was acting to 01 Feb 1950.
  • Charles Émile Hanin (acting).........................Feb 1951 - 19 Oct 1951 d. 1964
  • François Casamatta (3rd time - acting)............19 Oct 1951 - 16 Dec 1951
  • Ignace Jean Aristide Colombani....................16 Dec 1951 - 03 Nov 1956 d. 1988
  • René Troadec......................................03 Nov 1956 - 28 Nov 1958 d. 1986
  • High Commissioners
  • René Troadec (continued)..........................28 Nov 1958 - 22 Jan 1959
  • Daniel Marius Doustin.............................22 Jan 1959 - 11 Aug 1960 d. 2004
  • Presidents (République du Tchad)
  • François Tombalbaye...............................11 Aug 1960 - 13 Apr 1975 d. 1975
  • He was Head of State to 23 Apr 1962. He was known from 30 Aug 1973 as N'Garta Tombalbaye. François Tombalbaye (Arabic: فرنسوا تومبالباي‎ Franswā Tūmbālbāy; June 15, 1918 – April 13, 1975), also known as N'Garta Tombalbaye, was a Chadian teacher and a trade union activist who served as the first president of Chad. The head of Chad's colonial government and its ruling party, the Chadian Progressive Party, after 1959, Tombalbaye was appointed the nation's head of government after its independence on August 11, 1960. He ruled as a dictator until his deposition and assassination by members of the Chadian military in 1975.
    His father was a prominent trader and he was of the Sara ethnic group, the prominent ethnicity of Chad's five southern prefectures. He attended a primary school, run by Protestant missionaries, in Sarh, and secondary school in Brazzaville. As a young man, Tombalbaye studied to become an educator in the Republic of Congo's capital of Brazzaville, due to the lack of in-country schools.
    During World War II, Tombalbaye fought for Free France against the Nazi-backed Vichy regime.
    A further sign of liberalization came in 1971 when Tombalbaye admitted to the Congress of the PPT that he had made mistakes. Steps were taken to reform the government, and more Gorane were included in his new government. Order seemed to have been restored, and France withdrew its troops from the country. During the early 1970s, he chose to follow DRC strongman Mobutu Sese Seko in his move towards remaking African cultural institutions.
    Progress came to a grinding halt in August 1971, when an attempted coup d'état with links to Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi was uncovered. Tombalbaye immediately severed relations with his northern neighbor and even allowed anti-Qadhafi forces to operate from his territory. In return, Qadhafi granted formal recognition and aid to what remained of the FROLINAT opposition to Tombalbaye. Meanwhile, in the south, where Tombalbaye had his greatest support, he responded to a strike by students by replacing the popular Chief of Staff Jacques Doumro with Colonel Félix Malloum. Chad was in the grip of a crippling drought, and Tombalbaye rescinded his amnesty to political prisoners. By the end of 1972, over 1,000 political prisoners had been arrested. At the same time, he also made overtures to the Arab world, reducing Libyan support for, and fomenting infighting in, FROLINAT. Meanwhile, the drought worsened throughout Africa, so in order to improve the dismal economy, people were forced to "volunteer" in a major effort to increase cotton production. With his support in the south diminished, Tombalbaye lashed out at the army, making arbitrary promotions and demotions. Finally, on April 13, 1975, after some of the country's leading officers had been arrested for involvement in an alleged coup, a group of soldiers killed Tombalbaye and secretly buried his body in Faya. The military-installed Félix Malloum, by then a general, as the new head of state.
  • Tombalbaye belong to PPT and then from 1973 MNRCS. PPT = Parti Progressiste Tchad (Progressive Party of Chad, African nationalist, leftist, Jan 1962 - Jun 1973, only legal party, 1947-1973, renamed MNRCS). The party was founded in February 1947 by Gabriel Lisette, who had been elected to the French National Assembly in elections the previous November. MNRCS = Mouvement National pour la Révolution Culturelle et Sociale (National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution, PPT successor, Jun 1973 - 13 Apr 1975 only legal party, 1973-1975). Tombalbaye was overthrown in a coup and the party was banned in April 1975. It was a regional branch of the African Democratic Rally (RDA).
  • Interim head of state (Military)
  • Noël Milarew Odingar..............................13 Apr 1975 - 15 Apr 1975 d. 2007
  • A Sara, Odingar was born in 1932. As a graduate of the French military academy he had a rapid career, and in 1965 Odingar, with the grade of Major, took the post as commander of the Chadian Armed Forces (FAT), a choice that strengthened Sara dominance of the government. Félix Malloum and the other jailed officers were immediately freed by the coupists. Already on 15 April a Supreme Military Council (Conseil Superieur Militaire or CSM) was formed, a nine-member military junta whose President was chosen to be Malloum, who so peacefully succeeded to Odingar as head of state.
  • Chairman Higher Military Council
  • Félix Malloum N'Gakoutou Bey-Ndi..................15 Apr 1975 - 12 May 1975 d. 2009
  • Félix Malloum or Félix Malloum Ngakoutou Bey-Ndi (Arabic: فليكس معلوم‎ Filiks Mʿalūm; September 10, 1932 – June 12, 2009) was a Chadian politician. He attended the French military academy and saw action in Indochina and Algeria. He later served as an officer in the Chadian Military and a member of the ruling Chadian Progressive Party (PPT). In 1971, he became the Chief of General Staff with the rank of colonel and named Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces in 1972. In July 1973, he was arrested and imprisoned by President François Tombalbaye on charges of conspiring against the government, but was released after a successful coup-d'etat on April 13, 1975. He served as both President and Prime Minister of Chad until August 29, 1978, when Hissène Habré was appointed Prime Minister to integrate armed northern rebels into the government. However, he was unsuccessful and resigned from the presidency on March 23, 1979 after signing the Kano Peace Agreement which allowed the rebels to form a provisional government. Malloum retired from politics and settled in Nigeria. He returned to the Chadian capital N'Djamena on May 31, 2002, after 23 years in exile. Upon his return he was entitled to the various benefits allowed to former presidents. Malloum died from cardiac arrest aged 76 on June 12, 2009 at the American Hospital in Paris, France.
  • Head of State
  • Félix Malloum N'Gakoutou Bey-Ndi (continued)......12 May 1975 - 29 Aug 1978
  • President
  • Félix Malloum N'Gakoutou Bey-Ndi (continued)......29 Aug 1978 - 23 Mar 1979
  • Chairman Provisional Council of State
  • Goukouni Oueddei (1st time).......................23 Mar 1979 - 29 Apr 1979
  • Goukouni was installed as interim Chadian head of state on 23 March 1979. He was acclaimed President of the Transitional Government of National Unity (GUNT), which sought reconciliation between warring factions, on 10 November 1979. Goukouni, a Cold War neutralist who supported Libya, was Head of State; Wadel Abdelkader Kamougué (a southern moderate) was Vice President; Hissène Habré (a pro-West northerner) was Minister of Defence; and Acyl Ahmat (a strongly pro-Libyan Arab) was Minister of Foreign Affairs.
  • President of Transitional Government of National Union
  • Lol Mahamat Choua (Lol Mohamed Shawa).............29 Apr 1979 - 03 Sep 1979
  • He is the President of the Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP) political party. An adherent of Islam and a member of the Kanembu ethnic group, Choua came into power during the First Chadian Civil War. The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Chad (MPLT), a Kanembu rebel group backed by Nigeria, along with the central government, the Armed Forces of the North (FAN) and the People's Armed Forces (FAP) were the main combatants. When a peace conference was organized in Kano, Nigeria, the MPLT, which suffered from a lack of members, chose Lol to head its delegation to meeting.
    Under Nigerian pressure, Lol was made head of the Transitional Government of National Unity on April 29, 1979, by the four factions present at Kano. The GUNT included 21 ministers, of whom 11 were northerners and 10 were southerners. Goukouni Oueddei, head of the FAP, became Interior Minister, Hissène Habré became Defence Minister, and Wadel Abdelkader Kamougué, leader of the Chadian Armed Forces (FAT), became vice-president. But the transitional government excluded all the pro-Libyan forces; as a result, a rival government, backed by Muammar al-Gaddafi, was formed; it was called the Democratic Revolutionary Council, and it was headed by Ahmat Acyl, an Arab.
  • Chairman Provisional Administrative Committee
  • Goukouni Oueddei (2nd time).......................03 Sep 1979 - 10 Nov 1979
  • President of Transitional Government of National Union
  • Goukouni Oueddei (continued)......................10 Nov 1979 - 07 Jun 1982
  • Chairman Command Council of the Armed Forces of the North
  • Hissène Habré.....................................07 Jun 1982 - 19 Jun 1982
  • Hissène Habré (Arabic: حسين حبري Ḥusaīn Ḥabrī; born 13 September 1942), also spelled Hissen Habré, is a Chadian politician who served as the President of Chad from 1982 until he was deposed in 1990 by Idriss Déby. He was brought to power with the support of France and the United States, who provided training, arms and financing. In May 2016, he was found guilty by a court in Senegal of human-rights abuses, including rape, sexual slavery and ordering the killing of 40,000 people, and sentenced to life in prison. He is the first former head of state to be convicted for human rights abuses in the court of another nation.
  • Chairman Council of the State
  • Hissène Habré (continued).........................19 Jun 1982 - 21 Oct 1982
  • Presidents
  • Hissène Habré (continued).........................21 Oct 1982 - 01 Dec 1990
  • Jean Alingué Bawoyeu (acting).....................01 Dec 1990 - 02 Dec 1990
  • Jean Alingué Bawoyeu (born on August 18, 1937 at Fort Lamy), known in French as the vieux sage, which translates as "wise elder", is a Chadian politician who was Prime Minister of Chad from 1991 to 1992. During the 1970s, he served successively as Ambassador to the United States and France. Later, he was President of the National Assembly of Chad in 1990. He served in the government as Minister of Justice from 2008 to 2010 and as Minister of Posts and New Information Technologies from 2010 to 2013. A Christian, his base of support is in Tandjilé, in southern Chad, from which he originates.
  • President of Patriotic Salvation Movement
  • Idriss Déby.......................................02 Dec 1990 - 04 Dec 1990
  • General Idriss Déby Itno (Arabic: إدريس ديبي‎ Idrīs Daybī Itnū; born June 18, 1952) is a Chadian politician who has been the President of Chad since 1990. He is also head of the Patriotic Salvation Movement. Déby is of the Bidyat clan of the Zaghawa ethnic group. He took power at the head of a rebellion against President Hissène Habré in December 1990 and has since survived various rebellions against his own rule. He won elections in 1996 and 2001, and after term limits were eliminated he won again in 2006, 2011 and 2016. He added "Itno" to his surname (Idriss Déby Itno) on 26 January 2006. He is a graduate of Muammar Gaddafi's World Revolutionary Center.
  • President of the Council of State
  • Idriss Déby (continued)...........................04 Dec 1990 - 04 Mar 1991
  • President
  • Idriss Déby (continued)...........................04 Mar 1991 - date
 
 
Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti
Capital: Largeau (from 1960, Faya-Largeau).
 
 15 Nov 1934  Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti (B.E.T.) département created.
 11 Aug 1960  Independence of Chad, French administration continues
               under the sovereignty of Chad (Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region).
 23 Jan 1965  B.E.T. administration transferred to Chad.
 1975 - 1980  Occupied by Libya.
 1983 - 1987  Occupied by Libya.
 
  • Prefects
  • Jean Chapelle......................................08 Apr 1958 - 23 Nov 1960 d. 1986
  • Marie Étienne Baylon...............................23 Nov 1960 - 05 Mar 1962
  • François Antoine Michel Murati.....................06 May 1964 - 30 Mar 1965
  • Noël Milarew Odingar...............................30 Mar 1965 - 1967 d. 2007
 
 
Rival government (from Sep 1987 in Libya, later Algeria exile)
 
  • President of the Government National Peace
  • Goukouni Oueddei (1st time)........................28 Oct 1982 - Nov 1982
  • He belong to FROLIANT-FAP. FROLIANT = Front de Libération Nationale du Tchad (National Liberation Front of Chad, pro-Libyan to 1987, 1968 - 14 Jan 1993). FAN = Forces Armées du Nord (Armed Forces of the North, Hissène Habré personalist, split from FROLIANT, 1979-1983, renamed UNIR). UNIR = Union Nationale pour l'Indépendance et Révolution (National Union for Independence and Revolution, Hissène Habré personalist, former FAN, 1983-1990).
  • Presidents of the Government of National Salvation
  • Goukouni Oueddei (continued)..........................Nov 1982 - 11 Sep 1987
  • Acheikh ibn Oumar.....................................Sep 1987 - Mar 1988
  • He belong to CDR: Conseil Démocratique Révolutionnaire (Democratic Revolutionary Council, Acheikh ibn Oumar personalist, anti-Habré, 1985-1999).
  • Goukouni Oueddei (2nd time)...........................Mar 1988 - ?
 
 
Currency: The Central African CFA franc (French: franc CFA or simply franc, ISO 4217 code: XAF) is the currency of six independent states in Central Africa: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. The Bank of Central African States (French: Banque des États de l'Afrique Centrale, BEAC) is a central bank, located at Cameroon's capital: Yaoundé, that serves these six central African countries which form the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa. These six countries have also issued normal circulation coins on their name in various years as well.
CFA Franc pegging:
  • 26 December 1945: CFA Franc = 1.70 French Francs.
  • 17 December 1948: CFA Franc = 2 French Francs.
  • 01 January 1959: 50 CFA Francs = (New) French Franc.
  • 12 January 1994: 100 CFA Francs = French Franc.
  • 01 January 1999: 655.957 CFA Franc = Euro.
 
1970
 

KM#E1 10,000 Francs. Year: 1960 (issued in 1970). Weight: 26.95g [27.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel-Aluminum. Diameter: 44.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Paris, France. Obverse: "GENERAL DE GAULLE" (General De Gaulle) written at the top section. Charles de Gaulle with military cap facing right in the center. Engraver initials "G. SIMON" written at left side behind the head of De Gaulle. 8 dots each at bottom left and bottom right sides. Date "1960" written at the bottom. Reverse: "REPUBLIQUE DU TCHAD" (Republic of Chad) written in French and Chad Coat of Arms at the top. Clouds sending strong rain that breaks the chain with double cross in the center. Value: "10.000 FRANCS" written at the bottom with "ESSAI" and mintmark below it. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Engraver: G. Simon. Subject: 10th Independence of Chad from France: 11 August 1960 - 11 August 1970 / Death of Charles de Gaulle on 09 November 1970.

Note: This coin is ESSAI for KM#11 / Schön# 11. It is 0.900 gold coin of weight: 36.00 grams. Mintage: 4,000. Mint: Numismatic Italiana, Arezzo, Italy.

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 09 November 1970) was a French army officer and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France. In 1958, he came out of retirement when appointed President of the Council of Ministers by President René Coty. He was asked to rewrite the Constitution of France and founded the Fifth Republic after approval by referendum. He was elected President of the French Republic later that year, a position he was reelected to in 1965 and held until his resignation in 1969. He was the dominant figure of France during the early part of the Cold War era; his memory continues to influence French politics.

  • Leader of Free France: 18 June 1940 – 03 June 1944.
  • 1st Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic: 03 June 1944 – 26 January 1946.
  • President of the Council of Ministers: 01 June 1958 – 08 January 1959.
  • Minister of Algerian Affairs: 12 June 1958 – 08 January 1959.
  • President of France: 08 January 1959 – 28 April 1969.
 
1972
 

KM#2 / Schön# 13 100 Francs. Year: 1972. Weight: 6.94g [7.00g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monnaie de Paris (mintmark: owl).
Obverse: "BANQUE CENTRALE" (Central Bank) written in banner at the top. Numerals "100" with "FRANCS" written below it in the center. Design on both sides. Date written in banner at the bottom. Reverse: "REPUBLIQUE DU TCHAD" (Republic of Chad) written at the top. Heads of three Giant Elands facing left in the center with grassland below them. Engraver initials "G.B.L.BAZOR" written at right side in smaller characters anti-clockwise. Mintage: 5,000,000. Minted Years: 1971 and 1972. Engraver: Gabriel Bernard / Lucien Georges Bazor.

Note: ESSAI (pattern) type also exists as KM#E3 dated 1971, having mintage: 1,400 and as KM#E4 in gold with mintage: 4 pieces only.

The giant eland is also known as the Lord Derby eland. Binomial Name: Taurotragus derbianus.

 
1975
 

KM#3 / Schön# 14 100 Francs. Year: 1975. Weight: 6.91g [7.00g]. Metal: Nickel. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monnaie de Paris (mintmark: dolphin).
Obverse: "BANQUE DES ETATS DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE" (Bank of the Central African States) written in two lines banner at the top. Numerals "100" written in the center. "FRANCS" written below numeral 100 and Date written below it in the center. Design on both sides and at the bottom. Reverse: "REPUBLIQUE DU TCHAD" (Republic of Chad) written in French at the top. Heads of three Giant Elands facing left in the center with grassland below them. Engraver initials "G.B.L.BAZOR" written at right side in smaller characters anti-clockwise. Mintage: 5,000,000. Minted Years: 1975, 1978, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1988, 1990 and 1991 (dolphin mintmark). Engraver: Gabriel Bernard / Lucien Georges Bazor.

Note: ESSAI (pattern) type also exists as KM#E5 dated 1975, having mintage: 1,700.

 
1982
 

Same as above coin KM#3 100 Francs, but...

Year: 1982. Weight: 6.98g [7.00g]. Mint: Monnaie de Paris (mintmark: dolphin). Mintage: N/A.

 
1985
 

KM#13 / Schön# 15 500 Francs. Year: 1985. Weight: 10.96g [11.00g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 30.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Monnaie de Paris (mintmark: dolphin).

Obverse: "REPUBLIQUE DU TCHAD" (Republic of Chad) written in French at the top section. Numerals "500" written in the top center with "FRANCS" written below it. Several local plants in the center. Date written at the bottom with mintmarks on both sides. Reverse: African Woman head 3/4 facing left in the center. "BANQUE DES ETATS DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE" (Bank of States of Central Africa) written in French in five lines at the bottom right side. Mintage: 5,000,000. Minted Years: One year type. Engraver: Gabriel Bernard / Lucien Georges Bazor.

Note: ESSAI (pattern) type also exists as KM#E6 dated 1985, having mintage: 1,700.

 
IDAO - Bureau Africain d'Emission issues
Three design of coins of limited mintage were produced by African mint for Central Africa Republic: African Primitive "Manilla" and "Croissance N°1" in 2005 and Pope John Paul II in 2007.
 
2005
 

X#19 1500 CFA Francs (1 Africa). Year: 2005. Weight: 7.34g [7.35g]. Metal: Iron plated Nickel. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Africa Mint.
Obverse: "TCHAD" (Chad) written in French at the top section. African Primitive Coin "Manilla" in the center. "AM" (African mint) initials above the Date. Date at the bottom.

Reverse: Elephant face on Africa Map in the center. Value "1500 CFA" and "1 AFRICA" written at the left side below the map. "EMISSION MONETAIRE DE L'INSTITUT DE DEVELOPPEMENT DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE * IDAC *" (clockwise) starting from 3 o'clock around the map. Mintage: 2,005. Minted Years: One year type. This coin is also made in Silver as X#19a with mintage of 25 pieces only.

X#18 3 Africa (4500 CFA Francs). Year: 2005. Weight: 7.52g [7.50g]. Metal: Bi-Metallic; Nickel center and Brass ring. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Reeded / Plain (alternative 5 patches each). Alignment: Medal. Mint: Africa Mint.

Obverse: "* 4500 CFA * AFRIQUE CENTRALE * REPUBLIQUE DU TCHAD *" written in the top section starting at 7 o'clock. Lamb sitting facing front, "CROISSANCE N°1" (Growth Number One) written in French, Plant on each side and Chad map on Oil barrel; all within the center circle. "AM" (African mint) initials above Date. Date "2005" written at the bottom.

Reverse: Elephant face on Africa Map in the center. Value "3 AFRICA" written at the left side below the map. "EMISSION MONETAIRE DE L'INSTITUT DE DEVELOPPEMENT DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE * IDAC *" (clockwise) starting from 3 o'clock around the map. Mintage: 2,005. Minted Years: One year type. This coin is also made in bi-metallic as X#18a (Silver center and Gold plated Silver ring) with mintage: 25 and in Silver as X#18b with mintage of 25 pieces only.

Pope John Paul II 4500 CFA Francs 2007 details:

  • X#28 Bi-metallic: Iron plated Nickel center and Brass ring. mintage: 2,007.
  • X#28b Silver: mintage: 27.
  • X#28a Bi-metal Silver center and 24 carats gold plated ring: mintage: 27.
 
 
 
  • Vice President of the Government Council
  • Gabriel Lisette....................................14 May 1957 - 26 Jul 1958 d. 2001
  • President of the Government Council
  • Gabriel Lisette (continued)........................26 Jul 1958 - 10 Dec 1958
  • Presidents of the Provisional Government
  • Gabriel Lisette (continued)........................10 Dec 1958 - 11 Feb 1959
  • Gontchomé Sahoulba.................................11 Feb 1959 - 12 Mar 1959 d. 1963
  • Ahmad Koulamallah..................................12 Mar 1959 - 26 Mar 1959 d. 1995
  • François Tombalbaye................................26 Mar 1959 - 16 Jun 1959 d. 1975
  • Prime ministers
  • François Tombalbaye (continued)....................16 Jun 1959 - 13 Apr 1975
  • He was known from 30 Aug 1973, N'Garta Tombalbaye.
  • Félix Malloum N'Gakoutou Bey-Ndi...................15 Apr 1975 - 29 Aug 1978 d. 2009
  • Hissène Habré......................................29 Aug 1978 - 23 Mar 1979
  • Post abolished: 23 Mar 1979 - 19 May 1982.
  • Djidingar Dono Ngardoum............................19 May 1982 - 19 Jun 1982 d. 2000
  • Post abolished: 19 Jun 1982 - 04 Mar 1991.
  • Jean Alingué Bawoyeu...............................04 Mar 1991 - 20 May 1992
  • Joseph Yodoyman....................................20 May 1992 - 07 Apr 1993 d. 1993
  • Fidèle Abdelkérim Moungar..........................07 Apr 1993 - 06 Nov 1993
  • Nouradine Delwa Kassiré Koumakoye (1st time).......06 Nov 1993 - 08 Apr 1995
  • Koibla Djimasta....................................08 Apr 1995 - 17 May 1997 d. 2007
  • Nassour Guelendouksia Ouaido.......................17 May 1997 - 13 Dec 1999
  • Nagoum Yamassoum...................................13 Dec 1999 - 12 Jun 2002
  • Haroun Kabadi......................................12 Jun 2002 - 24 Jun 2003
  • Moussa Faki Mahamat................................24 Jun 2003 - 03 Feb 2005
  • Pascal Yoadimnadji.................................03 Feb 2005 - 23 Feb 2007 d. 2007
  • Adoum Younousmi (interim)..........................23 Feb 2007 - 26 Feb 2007
  • Nouradine Delwa Kassire Koumakoye (2nd time).......26 Feb 2007 - 16 Apr 2008
  • Youssouf Saleh Abbas...............................16 Apr 2008 - 05 Mar 2010
  • Emmanuel Djelassem Nadingar........................05 Mar 2010 - 21 Jan 2013
  • Joseph Djimrangar Dadnadji.........................21 Jan 2013 - 21 Nov 2013
  • Kalzeubé Pahimi Deubet.............................21 Nov 2013 - 15 Feb 2016
  • Albert Pahimi Padacké..............................15 Feb 2016 - 10 May 2018
  • Post abolished: 10 May 2018 - date.
 
 
 
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins