Serbia
 
 
The Serbs are a Serbo-Croatian people who speak the Serbian dialect of that language. They are Serbian Orthodox in faith, and use the Cyrillic alphabet. In vassalage to the Ottoman Empire from the disaster of Kossovo in 1389, Serbia was annexed outright in 1459. In the modern era, the Karageorge rebellion of 1804 represents independence from the Ottoman Empire. The Obrenovic government of 1817 was locally autonomous, and recognized by the Ottoman government as an autonomous dependent Principality in 1833. A fully independent Kingdom was established in 1882. The Kingdom of Serbia became the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918 and, finally, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1921; but Yugoslavia was dismembered in 1941, and the Kingdom of Serbia was once more brought into existence. Yugoslavia was reconstituted in 1945 as a Communist Republic consists of Serbia along with Bosnia, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Slovenia but the state was once more pulled asunder by internal divisions following the collapse of Communism in the West. Serbia still exists, albeit much smaller. The capital and largest city is Belgrade.
 
 
               18 Jan 395   Part of Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
                 7th cent.  Settled predominantly by Slavs, under Greek suzerainty.
        830s - 960s         Serb state, autonomous within the Byzantine (Eastern Roman)
                             Empire.
         924 - 931          Bulgarian occupation.
        960s - 997          Part of autonomous Dioclea, within the Byzantine (Eastern
                             Roman) Empire (under Montenegro).
         997 - Mar? 1018    Part of Bulgaria.
   Mar? 1018 - 1071         Byzantine rule as the theme of Sirmium.
        1071 - 1091         Part of Dioclea (see Montenegro) by force (presumably
                             coinciding with Hungarian capture of Sirmium).

               1091         Separated from Dioclea (by civil war); state is often
                             referred to by historians as "Raška/Rascia"
               1126         Under Byzantine suzerainty (by force).
               08 Aug 1217  Serbian Kingdom (by papal coronation).
 16 Apr 1346 - 03 Dec 1371  Serbian Empire, main capital at Skopje.
                 Sep? 1365  The coronation of king Vukašin is not recognized by most
                             provincial leaders, resulting in the disintegration of the
                             Serbian state.
        1371 - 17 May 1395  Serbian rulers at Velbužd and Prilep become Ottoman vassals.
        1390 - 18 Aug 1439  Serbia an Ottoman vassal.
               17 May 1395  Ottomans annex Velbužd and Prilep.
                  Aug 1402  Despotate of Serbia
    Jul 1427 - 29 Aug 1521  Belgrade part of Hungary.
 18 Aug 1439 - 12 Jun 1444  Ottoman occupation.
               12 Jun 1444  Serbia restored by Hungarian forces (peace treaty effective
                             22 Aug 1444).

               20 Jun 1459  Part of Ottoman Empire (part of Rumelia Eyalet; as sanjak of
                             Semendire [Smederevo], from 1521 also called "Belgrade
                             Pashaluk").
               29 Aug 1521  Ottomans annex Belgrade.
                      1594  Serb rebellion (Banat uprising).
        1597 - 1598         Serb rebellion (Grdan's uprising).
 06 Sep 1689 - 10 Sep 1691  Austrian occupation.
 22 Aug 1717 - 04 Sep 1739  Austrian occupation, from 1718 organized as Kingdom of
                             Serbia (Königreich Serbien) within Austria.
 09 Feb 1778 - 07 Sep 1778  Serb rebellion (Koča's Krajina rebellion).
    Aug 1789 - Sep 1791     Austrian occupation.
 02 Feb 1804 - 21 Sep 1813  Serbia; uprising against Ottoman rule (New Style dates
                             14 Feb 1804 - 03 Oct 1813)
               21 Sep 1813  Ottoman rule restored (New Style 03 Oct 1813).
               09 Nov 1815  Serbia (officially from 25 Oct 1817 under Ottoman
                             suzerainty) (New Style dates 21 Nov 1815 and 06 Nov 1817).
               30 Nov 1830  Principality of Serbia (Servië)(autonomous under Ottoman
                             suzerainty)(New Style date 12 Dec 1830).

        1831 - 1833         Expansion of Serbia southwards to Kruševac.
               19 Apr 1867  Ottomans evacuate Kalemegdan fortress in Belgrade
                             (Old style date 06 Apr 1867).
        1877 - 1878         Serbia expands south to Nish, Pirot, and Toplica.
               13 Jul 1878  Independence recognized (Old Style date 01 Jul 1878
                             ratified 03 Aug 1878/22 Jul 1878).
               06 Mar 1882  Kingdom of Serbia (Old style date 22 Feb 1882).
               10 Aug 1913  Southern Serbia, Novi Pazar and Macedonia annexed from
                             Ottoman Empire.
 11 Aug 1914 - 21 Aug 1914  Austro-Hungarian occupation of northwestern Serbia.
 02 Dec 1914 - 15 Dec 1914  Belgrade occupied by Austria-Hungary.
 09 Oct 1915 - 01 Nov 1918  Serbia occupied by Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria
                             (in Vranje to 05 Oct 1918, Niš to 11 Oct 1918).
               01 Dec 1918  Proclamation of the unification of Serbia and the State of
                             Slovenes, Croats and Serbs into a single kingdom by
                             public ceremony in Belgrade (Old Style date 18 Nov 1918).
                             Informally called Yugoslavia.
               29 Dec 1918  Parliament of Serbia approves act of unification.
               24 Aug 1920  Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
               03 Oct 1929  Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbia is divided into Vardarska
                             banovina [Banate of the Vardar: under Macedonia], Zetska
                             banovina [Banate of the Zeta: under Montenegro], Moravska
                             banovina [Banate of the Morava] and the City of Belgrade).

 13 Apr 1941 - 20 Oct 1944  Serbia and Banat occupied by Germany (Military
                             Administration in Serbia [Militärverwaltung in Serbien])
                             (from 30 Apr 1941, Serbian state officially named "Serbia").
               17 Apr 1941  State dissolved under Italian-German occupation.
 31 Dec 1941 - 20 Sep 1944  Bulgaria occupies Vardar Macedonia and Southern Pomoravlje
                             (subordinate to German forces).
               29 Nov 1943  Yugoslav state declared reconstituted as Democratic
                             Federative Yugoslavia while negotiations with royal
                             government in exile.

               29 Nov 1943  Serbia re-incorporation into Yugoslavia declared.
               04 Dec 1943  State reconstituted as Democratic Federative Yugoslavia while
                             negotiations with royal government in exile continued.
               20 Oct 1944  Belgrade liberated.
               09 Nov 1944  Serbia
               05 Mar 1945  Accord with royal government.
               29 Nov 1945  Serbia as Part of Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.
               31 Jan 1946  People's Republic of Serbia (within Yugoslavia).
               07 Apr 1963  Socialist Republic of Serbia (within Yugoslavia).
               28 Sep 1990  Republic of Serbia (within Yugoslavia).
 27 Apr 1992 - 04 Feb 2003  Serbia with Montenegro part of Federal Republic of
                             Yugoslavia, following secession of the other four
                             constituent Republics.
               12 Jun 1999  Kosovo under foreign occupation (UN administration).
               04 Feb 2003  Serbia part of a looser confederation called Serbia and
                             Montenegro.
               03 Jun 2006  Montenegro declares independence.
               05 Jun 2006  Independence, Serbia acknowledges end of the union, declaring
                             itself its legal successor.
               17 Feb 2008  Kosovo declares independence (not recognized by Serbia and
                             Russia).
Note: Dates before 1835 are given according to Old Style (Julian) calendar, and after according to New Style (Gregorian) calendar. New Style was introduced in Serbia 7/20 Dec 1918, formally from 28 Jan 1919.
 
Territorial Disputes: Serbia with several other states protest the U.S. and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaration of its status as a sovereign and independent state in Feb. 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led Kosovo Force peacekeepers under United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute.
 
SERBIA
  • Roman Republic............................................29 - 27
  • Roman Empire..........................................27 BCE - 395 CE
  • Byzantine Empire.........................................395 - 7th century
  • Dervan.........................................................fl. c. 631
  • The King of White Serbia (modern day Lusatia) mentioned in the Chronicles of Fredegar, he is killed in battle by Germanic Duke Randulf in 636.
  • Unknown Archon.......................................fl. 610 – 641
  • One of the two sons of an unnamed "king" of White Serbia (assumed to be Dervan), he led "half of his folk" to the Balkans and was given land by Emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641), upon receiving his protection (most likely before 626). He is said to have died long before the Bulgar invasion (681).
  • Svevlad................................................... ? - 660
  • Selimir..................................................660 - 680
  • Vladin...................................................680 - 700
  • Ratimir..................................................700 - 750
  • VLASTIMIROVIĆ - Zhupanate of Rascia
  • Ccentral Serbia, roughly where Kosovo province is today. The earliest recognizable Serbian state. Archons/Princes of Serbs in Destinika [Dostinik/Desnica].
  • Višeslav..............................................c. 750 - c. 800
  • A descendant of the Unknown Archon, he lived during the rule of Frankish King Charlemagne, and ruled the hereditary lands, župe ("counties, districts"), of Neretva, Tara, Piva, and Lim. He united some Slavic tribes, forming the first Serbian principality. The Macedonian Sclavinia to the south was subjugated by Emperor Constantine VI.
  • Radoslav I.....................................................aft. 800
  • Son of Višeslav, he or his son Prosigoj are believed to have ruled during the time in which the Royal Frankish Annals speak of Ljudevit Posavski revolting against the Franks (ca. 819–822), during which time "the Serbs controlled the greater part of Dalmatia". At this time, there was peace with the Bulgars.
  • Prosigoj.......................................................bfr. 835
  • He was son of Radoslav, and grandson of Višeslav.
  • Vlastimir Prosigojević...................................836 - 860
  • Strojimir Vlastimirović..................................860 - 882 with...
  • Gojnik Vlastimirović.....................................860 - 882
  • Mutimir Vlastimirović....................................882 - 892
  • He defeated the Bulgar Army, allied himself with the Byzantine Emperor and ruled the First Serbian Principality when the Christianization of the Serbs took place and the Eparchy of Ras was established. He was the eldest son of Knez Vlastimir, great-great-grandson of the unknown Archont (ruled c. 610-641 as leader of Serbs and their Byzantine Sclaviniae under Heraclius), who managed to unite the Serb tribes into a state. He initially ruled together with his two younger brothers, Strojimir and Gojnik, but they revolted against him and he exiled them to Bulgaria, as guarantors of peace.
  • Pribislav Mutimirović....................................892 - 893
  • Petar (Peter) Gojniković.................................893 - 917
  • He ruled and expanded the First Serbian Principality (Rascia), and won several wars against other family members that sought the crown. He took crown from his cousin Pribislav. He was the first Serbian monarch with a Christian (non-Slavic) name. Petar was the son of Gojnik, the youngest son of Vlastimir.
  • Pavle (Paul) Branović....................................917 - 921 d. 923
  • He was put on the throne by the Bulgarian Tsar Symeon I of Bulgaria, who had murdered the previous prince, Petar, after he had become a Byzantine ally. Pavle ruled for four years, before being defeated by Zaharija, his cousin. Pavle was the son of Bran, the middle son of Mutimir.
  • Zaharija (Zachary) Pribislavljević.......................921 - 924
  • Bulgaria.................................................924 - 927
  • Časlav Klonimirović......................................927 - 949
  • Časlav was the son of Klonimir, a son of Strojimir. Časlav significantly expanded the Serbian Principality when he managed to unite several Slavic tribes, stretching his realm over the shores of the Adriatic Sea, the Sava river and the Morava valley. He successfully fought off the Magyars, who had crossed the Carpathians and ravaged Central Europe, when they invaded Bosnia. Časlav is remembered, alongside his predecessor Vlastimir, as founders of Serbia in the Middle Ages.
  • Byzantine Empire (part of Dioclea).......................949 - 988
    • Časlav Klonimirović (continue in rebellion).........949 - c. 960
    • The Magyars led by Kisa invaded Bosnia. The Serbian army advanced and met them on the banks of river Drina, in the Drina župania, downstream from present-day Foča. The Magyars were decisively defeated, and Kisa was killed by Tihomir. Due to his heroism, Časlav appointed Tihomir Duke of Drina and gave him his daughter in marriage.
    • Tihomir (in rebellion)...........................c. 960 - c. 969
  • Bulgaria.................................................988 - 1018
  • Byzantine Empire........................................1018 - 1083
  • Strategoi (Byzantine military governors)
  • Kônstantinos Diogenęs...................................1018 - c.1022
  • Theophilos Erôtikos....................................... ? - 1040
  • Ljutovid (in Seruie et Zahulmie)...............................? d. 1053?
    • Mayor (Župans) - subordinate to Dioclea
    • Petrislav Vojislavljević.........................c.1060 – 1083
  • VUKANOVIĆ
  • Vukan.................................................1083/4 - 1115 with...
  • Vukan was the son of Petrislav, the Prince of Rascia and son of Mihailo I, that held the office from ca 1060. In 1083, Constantine Bodin appoints Vukan to the supreme rule of "Rascia", while Vukan's brother Marko administrated a part of the land, most likely the frontier region in the north. After the Byzantine campaign against Duklja in 1089, and the subsequent civil war, Vukan asserted independence, ruling as Grand Prince, becoming the most powerful Serb ruler as of ca 1091. Rascia is elevated to an independent Grand Principality. He began raiding Byzantine territories in 1090, taking Kosovo, and defeated a Byzantine army in 1092. Vukan made peace with Alexios I Komnenos, after the Emperor had threatened with a larger army. However, Vukan immediately broke the treaty as the Byzantines marched onto the dangerous Cumans in Adrianople. Vukan conquers the cities along the Vardar. In 1095, the Emperor meets Vukan and renews the treaty. Vukan again raided Macedonia, as the First Crusade began. In 1106 he nominally recognized Alexios I.
  • Marko (Mirko).........................................1083/4 - 1090
  • Uroš I (Bela Uroš)......................................1115 - c. 1131
  • Uroš I was the son of either Vukan or Marko. In the treaty concluded between Vukan and Alexios I in 1095, Uroš I and Stefan Vukan became "guarantors of peace", as hostages to the Byzantines. Uroš succeeds the throne when Vukan dies. In ca 1130, he married his daughter, Jelena, to King Béla II of Hungary. Béla II, being blind, relied entirely on Jelena who acted as a co-ruler. In 1137, Ladislaus II, the son of Béla II and Jelena (the grandson of Uroš), becomes the Ban of Bosnia.
  • Uroš II Primislav (1st time).........................c. 1131 - 1150 d. 1162
  • He was the son of Uroš I and Anna Diogenissa. His rule was briefly interrupted twice by his brother, Desa.
  • Desa (1st time).........................................1150 - 1151 d. c. 1166
  • Uroš II Primislav (2nd time)............................1151 - 1155 d. 1162
  • Desa (2nd time)................................................1155 d. c. 1166
  • Uroš II Primislav (3rd time)............................1155 - 1162
  • Duklja and Travunia is re-incorporated into the realm.
  • Belos (Ban of Croatia 1142-1157)...............................1162
  • He was also the son of Uroš I and Anna Diogenissa. He was instated by Manuel I Komnenos.
  • Desa (3rd time)................................................1162 d. c. 1166
  • Byzantine Empire........................................1162 - c. 1165
  • Desa (4th time)......................................c. 1165 - c. 1166
  • Desa took Zeta (Duklja) and Travunia from Radoslav of Duklja and unified the coastal Serbian Principalities under his firm grip.
  • ZAVIDIĆ
  • Tihomir..............................................c. 1166 - c. 1171 with...
  • He was the first-born child of Zavida, exiled Župan of Zahumlje. Tihomir was chosen to rule over Rascia as a Grand Župan (highest title) following Byzantiums division of the Serb lands by Manuel I. Zavida other sons were given česti (parts): Stracimir ruled West Morava, Miroslav ruled Zahumlje and Travunia, Stefan Nemanja was given Toplica, Ibar, Rasina and Reke.
  • Stracimir............................................c. 1168 - 1171 and...
  • Miroslav.............................................c. 1168 - 1171
  • United with Serbia from 1171.
  • NEMANJA
  • Zhupanate, Kingdom (1217), then Empire of Serbia (1346).
  • Stephen I Nemanja (Stefan Nemanja Zavidić)..............1159 - 25 Mar 1196
  • Nemanja is the eponymous founder of the Nemanjić dynasty. He re-established control over the neighbouring territories, including Duklja, Hum and Travunia. In his last years, he joined his son Sava and took monastic vows, later recognized as Saint Symeon after numerous alleged miracles following his death. Duklja, Zahumlje and Travunija is reconquered, Nemanja is proclaimed "Grand Prince of All Serbia".
  • Stephen II First-Crowned (Stefan Nemanjić) (1st time)..25 Mar 1196 - 1202 d. 1227
  • ARPAD
  • Imre....................................................1202 - 1203 opposed by...
  • NEMANJA
  • Stephen Vukan (Stefan Vukan Nemanjić [Nemanić]).........1202 - 1204 d. 1208
  • Eldest son of Stefan Nemanja. He held the appanage of "Duklja, Dalmatia (Zahumlje), Travunija, Toplica and Hvosno" as Grand Prince, by 1190. He was the initial heir presumptive, but his father chose Stefan instead upon the abdication in 1166. With the death of Nemanja, Vukan started plotting against his brother. He found help in Hungary, and together they forced Stefan to flee to Bulgaria. He ruled as a Hungarian vassal, evident in Emeric I's title "King of Serbia". He left the throne in 1204, and continued to rule his appanage, he was later pardoned by the third brother Saint Sava.
  • Stephen II First-Crowned (2nd time).....................1204 - 1227
  • Second son of Stefan Nemanja. He inherited the title of Grand Prince in 1196 when his father retired as a monk. His reign began with a struggle against his brother Vukan, who expelled Stefan to Bulgaria. Kaloyan gave him an army of Cumans in exchange for eastern territories. The crisis ended when Sava negotiated a peace between the brothers and Stefan's power was cemented. He was crowned King in 1217, and then Sava gains autocephaly, becoming the first Archbishop of Serbs in 1219, thus Serbia retained full independence.
  • Radoslav III............................................1227 - Jan 1234 d. 1235
  • Son of Stefan the First-crowned. He ruled Zahumlje during the reign of his father, and also held a governor status of Zeta. He was the co-founder of the Žiča monastery with his father, who would abdicate in 1227 due to illness, taking monastic vows. Radoslav was crowned by his uncle Sava, the Archbishop of Serbia. His marriage to Anna Doukaina Angelina would prove unpopular as she undermined his authority, he lost the loyalty of the people and in 1233 a revolt against them prompted the couple to flee to Dubrovnik.
  • Vladislav (King at Scutari 1243-1264)...............Jan 1234 - Apr 1243 d. 1269
  • Stefan Vladislav was the son of Stefan the First-crowned. He succeeded his brother Radoslav in 1233 and ruled for 10 years, before being overthrown by his younger brother Uroš. He continued to rule Zeta. The first known flag design of Serbia was found in his treasury.
  • Uroš I Veliki (the Great)...........................Apr 1243 - Oct 1276 d. 1280 with
  • Stefan Uroš I was the son of Stefan the First-crowned. He succeeded his brother Vladislav. He boosted trade with Dubrovnik and Kotor, marking a beginning of economic prosperity. In 1253 a war was fought against Dubrovnik, peace was signed in 1254, and in the 1260s a second war begun that ended in 1268. Uroš immediately turned towards Hungary, successfully taking Mačva, he was however captured and peace was ensured between the two Kings through marriage of Dragutin and Catherine, the daughter of Stephen V of Hungary. His oldest son Dragutin would have succeeded his rule, but Uroš favored Stefan Milutin, the younger son, as successor. He was overthrown by Stefan Dragutin in 1276.
  • Dragutin (the Dear).....................................1271 - 1282 d. 1316
  • Stefan Dragutin was son of Stefan Uroš I. He overthrew his father with help from the Hungarian royalty (through his marriage to Catherine of Hungary) after the Battle of Gacko. He was injured in 1282, and gave the supreme rule to his younger brother Milutin, but continued to rule what would later become the Kingdom of Srem with the capital at Belgrade. Milutin boosted relations with the Byzantine Emperor, and refused to give the rule to Vladislav II (Dragutin's son), causing a split of the Kingdom. Dragutin continued to rule the northern frontier in Hungarian alliance, but in the last years re-connected with Serbia, acting as a vassal.
  • Uroš II Milutin (the Loved).............................1282 - 29 Oct 1321
  • Stefan Milutin was son of Stefan Uroš I. He succeeded his brother Dragutin. Upon his accession, he immediately turned towards Macedonia, conquering the northern part with Skoplje, which became his capital. He continued deep into Byzantine lands, taking northern Albania and as far as Kavala. He also took Vidin, and later Durres. He was in a succession war with Dragutin after peace was signed with the Byzantines in 1299. Milutin aids the Byzantines against the Turks at the Battle of Gallipoli, which ended in a victory. When Dragutin died he put most of his lands with Belgrade under his rule, in the same year his son Stefan Uroš III tried to overthrow him, resulting in him being exiled to Constantinople. In 1319 the Hungarians took all of Dragutin's lands but Braničevo. Syrmia becomes independent which was ruled 1316–1325 by Stefan Vladislav II, son of Dragutin.
  • Stefan Konstantin.......................................1321 - 1322
  • He was younger son of Stefan Uroš II, defeated in 1322 by his older brother, Stefan Uroš III.
  • Uroš III Dečanski (of Dečani)....................29 Oct 1321 - 21 Aug 1331
  • He was older brother of Stefan Konstantin and his coronation was held on 06 Jan 1322.
  • Vladislav (in rebellion at Rudnik)...............29 Oct 1321 - 1323 d. af. 1326
  • Uroš IV Dušan "Silni" (the Strong)...............21 Aug 1331 - 20 Dec 1355
  • Stefan Dušan was the son of Uroš III. He was a very skilled military leader, and defeated Bosnia and Bulgaria at the age of 20. As his father was not an able conqueror, Dušan removed him from the throne. Dušan doubled the size of the realm, taking Byzantine lands as far as the Peloponnese. The Serbian Empire flourished, becoming one of the most developed countries and cultures in Europe. Coronation on 08 Sep 1331. Became Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks (at Skopje) on 16 Apr 1346. He enacted the constitution - Dušan's Code in 1349.
  • Uroš V "Nejaki" (the Weak).......................20 Dec 1355 - 03 Dec 1371 with...
  • Stefan Uroš V was son of Stefan Uroš IV Dušan, crowned King of Rascia (1346–1355), succeeds as Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks (at Skopje) after the death of Dušan in 1355. His epithet was given due to his "weak rule".
  • Simeon "Paleologus" (at Thessaly).......................1356 - 1371 and...
  • Succession attempts were made by Simeon Uroš as "Despot of Epirus and Thessaly". He was uncle of Uroš V. He was appointed governor in the southwestern conquered regions in 1348, and ruled until 1355, when his brother-in-law Nikephoros II Orsini returned and rallied support. Nikephoros was killed in 1359, and Simeon continued his rule until his death in 1371. He proclaimed himself "Emperor of Serbs and Greeks" in 1356, however against the wishes of nobility of Serbia proper and Macedonia. After an unsuccessful invasion of Zeta, he gave up the idea of ruling Serbia.
  • Jovan Uroš (at Thessaly)................................1370 - 1373 and...
  • Jovan Uroš was son of Simeon Uroš. He succeeded his father as titular "Emperor of Serbs and Greeks" and ruled an area of Epirus and Thessaly 1370–1373 before taking monastic vows. In 1384–1385 he helped his sister Empress Maria Angelina Doukaina Palaiologina govern Epirus (she was the widow of Thomas II Preljubović, the Despot of Epirus 1367–1384).
  • MRNJAVCEVIĆ - subordinated to the Emperors of Serbs and Greeks 16 Apr 1346 - 03 Dec 1371.
  • Vukašin (at Macedonia)..............................Sep 1365 - 26 Sep 1371
  • Vukašin Mrnjavčević and his brorher Uglješa Mrnjavčević were killed in the Battle of Maritsa against Ottoman Empire on 26 Sep 1371.
    • Vuk Branković (Lord at Priština)...................1365 - 17 May 1395
    • Jovan (Ďoan) Dragaš Dejanović (Despots at Velbužd).1365 - 1378
  • Kraljevic Marko (Vukašević) (at Prilěp)..........26 Sep 1371 - 17 May 1395
  • Marko Mrnjavčević was the son of Vukašin. On 26 September 1371, Vukašin was killed and his forces were defeated in the Battle of Maritsa. About two months later, Tsar Uroš died. This formally made Marko the king of the Serbian land; however, Serbian noblemen, who had become effectively independent from the central authority, did not even consider to recognise him as their supreme ruler. He was not accepted King by locals. He was killed in the Battle of Rovine at Wallachia on 17 May 1395. He sided with Ottoman Empire under Sultan Bayezid I against Mircea cel Bătrân of Wallachia.
    • Kostandin Dragaš Dejanović (Lord at Velbužd).......1378 - 17 May 1395
    • He was killed in the Battle of Rovine at Wallachia on 17 May 1395.
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1389 - 22 Aug 1717
  • The crumbling Serbian Empire under Stefan Uroš V (called "the Weak") was to be of little resistance to the powerful Ottoman Empire. In light of conflicts and decentralization of the realm, the Ottomans defeated the Serbs at the Battle of Maritsa in 1371, making vassals of the southern governors, soon thereafter, the Emperor died. As Uroš V was childless and the nobility could not agree on the rightful heir, the Empire was ruled by semi-independent provincial lords, who often were in feuds with each other. The most powerful of these, Tsar Lazar Hrebeljanović, a Duke of present-day central Serbia (which had not yet come under the Ottoman yoke), stood against the Ottomans at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389. The result was indecisive, but it resulted in the subsequent fall of Serbia.
    • HREBELJANOVIĆ - Prince Lord of Serbia at Směderevo
    • Lazar I (Pribačić Hrbeljanović)....................1374 - 15 Jun 1389
    • After Uroš V died, the last of the Nemanjić emperors, through a combination of diplomacy, military action, and family alliances, Lazar emerged from the resulting power vacuum as the most powerful Serbian noble not in the Ottomans' service. He acquired dynastic legitimacy by marrying Milica Nemanjić, and despite retaining only the minor title of knez ("prince"), he nevertheless used the imperial name of 'Stefan' as well as the designation "autocrator". Lazar spent his time strengthening the Serbian state, knowing fully well that he would eventually have to face the Ottoman threat. He unified most of Serbia under his rule and managed to gain the loyalty of a majority of the Serbs. He also ceded the title "King of Serbs" to King Tvrtko I of Bosnia (great-grandson of Uroš the Great). His first major military action was at the Battle of Dubravnica where his two subjects, Crep and Vladimir managed to decisively defeat an Ottoman army in southern Serbia. No further recorded hostilities took place until the Battle of Pločnik where Knez Lazar managed to crush an Ottoman force and drive them back to Niš. Serbian troops also took part in the Battle of Bileća where again he defeated the Turks. Lazar was killed during the 1389 Battle of Kosovo along with most of Serbia's political elite.
    • Stephen (Stefan Lazarević Hrebeljanović)....15 Jun 1389 - 19 Jul 1427
    • He was also called as Stefan "Visoki" (the Tall). Stefan Lazarević was son Son of Lazar. In 1391, Serbia became an Ottoman vassal (1389-1404), so Stefan was obliged to aid the Ottoman sultan in battles when asked. He did so in the Battle of Rovine on 17 May 1395 against the Wallachian prince Mircea I and the Battle of Nicopolis on 25 September 1396 against the Hungarian king Sigismund (resulted in the rout of an allied crusader army of Hungarian, Croatian, Bulgarian, Wallachian, French, English, Burgundian, German and assorted troops assisted by the Venetian navy at the hands of an Ottoman force). After that, Sultan Bayezid awarded Stefan with the Vuk Branković's land on Kosovo, as Branković sided with the Hungarian king at Nicopolis. When Mongols entered the Ottoman realm, Stefan Lazarević participated in the Battle of Angora on 20 July 1402 at the Çubuk plain near Ankara, when Ottomans were defeated and sultan Bayezid was captured by Timur, ruler of the Timurid Empire. Returning to Serbia, Stefan visited Constantinople where the Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos granted him the title of despot. In previous years, title would mean that the despot would rule some vassal state, but as the Byzantine Empire was too weak to assert such a rule and Serbia was not its vassal state, Stefan Lazarević took this title as the personal style of the Serbian monarchs, thus the Principality of Serbia became the Serbian Despotate in Aug 1402 (Hungarian overlordship 1404–1427).
      • Regent
      • Milica (female)........................15 Jun 1389 - 1393
    • BRANKOVIĆ - Despotate of Serbia
    • The Branković family descends from the Nemanjići and the Lazarevići via female line. The family rises to prominence during the time of disintegration of the Serbian Empire under the last Nemanjić. The original family domains were centred around Kosovo region, one of the heartlands of medieval Serbian state. Later members of the house extended their rule over all remaining independent regions of Serbia making them the last suzerain rulers of medieval Serbia. The dynasty ruled the Serbian Despotate from 1427 to 1459.
    • George (Desp. Kosovo & L. of Skopje 1396-1427)..19 Jul 1427 - 24 Dec 1456
    • He was Grandson of Lazar I. He was called Đurađ I Vuković (Djuradj Vuković) Branković. He was in opposition to Ottomans 18 Aug 1439 - 12 Jun 1444.
    • Lazar II Đurđević (Djurdjević)..............24 Dec 1456 - 20 Jan 1458
    • Born in c. 1421 and was the son of Đurađ I Vuković and Eirene Kantakouzene.
    • Jelena (from 1459, Marija) (female).........20 Jan 1458 - Mar 1458 d. c. 1500
    • Jelena Branković (upon her marriage she changed her name to Maria; born c. 1447 - died c. 1498), married King Stephen Tomašević of Bosnia; she may have later entered the harem of a Turkish general. She was the last Queen of Bosnia and Despoina of Serbia. As the eldest daughter of the deceased Despot of Serbia Lazar II Branković, she was given in marriage at the age of twelve to the Bosnian prince Stephen Tomašević, who obtained the title to Serbia through her. The country was lost to the Ottomans within a few months, and the couple fled to Bosnia. He ascended the Bosnian throne in 1461, but two years later the kingdom too fell to the Ottomans, with Maria becoming a widow upon her husband's execution. She was Despoina consort of Serbia: 01 April 1459 – 20 June 1459 and Queen consort of Bosnia: 10 July 1461 – 05 June 1463.
      • Regents
      • Jelena (Helenę Palaiologina) (female)..20 Jan 1458 - Mar 1458 d. 1473
      • Helena was born in the Despotate of the Morea in 1431, the eldest daughter and child of Thomas Palaiologos, Despot of the Morea and Catherine Zaccaria of Achaea. She was a Byzantine princess who married Serbian Despot Lazar Branković, who ruled from 1456 until his death in 1458. Therefore she was Despotess of Serbia 24 December 1456 – 20 January 1458. After Smederevo fell to the Ottoman Turks on 20 June 1459, she fled Serbia for the Greek island of Leukas, where she converted to Catholicism. She later became a nun, assuming the name of Hypomone (Хипомона, υπομονή meaning "patience" in Greek). She died on 07 November 1473. She had two younger brothers, Andreas Palaiologos and Manuel Palaiologos, and a sister, Zoe, who would become the wife of Ivan III of Russia. Queen Maria was described straightforwardly by the monks as an "evil woman".
      • Mihailo Anđelović (Andjelović).........20 Jan 1458 - Mar 1458 d. 1464
      • Stěpan Đurđević (Djurdjević)...........20 Jan 1458 - Mar 1458 d. 1476
    • Stephen (Stěpan Đurđević) [continued]..........Mar 1458 - 08 Apr 1459
    • Stefan the Blind was Born in c. 1417 and was son of Đurađ I Vuković and Eirene Kantakouzene. He was blinded alongside his brother Grgur in 1441. Both blind brothers seem to have been omitted from considerations as possible heirs to their father. Stephen Tomašević arrived to Smederevo during the Holy Week of 1459, taking over the fortress and the government on 21 March.Stephen Tomašević marriage was celebrated on 01 April. Matthias Corvinus of Hungary and Stjepan Tomaš Kotromanić (King of Bosnia and father of Tomašević), dethroned Stefan on April 08, 1459. Stefan died on 09 October 1476. He is venerated as a Saint Stefan the Blind by the Serbian Orthodox Church.
      • Regent
      • Jelena (Helenę Palaiologina) (female).....Mar 1458 - 01 Jun 1459 d. 1473
      • According to Fine, Stefan secured the throne by co-operating with his sister-in-law Helena Palaiologina, widow of Lazar. She was a daughter of Thomas Palaiologos, Despot of the Morea, and Catherine Zaccaria of the Principality of Achaea. Helena however arranged the marriage of one of her daughters to Stjepan Tomašević, prince of Bosnia. She thus managed to secure the throne for her new son-in-law.
    • KOTROMANIĆ - Despotate of Serbia
    • Stephen Tomasevic (also at Bosnia)..........01 Apr 1459 - 20 Jun 1459 d. 1463
    • He married Jelena (Helena Branković, later known as Maria after marriage) the eldest daughter of Lazar Branković and Helena Palaiologina on 01 April 1459. The marriage was meant to unite Bosnia and Serbia in their fight against the expanding Ottoman Empire, but failed in that regard. After ruling Serbia for merely two months, Stephen surrendered it to the Ottomans and fled back to his father's court. In 1463, Ottoman emperor Mehmed marched into Bosnia, meeting little effective resistance, and captured Stephen, who was then beheaded. The execution marks the fall of the Kingdom of Bosnia to the Ottoman Empire as well.
      • Regent
      • Jelena (Helenę Palaiologina) (female)..01 Apr 1459 - 20 Jun 1459 d. 1473
    • BRANKOVIĆ
    • Vuk Grgurević (II) [the Dragon]....................1471 - 16 Apr 1485 and...
    • He was the son of Grgur Branković and grandson of Đurađ I. In 1471 a dependent Serbian state was established by the Hungarians mostly on the territory of Vojvodina and Syrmia. He was known as "Despot of the Kingdom of Rascia". He inherited the title of despot (as an heir to the throne now under occupation of the Ottoman Empire), by King Matthias Corvinus, and ruled most of present-day Vojvodina, under the overlordship of the Kingdom of Hungary. He fought with the Hungarians against Czechs, Poles, Austrians and Turks. In 1471 he gained a title of the despot of Serbia, and also gained a large possessions in the territory of present-day Vojvodina, which formerly belonged to despot Đurađ Branković. Among his possessions were Kupinik (today Kupinovo), Slankamen, Berkasovo, Bečkerek (today Zrenjanin), Irig, etc. His most famous military forays were those in 1476, when he seized Srebrenica and fought near Šabac and Smederevo, and in 1480, when he attacked Sarajevo. In 1479, along with Dmitar Jakšić, he led Serbian light cavalry squadrons in Battle of Breadfield (Kenyérmező), near Zsibót. At the decisive moment in battle Hungarian and Serbian cavalries charged Turkish centre and broke their ranks, which decided the outcome of the battle. In 1481, he fought against Turks in Serbia, and brought from there (area around Kruševac) about 50,000 people, who were settled in Banat, mostly around Timişoara.
    • George II Maxim [Đorđe]............................1482 - 1496 d. 1516
    • Đorđe was the son of Stefan Branković, Despot of Serbia 1458–1459, and Angelina Arianites. Vuk Grgurević died on 16 April 1485 and he received the title of Despot of Serbia by Matthias Corvinus in 1486. Despot Đorđe also was given the cities of Kupinik (Kupinovo), Slankamen, and Berkasovo in Syrmia, as well as other towns which fell under these cities. From 1493, he ruled jointly with his brother Jovan, who later succeeded him when he took monastic vows (as Maksim) in 1496. He died on 18 January 1516.
    • John [Jovan].......................................1496 - 10 Dec 1502
    • Jovan was the son of Stefan Branković, despot of Serbia 1458–1459 and Saint Angelina. Jovan Branković held the title of despot given to him by Vladislas II of Hungary, and ruled a region known as Rascia, being equivalent of modern Vojvodina, under the Kingdom of Hungary. Despot Jovan was the last Serbian Despot of the Branković dynasty, which was regarded as legitimate successors of the "holy Nemanjić's", they continued the ktetorship to Hilandar and other sacred things to protect the nation and the religion (Serbian Orthodox Church). He was proclaimed a Saint in 1505, under the name Saint Despot Jovan. He married noblewoman Jelena Jakšić, with whom he had four daughters. After his death, his wife ruled as Despotissa and then she married Ivaniš Berislavić, who was given the title despot of Serbia in 1504 by the Hungarian King. He died on 10 December 1502.
    • Despots of Serbia
    • Ivaniš Berislavić..............................May 1504 – 1514
    • After the death of despot Jovan Branković (1502), Vladislaus II of Hungary made Ivaniš Berislavić the interim despot of Serbia. With no male successor to the Branković dynasty, the position was given to the Berislavić family which had already been intertwined with the Branković dynasty with the marriage of Ivan's cousin Franjo Berislavić and Barbara Frankopan, who had been the widow of Vuk Branković II. The official act of making Ivaniš the despot was confirmed by January 1504 in Buda, when his marriage with Jovan's widow Jelena. The marriage itself was postponed until May 1504 because of Jelena's illness.
    • Stefan Berislavić.................................1514 - 1521
    • He was son of Ivaniš and Jelena. Stefan was less than ten years old when his father died, thus, the Despot title was recognized to him only in 1520. He served as the Despot of Rascia between 1520 and 1526. After the defeat of the Hungarians at Mohács (1526), the Hungarian nobility was divided into two sides; one led by King Ferdinand Habsburg, on whose side Berislavić stood, and one led by John Zápolya, the Duke of Transylvania. Stefan died in 1535. After the fall of Hungary, there were two more titular Despots, Radič Božić (1527–28), received by John Zapolya and Pavle Bakić (1537) received by Ferdinand.
    • Radič Božić.......................................1527 - Sep 1528
    • During the succession war between Ferdinand I and John Zápolya, Radič took the side of Zápolya. In 1527, he received the title of Despot by Zápolya, the King of Hungary. Radič left Ottoman-occupied Serbia for Hungary, and received the towns of Solymos and Lippa by Vladislas II of Hungary. He was part of the Hungarian-Serbian Army that crossed into Serbia in 1502 and burnt the Ottoman bases at Kladovo, Vidin and Nikopolje. He ruled a territory under the Hungarian crown, and was the voivode of a large army that fought the Ottoman Empire in several battles, most notably the Battle of Mohács (Decisive Ottoman victory over Hungary on 29 August 1526).
    • Pavle Bakić................................20 Sep 1537 - 09 Oct 1537
    • A charter dated September 20, 1537, titles him as Despot and called all Serbs to join Bakić as the Serbian Despot. He was the last Despot of Serbia and ruled a large territory under the Hungarian crown. Attempts made by King Ferdinand to push the Ottomans out of Slavonia, with the use of Pavle, were not successful. In 1537, Bakić did not manage to liberate Osijek from the Ottomans, he then retreated towards Đakovo, where he died at the battle of Gorjani on 09 October 1537 against the Ottomans. Mehmed-paša sent his son with the head of Bakić to Constantinople.
    • Stefan Štiljanović.................................1537 - 1543
    • The last prominent Serbian nobleman of the period of Ottoman subjugation of Serbia. After the crowning of Ferdinand I on November 3, 1527, he became administrator of Novigrad and Orahovica. He also gained the villages of Miholjac and Glogovnica, estates in the Virovitica county and the town of Valpovo, in which he had his residence. He administered significant towns which had earlier been under the rule of Jovan Nenad. He had his own flotilla. According to folklore, he was the last Despot of Serbia. He ruled a large territory under the Hungarian crown, due to his famed operations against the Ottoman Empire in the frontiers. Štiljanović is venerated as a Saint in the Serbian Orthodox Church.
      • Short-lived state in Vojvodina (1526–1530)

      • Jovan Nenad, the Black........................1526 – 26 Jul 1527

      • He was a Serb military commander in the service of the Kingdom of Hungary who took advantage of a Hungarian military defeat at Mohács and subsequent struggle over the Hungarian throne to carve out his own state in the southern Pannonian Plain. He styled himself emperor (tsar). As time passed, Jovan Nenad became a mythical figure to the Serbs. Jovan Nenad is attributed by Serbian historians as the founder of Vojvodina and the leader of the last independent Serbian state before the Ottoman conquest.

      • Radoslav Čelnik...............................1527 - 1530

      • He was general commander of Emperor Jovan Nenad's army. Radoslav ruled over Syrmia as "Duke of Syrmia (Srem)", initially as an Ottoman vassal (1527–1530) and then as a Habsburg vassal (1530–1532), until the region was conquered by the Ottomans.

    • Ottoman Walis (Governors) of Serbia - incomplete list
    • The Ottoman Empire had conquered Serbia during the rule of Stefan Tomašević; Sultan Mehmed II had arrived at Smederevo, and by 20 June 1459, the Serbian capital was officially conquered. In 1463, Ottoman conquered Bosnia as well.
    • Mehmed Bey................................................c. Jun 1463
    • Ali Bey...................................................c. 1476
    • Sinan Pasha....................................Dec 1506 - Oct 1513
    • Mehmed Pasha..............................................c. 1515
    • Teodor Nestorović (rebellion at Banat)....................1594
    • Austrian Military Commanders
    • Ludwig Wilhelm Markgraf von Baden...........06 Sep 1689 - 24 Sep 1689 d. 1707
    • Giovanni Norberto conte Piccolomini.........24 Sep 1689 - 1689 d. 1689
    • Friedrich Ambros Graf Veterani.....................1689 - 10 Sep 1691 d. 1695
    • Governors of Serbia under the Habsburg Monarchy at Vojvodina
    • Jovan Monasterlija.................................1691 – 1706
      He was called "Chief of the Serbian Nation" and "Vice Duke of Serbian Vojvodina" by Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I. He commanded forces during the battle of Senta (11 September 1697). After the wars he gained overlordship of the Petrovaradin fortress, and was appointed to overlook the building of a pontoon bridge over the Danube. He retired after the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699 and was given land by Leopold. He was nevertheless sent to fight off the uprising of Francis II Rákóczi against the Habsburgs in 1703. He succeeded and was given the title of general. Leopold, just before his death, gave Jovan the task of integrating the Serb units into the regular Austrian army. He died from wounds sustained during the siege of Oradea. He died in 1706 and was buried in Šišatovac, where his tomb lays, with the coat of arms of the family.
    • Ottoman Walis (Governors) of Serbia
    • unknown person 1691 - Sep 1698
    • Ali Pasha Haznadar Morejski....................Sep 1698 - 21 Oct 1700
    • Yuruk Hasan Pasha (1st time)................21 Oct 1700 - Jan 1700
    • vacant, Jan 1700 - Jun 1703.
    • Delak Ali Pasha................................Jun 1703 - Oct 1703
    • Yuruk Hasan Pasha (2nd time)...................Oct 1703 - Oct 1706
    • Elchi (Haci) Ibrahim Pasha.....................Oct 1706 - Sep 1708
    • vacant, Sep 1708 - Oct 1708.
    • Ali Pasha Karayilanoglu (1st time).............Oct 1708 - May 1710
    • Köprülüzade Damad Numan Pasha (1st time).......May 1710 - 16 Jun 1710 d. 1719
    • Köprülüzade Abdullah Pasha..................16 Jun 1710 - Jun 1711
    • vacant, Jun 1711 - Jan 1712.
    • Ali Pasha Karayilanoglu (2nd time).............Jan 1712 - Apr 1713
    • Halil Pasha Qosa...............................Apr 1713 - Dec 1714
    • Köprülüzade Damad Numan Pasha (2nd time).......Dec 1714 - May 1715 d. 1719
    • Ahmed Pasha Dizdar.............................May 1715 - Jul 1716
    • Mustapha Pasha Çelebi..........................Nov 1716 - 22 Aug 1717
  • Austria..........................................22 Aug 1717 - 04 Sep 1739
    • Austrian Military Commander
    • François-Eugčne de Savoie-Carignan..........22 Aug 1717 - 1718 d. 1736
    • He was also known as Prince de Savoie-Carignan.
    • Austrian Military Governors
    • Friderich Ferry von Staedtler.............................1718
    • Johann Joseph Anton Graf O'Dwyer...................1718 - 07 Sep 1720
    • Karl Alexander von Württemberg..............07 Sep 1720 - 1733
    • Karl Maruli Christoph Graf von Schmettau...........1733 - 04 Sep 1738
    • Georg Olivier Graf von Wallis, Freiherr von Carighmain...Nov 1738 - 04 Sep 1739
  • Ottoman Empire...................................04 Sep 1739 - Aug 1789
    • Ottoman Walis (Governors - at Niš 1719 - 04 Sep 1739)
    • Mehmed Pasha.......................................1718 - Feb 1719
    • Abdullah Pasha (1st time)......................Feb 1719 - 1721
    • Osman Topal Pasha (1st time).......................1721 - Nov 1727
    • Abdullah Pasha (2nd time)......................Nov 1727 - Nov 1730
    • Husein Pasha...................................Nov 1730 - Sep 1731
    • Mehmed Pasha...................................Sep 1731 - Aug 1732
    • Ismail Pasha...................................Aug 1732 - Aug 1733
    • Osman Topal Pasha (2nd time)...................Aug 1733 - Aug 1734
    • Becir Pasha....................................Aug 1734 - Apr 1735
    • Abdullah Pasha (3rd time)......................Apr 1735 - 04 Sep 1739
    • Ivaz Mehmed Pasha (acting)..................04 Sep 1739 - 1739
    • Ali Pasha Abdipashazade............................1739 - 1740
    • Elchi Mustapha Pasha Kara-Mehmedpashazade (1st time)...Jul 1740 - Nov 1740
    • Köprülüzade Hafiz Ahmed Pasha (1st time).......Nov 1740 - 1741
    • Mehmed Pasha.......................................1741 - 1742
    • Mehmed Pasha Muhsinzade...................................1742
    • Piri Haci Mustapha Pasha...........................1742 - 1743
    • Yahya Pasha Hatibzade..............................1743 - 1746
    • Seyid Mehmed Pasha Silahdar........................1747 - 1748
    • Sherif Halil Yusuf Pasha...........................1748 - 1750
    • Köprülüzade Hafiz Ahmed Pasha (2nd time)...........1750 - 1752
    • Seyid Numan Pasha..................................1753 - 1754
    • Köprülüzade Hafiz Ahmed Pasha (3rd time)...........1754 - 1755
    • Elchi Mustapha Pasha Kara-Mehmedpashazade (2nd)....1755 - 1756
    • Ibrahim Pasha Malatievi............................1756 - 1758
    • Uzun Haci Hasan Pasha (1st time)...................1758 - 1761
    • Benli Haci Mustafa Pasha...........................1761 - 1762
    • Pashazade Koca Avdi Ali Pasha (1st time)..................1762
    • Damad Melik Mehmed Pasha (1st time)................1762 - 1764 d. 1801
    • Mustafa Pasha......................................1764 - 1768
    • Uzun Haci Hasan Pasha (2nd time)...................1768 - 1769
    • Kara Halil Pasha...................................1769 - 1770
    • Haci Halil Pasha Ivazzade..........................1770 - 1772
    • Mehmed Asif Pasha Sarigicuzel (1st time)...........1772 - 1774
    • Osman Pasha Topaloghlu.............................1774 - 1775
    • Seyyid Hasan Pasha.................................1775 - 1776
    • Damad Melik Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)................1776 - 1779
    • Mehmed Asif Pasha Sarigicuzel (2nd time)...........1779 - 1781
    • Genc Mehmed Pasha..................................1781 - 1783
    • Izzet Mehmed Pasha.................................1783 - 1784
    • Raif Ismail Pasha..................................1784 - 1785
    • Selim Pasha...............................................1785
    • Yeghen Mahmud Pasha................................1785 - 1786
    • Pashazade Koca Avdi Ali Pasha (2nd time)...........1786 - 1788
    • Osman Pasha........................................1788 - 1789 opposed by...
  • Koča Andjelković (leader of Kocina Krajina rebellion).09 Feb - 07 Sep 1788 d. 1789
  • Austria.............................................Aug 1789 - Sep 1791
    • Austrian Military Governors
    • Ernst Gideon Freiherr von Laudon...............Aug 1789 - 24 Aug 1791 d. 1791
    • Johann Kolowrat Krakowsky (acting)..........24 Aug 1791 - 23 Oct 1791 d. 1816
    • His full name was Johann Nepomuk Karl Graf Kolowrat-Krakowsky, Freiherr von Ugezd.
  • Ottoman Empire......................................Sep 1791 - 1804
    • Ottoman Walis in Serbia
    • Abu Bekir Pasha (1st time).....................Sep 1791 - Jul 1792
    • Mehmed Ali Pekmeci Pasha.......................Jul 1792 - 26 Nov 1792
    • Kara Hasan Pasha (in rebellion)...........................1792
    • Hadji Bisha Pasha (in rebellion)..........................1792
    • Ahmad Topal Pasha...........................26 Nov 1792 - Jan 1793
    • Abu Bekir Pasha (2nd time))........................1793 - 1795
    • Sasit Pasha....................................Apr 1795 - Jul 1795 d. 1830
    • Sinikzade Haci Mustafa Pasha (1st time)........Jul 1795 - Mar 1797 d. 1801
    • Osman Agha Pasha (acting)..................Mar 1797 - 08 Jun 1798 opposed by...
    • Osman Pazvantoglu Pasha (rebellion, in parts of Serbia)......1798
    • Sinikzade Haci Mustafa Pasha (2nd time).23 Nov 1798 - 15 Dec 1801 opposed by...
    • The Dahia Rebellion (in Belgrade fortress)
    • Mehmed Agha Fochic.................................1799 - 07 Aug 1804 with...
    • Aghanlia Baryaktar.................................1799 - 07 Aug 1804 and...
    • Küçük Alia.........................................1799 - 07 Aug 1804 and...
    • Mula Yusuf.........................................1799 - 07 Aug 1804
    • Ottoman Walis in Serbia
    • Hasan Agha Pasha...............................May 1802 - 1804 with...
    • Halil Agha (acting).......................................1802
    • Abu Bekir Pasha (in rebellion)............................1804
 
  • KARAGEORGEVIĆ - Chief, from 1808 as Grand Chief
  • Đorđe "Karađorđe" Petrović (George the Black)....02 Feb 1804 - 21 Sep 1813 d. 1817
  • He rebelled to 30 Nov 1806 and from 14 Dec 1808. Leader of the First Serbian Uprising and Founder of Revolutionary Serbia. He was deposed and exiled to Austria causing collapse of the First Serbian Uprising.
    • The following five were local Turkish commanders during the Serbian revolution of 1804-1813
    • Üskübli Süleyman Pasha (1st time)..............Jun 1804 - 1805 d. 1807 d. 1818
    • Hafiz Pasha........................................1805 - Aug 1805 d. 1805
    • Halil Agha Gushanac Pasha (acting).............Aug 1805 - 23 Nov 1806
    • Üskübli Süleyman Pasha (2nd time)..................1806 - 1807
    • Ibrahim Pasha......................................1807 - 1808
  • Ottoman Empire...................................21 Sep 1813 - 06 Sep 1817
    • Ottoman Walis in Serbia
    • Hursid Ahmed Pasha.................................1813 d. 1822
    • Derdenli Pasha.....................................1813
    • Süleyman Pasha Skopljak.......21 Sep 1813 - 09 Nov 1815 d. 1818: opposed by...
    • Hadži-Prodan Gligorijević (in rebellion at Čačak region)...1814
    • Marashli Ali Pasha.............................Nov 1815 - 06 Nov 1817
  • OBRENOVIĆ - Princes
  • Miloš I (1st time)...............................09 Nov 1817 - 13 Jun 1839 d. 1860
  • Leader of the Second Serbian Uprising. Founder of Principality of Serbia. Serbia became an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire. Prince Miloš ruled autocratically, permanently refusing to share power. During his rule, he was the richest man in Serbia and one of the richest in the Balkans. He abdicated on 25 Jun 1839 in favor of his sons—Milan, who died a few weeks later, and Mihailo, who then became prince. Mihailo was deposed in 1842, and the family was out of power until 1858, when it returned with Miloš restored as prince for the last two years of his life.
  • Milan I..........................................13 Jun 1839 - 08 Jul 1939 d. 1839
  • Milan Obrenović was the eldest son and heir of Miloš Obrenović I. He was ill from his earliest childhood and his health was poor throughout his entire life. His father Miloš Obrenović I abdicated on 13 June 1839 in favour of Milan. Since Prince Milan "ruled" for only 26 days, no public documents were issued under his name. He died on 08 July 1839, having never regained consciousness. After his death his brother Mihailo Obrenović succeeded to the throne, as Mihailo Obrenović III. Later that year "The first regency" was formed in Serbia.
    • Provisional Regency (for incapacitated Milan to 08 Jul 1839)
    • Jevrem Teodorović Obrenović.................15 Jun 1839 - 17 Mar 1840 d. 1856
    • Toma Vučić Perišić (1st time)...............15 Jun 1839 - 17 Mar 1840 d. 1859
    • Avram Petronijević (1st time)...............15 Jun 1839 - 17 Mar 1840 d. 1852
  • Mihailo [Michael] Obrenović III (1st time).......17 Mar 1840 - 14 Sep 1842 d. 1868
  • Mihailo was the son of Prince Miloš Obrenović (1780–1860) and his wife Ljubica Vukomanović (1788–1843, Vienna). He was born in Kragujevac, the second surviving son of the couple. He spent his childhood in Kragujevac, then in Požarevac and Belgrade. Mihailo was Prince of Serbia from 1839 to 1842 and again from 1860 to 1868. His first reign ended when he was deposed in 1842, and his second when he was assassinated in 1868. He is stated as being the most enlightened ruler of modern Serbia. He advocated the idea of a Balkan federation against the Ottoman Empire.
  • In Austria exile from 06 Sep 1842.
    • Acting
    • Avram Petronijević (2nd time)...............08 Sep 1842 - 14 Sep 1842
    • Ottoman Military Governors of Kale Meydan (Kalemegdan Fortress) in Belgrade
    • Marashli Ali Pasha..........................06 Nov 1817 - Sep 1821
    • Abdurrahman Pasha..............................Sep 1821 - 1827
    • Hüseyin Pasha......................................1827 - 1833
    • Vedyehi Veci Pasha.................................1833 - 1835
    • Yusuf Muhlis Pasha.................................1835 - 1837
    • Hüshrev Pasha Samakuli.........................Dec 1837 - Jan 1841 d. 1846
    • Haci Mehmed Kamil Pasha........................Jan 1841 - Oct 1843 d. 1859
    • Hafiz Mehmed Pasha.............................Oct 1843 - Jan 1846 d. 1866
    • Mehmed Vecihi Pasha............................Jan 1846 - Feb 1847 d. 1867
    • Selim Sirri Pasha..............................Feb 1847 - Jul 1848 d. 1848
    • Hafiz Ahmed Pasha..............................Jul 1848 - Oct 1848 d. 1853
    • Hasan Pasha....................................Oct 1848 - May 1850 d. 1850
    • Mehmed Vasif Pasha.............................May 1850 - Apr 1852 d. 1865
    • Mehmed Hurshid Pasha...........................Apr 1852 - Jul 1852 d. 1876
    • Mehmed Besim Pasha.............................Jul 1852 - Feb 1854 d. 1858
    • Ahmed Izzet Pasha..............................Feb 1854 - Jan 1855 d. 1876
    • Aziz Pasha.....................................Jan 1855 - Jan 1857
    • Hasan Hüsnü Pasha..............................Jan 1857 - Jul 1857
    • Sherif Topal Osman Pasha.......................Jul 1857 - Jan 1861
    • Hurshid Pasha.............................................1861
    • Reshid Pasha...................................Apr 1861 - 1863
    • Eyub Pasha.........................................1863 - 1864
    • Ali Pasha..........................................1865 - 1866
    • Ali Reza Pasha.....................................1866 - 19 Apr 1867
  • KARAGEORGEVIĆ - Prince
  • Aleksandar (1st time)............................14 Sep 1842 - 20 Jun 1843 d. 1885
  • He was the youngest son of Karađorđe Petrović (ruler of Serbia 1804-1813) and Jelena Jovanović, born in Topola on 11 October 1806. He was educated in Khotin, Bessarabia (Russia), under the patronage of the Russian Tsar. After the political conflicts caused by disrespect of the so-called "Turkish constitution," and Miloš Obrenović's and then Mihailo Obrenović's abdications, Aleksandar Karađorđević was elected the Prince of Serbia at the National Assembly in Vračar, a municipality in modern Belgrade, on 14 September 1842. Having had his title acknowledged by Russia and Turkey, Prince Aleksandar started the reforms and founded a number of new institutions in order to improve the progress of the Serbian state. He implemented the code of civil rights, introduced the regular Army, built a cannon foundry, improved the existing schools and founded new ones, as well as established National Library and National Museum.
    • Regency
    • Toma Vučić Perišić..........................14 Sep 1842 - 07 Nov 1842
    • He self-styled himself as "leader of the People".
    • Avram Petronijević (3rd time)...............14 Sep 1842 - 07 Nov 1842
    • His title was known as President of temporary justice.
  • Regency
  • Stefan Stefanović "Tenka"........................20 Jun 1843 - 14 Sep 1843 d. 1865
  • Lazar Theodorov Theodorović .....................20 Jun 1843 - 14 Sep 1843 d. 1846
  • Milosav Zdravković "Resavac".....................20 Jun 1843 - 14 Sep 1843 d. 1854
  • KARAGEORGEVIĆ - Prince
  • Aleksandar (2nd time)............................14 Sep 1843 - 23 Dec 1858 d. 1885
  • In internal policy Prince Aleksandar came into conflict with the members of the Council, which culminated in the convocation of the National Assembly on St. Andrew’s Day, on 23 December 1858, which forced him to abdicate and powers were retuerned to Obrenović dynasty. Prince Alexander died in Timişoara on 03 May 1885. He was buried in Vienna, and his earthly remains were moved in 1912 to the Memorial Church of St. George built by his son Petar I Karađorđević (ruler of Serbia 1903–1921), in Oplenac, Serbia.
  • Duke of Vojvodina
  • Stevan Šupljikac [Vojvoda Šupljikac].............01 May 1848 – 15 Dec 1848
  • He was born in Petrinja, in 1786. He entered the Austrian army in 1805, subsequently becoming a general. Between 1806 and 1814 he was officer of the Imperial French army. During the Russian Campaign of 1812, he was awarded with the Légion d'honneur. In 1814, he again served as officer in the Austrian army, as a commander of the Ogulin regiment at Banat and Lika. He then was brigade commander under Joseph Radetzky von Radetz, after which he was awarded with the Great Cross of the Iron Crown. In 1848 he took part in the suppression of Italian rebels in the Unification of Italy. As part of the Revolutions of 1848, the Serbs under Austria-Hungary demanded what they had in the previous century; recognition of Serbian as official language, equality of the Orthodox church as with Catholics, and annual church assembly gatherings. They met at Sremski Karlovci and Novi Sad. Several thousand Serbs met at the May Assembly in Sremski Karlovci on 01 May 1848. The delegates chose Šupljikac as voivode, the civil and military commander. Josif Rajačić was elected the patriarch of the Serbs. The Serbs demanded a national unit consisting of Banat, Backa, Baranja and part of Srem, known collectively as Vojvodina. During the revolutions, there was much fighting in Vojvodina, in June, Hungarian and Serbian bands began fighting. General Stratimirović, head of the main committee, on 10 May, urged Prince Aleksandar for assistance and asked Stevan Knićanin, a commissioner, to intercede. Knićanin was elected military commander. In June and July a large wave of volunteers from the Principality entered Vojvodina, Knićanin arrived at 25 July. Hungarians were not positive to the Serbs at this time, but support came from Vienna – the new emperor Franz Joseph approved the establishment of the Serbian Vojvodina, with Šupljikac as Duke. He became the supreme military commander of the Serbian national troops on 06 October. He died on 15 December 1848 at the age of 62, at Pančevo, he was buried in the Krušedol Monastery.
  • President of the People's Assembly
  • Miša Anastasijević...............................23 Dec 1858 - 24 Dec 1858 d. 1885
  • OBRENOVIĆ - Princes
  • Miloš I (2nd time)...............................24 Dec 1858 - 26 Sep 1860
  • He was the son of Teodor "Teša" Mihailović (died 1802) from Dobrinja, and Višnja Urošević (died 18 June 1817). This was the second marriage of his mother Višnja. Višnja's first marriage was with Obren Martinović (died 1780) from Brusnica.
    • Represenatives of the Prince (Regency)
    • Ilija Garašanin.............................24 Dec 1858 - 17 Jan 1859 d. 1874
    • Stefan "Stevča" Mihajlović..................24 Dec 1858 - 09 Feb 1859 d. 1888
    • Jeftimije Ugričić...........................24 Dec 1858 - 09 Feb 1859 d. 1886
    • Stefan Mitrov Magazinović...................24 Dec 1858 - 09 Feb 1859 d. 1874
  • Mihailo [Michael] Obrenović III (2nd time).......26 Sep 1860 - 10 Jun 1868
  • Finally, Mihailo was accepted back as Prince of Serbia in September 1860, after the death of his father who had regained the throne in 1858. For the next eight years he ruled as an enlightened absolute monarch. During his second reign the People's Assembly was convened just three times, in 1861, 1864 and 1867. Prince Mihailo's greatest achievement was in persuading the Turkish garrisons to leave Serbia, in 1862 (when the Ottoman Army left the fortresses of Užice and Soko Grad) and 1867 (when the Turks left their fortifications in Belgrade, Šabac, Smederevo and Kladovo). This was done with major diplomatic support from Russia and Austria. In 1866 Mihailo began campaign of forging The First Balkan Alliance by signing the series of agreements with other Balkan entities in period 1866-1868. Mihailo wished to divorce his wife Julia in order to marry his young mistress, Katarina Konstantinović, who was the daughter of his first cousin, Princess Anka Obrenović. Both resided at the royal court at his invitation. His plans for a divorce and subsequent remarriage to Katarina met with much protest from politicians and clergy, as well as the general public. His astute and gifted Prime Minister Ilija Garašanin was dismissed from his post in 1867 for daring to voice his opposition to the divorce. However, his divorce from Julia never took place. On June 10, 1868, Mihailo was travelling through the park of Košutnjak in a carriage, near his country residence on the outskirts of Belgrade, with Katarina and her mother Princess Anka, when they were shot by assassins. In the park appeared Pavle and Kosta Radovanović in formal black suits, and with a loaded gun pointed in the direction of the Prince's carriage. Kosta approached the carriage. Prince Mihailo Obrenović recognized him, because of a dispute over his brother Ljubomir. The last words of the Prince, which Kosta himself admitted when on trial were: "Well, it's true." Mihailo and Anka were both killed, and Katarina was wounded. The plot behind the assassination has never been clarified; the sympathizers of the Karađorđević dynasty were suspected of being behind the crime, but this has not been proven.
  • Provisional Regency
  • Jovan Marinović..................................10 Jun 1868 - 02 Jul 1868 d. 1893
  • He was a president of state council.
  • Rajko Jovanović Lešjanin.........................10 Jun 1868 - 02 Jul 1868 d. 1872
  • Đorđe (Djordje) Jovanov Petrović.................10 Jun 1868 - 02 Jul 1868
  • OBRENOVIĆ - Prince
  • Milan II [Milan Obrenović IV]....................02 Jul 1868 - 06 Mar 1882 d. 1901
    • Regency
    • Milivoje Petrović Blaznavac.................02 Jul 1868 - 22 Aug 1872 d. 1873
    • Jovan Ristić (1st time).....................02 Jul 1868 - 22 Aug 1872 d. 1899
    • Jovan Gavrilović............................02 Jul 1868 - 22 Aug 1872 d. 1877
  • OBRENOVIĆ - Kings
  • Milan II [Milan Obrenović IV] (continued)........06 Mar 1882 - 06 Mar 1889 d. 1901
  • He was the son of Miloš J. Obrenović. On 6 March 1882, Principality of Serbia was declared a kingdom and Milan was proclaimed King of Serbia. On 03 January 1889, Milan adopted a new constitution much more liberal than the existing one of 1869. Two months later, on 06 March, thirty-four-year-old Milan suddenly abdicated the throne, handing it over to his twelve-year-old son. No satisfactory reason was assigned for this step. Milan settled in Paris as a private individual. On 11 February 1901, Milan died unexpectedly. He was buried in Krušedol monastery, next to his grandaunt Princess Ljubica, Prince Miloš's wife.
  • Aleksandar.......................................06 Mar 1889 - 11 Jun 1903
  • Alexander was born on 14 August 1876 to King Milan and Queen Natalie of Serbia. Coronation on 02 July 1889. Alexander was king of Serbia from 1889 to 1903 when he and his wife, Queen Draga, were assassinated by a group of Army officers, led by Captain Dragutin Dimitrijević in the early morning of 11 June 1903. Apparently to prevent Queen Draga's brother being named heir-presumptive, but in reality to replace Alexander Obrenović with Peter Karađorđević, a conspiracy was organized by a group of Army officers headed by Captain Dragutin Dimitrijević also known as "Apis", and Norman Perović, a young Greek Orthodox militant who was in the pay of the Russians, as well as the leader of the Black Hand secret society which would assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914. The King was only 26 years old at the time of his death. King Alexander and Queen Draga were buried in the crypt of St. Mark's Church, Belgrade. This ended Obrenović dynasty in Serbia.
    • Regency
    • Jovan Ristić (2nd time).................... 06 Mar 1889 - 13 Apr 1893 d. 1899
    • Jovan Belimarković..........................06 Mar 1889 - 13 Apr 1893 d. 1906
    • Kosta S. Protić.............................06 Mar 1889 - 16 Jun 1892 d. 1892
  • KARAGEORGEVIĆ (Karađorđević or Karadjordjević)
  • Peter I..........................................15 Jun 1903 - 01 Dec 1918 d. 1921
  • Peter was born in Belgrade on 11 July [O.S. 29 June] 1844. Peter was Karađorđe's grandson and third son (fifth child out of ten) of Persida Nenadović and Prince Alexander Karađorđević, who was forced to abdicate. Peter was crowned in St. Michael's Cathedral in Belgrade, on 21 September [O.S. 8 September] 1904. Peter lived with his family in exile. He fought with the French Foreign Legion in the Franco-Prussian War. He joined as volunteer under the alias Peter Mrkonjić in the Herzegovina Uprising (1875–77) against the Ottoman Empire. From Nov 1915, exile in Corfu, Greece. Peter lived with his family in exile. He married Princess Zorka of Montenegro, daughter of King Nicholas I, in 1883. She gave birth to his five children, including Prince Alexander. After death of his father in 1885, Peter became head of the Karađorđević dynasty. After the a military coup d'état and murder of King Alexander I Obrenović in 1903, Peter became King of Serbia. As a king he advocated for constitutional setup of the country and was famous for his libertarian politics.
  • The first Balkan war began in October 1912 and ended in May 1913. It comprised actions of the Balkan League (Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) against the Ottoman Empire. The combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies and achieved rapid success. As a result of the war, the allies captured and partitioned almost all remaining European territories of the Ottoman Empire. In May 1912, the Albanian Hamidian revolutionaries, who wanted to reinstall Sultan Abdul Hamit II to power, drove the Young Turkish forces out of Skopje and pressed south towards Manastir (present day Bitola), forcing the Young Turks to grant effective autonomy over large regions in June 1912. Serbia, which had helped arm the Albanian Catholic and Hamidian rebels and sent secret agents to some of the prominent leaders, took the revolt as a pretext for war. Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria had all been in talks about possible offensives against the Ottoman Empire before the Albanian revolt of 1912 broke out; a formal agreement between Serbia and Montenegro had been signed on 07 March. On 18 October 1912, Peter I of Serbia issued a declaration, 'To the Serbian People', which appeared to support Albanians as well as Serbs. As Bulgaria was dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, it attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, and started the Second Balkan War on 16 (O.S.)/29 June 1913. Serbian and Greek armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and counter-attacked, entering Bulgaria. With Bulgaria also having engaged in territorial disputes with Romania, this war provoked Romanian intervention against Bulgaria. The Ottoman Empire took advantage of the situation to regain some lost territories from the previous war. When Romanian troops approached the capital Sofia, Bulgaria asked for an armistice, resulting in the Treaty of Bucharest, in which Bulgaria had to cede portions of its First Balkan War gains to Serbia, Greece and Romania. The Second Balkan War left Serbia as the most militarily powerful state south of the Danube.
    • Regency
    • Jovan Avakumović............................11 Jun 1903 - 25 Jun 1903 d. 1928
    • Prince Aleksandar Karadjordjević............05 Jul 1914 - 01 Dec 1918 d. 1934
  • Austro-Hungarian Commanders (in north eastern Serbia only 02 Dec 1915, then in Belgrade)
  • Oskar Potiorek......................................12 Aug 1914 - 27 Dec 1914 d. 1933
  • Eugen Ferdinand Erzherzog von Habsburg-Lothringen...27 Dec 1914 - 27 May 1915 d. 1954
  • Karl Tersztyánszky von Nádás........................27 May 1915 - 27 Sep 1915 d. 1921
  • Hermann Albin Josef Freiherr Kövess von Kövessháza..27 Sep 1915 - 01 Jan 1916 d. 1924
  • Austro-Hungarian Military Governors-general
  • Johan Ulrich Graf von Salis-Seewis..................01 Jan 1916 - Jul 1916 d. 1940
  • Adolf Freiherr von Rhemen zu Barensfeld.............06 Jul 1916 - Oct 1918 d. 1932
  • Hermann Albin Josef Freiherr Kövess von Kövessháza.....Oct 1918 - 01 Nov 1918
  • Bulgarian Chiefs of the Moravian Military Inspection Oblast
  • Vasil Ivanov Kutinchev..............................27 Nov 1915 - 06 May 1917 d. 1941
  • Aleksandăr Nikolov Protogerov..........................May 1917 - Dec 1917 d. 1928
  • Petăr Georgiev Durvingov...............................Dec 1917 - Feb 1918 d. 1953
  • Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes 1918-1929
  • Peter I (continued)..............................01 Dec 1918 - 16 Aug 1921
  • On 01 December 1918, King Peter I was proclaimed King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and that was his last public appearance. King Peter stayed abroad until July 1919 and returned to Belgrade where he died in 1921 at the age of 77.
    • Regency
    • Prince Aleksandar Karadjordjević............01 Dec 1918 - 16 Aug 1921 d. 1934
  • Aleksandar (continued as King)...................16 Aug 1921 - 09 Oct 1934
  • As a result of the previous deaths of three family members on a Tuesday, Alexander refused to undertake any public functions on that day of the week. On Tuesday, 09 October 1934, however, he had no choice, as he was arriving in Marseilles to start a state visit to France, to strengthen the two countries' alliance in the Little Entente. While Alexander was being slowly driven in a car through the streets along with French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou, a gunman, the Bulgarian Vlado Chernozemski [a member of the pro-Bulgarian Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO or VMRO) and an experienced marksman], stepped from the street and shot the King twice, and the chauffeur, with a Mauser C96 semiautomatic pistol. Alexander died in the car, slumped backwards in the seat, with his eyes open. One of the bullets struck Foreign Minister Barthou in the arm, passing through and fatally severing an artery. He died of excessive blood loss less than an hour later.
  • Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1929-1941
  • Peter II.........................................09 Oct 1934 - 29 Nov 1945 d. 1970
  • He exiled from 13/14 Apr 1941 in London (Oct 1943 - Mar 1944 in Cairo). With the conquest of Yugoslavia by Axis forces in 1941, the state was broken up and several provinces were made into puppet regimes. Serbia was constituted a Kingdom, under the theoretical authority of Peter II, but Peter was in exile from 1941, and never consented or agreed to the style or dignity of King of Serbia. Though the war ended, Peter was not allowed to return home. He was deposed by Yugoslavia's Communist Constituent Assembly on 29 November 1945. After that, he settled in the United States. From 1962 to his death he served as the Royal Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem in the United States. After many years of suffering from cirrhosis of the liver, he died in Denver, Colorado, on 03 November 1970, after a failed liver transplant.
    • Regency
    • Prince Pavle................................09 Oct 1934 - 27 Mar 1941 d. 1976
    • Paul Karađorđević was the son of Arsen (b. 1859 – d. 1938; brother of Peter I, who ruled Serbia: 1903–1921) and grandson of Alexander Karađorđević (ruled Serbia: 1842–1858).
    • Radenko Stankovic...........................09 Oct 1934 - 27 Mar 1941 d. 1956
    • Ivo Perovic.................................09 Oct 1934 - 27 Mar 1941 d. 1958
  • German Military Governors
  • Government under German occupation carried on in the name of the absent and non-consenting King Petar II from 29 Aug 1941 - 20 Oct 1944. On 06 April 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers led by Nazi Germany; by 17 April 1941, the country was fully occupied and was soon carved up by the Axis. Yugoslav resistance was soon established in two forms, the Royal Yugoslav Army and the Yugoslav Partisans.
  • Ewald von Kleist (Military Commander)............13 Apr 1941 - 22 Apr 1941 d. 1954
  • Helmuth Förster..................................22 Apr 1941 - 31 May 1941 d. 1965
  • Ludwig Wilhelm von Schröder......................01 Jun 1941 - 28 Jul 1941 d. 1941
  • Heinrich Bernhard Danckelmann....................29 Jul 1941 - 20 Oct 1941 d. 1947
  • German Commissioned Commanding Generals and Commanders in Serbia
  • Franz Friedrich Böhme............................19 Sep 1941 - 06 Dec 1941 d. 1947
  • Paul Bader.......................................07 Dec 1941 - 16 Mar 1942 d. 1971
  • German Military Commanders in Serbia
  • Paul Bader (continued)...........................17 Mar 1942 - 19 Aug 1943 d. 1971
  • Hans-Gustav Felber...............................20 Aug 1943 - 20 Oct 1944 d. 1962
  • He was military commander Southeast and military commander in Serbia to 26 Sep 1944, then commander of the army department in Serbia. During 1943, the Yugoslav Partisans began attracting serious attention from the Germans. In two major operations of Fall Weiss (January to April 1943) and Fall Schwartz (15 May to 16 June 1943), the Axis attempted to stamp-out the Yugoslav resistance once and for all. The battles, which were soon to be known as the Battle of the Neretva and the Battle of the Sutjeska respectively, saw the 20,000-strong Partisan Main Operational Group engaged by a force of around 150,000 combined Axis troops. On both occasions, despite heavy casualties, the Group succeeded in evading the trap and retreating to safety.
  • Bulgarian Commander of the 1st Corps of Occupation (in Niš, Serbia; subordinated to the German commanders)
  • Asen Nikolov Nikolov.............................11 Apr 1942 - 04 Sep 1944 d. 1946
    • Bans of the Morava
    • Đorđe (Djordje) B. Nestorović...............09 Oct 1929 - 1931 d. 1932
    • Đorđe (Djordje) Drenovac...........................1931 - 1932
    • Jeremija Živanović.................................1932 - 1935 d. 1940
    • Dobrica Matković...................................1935 - 1936 d. 1973
    • Marko Novaković.............................27 Apr 1936 - 1937
    • Predrag Lukić......................................1937 - Sep 1938
    • Janićije Krasojević............................Sep 1938 - 1939
    • Milan Nikolić......................................1939 - 1941
    • Ivan Đorđević (Djordjević).........................1941 - 17 Apr 1941
    • Presidents of the Municipality of Belgrade
    • Miloš Savčić................................18 Feb 1929 - 23 May 1930 d. 1941
    • Milan Nešić.................................23 May 1930 - 12 May 1932 d. 1970
    • Milutin Petrović............................12 May 1932 - 05 Jan 1935
    • Vlada Ilić..................................10 Jan 1935 - 13 Sep 1939 d. 1952
    • Vojin Đuričić (Djuricić)....................13 Sep 1939 - 20 Jun 1940 d. 1944
    • Jevrem Tomić................................20 Jun 1940 - 12 Apr 1941
    • Ivan Milićević (acting).....................12 Apr 1941 - 19 Jun 1941
  • Regency for Peter II
  • Srdjan Budisavljevic.............................02 Mar 1945 - 29 Nov 1945 d. 1968
  • Dusan Sernec.....................................02 Mar 1945 - 29 Nov 1945 d. 1952
  • Ante Mandic......................................02 Mar 1945 - 29 Nov 1945 d. 1959
  • Secretary-general of the Communist Party (from 7 Nov 1952, League of Communists)
  • After the Kingdom was occupied during World War II, the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) announced in 1943 the formation of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (DF Yugoslavia or DFY) in the substantial resistance-controlled areas of the country on 29 November 1943. It became Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia on 29 November 1945, a Soviet client state which from an early date succeeded in distancing itself from the Iron Curtain and becoming non-aligned, although still Communist. It was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia with Belgrade as its capital. In addition, it included two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Kosovo and Vojvodina.
  • Josip Broz Tito...................................Aug 1937 - Oct 1966 d. 1980)
  • On 12 September 1944, King Peter II called on all Yugoslavs to come together under Tito's leadership and stated that those who did not were "traitors", by which time Tito was recognized by all Allied authorities (including the government-in-exile) as the Prime Minister of Yugoslavia.
    • Chairman of the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia
    • Ivan Ribar................................26 Nov 1942 - 04 Dec 1943 d. 1968
    • Chairman of the Presidium of the Provisional People's Assembly
    • Ivan Ribar................................04 Dec 1943 - 05 Mar 1945
    • Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly
    • Ivan Ribar................................02 Dec 1945 - 14 Jan 1953
    • President
    • Josip Broz Tito...........................14 Jan 1953 - 04 May 1980
  • Presidents of the Presidium of the League of Communists
  • Josip Broz Tito (continued).......................Oct 1966 - 04 May 1980
    • Branko Mikulic (acting for Tito)..........19 Oct 1978 - 23 Oct 1979 d. 1994
    • Stevan Doronjski (acting for Tito)........23 Oct 1979 - 04 May 1980 d. 1981
  • Stevan Doronjski (continued)...................04 May 1980 - 20 Oct 1980
  • Lazar Mojsov...................................20 Oct 1980 - 20 Oct 1981 d. 2011
  • Dusan Dragosavac...............................20 Oct 1981 - 29 Jun 1982 d. 2014
  • Mitja Ribicic..................................29 Jun 1982 - 30 Jun 1983 d. 2013
  • Dragoslav Markovi..............................30 Jun 1983 - 26 Jun 1984 d. 2005
  • Ali Sukrija....................................26 Jun 1984 - 25 Jun 1985 d. 2005
  • Vidoje Zarkovic................................25 Jun 1985 - 28 Jun 1986 d. 2000
  • Milanko Renovica...............................28 Jun 1986 - 30 Jun 1987 d. 2013
  • Bosko Krunic...................................30 Jun 1987 - 30 Jun 1988 d. 2017
  • Stipe Suvar....................................30 Jun 1988 - 17 May 1989 d. 2004
  • Milan Pancevski................................17 May 1989 - 17 May 1990
  • Miomir Grbovic (acting)........................17 May 1990 - 26 May 1990
    • Yugoslavia Presidents of the Collective Presidency
    • Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia 1963 - 1992.
    • Lazar Kolisevski..........................04 May 1980 - 15 May 1980 d. 2000
    • Cvijetin Mijatovic........................15 May 1980 - 15 May 1981 d. 1993
    • Sergej Kraigher...........................15 May 1981 - 16 May 1982 d. 2001
    • Petar Stambolić...........................16 May 1982 - 13 May 1983 d. 2007
    • Mika Spiljak..............................13 May 1983 - 15 May 1984 d. 2007
    • Veselin Djuranovic........................15 May 1984 - 15 May 1985 d. 1997
    • Radovan Vlajkovic.........................15 May 1985 - 15 May 1986 d. 2001
    • Sinan Hasani..............................15 May 1986 - 15 May 1987 d. 2010
    • Lazar Mojsov..............................15 May 1987 - 15 May 1988
    • Raif Dizdarevic...........................15 May 1988 - 15 May 1989
    • Janez Drnovsek............................15 May 1989 - 15 May 1990 d. 2008
  • Yugoslavia Presidents of the Collective Presidency
  • With the death of it's founder, Marshal Josip Tito, in 1980, the state began to destabilize slowly, and with the end of the Cold War in 1989/1991 it fragmented. A non-Communist regime was set up in 1992, but events in Slovenia, Bosnia, Macedonia, and especially Kosovo proved unmanageable.
  • Borisav Jovic..................................15 May 1990 - 15 May 1991
  • vacant: 15 May 1991 - 01 Jul 1991.
  • Stipe Mesic....................................01 Jul 1991 - 03 Oct 1991
  • Branko Kostic (acting).........................03 Oct 1991 - 15 Jun 1992
  • Presidents of Yugoslavia [Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)].
  • Dobrica Ćosić..................................15 Jun 1992 - 01 Jun 1993
  • Milos Radulović (acting).......................01 Jun 1993 - 25 Jun 1993
  • Zoran Lilić....................................25 Jun 1993 - 25 Jun 1997
  • Srdja Bozović (acting).........................25 Jun 1997 - 23 Jul 1997
  • Slobodan Milosević.............................23 Jul 1997 - 07 Oct 2000
  • Vojislav Koštunica.............................07 Oct 2000 - 07 Mar 2003
  • He was the last president of Yugoslavia from 2000 to 2003, and the prime minister of Serbia in two terms (from 2004 to 2007, and from 2007 to 2008).
  • President - Federation of Serbia and Montenegro 2003 - 2006
  • Use of the term "Yugoslavia" has been abandoned once more, and Serbia-Montenegro have re-emerged from 2003 till 2006, when they further split into two countries.
  • Svetozar Marović...............................07 Mar 2003 - 04 Jun 2006
    • Serbia President of the Presidium of the People's Assembly
      (until 7 Apr 1945, chairman of the Anti-Fascist Assembly of People's Liberation)
    • Siniša Stanković..........................12 Nov 1944 - Mar 1953 d. 1974
    • Serbia Presidents of the National Assembly
    • Petar Stambolić..............................Dec 1953 - Apr 1957 d. 2007
    • He served as the President of the Federal Executive Council (prime minister) of Yugoslavia from 1963 to 1967 and President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia from 1982 until 1983.
    • Jovan Veselinov..............................Apr 1957 - 26 Jun 1963 d. 1982
    • Dušan Petrović............................26 Jun 1963 - 06 May 1967 d. 1977
    • Miloš Minić...............................06 May 1967 - 06 May 1969 d. 2003
    • He was the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Yugoslavia from December 16, 1972 to May 17, 1978, and during this time signed the Treaty of Osimo (signed on 10 November 1975; effective on 11 October 1977) which determined the border between Italy and Yugoslavia.
    • Dragoslav Marković (1st time).............06 May 1969 - 19 Apr 1974 d. 2005
    • Živan Vasiljević..........................19 Apr 1974 - 06 May 1974 d. 2007
    • Serbia Presidents of the Presidency
    • Dragoslav Marković (2nd time).............06 May 1974 - 05 May 1978
    • Dobrivoje Vidić...........................05 May 1978 - 05 May 1982 d. 1992
    • Nikola Ljubičić...........................05 May 1982 - 05 May 1984 d. 2005
    • Dušan Čkrebić.............................05 May 1984 - 05 May 1986
    • He was the Prime Minister of Serbia 06 May 1974 – 06 May 1978.
    • Ivan Stambolić............................05 May 1986 - 14 Dec 1987 d. 2000
    • On 23/24 September 1987, at the subsequent eighth session of the Central Committee, one that lasted around 30 hours, and was broadcast live on the state television, Milošević had Pavlović deposed, to the utter embarrassment of Ivan Stambolić, who resigned under pressure from Milošević's supporters a few days later. Stambolić mysteriously disappeared on 25 August 2000, still during the rule of Slobodan Milošević. On 28 March 2003 the police revealed that he was murdered on Fruška Gora by eight Special Operations Unit officers. The court found that the order for Stambolić's murder came from Slobodan Milošević.
    • Petar Gračanin............................14 Dec 1987 - 20 Mar 1989 d. 2004
    • He was promoted to the rank of Major General in 1970, Lieutenant General in 1974, and Colonel General in 1978. He was chief of the General Staff of Yugoslav People's Army from 05 May 1982 to 01 September 1985. His active military service ended on 31 December 1985. After that he was in high state positions such as: President of Presidency of SR Serbia (1987–1989) and Federal Secretary of the Interior (1989–1991).
    • Ljubiša Igić (acting).....................20 Mar 1989 - 08 May 1989
    • Slobodan Milosević........................08 May 1989 - 11 Jan 1991
    • Republic of Serbia created within Yugoslavia on 28 Sep 1990.
    • Serbia Presidents
    • Slobodan Milosević (continued)............11 Jan 1991 - 23 Jul 1997 d. 2006
    • The Federal Republic Yugoslavia was initially dominated by Slobodan Milošević as President of Serbia (1989–1997) and then President of Yugoslavia (1997–2000). Milošević installed and forced the removal of several federal presidents (such as Dobrica Ćosić) and prime ministers (such as Milan Panić).
    • Dragan Tomić (acting).....................23 Jul 1997 - 29 Dec 1997
    • Milan Milutinović.........................29 Dec 1997 - 29 Dec 2002
    • Natasa Micić (female - acting)............30 Dec 2002 - 27 Jan 2004
    • Velimir Simonović (acting)................27 Jan 2004 - 04 Feb 2004 d. 2016
    • Dragan Maršićanin (acting)................04 Feb 2004 - 03 Mar 2004
    • Vojislav Mihailović (acting)..............03 Mar 2004 - 04 Mar 2004
    • Predrag Marković (acting).................04 Mar 2004 - 11 Jul 2004
    • Boris Tadić...............................11 Jul 2004 - 05 Jun 2006
  • Presidents (Serbia Republic; end of the union)
  • Boris Tadić (continued)........................05 Jun 2006 - 05 Apr 2012
  • Slavica Djukić Dejanović (female - acting).....05 Apr 2012 - 31 May 2012
  • Tomislav Nikolić...............................31 May 2012 - 31 May 2017
  • Aleksandar Vucić...............................31 May 2017 - date
 
Click on below links to view coinage used by Serbia:
  • OBRENOVIĆ
  • Mihailo [Michael] Obrenović III (2nd time)............26 Sep 1860 - 10 Jun 1868
  • Milan II [Milan Obrenović IV] (King from 1882)........02 Jul 1868 - 06 Mar 1889
  • Aleksandar............................................06 Mar 1889 - 11 Jun 1903
  • KARAGEORGEVIĆ
  • Peter I (King of Serbs, Croats, & Slovenes from 1918).15 Jun 1903 - 16 Aug 1921
  • Aleksandar (Kingdom of Yugoslavia from 1929)..........16 Aug 1921 - 09 Oct 1934
  • Peter II..............................................09 Oct 1934 - 29 Nov 1945
  • Occupied Territory and Federal Republic
  • German occupation.....................................13 Apr 1941 - 20 Oct 1944
  • Democratic Federative Yugoslavia......................29 Nov 1943 - 29 Nov 1945
  • Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia............29 Nov 1945 - 07 Apr 1963
  • Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia..............07 Apr 1963 - 27 Apr 1992
  • Federal Republic of Yugoslavia........................27 Apr 1992 - 04 Feb 2003
  • Serbia and Montenegro.................................04 Feb 2003 - 03 Jun 2006
  • Republic of Serbia....................................05 Jun 2006 - date
 
 
 
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins