Abkhazia
 

 
Abkhazia is a disputed territory on the eastern coast of the Black Sea and the south-western flank of the Caucasus. Abkhazia considers itself an independent state, called the Republic of Abkhazia or Apsny. This status is recognized by Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nauru, Tuvalu and Vanuatu and also by the partially recognized states of South Ossetia, Transnistria and the unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh. The Georgian government and the majority of the world's governments consider Abkhazia a part of Georgia's territory. Under Georgia's official designation it is an autonomous republic, called the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, whose government sits in exile in Tbilisi. On 28 August 2008, the Parliament of Georgia passed a resolution declaring Abkhazia a "Russian-occupied territory". Capital: Sukhumi (Sukhum).
 
                       730  Abkhaz and Lazik principalities oust Arab & Byzantine rulers.
                       767  Kingdom of Abkhazia
                      1325  Principality of Abkhazia established
                      1578  Part of the Ottoman Empire.
               22 Jun 1810  Russia occupies Sukumi, Abkhazia a Russian protectorate.
        1854 - 1856         Occupied by Ottoman Empire.
               06 Jul 1864  Incorporated into Russian Empire (from 1883, renamed Sukhumi
                             district).
               08 Mar 1918  Independence declared.
               19 Apr 1918  Incorporated into Georgian Republic.
               04 Mar 1921  Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia declared.
               16 Dec 1921  Union agreement signed between the Georgian S.S.R. and the
                             Abkhazian S.S.R.
               19 Feb 1931  Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia within
                             Georgia.
               05 Dec 1936  Renamed Abkhazian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
               20 Jun 1990  Georgian annulment of all Soviet-era laws and treaties
               25 Aug 1990  Abkhazia state sovereignty declared; declaring itself part
                             of Russian S.F.S.R. (not recognized).
               09 Apr 1991  Georgian declaration of independence with Abkhazia as it's
                             part.
               26 Dec 1991  Dissolution of Soviet Union
               23 Jul 1992  Abkhazia declares independence
 14 Aug 1992 - 27 Sep 1993  Georgian occupation of Sukhumi.
               23 Jul 1992  Abkhazia adopted a Flag
               24 Nov 1992  Georgian government organizes Abkhazian Autonomous Republic
                             government in T'bilisi.
               27 Sep 1993  Abkhazia declared independence.
                             Mass exodus and ethnic cleansing of Georgian civilians.
               26 Nov 1994  New Constitution
               03 Oct 1999  Constitutional referendum
               12 Oct 1999  Act of state independence
               10 Oct 2002  Georgia designates Abkhazia an autonomous republic.
               17 Nov 2006  South Ossetia, Transnistria and Nagorno-Karabakh recognized
                             Abkhazia
 10 Aug 2008 - date         Pro-Abkhaz intervention by Russian military forces.
               26 Aug 2008  Independence first internationally recognized by Russia.
               04 Sep 2008  Independence recognized by Nicaragua.
               10 Sep 2009  Independence recognized by Venezuela.
               15 Dec 2009  Independence recognized by Nauru.
               23 May 2011  Independence recognized by Vanuatu, but withdrawn on 30 May.
               18 Sep 2011  Independence recognized by Tuvalu.
 
Abkhazia highlighted in Green in above map.
 
  • ABASGIA
  • Also known as Abkhazia or Akhazia, it is a mountainous district along the east coast of the Black Sea, to the northeast of Georgia.
  • Saeristavi (Duchy) of ABKHAZIA - ANCHABADZE
  • Opsit.........................................................6th cent.
  • Skeparna
  • Anos
  • The Caliphate...........................................645 - 767
    • Gozar
    • I have no dates for early Anchabadzids, so the placement of Anos and Gozar in relationship to the Muslim conquest of the area is an estimate.
    • Justinian
    • Philiktos
    • Baruk
    • Demetrius I
    • Theodosius I
    • Constantine I
  • Byzantine Empire........................................767 - c. 800
    • Leon I..........................................c. 746 - c. 791
    • Kingdom of Abkhazia
    • Leon II (as king from c. 800)...................c. 791 - c. 811
  • Vassal of the Khazars................................c. 800 - c. 960
    • Theodosius I (II)...............................c. 811 - c. 837
    • Demetrius I (II)................................c. 837 - c. 872
    • George I........................................c. 872 - c. 876
    • SHAVLIANI
    • John............................................c. 876 - c. 880
    • Adarnase........................................c. 880 - c. 887
    • ANCHABADZE
    • Bagrat I........................................c. 887 - c. 898
    • Constantine.....................................c. 898 - c. 916
    • Bagrat II................................................c. 916
    • George II.......................................c. 916 - c. 960
  • Leon II the Great....................................c. 960 - 969
  • Demetrius II (III)......................................969 - 976
  • Theodosius II (III) the Blind...........................976 - 978
  • Gurandukht (female).....................................978 - 994 with...
  • BAGRATUNI
  • Bagrat III the Unifier (K. of Georgia from 1008)........978 - 1014
  • Georgia................................................1008 - 1231
    • CHACHBA (SHERVASHIDZE)
    • Dagato I.................................................fl. 1040
    • unknown rulers
    • Dagato II.......................................1184 > - 1213
    • Dardan.............................................. ? - 1243
  • Mongols................................................1231 - 1295
    • West Georgia (centered at Imereti)................1249 - 1330
    • BAGRATUNI
    • David I Narin.....................................1249 - 1293
    • Constantine.......................................1293 - 1327
    • Michael...........................................1327 - 1329
    • Bagrat I the Small................................1329 - 1330
  • Imereti................................................1330 - 1463
    • SHERVASHIDZE
    • David II Hutuni...................................1440 - 1459
  • Rabia..................................................1459 - 1491
  • Solomon I..............................................1491 - 1520
  • Ars Khan...............................................1520 - 1578
  • The Ottoman Empire.....................................1578 - 1810
    • Taymuraz..........................................1625 - 1637
    • Qara Beg [Khara Begi].............................1637 - 1650
    • Kuapu.............................................1650 - 1665
    • Solomon II........................................1665 - 1700
    • Jigetshi..........................................1700 - 1730
    • Hamid Beg.........................................1730 - 1750
    • Manuchar I........................................1750 - 1757
    • Zurab.............................................1757 - 1779 with...
    • Manuchar II.......................................1757 - 1770
    • Leo [Levanti] Muhammed Pasha......................1779 - 1789
    • Kelesh Ahmad Beg..................................1789 - 14 May 1806
    • Arslan Begi (1st time).....................14 May 1806 - 22 Jun 1810 with...
    • Safar Ali Begi (from 1810 known as Giorgi)........1806 - 13 Nov 1821
  • Russia (formal incorporation 1864).....................1810 - 1917
    • Demetrius [Dimitri (Umar Begi)]............13 Nov 1821 - 28 Oct 1822 opposed by
      • Tamar (female - regent)...............13 Nov 1821 - 1821
    • Arslan Beg (2nd time - rebellion).................1821 - 1822
    • Michael [Mikheil] Georgievich..............28 Oct 1822 - 15 Feb 1864
    • Grigol III.................................15 Feb 1864 - Apr 1865
    • Giorgi Mikhailovitch (rebellion)..............Jul 1866 - Aug 1866
  • Republic of North Caucasus.............................1917 - 1918
  • Georgia................................................1918 - 1921
  • Soviet Union (within Georgia from 1925)................1921 - 1991
    • Chairman of the Communist Party
    • N.E. Zhvaniya..............................14 Feb 1921 - 1921
    • First Secretaries of the Communist Party
    • G. Krishtof................................06 Mar 1921 - 1921
    • Pyotr Semenovich Agniashvili (Agniev)....................1921
    • Larionov.................................................1921
    • Nikolay Samsonovich Svanidze......................1921 - 1922
    • S.A. Gubeliya-Mezdmarishvili.............................1922
    • Nikolay Nikolayevich Akirtava.....................1922 - 1923
    • G.M. Makarov......................................1923 - 1924
    • Yervand Mikhailovich Asribekov....................1924 - 1925
    • Georgy Fydorovich Sturua..........................1925 - 1927
    • Aleksand Semyonovich Amas (Amirbekov).............1928 - 1929
    • Pavel Grigoryevich Meladze........................1929 - 1930
    • Vladimir Konstantinovich Ladariya.................1930 - Jan 1936
    • Aleksey Sergeyevich Agrba ....................Jan 1936 - Feb 1937
    • Kiril Georgyevich Bechvaya........................1937 - 1940
    • He was acting to Jun 1938.
    • Mikhail Ivanovich Baramiya........................1940 - 20 Feb 1943
    • Akaky Ivanovich Mgeladze..........................1943 - Dec 1951
    • Shota Dmitriyevich Getiya.....................Dec 1951 - 21 Apr 1953
    • Grigory Zosimovich Karchava................21 Apr 1953 - 02 Oct 1953
    • Georgy Andreyevich Gegeshidze..............02 Oct 1953 - Jan 1956
    • Otar Davydovich Gotsiridze....................Jan 1956 - 1958
    • Mikhail Timurovich Bgazhba....................Feb 1958 - Sep 1965
    • Valerian Osmanovich Kobakhiya.................Sep 1965 - 1975
    • Valery Mikhaylovich Khintba.......................1975 - Feb 1978
    • Boris Viktorovich Adleyba.....................Feb 1978 - 06 Apr 1989
    • Vladimir Filippovich Khishba..................Apr 1989 - 1990
  • Russia.................................................1991 - 1992
    • Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet
    • Valerian Osmanovich Kobakhiya.....................1989 - 1990
    • Vladislav Grigoryevich Ardzinba............04 Dec 1990 - 23 Jul 1992
  • Georgia................................................1992 - 1993
  • Russia.................................................1993 - date
    • Chairman of Parliament
    • Vladislav Grigoryevich Ardzinba............23 Jul 1992 - 26 Nov 1994
    • He was at Gudauta: Aug 1992 - 27 Sep 1993.
    • Presidents
    • Vladislav Grigoryevich Ardzinba............04 Dec 1990 - 12 Feb 2005
    • He was the chairman of parliament to 26 Nov 1994.
  • Sergey Vasilyevich Bagapsh......................12 Feb 2005 - 29 May 2011
  • He is also known as Sergei Uasyl-ipa Bagapsh. He served as Prime Minister during 29 April 1997 20 December 1999. He died on May 29, 2011, at the age of 62, from complications of surgery.
  • Aleksandr Zolotinskvich Ankvab..................29 May 2011 - 01 Jun 2014
  • He was acting President to 26 Sep 2011. He served as Prime Minister during 12 February 2010 29 May 2011.
  • Aleksandr Zolotinskvich Ankvab..................29 May 2011 - 01 Jun 2014
  • Ankvab survived six attempts on his life from 2005 to 2012, last time as a president on February 22, 2012, when his convoy was ambushed in Abkhazia, killing two of his guards. On May 27, 2014, Ankvab's headquarters in Sukhumi were stormed by opposition groups led by Raul Khadjimba, forcing him into flight to Gudauta in what Ankvab denounced as an "armed coup attempt". The Abkhaz parliament declared Ankvab "unable" to exercise his presidential powers on May 31, 2014, and Ankvab resigned on June 01, 2014 due to political crisis.
  • Valeri Bganba (acting)..........................01 Jun 2014 - 25 Sep 2014
  • He is the current elected Speaker of the People's Assembly of Abkhazia since 03 April 2012, defeating Raul Khajimba by 21 votes to 11. On 25 September 2014 Bganba was replaced by Raul Khajimba, the winner of the presidential elections on 24 August.
  • Raul Khajimba...................................25 Sep 2014 - date
  • He unsuccessfully ran for President in 2004, 2009 and 2011. He was Minister for Defense: 19 December 2002 - 22 April 2003, Prime Minister of Abkhazia: 22 April 2003 - 06 October 2004 and Vice President of Abkhazia: 12 February 2005 - 28 May 2009.
 
 
Abkhazia Coinage
Currency: Russian Ruble (RUB) are used in Abkhazia. Commemorative coins as Abkhazian apsar are also produced since 2008. Russian ruble is pegged to 0.10 apsar (1 asper = 10 Russian Rubles). National Bank of the Republic of Abkhazia featuring such commemorative coins can be viewed at: http://nb-ra.org/en/monetyi/.
  • In 2008, two types of 10 asper silver coins were produced featuring V.G.Ardzynba and 15th anniversary of the Abkhazian victory in the 1992-1993 war. These coin coin were also produced as 50 asper in Gold as well.
  • In 2008, five different 10 asper silver coins were produced on various personalities:
    • Fazil Iskander
    • Dmitry Gulia
    • Samson Chanba
    • Bagrat Shinkuba
    • Aleksandr Chachba
  • In 2009 "The Narts" 25 asper gold coin was produced.
  • In 2010, seven historical Cathedral of Abkhazia were produced as 10 asper silver coins. These coins were also produced with gold plated on cathedral design as 10 asper silver coins as well.
    • The Dormition Cathedral of Dranda
    • The Cathedral of St. Andrew - the "First-called" Apostle in Pitsunda,
    • The Dormition Cathedral of Lykhny
    • The Dormition Cathedral of Myku
    • The New Afon Cathedral of St. Simon Zelotes, Apostle
    • The Bedia Cathedral of the Holy Mary, the Mother of God
    • The Cathedral of St. George in Elyr
  • In 2011, 10 asper silver coin was produce to celebrate the VIII World Domino Championship at Sukhum.
 
2011
 

10 apsar. Year: 2011. Weight: 33.65g [33.94g 0.31g]. Metal: 0.925 Silver. Diameter: 39.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Saint Petersburg Mint Goznak (RF). Obverse: 10 ҧСАРК (10 APSARS) written on the top. Emblem in the center with Аҧсны Абанк (The Bank of Abkhazia) in Abkhazian language written below it. On the right part of the coin, near the border, it has a small square having the logotype and mint trademark in the first line, indication of metal sign "Ag-925" in accordance with the D. I .Mendeleyev Periodic System of Elements and the fineness in the second line and "33.65g" on the third line. Date imposed at the bottom with Аҧсны Абанк written several times in five lines on the rough surface in the background. Reverse: 8 stars with "VIII World Domino Championship 10-2011" written around Domino shaped sail boat in the center. Colored waving Abkhazia flag on top of the boat. "Апсны" (Abkhazia) written in  Abkhazian language at the bottom. Mintage: probably 1,000 (estimated). Minted Years: One year type. Issued: 12 Sep 2011. Designer: Japua B.R.

 
 
 
  • Pro-Georgian Government: Abkhazian Autonomous Republic
  • Operator in Tbilisi; 27 Sep 2006 - 12 Aug 2008 in Chkhalta, Abkhazia.
  • Chairmen of the Supreme Council
  • Tamaz Vladimirovich Nadareishvili..................24 Nov 1992 - 16 Mar 2004
  • Temur Mzhavia......................................16 Mar 2004 - 20 Mar 2009
  • Elguja Gvazava.....................................20 Mar 2009 - date
 
 
 
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