Kuwait
 
 

It is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the Arabic ākwāt, the plural of kūt, meaning a fortress built near water. A small but wealthy Emirate at the head of the Persian Gulf. Nominally a dependency of the Ottoman Empire until 1914, it was a protectorate of Great Britain from 1914 to 1961.

After Kuwait gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1961, the state's oil industry saw unprecedented economic growth. Kuwait is a constitutional emirate with a parliamentary system of government, with Kuwait City serving as the country's political and economic capital. The country has the world's fifth largest oil reserves and petroleum products now account for nearly 95% of export revenues, and 80% of government income. Kuwait is the eleventh richest country in the world per capita. In 2007, it had the highest human development index (HDI) in the Arab world. It has the strongest currency of the world.

 
               1534         Part of the Ottoman Empire.
        1623 - 1638         Persian occupation.
               1710         Kuwait city founded.
               1752         Al Sabah lineage founds Kuwait.
               1871         Rulers recognize sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire (as kazan
                             [district] of Baghdad [from 1875 Basra] vilayet).
               29 Jul 1913  U.K. recognizes Kuwait as an 'autonomous' part of the Ottoman
                             Empire.
               03 Nov 1914  British protectorate (informally from 23 Nov 1899.
                             (sometimes spelled Koweit)
 02 Dec 1922 - 07 Jul 1965  Kuwaiti-Saudi Arabian neutral zone in southern border area.
               19 Jun 1961  Independence from Britain (State of Kuwait).
 25 Jun 1961 - 26 Feb 1991  Claimed by Iraq (rescinded 20 Mar 1991).
 02 Aug 1990 - 26 Feb 1991  Iraqi occupation.
 07 Aug 1990 - 08 Aug 1990  Republic of Kuwait (under Iraqi occupation).
 09 Aug 1990 - 26 Feb 1991  Annexed by Iraq (from 28 Aug 1990 as its 19th province;
                             formally rescinded 20 Mar 1991).
 
Territorial Disputes: The 1994 Kuwait land and Khawr 'Abd Allah channel boundary demarcation ended Iraqi claims to Kuwait and Bubiyan and Warbah islands; Kuwait and Saudi Arabia continue negotiating a joint maritime boundary with Iran; no maritime boundary exists with Iraq in the Persian Gulf.
 
 
  • Ur First Dynasty
  • Ur is one of the earliest Mesopotamian cities, located in southern Iraq.
  • Meskalamdug
  • Akalamdug......................................................fl. c. 2600 BCE
  • Mesannipada
  • A'annipada
  • Meskiagnunna...................................................fl. c. 2550
  • Annanne
  • Meskiag-Nanna
  • Elulu
  • Balulu
  • Lagash
  • Ur Second Dynasty (from c. 2450)
  • Kaku
  • Elili..........................................................fl. c. 2230
  • Akkad......................................................? - 2113
  • Ur Third Dynasty
  • Urnammu.................................................2113 - 2095
  • Shulgi..................................................2095 - 2047
  • Amar-Sin................................................2047 - 2038
  • Shu-Sin.................................................2038 - 2029
  • Ibbi-Sin................................................2029 - 2002
  • SIMASH
  • Gir-Namme......................................................fl. c. 2030
  • Enpi-Luhhan....................................................fl. c. 2010
  • Khutran-Temtt
  • Kindattu
  • Indattu-Inshushinnak I
  • Tan-Rukhurater
  • Indattu-Inshushinnak II
  • Indattu-Napir
  • Indattu-Tempt
  • ELAM
  • Eparti I
  • Eparti II
  • Eparti III.....................................................fl. c. 1850 >
  • Shilkhakha
  • Attakhushu.....................................................fl. c. < 1830
  • Sirukdukh......................................................fl. c. 1792
  • Shimut-Wartash.......................................c. 1772 - c. 1770
  • SEA-LAND (c. 1750 - c. 1400)
  • They ruled the southeastern Iraq; the delta of the Euphrates, and upper Gulf coast.
  • Ilima-Ilu
  • Itti-Ili.......................................................fl. c. 1700
  • Damiq-Ilishu
  • His city walls for Der (Sumer) were demolished by Ammi-Ditana.
  • Ishkibal.......................................................fl. c. < 1650
  • Shushshi
  • Gulkishar
  • Peshgaldaramash................................................fl. c. < 1550
  • Adarakalamma
  • He might have ruled briefly over Babylon.
  • Ekurduanna.....................................................fl. c. 1500
  • Melamkurkukka
  • Ea-Gamil.......................................................fl. c. < 1450
  • He was overthrown by Kassite ruler Ulam Buriaš.
  • Babylon..............................................c. 1400 - 1235
  • Assyria.................................................1235 - 1227
  • Babylon.................................................1227 - 1157
  • ELAM - SHUTRUKID
  • Shutruk-Nahhunte (Elam ruler c. 1185 - c. 1155 BCE).....1157 - 1156
  • Babylon.................................................1156 - 729
  • Assyria..................................................729 - 626
    • Sinbalatsu-ikbi...........................................fl. c. 650
  • Babylon..................................................626 - 539
  • Persia...................................................539 - 331
  • Macedon..................................................331 - 312
  • Seleucid Empire..........................................312 - 141
  • Persia...................................................141 - 125
    • Numenius.........................................c. 150 - 125
  • Kingdom of CHARACENE (CHARAX) - HYSPAOSINESID
  • Hyspaosines..............................................125 - 110
  • Apodacos.................................................110 - 90
  • Tiraios I Euergetes.......................................90 - 61
  • Tiraios II Soter Euergetes................................61 - 44
  • Attambelos I Soter Euergetes..............................44 - 40
  • Theonesios I..............................................40 - 30
  • Attambelos II.........................................30 BCE - 12 CE
  • Abinerglos Soter..........................................12 - 21
  • Adinnerglos Soter.........................................21 - 51
  • Theonesios II Soter.......................................51 - 53
  • Attambelos III Soter Euergetes............................53 - ?
  • Artabazos..................................................? - 100
  • Attambelos IV............................................100 - 109
  • Theonesios III...........................................109 - 116
  • Attambelos V.............................................116 - 135
  • Unknown name: 135 - 149
  • Obadia Phrataphern.......................................149 - 166
  • Undetermined number of rulers, names unknown: 166 - 228
  • Persia...................................................228 - 380
    • Mihrshah..................................................fl. 260's
  • HIRAH - Banu LAKHM
  • Based in south-central Mesopotamia (in the area around Kufa and ancient Babylon), on the Euphrates some 80 miles (130 km.) south of modern Baghdad, this state extended south along the west cost of the Persian Gulf as far as Qatar. A pre-Islamic Arab Kingdom, vassals of the Persians and utilized by them as frontier guards opposing the Byzantine clients in Ghassan; they were disrupted by their erstwhile patrons at the beginning of the 7th century, thus leaving a hole in Persian defenses through which Muslim Arabs could pour a generation later. The Lakhmids (Banu Lakhm or Muntherids), were a group of Arab Christians who lived in Southern Iraq, and made al-Hirah their capital in 266. Poets described it as a Paradise on earth, an Arab Poet described the city's pleasant climate and beauty "One day in al-Hirah is better than a year of treatment". The al-Hirah ruins are located three kilometers south of Kufa, on the west bank of the Euphrates. Their descendants today are the Mandharis, who are a prominent tribe who are considered Sheikhs in Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, and the Sultanate of Oman. The Abbabids, another prominent tribe in Yemen and the southern part of The Sultanate of Oman. And the Na'amanis, another Arab tribe in Oman. All of the tribes mentioned before belong to either Ibadhi or Sunni Islam. Some other famous descendants include the powerful Druze Arslan princely family.
  • Amr I ibn Uday........................................c. 270 - c. 300
  • Amru’l-Qais I (Amorges)...............................c. 300 - c. 328
  • Amr II ibn Amru’i-Qais................................c. 328 - c. 358
  • Aus ibn Qalam.........................................c. 358 - c. 363
  • Podozaq...............................................c. 363 - ?
  • Maiwia (female).......................................c. 375 - 390
  • Amru'l-Qais II (Hamza)...................................390 - 403
  • Numan I ibn Amru’l-Qais..................................403 - 433 with...
  • Mundhir I ibn Numan......................................430 - 473
  • Aswad ibn Mundhir........................................474 - 494
  • Mundhir II ibn Mundhir...................................494 - 500
  • Numan II ibn Aswad.......................................500 - 503
  • Abu Yafur ibn Alqama.....................................503 - 505
  • Mundhir III ibn Zikiqa...................................505 - 554
  • Amr III ibn Mundhir......................................554 - 569
  • Qabus ibn Mundhir........................................569 - 574
  • Zaid ibn Mammad..........................................574 - 575
  • Mundhir IV ibn Mundhir...................................575 - 584 with...
  • Numan III ibn Mundhir....................................580 - 602
    • Nahwergan (Bahregan)................................602 - 611 opposed by...
    • Iyas ibn Qabisha....................................602 - 611 and...
    • Hani ibn Masud......................................604 - 611
    • Abadbekh ibn Baniya.................................611 - 628
    • Mundhir V al-Djarar (in opposition to Persia).......628 - 631 d. 633
  • Persia...................................................602 - 636
  • Prophet Muhammad's elected successors....................636 - 661
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................661 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................750 - 945
  • Buyids...................................................945 - 1055
  • Seljuqs.................................................1055 - 1156
  • Abbasid Caliphate.......................................1156 - 1258
  • Ilkhanate Mongols.......................................1258 - 1340
  • Jalayirids..............................................1340 - 1401
  • Timurid Empire (from Basra after 1411)..................1401 - 1432
  • Qara Koyunlu............................................1432 - 1469
  • Ak Koyunlu..............................................1469 - 1508
  • Persia..................................................1508 - 1534
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1534 - 1623
  • Persia..................................................1623 - 1638
  • Ottoman Empire..........................................1638 - 03 Nov 1914
  • SABAH dynasty (Banu `Utub) - Emirate of Kuwait and dependencies
    • Abu Abdullah Sabah I ibn Jabir.....................1752 - c. 1762
    • He established the Banu Utab dynasty in Kuwait in 1752. He was succeeded by his youngest son, Abdullah.
    • Abdullah I ibn Sabah...............................1762 - 03 May 1814
    • He is credited with building the first defensive walls in Kuwait. During his reign, Kuwait also extended its commercial contacts into what is now India, Yemen and Iraq. Also during this period, Kuwait established relations with the British East India Company. He was succeeded by his eldest son Jabir.
    • Jabir I ibn Abdullah........................03 May 1814 - 1859
    • The British had requested him to allow them to turn Kuwait into a protectorate and he refused. He was succeeded by his eldest son Sabah.
    • Sabah II ibn Jabir.................................1859 - Nov 1866
    • He was succeeded by his eldest son Abdullah.
    • Abdullah II ibn Sabah II.......................Nov 1866 - May 1892
    • Muhammad ibn Sabah II..........................May 1892 - 17 May 1896
    • He held the title of Pasha from the Ottoman Sultan. He was the second son of Sabah II Al-Sabah and succeeded his half-brother Abdullah II Al-Sabah upon his death. He and his brother Jarrah was assassinated controversial by his own half-brother Mubarak Al-Sabah, who later became the next ruler.
    • Mubarak al-Lahab ibn Sabah II...............18 May 1896 - 28 Nov 1915
    • Mubarak "the great" served primarily as a military leader in many tribal operations, including several Ottoman campaigns; most notably: 1871, 1892 and 1894 campaigns into Hasa, Qatar, and southern Iraq. For his long service Mubarak received the title istabl-i amire payesi, “(Rank of) The Grand Equerry of his Imperial Majesty” in August 1879 for a campaign into Qatif and southern Iraq. Mubarak was widely known for his ties with the British after his ascension to sheikhdom in 1896, he did have interactions with the British as early as 1863 when he met Sir Lewis Pelly, British political resident of Persia who went on many diplomatic missions around the region, and in 1883 when he was sent on a Ottoman diplomatic mission to Bahrain. Mubarak signed the Anglo-Kuwaiti Treaty with Great Britain on November 23, 1899, pledging himself and his successors not to receive foreign agents or representatives or to cede or sell territory without the approval of the British government, with this agreement, and the guarantee it represented in Kuwait and the Al-Sabah family, he is regarded as the founder of modern day Kuwait. He was succeeded by his eldest son Jabir.
  • Protectorate of Great Britain....................23 Nov 1899 - 19 Jun 1961
  • De facto 1899, formally from 1914.
    • Jabir II ibn Mubarak........................28 Nov 1915 - 05 Feb 1917
    • He was succeeded his brother upon his death.
    • Salim ibn Mubarak...........................05 Feb 1917 - 22 Feb 1921
    • Battle of Jahra was a battle during the Kuwait-Najd Border War. The battle took place in Al Jahra, west of Kuwait City on October 10, 1920 between Salim Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah ruler of Kuwait and Ikhwan followers of ibn Saud, king of Saudi Arabia. A force of four thousand, led by Faisal Al-Dawish, attacked the Red Fort at Al-Jahra, defended by 2000 men. Some important family members of Al-Sabah dynasty died in this battle. The British intervened on the basis of the Anglo-Kuwaiti Agreement of 1899 made with Mubarak Al-Sabah, in which Britain had taken responsibility for Kuwaiti national security.
    • Ahmad ibn Jabir II..........................22 Feb 1921 - 29 Jan 1950
    • Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah rose to power after the death of his uncle Salim Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah in 1921. During his reign, the borders of Kuwait were re-drawn at a meeting in 'Uqayr by Sir Percy Cox. Ahmad and many Kuwaitis were angry over the new borders, because approximately one-third of Kuwait's territory was ceded to Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd al-Rahman, the ruler of Najd (and later, Saudi Arabia).
    • Abdullah II ibn Salim.......................29 Jan 1950 - 19 Jun 1961
    • He became the first Emir of Kuwait on 19 June 1961. He was the eldest son of Salem Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah. He took power after the death of his cousin Sheikh Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah. He also ruled as regent upon the death of his father until the election of Sheikh Ahmad.
Coinage:

Abdullah II ibn Sabah II (Nov 1866 - May 1892) is known to produced two coins. One Baiza dated AH 1304 (1886) as KM#A2 of 5.13g copper and One Baiza AH1304 (1887) as KM#1 in copper. Both Baiza coins are considered rare.

Earlier coinage of British India used:

  • East India Company (inc. William IV and Victoria)16 Aug 1765 - 30 Sep 1858
  • Victoria.........................................01 Nov 1858 - 22 Jan 1901
  • Edward VII.......................................22 Jan 1901 - 06 May 1910
  • George V.........................................06 May 1910 - 20 Jan 1936
  • George VI........................................12 Dec 1936 - 15 Aug 1947

Before the independence like other Gulf states, Indian Rupee and Gulf Rupee were commonly used in this region. In the early to mid 20th century, the Indian Rupee was extensively used as currency in the countries of the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula. To reduce the strain put on India's foreign reserves by gold smuggling caused by this external use of the rupee, a separate currency was created. The Gulf rupee was introduced by the Indian government in 1959 as a replacement for the Indian Rupee, for circulation exclusively outside the country. At the time, the Indian Rupee was pegged to the British Pound at a rate of 13⅓ rupees = 1 pound. The Kuwaiti Dinar Dinar was introduced in 1961 to replace the Gulf rupee, at a rate of 13⅓ rupees = 1 pound (rupee was fixed at 1 shilling 6 pence). Kuwaiti Dinar is sub-divided into 1000 fils.

 
Click on the links provided on below Rulers to view coinage used in their era.
 
  • STATE of KUWAIT
  • Independence from Great Britain on 19 Jun 1961.
  • Abdullah II ibn Salim (continued)................19 Jun 1961 - 24 Nov 1965
  • He introduced the Constitution of Kuwait in 1962 (effective: 11 Nov 1962), followed by the parliament in 1963. Sheikh Abdullah Al-Salim died two years later after suffering from a heart attack and was succeeded by his half-brother, Sabah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah.
  • Sabah III ibn Salim..............................24 Nov 1965 - 31 Dec 1977
  • He was the youngest son of Salim Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah. He died from cancer on December 31, 1977. Prior to his ascension, he served as the president of the police department from 1953 to 1959, President of the public health department from 1959 to 1961, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1962 to 1963, and Prime Minister from 02 Feb 1963 to 30 Nov 1965. He was appointed as Crown Prince on October 29, 1962.
  • Jabir III ibn Ahmad ibn Jabir II (1st time)......31 Dec 1977 - 02 Aug 1990
  • Jabir had previously served as Minister of Finance and Economy from 1961 until 1965, when he was appointed Prime Minister prior to becoming Kuwait's ruler from 17 Jan 1962 to 02 Feb 1963 and again from 30 Nov 1965 to 08 Feb 1978. Jabir is most famous for having been monarch of Kuwait during the 1990-91 Iraqi invasion of his country, which led to the Gulf War in which his country was liberated by an international coalition acting under United Nations sanction, composed of troops from the United States, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom and France, together with forces from several Arab states.
  • Iraq.............................................02 Aug 1990 - 26 Feb 1991
    • Alaa Hussein Ali Al-Khafaji Al-Jaber........02 Aug 1990 - 08 Aug 1990
    • Served at the Head of State of the puppet government (the "Republic of Kuwait") in Kuwait during the initial stages of the Gulf War. Ali held dual nationalities as an Iraqi and Kuwaiti, having grown up in Kuwait and studied in Baghdad where he became a member of the ruling Baath party. Having held a lieutenant's position in the Kuwaiti army prior to the invasion, Ali was promoted to colonel in Baghdad and placed at the head of a 9-member puppet government during the invasion. A week later Kuwait was annexed by Iraq and Ali became Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister. He is guilty of treason by Kuwaiti government and his sentence was commuted to life in prison in March 2001.
    • Ali Hassan Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Governor)..Aug 1990 - Nov 1990
    • A first cousin of former President of Iraq Saddam Hussein, he became notorious in the 1980s and 1990s for his role in the Iraqi government's campaigns against internal opposition forces, namely the ethnic Kurdish rebels of the north, and the Shia religious dissidents of the south. Repressive measures included deportations and mass killings; al-Majid was dubbed "Chemical Ali" by Iraqi Kurds for his use of chemical weapons in attacks against them. He was arrested by United States forces on 17 August 2003 and executed by hanging on 25 January 2010.
    • Aziz Salih al-Numan (Governor).................Nov 1990 - Feb 1991
  • Jabir III ibn Ahmad ibn Jabir II (2nd time)......26 Feb 1991 - 15 Jan 2006
  • From 02 Aug 1990 to 14 Mar 1991 in exile at Taif, Saudi Arabia.
  • Saad ibn Abdullah ibn Salim......................15 Jan 2006 - 24 Jan 2006
  • He was eldest son of the late Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah, who ruled Kuwait from 1950-65. Sheikh Saad served as the President of the Police and Public Service Department from 1961 to 1962, Minister of Interior from 1962 to 1978, and Minister of Defense from 1964 to 1978. On 31 January 1978 he gained the title of Crown Prince. From 08 February 1978 to 13 July 2003, he also served as Prime Minister of Kuwait, after which that role was given to Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah. He briefly held the position of Military Governor of Kuwait in 1991-92. He also served as a regent from 21 Sep 2001 to Jan 2002. Sheikh Saad had suffered from colon disease, which led to speculation that he would refuse the Emirship. A declaration in November 2005 refuted such speculation, and Sheikh Saad took office as Emir on the day of Sheikh Jaber's death. However, Sheikh Saad attended Jaber's funeral in a wheelchair, and his continued health problems caused some to question his ability to rule. Some members of the Kuwaiti parliament expressed concern that Sheikh Saad would not be able to deliver the two-line oath of office, scheduled for 24 January 2006. On 23 January 2006, Sheikh Saad agreed to abdicate following a discussion within the ruling family, after only nine days on the throne. Although a new Emir had not yet been announced, it was evident that the position would be assumed by Sheikh Saad's second cousin and the late Sheikh Jaber's half-brother Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah. On January 24, 2006, the Kuwaiti parliament voted Saad out of office, moments before an official letter of abdication was received. The Kuwait Cabinet nominated the Prime Minister Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah to take over as Emir as expected. Sheikh Saad died on 13 May 2008, aged 78, at Shaab Palace in Kuwait City from a heart attack.
  • Sabah IV ibn Ahmad ibn Jabir II..................29 Jan 2006 - date
  • He had previously been Foreign Minister for 40 years, from 1963 to 2003, making him one of the longest-serving foreign ministers in the world. He also served as Prime Minster from 13 July 2003 to 07 February 2006. Served as interim head of state from 24 Jan to 29 Jan 2006.
 
 
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