East India Company
 
The most important of the various East India companies, this company was a major force in the history of India for more than 200 years. The original charter was granted by Queen Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, under the title of "The Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies". The company was granted a monopoly of trade in Asia, Africa, and America, with the formal restriction that it might not contest the prior trading rights of "any Christian prince". The company was managed by a governor and 24 directors chosen from its stockholders. In early voyages it penetrated as far as Japan, and in 1610 and 1611 its first factories, or trading posts, were established in India in the provinces of Madras and Bombay. Under a perpetual charter granted in 1609 by King James I, the company began to compete with the Dutch trading monopoly in the Malay Archipelago, but after the massacre of Amboina the company conceded to the Dutch the area that became known as the Netherlands East Indies. Its armed merchantmen, however, continued to attack Dutch, French, and Portuguese competitors. In 1650 and 1655 the company absorbed rival companies that had been incorporated under the Commonwealth and Protectorate by Oliver Cromwell. In 1657 Cromwell ordered it reorganized as the sole joint-stock company with rights to the Indian trade. In the reign of Charles II the company acquired sovereign rights in addition to its trading privileges. In 1689, with the establishment of administrative districts called presidencies in the Indian provinces of Bengal, Madras, and Bombay, the company began its long rule in India. Silk, spices, cotton, and indigo were among the treasures brought back to Europe. It was continually harassed by traders who were not members of the company and were not licensed by the Crown to trade. In 1698, under a parliamentary ruling in favour of free trade, these private newcomers were able to set up a new company, called the New Company or English Company. The East India Company, however, bought control of this upstart, and in 1708 an act of Parliament amalgamated the two as "The United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies". The charter was renewed several times in the 18th century, each time with financial concessions to the Crown. The victories of Robert Clive, a company official, over the French at Arcot in 1751 and at Plassey in 1757 made the company the dominant power in India. All European rivalry vanished with the defeat of the French at Pondicherry in 1761. In 1773 the British government established a governor-generalship in India, thereby greatly decreasing administrative control by the company; however, its governor of Bengal, Warren Hastings, became the first governor-general of India. In 1784 the India Act created a department of the British government to exercise political, military, and financial control over the Indian affairs of the company, and for the next half century British control was extended over most of the subcontinent. In 1813 the company’s monopoly of the Indian trade was abolished, and in 1833 it lost its China trade monopoly. Its annual dividends of 10.5 per cent were made a fixed charge on Indian revenues. The company continued its administrative functions until the Indian Mutiny (1857-1859), a widespread revolt that began with the Indian soldiers in the company’s Bengal army. In 1858, by the Act for the Better Government of India, the Crown assumed all governmental responsibilities held by the company, and its 24,000-man military force was incorporated into the British army. The company was dissolved on January 1, 1874, when the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act came into effect. Motto: Auspicio Regis et Senatus Angliae = "By command of the King and Parliament of England".
 
  • Governor General (1773 - 1833)
  • Below is the list of Governor General of Fort William in Bengal according to the Regulating Act of 1773. These Governor Generals are also known as the Governor General of British East India Company from 1773 to 1833.
  • Warren Hastings.....................................20 Oct 1774 - 01 Feb 1785
  • Sir John Macpherson (acting)........................01 Feb 1785 - 12 Sep 1786
  • Charles Cornwallis Earl Cornwallis (1st time).......12 Sep 1786 - 28 Oct 1793
  • Sir John Shore (Lord Teignmouth)....................28 Oct 1793 - 18 Mar 1798
  • Sir Alured Clarke (acting)..........................18 Mar 1798 - 18 May 1798
  • Richard Colley Wellesley, Baron Wellesley...........18 May 1798 - 30 Jul 1805
    From 1799, Richard Colley Wellesley, Marquess Wellesley, Earl of Mornington.
  • Charles Cornwallis, Marquess Cornwallis (2nd time)..30 Jul 1805 - 05 Oct 1805
  • Sir George Hilario Barlow (acting)..................10 Oct 1805 - 31 Jul 1807
  • Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, Baron Minto.......31 Jul 1807 - 04 Oct 1813
    Also known as Baron Minto (1st Earl of) Minto.
  • Francis Rawdon-Hasting, Earl of Moira...............04 Oct 1813 - 09 Jan 1823
  • From 1817, Francis Rawdon-Hasting, Marquess of Hastings.
  • John Adam (acting)..................................09 Jan 1823 - 01 Aug 1823
  • William Pitt Amherst, Baron Amherst.................01 Aug 1823 - 13 Mar 1828
  • From 1826, William Pitt Amherst, Earl Amherst.
  • William Butterworth Bayley (acting).................13 Mar 1828 - 04 Jul 1828
  • William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, Lord Bentinck.....04 Jul 1828 - 1833
  • He continued as Governor General of India until 20 Mar 1835 according to Charter Act of 1833.
 
Bengal Presidency
 
In 1633 a group of 8 Englishmen obtained a permit to trade in Bengal from the Nawab of Orissa. Shortly thereafter trading factories were established at Balasore and Hariharpur. Although greater trading privileges were granted to the East India Company by the Emperor Shah Jahan in 1634. By 1642 the two original factories were abandoned. In 1651, through an English surgeon named Broughton, a permit was acquired to trade at Benegal. Hugli was the first location, followed by Kasimbazar, Balasore and Patna (the last three in 1653). Calcutta became of increasing importance in this area and on December 20, 1699 Calcutta was declared a presidency and renamed Fort Wililam. During these times there were many conflicts with the Nawab, both diplomatic and military and the ultimate outcome was the intervention of Clive and the restoration of Calcutta as an important trading center. During the earlier trading times in Bengal most of the monies used were imported Rupees from the Madras factory. These were primarily of the Arcot type. After Clive's victory one of the concessions in the peace treaty was the right to make Mughal type coinage. The Nawab gave specific details as to what from the coinage should take. In 1766 Emperor Shah Alam gave the East India Company possession in Bengal, Orissa and Bihar. This made the company nominally responsible only to the Empeeror. In 1777 the "Frozen Year 19" of Shah Alam Rupees were made at Calcutta and were continued until 1835. The Arcot Rupees were discontinued at Calcutta about 1777. Coins of Bengal Presidency were produced from ca. 1642 to 1835.
The Bengal Presidency originally comprising east and west Bengal, was a colonial region of the British Empire in South-Asia and beyond it. It comprised areas which are now within Bangladesh, and the present day Indian States of West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Meghalaya, Orissa and Tripura. Penang and Singapore were also considered to be administratively a part of the Presidency until they were incorporated into the Crown Colony of the Straits Settlements in 1867. Calcutta was declared a Presidency Town of the East India Company in 1699, but the beginnings of the Bengal Presidency proper can be dated from the treaties of 1765 between the East India Company and the Mughal Emperor and Nawab of Oudh which placed Bengal, Meghalaya, Bihar and Orissa under the administration of the Company.
At its height, gradually added, were the annexed princely states of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh and portions of Chhatisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra in present day India, as well as the provinces of North West Frontier and Punjab, both now in Pakistan, and most of Burma (present day Myanmar). In 1874 Assam, including Sylhet, was severed from Bengal to form a Chief-Commissionership, and the Lushai Hills were added to that in 1898. The Presidency of Bengal, unlike those of Madras and Bombay, eventually included all of the British possessions north of the Central Provinces (Madhya Pradesh), from the mouths of the Ganges and Brahmaputra to the Himalayas as well as the Punjab. In 1831, the North-Western Provinces were created, which were subsequently included with Oudh in the United Provinces (Uttar Pradesh). Just before the First World War the whole of Northern India was divided into the four lieutenant-governorships of the Punjab, the United Provinces, Bengal, Eastern Bengal and Assam, and the North-West Frontier Province under a Commissioner.
 
Monetary System: Rupee = 64 Pice = 192 Pie. (Mohur = 15 Rupees). Mints: Alinagar Kalkatah (Calcutta), Azimabad (Patna), Banaras (Banares, Varanasi), Calcutta (Kalkatah), Farrukhabad, Jahangirnagar, Muhammadabad Banaras, Murshidabad, Patna and Sagar.
 

KM#120 1/16 Anna. Year: AH1195-RY22 (1782-1784). Weight: 2.00g [1.81g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 15.80 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Falta (Fulta). Obverse: Shah Alam Badshah (Emperor Shah Alam) with year 1195. One star at the top and another on the right side. Reverse: Sanat 22 Julus (in the 22nd year of his reign). Five stars in field. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.
Note: Same above coin as KM#121 also exists with same weight but with diameter 14.50 mm having two thick stars under RY22.

KM#123 1/8 Anna. Year: AH1195-RY22 (1782-1784). Weight: 3.69g [3.64g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 18.30 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Falta (Fulta). Obverse: Shah Alam Badshah (Emperor Shah Alam) with year 1195. One star at the top and another on the right side. Reverse: Sanat 22 Julus (in the 22nd year of his reign). Five stars in field. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.
Note: Same above coin as KM#122 also exists with same weight but with diameter 19.60 mm having two thin and large stars under RY22.

KM#125 1/4 Anna. Year: AH1195-RY22 (1782-1784). Weight: 6.73g [7.27g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 22.70 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Falta (Fulta). Obverse: Shah Alam Badshah (Emperor Shah Alam) with year 1195. One star at the top and another on the right side. Reverse: Sanat 22 Julus (in the 22nd year of his reign). Five stars in field. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.
Note: Same above coin as KM#124 also exists with same weight but with diameter 23.70 mm.

KM#126 1/2 Anna. Year: AH1195-RY22 (1782-1784). Weight: 14.46g [14.54g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Falta (Fulta). Obverse: Shah Alam Badshah (Emperor Shah Alam) with year 1195. One star at the top and another on the right side. Reverse: Sanat 22 Julus (in the 22nd year of his reign). Five stars in field. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.
Note: Same above coin as KM#127 also exists with same weight but with diameter 23.00 mm.

KM#51 ½ Pice. Year: ND (1797). Weight: 4.10g [4.36g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 24.70 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: Sana julus 37 Shah Alam badshah (in the 37th year of the Emperor Shah Alam). Reverse: Written value in Bengali (Adha Pai Sikka), Persian (Nim Pai Sikka) and Hindi (Adha Pai Sikka). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: Same coin as KM#50 also exists with weight: 5.82g with diameter 23-24 mm.

KM#53 Pice. Year: ND (1797). Weight: 7.53g [8.73g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 28.70 mm [27-30 mm]. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: Sana julus 37 Shah Alam badshah (in the 37th year of the Emperor Shah Alam). Reverse: Written value in Bengali (Ek Pai sikka), Persian (Yek pai sikka) and Hindi (Ek Pai sikka). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: Same coin as KM#52 also exists with weight: 11.64g with diameter 29-30 mm. KM#56 is also recorded with the same design as well with 26 mm.

KM#65 / Pr 336 Trisul Pice. Year: ND (1820-1824). Weight: 6.04g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Farrukhabad. Obverse: Trisul (trident) symbol. Sana julus 45 Shah Alam badshah (in the 45th year of the Emperor Shah Alam). Reverse: Trisul (trident) symbol. Value in Persian and Hindi: Ek pai sicca = One pai. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.
Note: Other varieties also exists, minted in Sagar like KM#71 as 1st issue with size 21-22 mm ND (1826-1833), KM#72 as 2nd issue with obverse having 6-petalled rosette replacing the trident with size 21-22 mm ND (1833) and KM#A65 as 3rd issue with obverse having six pointed star replacing the trident with size 22-24 mm ND (1834-1835).

KM#58 / Pr 215 Pie. Year: ND (1831-1835). Weight: 2.16g [2.16]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 16.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: The value in English: "ONE PIE" and Bengali: এফআই. Reverse: The value in two languages: Urdu: Ek Pie and in Nagari: ऎक पाई (= One Pie). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#59 Half Anna. Year: ND (1831-1835). Weight: 12.58g [12.96]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 27.70 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: The value in English: HALF ANNA and Bengali (Bengali = Adha ana = Half Anna). Reverse: The value in two languages: Persian: Nim Anna and in Nagari: आधा आना (= Half Anna). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Weight: 12.48g [12.96]. Alignment: Medal, slightly rotated as shown.

KM#80.3 1/16 Rupee. Year: RY19 ND (AH 1192 or 1778 CE). Weight: 0.67g [0.73g]. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 9.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Murshidabad (New Calcutta).
Obverse: Shah Alam II) Badshah. Reverse:  Persian-julus (formula) 19 with mint name. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#115 Quarter Rupee. Year: Frozen date 1204AH with 19th Regnal Year (minted during 1830-1833). Weight: 3.10g [2.90 - 3.10g]. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 16.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: "Shah Alam Badshah" with AH date "1204" at the top. Reverse: Zarb Murshidabad (Stuck at Murshidabad) with regnal year "19" at the top. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.
Note: KM#96.1 and 96.2 exists with Oblique milling (minted during 1793-1818) and KM#104 exists with Vertical milling edge (minted during 1830).

KM#116 Half Rupee. Year: Frozen RY19 (minted in 1830). Weight: 6.17g [5.80g]. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Murshidabad (New Calcutta). Obverse: Sikka Zad Bar Haft Kishwur Sayaye Fazl Shah Alam Badshah Elah Hami Din Mohammad (Struck his coin on the seven climes, Shadow of the Devine favour, Shah Alam Emperor, Defender of Muhammad's religion). Reverse: Zarb Murshidabad Sanat 19 Julus Maimanet Manus (Stuck at Murshidabad in the 19th year of his tranquil prosperous reign). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#40.1 Rupee. Year: AH 1203 - RY17/31 (1789). Weight: 11.27g [11.33g]. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 22.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Muhammadabad Banaras. Obverse: "Shah Alam Badshah"; stylish fish at right (mintmark) and sun (mintmark) in the center. Date (AH 1203) in lower field. Reverse: “Struck at Muhammad Banaras in the year 17/31 of reign associated with prosperity” in Persian. Lotus (mintmark) in central field. Mintage: N/A.

Mintage Years: AH1190//17, AH1191//17, AH1192//17, AH1193//17-20, AH1193//17-21, AH1194//17-21, AH1194//17-22, AH1195//17-22, AH1195//17-23, AH1196//17-24, AH1197//17-25, AH1198//17-26, AH1199//17-26, AH1199//17-27, AH1200//17-27, AH1201//17-28, AH1201//17-29, AH1202//17-28 Error, AH1202//17-29, AH1202//17-30, AH1203//17-30, AH1203//17-31, AH1204//17-32, AH1205//17-33, AH1206//17-33, AH1206//17-34, AH1207//17-34, AH1207//17-35, AH1208//17-35, AH1208//17-36, AH1209//17-36, AH1209//17-37, AH1210//17-37, AH1210//17-38, AH1211//17-38, AH1211//17-39, AH1212//17-39, AH1212//17-40, AH1213//17-33 Error, AH1213//17-40, AH1213//17-41, AH1214//17-41, AH1214//17-42 and AH1215//17-42.

KM#99 Rupee. Year: Frozen RY19 (minted in 1793). Weight: 11.59g [11.66g]. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Oblique milling (Grained right). Alignment: Medal; slightly rotated. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: Sikka Zad Bar Haft Kishwur Sayaye Fazl Shah Alam Badshah Elah Hami Din Mohammad (Struck coin on the seven climes, Shadow of Allah's favour, Shah Alam Emperor, Defender of the faith of Muhammad). Reverse: Zarb Murshidabad Sanat 19 Julus Maimanet Manus (Stuck at Murshidabad in the 19th year of his tranquil prosperous reign). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Edge: Oblique milling (Grained right) of the above coin. This coin has Privy marks in the second line of obverse side by looking at the three dot groups to differentiate mints at Calcutta, Dacca, Murshidabad and Patna.
  • Calcutta: No Privy mark in the center of any dot group.
  • Dacca: Privy mark in the center of first dot group (four dots).
  • Murshidabad: Privy mark in the center of second dot group (five dots).
  • Patna: Privy mark in the center of third dot group (five dots).

KM#70 Rupee. Year: Frozen RY45 (minted in 1833-1835). Weight: 11.65g [11.68g]. Metal: 0.909 Silver. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Farrukhabad, Calcutta, Banaras and Sagar. Obverse: Sikka Zad Bar Haft Kishwur Sayaye Fazl Shah Alam Badshah Elah Hami Din Mohammad (Struck coin on the seven climes, Shadow of Allah's favour, Shah Alam Emperor, Defender of the faith of Muhammad). Reverse: Zarb Murshidabad Sanat 45 Julus Maimanet Manus (Stuck at Murshidabad in the 45th year of his tranquil prosperous reign). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Edge: Vertical milling (Reeded) of the above coin.

Note: The same coin as KM#69 was also produced in Oblique milling (Grained right) edge.

KM#78 Rupee. Year: Frozen RY45 (minted in 1833-1835). Weight: 11.64g [11.68g]. Metal: 0.909 Silver. Diameter: 26.25 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Farrukhabad. Obverse: Sikka Zad Bar Haft Kishwur Sayaye Fazl Shah Alam Badshah Elah Hami Din Mohammad (Struck coin on the seven climes, Shadow of Allah's favour, Shah Alam Emperor, Defender of the faith of Muhammad). Reverse: Zarb Murshidabad Sanat 45 Julus Maimanet Manus (Stuck at Murshidabad in the 45th year of his tranquil prosperous reign). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: Broad rims and without mint mark.

Edge: Plain of the above coin.

Note: The same coin as KM#77 was also produced with plain edge but having thin border rim and mint mark: Crescent on the left top side on the reverse side.

 
 
 
Bombay Presidency
 
Following a naval victory over the Portuguese on December 24, 1612, negotiations were started developed into the opening of the first East India Company factory at Surat in 1613. It later grew to encompass much of western and central India, as well as part of the Arabian Peninsula and areas later included in Pakistan. At its greatest extent, the Bombay Presidency comprised the present-day state of Gujarat, the western two-thirds of Maharashtra state, including the regions of Konkan, Desh, and Kandesh, and northwestern Karnataka state of India; it also included Pakistan's Sindh province (1843-1935) and the British territory of Aden in Yemen (1839-1939). It consisted of districts which were directly under British rule. It did not include the native or princely states, whose internal administration was the responsibility of local rulers, but it was responsible for managing the defence of many princely states and for British relations with them.
Silver coins of the New World as well as various other foreign coins were used in early trade. Within the decade the Mughal mint at Surat was melting all of these foreign coins and re-minting them as various denominations of Mughal coinage. Bombay became an English holding as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza, Princess of Portugal when she was betrothed to Charles II of England. Also including in the dowry was Tangier and $500,000. With this acquisition the trading center of the Indian West Coast moved from Surat to Bombay. Possession of Bombay island took place on February 08, 1665 and by 1672 the East India Company had a mint in Bombay to serve their trading interests. European designed coins were struck here until 1717. Experimental issues of Mughal style Rupees with regnal years pertaining to the reigns of James II and William and Mary were made in 1693-1694. From 1717 to 1778, the Mughal style Bombay Rupee was the principal coin of the West India trade, although bulk foreign coins were used for striking Rupees at Surat. After the East India Company took over the city of Surat in 1800, they slowed the mint production and finally transferred all activity to Bombay in 1815. Bombay presidency coins were produced from 1672 to 1835. Bombay is known as Mumbai these days.
 
Monetary System: Rupee = 64 Pice (Paisa) = 192 Pie = 256 Reas. [Mohur (Ashrafi) = 15 Rupees; Anglina Rupee = 48 Copperoons = 528 Tinnys (Bujruk) ]. Mints: Ahmadabad, Bombay (Mumbai), Surat and Tellicherry (Malabar Coast)
Banner words: AUSP: REG: & SEN. ANG = "Under the auspices of the king and senate of England".
 

KM#132 / P80. Pice. Year: A°7° = 1672/7. Weight: 10.07g [13.00g]. Metal: Cast Copper. Diameter: 21.00 mm [22.00 mm]. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Bombay. Obverse: Shield with coat-of-arms of the Honorable English Company of the East Indies in the center circle. "HON : SOC : ANG : IND : ORI" written clockwise in outer circle. Reverse: "MON : BMBAYA ANGLIC REGIMS A°7°" written in center circle. "A DEO PAX: & INCREMENTUM" in outer circle clockwise. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#189 2 Pice (Double Pice). Year: 1773. Weight: 10.11g [10.28g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Bombay. Obverse: Large crown divides G-R at top, "BOMB" written below with date 1773. Reverse: United East India Company Bale mark. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: The letters in the balemark may be arranged in the usual way, or the E and the I may be transposed.

KM#195 / Pr 126 1½ Pice (6 Reas). Year: 1791. Weight: 9.79g [official: 9.71g, but can be 8.74g - 10.48g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 28.50 mm [27.40 - 28.80 mm]. Edge: Oblique milling (Grained right). Alignment: Coin. Mint: Soho. Obverse: United East India Company Bale mark. Reverse: Balanced Scales with Persian inscription "Adil" (Justice) written between pans. Mintage: 2,690,351 (including 1791 and 1794 issues). Mintage Years: 1791 and 1794.
Note: There may or may not be a tiny dot below the letter V in the shield. The holders (looking like tassels), from which the chains are suspended, vary in sizes (Narrow to Wide). The pointed rod, pointing downwards in the center of the balanced scale also varies. 1791 dated coins also exists as KM#195a proof in Copper Gilt metal and KM#194 in copper but with small scales and vertical milling.

KM#196 / Pr 118 2 Pice (8 Reas or ½ Anna). Year: 1794. Weight: 12.94g [official: 12.95g but can be 12.13-13.45g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 29.50 mm [29.50 - 31.60 mm]. Edge: Oblique milling (Grained right). Alignment: Coin. Mint: Soho. Obverse: United East India Company Bale mark. Reverse: Balanced Scales with Persian inscription "Adil" (Justice) written between pans. Mintage: 1,569,330. Mintage Years: 1791 and 1794.

Note: This coin has no dot below V and has short and sharp point in balanced scales.

Note: There may or may not be a tiny dot below the letter V in the shield. 1791 issues has mintage: 1,174,630.

Pivot: The length and style of the pivot varies.

  • I: Medium length and fairly sharp point.
  • II: Longer and blunter point.
  • III: Short and sharp point.

Production of these coins is often attributed to the mint of the East India Company in London. This may be based on Pridmore, who in discussing why the coins were struck in England says "Other reasons may have been connected with the establishment of the Company's mint at London at French Ordinary Court, equipped with modern machinery from Boulton's Soho foundry". Doty however places the work firmly at Soho itself. He follows the coinage from the initial contact between Robert Wissett of the EIC and Boulton on 11 December 1790 through difficulties in obtaining the copper from Thomas Williams and the production and shipment of the different denominations even noting that "simultaneous striking of the largest and smallest sizes continued until the first day of December". Doty goes on to support Boulton's pride "He had valid reason for pride. In nine months' time, he had struck over seventen million copper coins for Bombay. This would have represented a hefty output for any public mint of the day; but Boulton's private one at Soho had achieved several other projects as well". Doty records the mintage figure for the 2 Pice denomination as 1,174,630.

KM#197 ½ Pice. Year: 1802-1829 (date not visible). Weight: 5.26g [5.31g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 15.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Bombay. Obverse: United East India Company Bale mark. Reverse: Scales, Persian language “Adil” (just). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: 1802, 1808, 1810, 1813, 1815, 1816, 1818, 1819, 1825, 1826, 1827 and 1829.

KM#198 Pice. Year: 1802-1829 (date not visible). Weight: 10.49g [10.62g]. Metal: Copper; slightly rotated. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Bombay. Obverse: United East India Company Bale mark. Reverse: Scales, Persian language “Adil” (just). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: 1802-1804, 1808-1810, 1813, 1815-1816, 1818- 1819 and 1825-1829.

KM#211.1 ½  Rupee. Year: AH-//46 (1800-1815). Weight: 5.62g [5.76g]. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 16.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Surat. Obverse: “Shah Alam Badshah” (Emperor Shah Alam II). Reverse: Persian-julus (formula) with reignal year 46 and mint name. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type. Privy mark #1.
Note: Mint privy marks on dump issues often were intended to be “secret” (=privy marks), indicating changes in standards as well as mint of origin. Ten types are derived from IV Pridmore. These ten types of Privy marks are involved on the 4 dots in center and 3 diamonds of the right side on obverse side, above the center line on such coins. All of them are minted in Bombay in various years based on these dots and diamonds designs except the above one, which clearly belongs to Surat mint.

KM#222 Quarter Rupee. Year: Frozen AH1215//46 (1830). Weight: 2.91g [2.91g]. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 17.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Surat. Obverse: Sikka Mubarak Badshah Ghazi Shah Alam 1215 (Blessed Coin dated 1215 of Emperor Warrior Shah Alam). Reverse: Zarb Surat Sanat 46 Julus Maimanet Manus (Stuck at Surat in the 46th year of his tranquil  prosperous reign). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#223 Half Rupee. Year: Frozen AH1215//46 (1830). Weight: 5.72g [5.83g]. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 22.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Surat. Obverse: Sikka Mubarak Badshah Ghazi Shah Alam 1215 (Blessed Coin dated 1215 of Emperor Warrior Shah Alam). Reverse: Zarb Surat Sanat 46 Julus Maimanet Manus (Stuck at Surat in the 46th year of his tranquil  prosperous reign). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#220 Rupee. Year: Frozen AH1215//46 (1830). Weight: 11.57g [11.60g]. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Surat. Obverse: Sikka Mubarak Badshah Ghazi Shah Alam 1215 (Blessed Coin dated 1215 of Emperor Warrior Shah Alam). Reverse: Zarb Surat Sanat 46 Julus Maimanet Manus (Stuck at Surat in the 46th year of his tranquil  prosperous reign). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#261 Pie. Year: 1833- AH1248. Weight: 2.10g [2.16g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 12.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: Loin above shield with date 1833. The arms of the Company. On the ribbon is the legend: AUSP:REG & SEN:ANG: Reverse: Balanced scales with Persian legend between the pans (translation = Adil = just or fair). The value above: PIE, AH date (1248) in Arabic figures below. Large legends with Letters size 1.2 mm. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: Width of Rim can be Narrow or Broad.

KM#262 Pie. Year: 1833- AH1248. Weight: 2.15g [2.16g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 12.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: Loin above shield with date 1833. The arms of the Company. On the ribbon is the legend: AUSP:REG & SEN:ANG: Reverse: Balanced scales with Persian legend between the pans (translation = Adil = just or fair). The value above: PIE, AH date (1248) in Arabic figures below. Small legends with Letters size 0.8 mm. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: Width of Rim can be Narrow or Broad.

KM#231.1 Quarter Anna. Year: 1832- AH1246. Weight: 6.28g [6.97g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Bombay. Obverse: The arms of the Company in the center. On the ribbon is the motto: "AUSPICIO REGIS & SENATUS ANGLIAE". "EAST INDIA COMPANY" written around the arms of the Company. Reverse: Balanced scales with Persian legend between the pans (translation = Adil = just or fair). The value above: "QUARTER ANNA", AH date in Arabic figures below (=1246). Letters size 1.0 mm. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: 1830//AH1346 and 1832//AH1346.
Note: The coin's obverse and reverse is designed from pervious issues. Size of letters is 1 mm for legends "QUARTER ANNA". KM#231.2 is produced with 1.5 mm for legends "QUARTER ANNA", having date 1832//AH1347.

KM#232 Quarter Anna. Year: 1833- AH1249. Weight: 6.37g [6.97g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: The arms of the Company in the center. On the ribbon is the motto: AUSP:REG & SEN:ANG: Flat shield without E.I.C. legend with date 1833. Reverse: Balanced scales with Persian legend between the pans (translation = Adil = just or fair). The value above: QUARTER ANNA, AH date in Arabic figures below (=1249). Letters size 1.5 mm. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.
Note: The shield may be large or small. The rim may be broad, normal or narrow. May be as 1830-1833 design issue. Size of letters may be 1 mm or 1.5 mm for legends "QUARTER ANNA".
 
 
 
Madras Presidency
 
The Madras Presidency (Tamil: சென்னை மாகாணம், Telugu: చెన్నపురి సంస్థానము, Malayalam: മദ്രാസ് പ്രസിഡന്‍സി, Kannada: ಮದ್ರಾಸ್ ಪ್ರೆಸಿಡೆನ್ಸಿ, Oriya: ମାଦ୍ରାସ ପ୍ରେସିଡେନ୍ସି), officially the Presidency of Fort St. George and also known as Madras Province, was an administrative subdivision of British India. English trade was begun on the east coast of India in 1611. The first factory was at Mazulipatam and was maintained intermittently until modern times. Madras was founded in 1639 and Fort St. George was made the chief factory on the east coast in 1641. A mint was established at Fort St. George where coins of the style of Vijayanagar were struck. The Madras mint begun minting copper coins after the renovation. In 1689 silver fanams were authorized to be struck by the new Board of Directors. In 1692 the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb gave permission for Mughal type Rupees to be struck at Madras. These circulated locally and were also send to Bengal. The chief competition for the Madras coins were the Arcot Rupees. Some of the bulk coins from Madras were sent to the Nawabs mint to be made into Arcot Rupees. In 1742 the East India Company applied for and received permission to make their own Arcot Rupees. Coining operations ceased in Madras in 1869. Madras Presidency coins were produced from ca. 1660 to 1835.
At its greatest extent, the presidency included much of southern India, including the present-day Indian State of Tamil Nadu, the Malabar region of North Kerala, Lakshadweep Islands, the Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions of Andhra Pradesh, Ganjam, Malkangiri, Koraput, Rayagada, Nabarangapur and Gajapati districts of southern Orissa and the Bellary, Dakshina Kannada, and Udupi districts of Karnataka. The presidency had its winter capital at Madras and summer capital at Ootacamund. In 1639, the English East India Company purchased the village of Madraspatnam and one year later it established the Agency of Fort St George, precursor of the Madras Presidency, although there had been Company factories at Machilipatnam and Armagon since the very early 17th century. The agency was upgraded to a Presidency in 1652 before once more reverting to its previous status in 1655. In 1684, it was re-elevated to a Presidency and Elihu Yale was appointed as President. In 1785, under the provisions of Pitt's India Act, Madras became one of three provinces established by the East India Company. Thereafter, the head of the area was styled "Governor" rather than "President" and became subordinate to the Governor-General in Calcutta, a title that would persist until 1947. Judicial, legislative and executive powers rested with the Governor who was assisted by a Council whose constitution was modified by reforms enacted in 1861, 1909, 1919 and 1935. Regular elections were conducted in Madras up to the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939. By 1908, the province comprised twenty-two districts, each under a District Collector, and it was further sub-divided into taluks and firqas with villages making up the smallest unit of administration. Following the Montague-Chelmsford reforms of 1919, Madras was the first province of British India to implement a system of dyarchy, and thereafter its Governor ruled alongside a Prime Minister. In the early decades of the 20th century, many significant contributors to the Indian independence movement came from Madras. With the advent of Indian independence on August 15, 1947, the Presidency was dissolved. Madras was later admitted as a state of the Indian Union at the inauguration of the Republic of India on January 26, 1950, and was reorganized in 1956.
 
Monetary System:

1 Dudu = 10 Cash = 2 Fulus
8 Dudu = 1 Fanam
36 Fanam = 1 Pagoda (1688-1802)
42 Fanam = 1 Pagoda (1802-1817)
45 Fanam = 1 Pagoda (1817-1835)
3-1/2 Rupees = 1 Pagoda
Mohur = 15 Rupees

Mints: Arcot, Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam) and Tegnapatam (Fort St. David).

Banner words: Auspicio Regis & Senatus Angliae = "By command of the King and Parliament of England".
 

KM#315 1 Cash. Year: 1803. Weight: 0.61g [0.64g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 11.50 mm [11.40 - 11.50 mm]. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Soho. Obverse: East India Company crest: Lion rampant left carrying crown. Date at the bottom. Plain border. Reverse: Value "Kash" (Cash) in Persian above center lines and "I. CASH" in English below the two lines. Plain border. Mintage: 17,994,240. Mintage Years: One year type.
Note: Coin alignment coin has weight 0.61 - 0.64g and Medal alignment weights 0.77g. Similar pieces weighing 1.27g are modern fantasies, which are referred in “Unusual World Coins” 4th edition.

KM#316 5 Cash / 1 Falus. Year: 1803. Weight: 3.06g [official = 3.23g; actual = 2.99 - 3.17g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 21.00 mm [21.00 - 21.10 mm]. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Soho. Obverse: "EAST INDIA COMPANY" written above. Arms of the Company in the center with the date at the bottom. Ribbon inscription: "AUSPICIO REGIS & SENATUS ANGLIAE". Reverse: The value in Persian "panj kas yek falus ast" (Five Cash makes one Falus). Value in English below the two lines "V . CASH" at the bottom. Mintage: 12,304,416. Mintage Years: One year type.
Obverse Varieties:

Letters: The letters may be 0.8mm high or >0.8mm.
Design: The direction that the left-hand flagstaff points, is an easily seen difference. The helmet is also a different shape or perhaps the clip size on the top of the shield overlapping the helmet. This is most often seen on proofs but also, more rarely, on currency specimens.
Note: KM#317 exists with same details and diameter but weight = 2.41g.

KM#319 10 Cash / 2 Falus. Year: 1803. Weight: 5.43g [official = 6.47g; actual = 6.24 - 6.46g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 24.80 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Soho. Obverse: "EAST INDIA COMPANY" written above. Arms of the Company in the center with the date at the bottom. Ribbon inscription: "AUSPICIO REGIS & SENATUS ANGLIAE". All within a raised toothed border. Reverse: The value in Persian "dah kas do falus ast" (Ten Cash makes two Falus). Value in English below the two lines "X . CASH" at the bottom. All within a plain raised rim. Mintage: 6,304,560 (including 1808 heavier and lighter issues). Mintage Years: 1803 and 1808.
Note: 1808 issue has heavier weight: 6.47g [actual: 6.47 - 6.56g].

KM#320 10 Cash / 2 Falus. Year: 1808. Weight: 4.31g [official = 4.66g; actual = 4.62 - 4.84g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 25.80 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Soho. Obverse: "EAST INDIA COMPANY" written above. Arms of the Company in the center with the date at the bottom. Ribbon inscription: "AUSPICIO REGIS & SENATUS ANGLIAE". Reverse: The value in Persian "dah kas do falus ast" (Ten Cash makes two Falus). Value in English below the line "X . CASH" at the bottom. Mintage: 6,304,560 (including KM#319, 1803 and 1808 issues). Mintage Years: One year type.
Note: Pridmore classifies the weights of these coins as heavy issue 1803 and 1808 (6.47g) and a light issue of 1808 (4.66g). However the weights vary in a more complicated way than this. An example of the light issue exists, dated 1803, and there are both intermediate weight coins (5.35g) and very light weight coins (3.36g) dated 1808. Nice salvaged and cleaned examples from the Admiral Gardner ship are commonly known. This English East India Company ship that sank on the sands of South Foreland on January 24, 1809 with seven crewmen and a cargo of coins for nearly 200 years. The ship along with its sister ship Britannia was on its way to India to pay the workers in Bengal and Madras when a severe storm ran her aground.

KM#321 20 Cash / 4 Falus. Year: 1803. Weight: 12.54g [official = 12.95g; actual = 11.90 - 12.32g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 30.70 mm [30.50 - 30.90 mm]. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Soho. Obverse: "EAST INDIA COMPANY" written above. Arms of the Company in the center with the date at the bottom. Ribbon inscription: "AUSPICIO REGIS & SENATUS ANGLIAE". Reverse: The value in Persian "bist kas chahar falus ast" (Twenty Cash makes four Falus). Value in English below the two lines "XX . CASH" at the bottom. Mintage: 1,323,360 (including 1808 issue as well). Mintage Years: One year type with 1808 issues having less weight: 9.13 - 9.59g.

Note: According to Kaslove, this coin also exists in Medal alignment, both in bronzed and copper as proofs.

KM#309 2½ Cash. Year: ND (1807). Weight: 1.10g [official =  1.21g; actual = 1.06 - 1.30g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 15.70 mm [15.80-17.60 mm]. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Madras. Obverse: Value in Persian "In do va-nim kas ast" (this is two and a half cash) at the top and in English "2 1/2 CASH" at the bottom. Reverse: Value in Telegu top two lines "Idi 2 1/2 kasulu" and value in Tamil bottom two lines "Idu 2 1/2 kasu" (this is two and a half cash). Mintage: 561,622 (till March 1808). Mintage Years: One year type.
Note: This coin may exists in Medal and Coin alignment. This coin also exists with same size and weight as of five cash planchet. This larger version has been recorded from Pridmore to have this coin weight: 2.32g and diameter: 21 mm.

5 Cash. Year: ND (1807). Weight: 3.03g [official = 2.41g; actual = 2.24 - 2.59g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 18.50 mm [19.60 - 21.10 mm]. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Madras. Obverse: Value in Persian "In panj kas ast" (this is five cash) at the top and in English "V. CASH" at the bottom. Reverse: Value in Telegu top two lines "Idi aedu kasulu" and Tamil bottom two lines "Idu anacu kasu" (this is five cash). Mintage: 1,216,822 (till March 1808). Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: Unlisted type in Krause publications. It seems that the diameter of the coin is reduced as it has many cuts all around. 

Four Varieties exists:

01. The line separating the Persian from the English legends differs. It may be a number of dots alone with medal alignment.
02. The line separating the Persian from the English legends differs. It may be a number of dots alone with coin alignment.
03. The line separating the Persian from the English legends differs. It may be no separator with medal alignment.
04. The line separating the Persian from the English legends differs. It may be no separator with coin alignment.

KM#326 10 Cash. Year: ND (1807). Weight: 4.86g [official = 4.83g; actual = 4.24 - 4.95g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 23.00 mm [22.70 - 26.50 mm]. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Madras. Obverse: Value in Persian "In dah kas ast" (this is ten cash) at the top and value in English "X. CASH" at the bottom. Reverse: Value in Telegu top two lines "Idi padi kasulu" and Tamil bottom two lines "Idu pattu kasu" (this is ten cash). Mintage: 2,127,922 (till March 1808). Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: Also exists, struck on a XX Cash planchet.

There are 7 obverse and 5 reverse combinations, making 16 types recorded of this 10 cash coin including one coin alignment issue as well. The diameter of the flans can vary quite considerably. Pridmore records a separate catalogue entry for a very large flan specimen.

Obverse Varieties:

Separator: The line separating the Persian from the English legends differs. It may be a plain line, two plain lines, a number of dots and stars, or a number of dots alone. The single plain line variety often has a second thin line immediately underneath. The double plain line variety is two clearly separated lines of about the same width. Possible combinations are: Plain, Two Plain, Dots/Stars, 5 dots/dash, 6 dots/dash, 7 Dots or 9 Dots.
Stop After X: There is usually a stop after the X value letter. Sometimes this is missing.

Reverse Varieties:

Dividing Line: There may or may not be a dividing line between the Tamil and Telugu legends. The single line variety often has a thin second line associated with it. The double line variety has two distinct lines of about equal width
First Tamil Letter: The first letter in the Tamil legend may take a number of different forms. This might be the correct form, a modified form or a square form.

KM#339 2 Fanam. Year: ND (1807). Weight: 1.76g [official = 1.85g; actual = 1.70 - 1.87g]. Metal: 0.920 Silver. Diameter: 12.70 mm [12.10 - 13.20 mm]. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal; slightly rotated. Mint: Madras. Obverse: Value in Persian "Do Fanam" in the center. "Double Fanam" in English written in circular clockwise around Persian legends. Reverse: Value in Telegu "Renddu rukalu" in center and in Tamil value "Irantu panam" in circular around. Mintage: 1,511,087 (including below and other types). Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: This coin has no center circle on both sides.

KM#340 2 Fanam. Year: ND (1807). Weight: 1.78g  [official = 1.85g; actual = 1.70 - 1.87g]. Metal: 0.920 Silver. Diameter: 12.70 mm [12.10 - 13.20 mm]. Edge: Oblique milling (Grained right). Alignment: Medal. Mint: Madras. Obverse: Value in Persian "Do Fanam" in the center circle. "Double Fanam" in English written in outer circle clockwise. Reverse: Star at the top. Value in Telegu "Renddu rukalu" in center circle and in Tamil Irantu panam" in outer circle. Mintage: 1,511,087 (including above and other types). Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: This coin has center circle on both sides.

There are 10 obverse and 6 reverse combinations, making 16 types recorded of this 2 Fanam coin.

Obverse Varieties:

Centre Circle: There may or may not be a plain circle surrounding the Persian legend.
Stops in Legend: The stops in the English legend may be composed of single dots (1), or a quartet of dots (Q) arranged roughly in the shape of a diamond. (E.g. Q+1 means quartet after DOUBLE and single after FANAM, 1+Q means single after DOUBLE and quartet after FANAM). Alternatively there may be no stops at all (0). Possible combinations are: 1+1, 1+Q, 0+0 or 0+1.
F & A's of FANAM: The second bar of F of FANAM is missing. A's of FANAM are upside-down V's.
F of FANAM (as E): F of FANAM represented by E.
Second bar of F: The second bar of the F is missing.
All letters of FANAM: F represented by E, 'A's with no bars, N retrograde, M represented by W.

Reverse Varieties:

Centre Circle: The Telugu legend may or may not be surrounded by a plain circle.
Legend U/S Down: The Telugu legend may or may not be upside-down relative to the Tamil legend.
Stops in Legend: The stops in the Tamil legend may be composed of single dots (1), or a quartet of dots (4) arranged roughly in the shape of a diamond. Alternatively there may be no stops at all (0). Possible combinations are: Q+Q, 0+0, 1+1 or 1+Q.

KM#351 5 Fanam. Year: ND (1808). Weight: 4.52g [official = 4.65g; actual = 3.92 - 4.74 g]. Metal: 0.920 Silver. Diameter: 22.00 mm [20.50 -22.70 mm]. Edge: Oblique milling (Grained right). Alignment: Medal. Mint: Madras. Obverse: Value in Persian "Panj Fanam" in the center circle. "Five Fanam" in English written in circular clockwise around Persian legends. Buckled garter at the bottom. Reverse: Star at the top. The value in Telugu "Aedu rukalu" in two lines, separated by a bead in the center. Ribbon containing value in Tamil "Anacu panam" around. Mintage: 3,953,694. Mintage Years: One year type.

Edge: Oblique milling (Grained right) of the above coin.
Based on the below 8 combinations, 19 types recorded of this 5 Fanam coin. There is usually a bead in the centre of the reverse legend. However, it is often difficult to see, and using the presence or absence of this bead as a distinguishing feature for a variety is not reliable. We have therefore, not used this as a feature.

Stops in legend: There may be no stops in the English legend, or there may be a centre stop.
Buckle Shape: The buckle may be Large square, Small square (or medium), oval, or formed with dots. Some Oval buckles may appear square but can be differentiated by the rounded corners and the shape of the tongue.
Shading in buckle: The shading may or may not extend into the buckle.
Cross tongue: The buckle may or may not have a cross-tongue.
Spelling of FIVE: FIVE may be mis-spelt FIVB.
The Tamil legend: clockwise or anti-clockwise direction.
Alignment: Medal and in some rare case Coin as well.
Edge: Grained right but in some rare case Grained left as well.

KM#352 1/4 Pagoda. Year: ND (1808). Weight: 10.49g [official = 10.58g; actual = 10.26 - 10.71g]. Metal: 0.920 Silver. Diameter: 26.00 mm [25.60 - 28.30 mm]. Edge: Oblique milling (Grained right). Alignment: Medal. Mint: Madras. Obverse: Seven tiered Gopuram of a temple, standing on stony ground, surrounded by 9 stars on each side within the center circle. Value in Persian (Persian = Pau hun phuli = quarter of a flower, or star, pagoda) at the lower left side outside the circle and "QUARTER PAGODA" in English at the right and top side clockwise. Buckled garter at the bottom. Reverse: Star at the top. Figure of Vishnu usually holding a sword in his left hand. Dots, pellets, crescents and other symbols on each side and a lotus flower below it. All surrounded by two circles of beads. Ribbon containing Telugu value "Kal vara hun" on the left side and Tamil value "Kal vara kun"on the right side. Mintage: 7,091,587. Mintage Years: One year type.

Same as above coin, but...

This coin is having thinner legends on both sides. The "Q" in QUARTER, Dot circular pattern near the border, Buckle style, Tamil legend distance from the banner end on the right side and the deity Vishnu image, sword size in Vishnu's left hand are visible difference from the above coin. Weight: 10.50g [10.58g]. Diameter: 26.60 mm [25.60 - 28.30 mm].

There are 21 obverse and 16 reverse combinations, making 50 types recorded of this Quarter Pagoda coin.

Obverse Varieties:

Buckle Shape: The buckle may be square or oval.
Number of stars: The number of stars on each side of the gopuram can vary; 7+7 or 8+8 or 9+8 or 9+9.
Stops in Legend: The English legend may contain no stops, a centre stop alone, an end stop alone, or a centre stop plus an end stop.
Shading in buckle: The shading may or may not extend into the buckle.
Cross tongue: The buckle may or may not have a cross-tongue.
Spelling of QUARTER: QUARTER may be mis-spelt QUARTE
Spelling of PAGODA: PAGODA may be mis-spelt PAPAGODA or PAGOD.

Reverse Varieties:

Bead below Vishnu: There may be zero, one or two beads below Vishnu's feet within the stalk of the lotus flower. These beads are separate from those that form part of the circles of beads.
Top Left Cross: Next to Vishnu's left arm is an arrangement of dots topped by a cross shape, representing one of his wives. The number of dots that form this figure varies. Very rarely, one of the beads may be incorporated into the inner circle of beads. The number of beads in the cross is then expressed as, 8/9 or 9 or 11.
Top Right Cross: Next to Vishnu's right arm is an arrangement of dots topped by a cross shape, representing one of his wives. The number of dots that form this figure varies. Very rarely, two of the beads may be incorporated into the inner circle of beads. The number of beads in the cross is then expressed as, 9 or 9/11 or 11 or 13.
Vishnu's Sword: The facing figure of Vishnu usually holds a sword in his left hand, but rarer examples exist with the sword in his right hand, or no sword at all.
Stop in Legend: There may or may not be a stop between the Tamil and Telugu legends.
Bead above Vishnu: There is sometimes a single bead above Vishnu's head. This bead is sometimes incorporated into the inner ring of beads and it is then difficult to determine if there is a separate bead or not. If there is doubt, then NO bead is considered to be present.

Note: A Gopuram or Gopura, is a monumental tower, usually ornate, at the entrance of any temple, especially in Southern India. This forms a prominent feature of Koils, Hindu temples of the Dravidian style. They are topped by the kalasam, a bulbous stone finial. They function as gateways through the walls that surround the temple complex.

KM#408 1/8 Rupee. Year: AH 1172-RY6. Weight: 1.42g [1.46g]. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 13.50 mm. Edge: Oblique milling. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Arcot. Obverse: Persian legend: 1172 Sikka Badshah Alamgir = 1172 Money of the Emperor Alamgir. Reverse: Open lotus. Persian legend: Zarb Arcat sanat 6 = Struck at Arcot in his 6th year. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type but minted during 1812-1817.

Note: Closed lotus form also exists with the same date and reignal year as KM#412 minted 1817-1835.

KM#424 1/8 Rupee. Year: AH 1172-RY6. Weight: 1.44g [1.46g]. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 13.50 mm. Edge: Oblique milling. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Arcot. Obverse: Persian legend: 1172 Sikka Badshah Alamgir = 1172 Money of the Emperor Alamgir. Reverse: Rose. Persian legend: Zarb Arcat sanat 6 = Struck at Arcot in his 6th year. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type but minted during 1823-1825.

KM#422 5 Rupee. Year: ND (1820). Weight: 3.87g [3.88g]. Metal: Gold. Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Madras. Obverse: "English East India Company" with emblem. Reverse: Ingarays Bahadur Comapany - Panj Rupaya (English Brave Company - Five Rupees). Mintage: 2,179,573. Mintage Years: One year type.

This coin occurs with four varieties. The size of lion and placement of stop after COMPANY vary.

KM#429 2 Pies. Year: 1825 - AH1240. Weight: 4.29g [4.27g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 22.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Royal Mint, London. Obverse: Shield with British arms, topped by lion, supported by two lions, which are holding flags. Banner with motto:  AUSP: REGIS & SEN ANGLIAE: ("Under the auspices of the king and senate of England"). Date above Motto. All within a raised toothed rim. Reverse: Numeral "2" at the top with value in Persian "Do Pai" and date "1240", all within wreath. All with a raised, toothed border. Mintage: 7,126,104. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#431 4 Pies. Year: 1825 - AH1240. Weight: 8.47g [8.55g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 26.70 mm [27.00 mm]. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Royal Mint, London. Obverse: Shield with British arms, topped by lion, supported by two lions, which are holding flags. Banner with motto:  "AUSP REGIS & SEN ANGLIAE": ("Under the auspices of the king and senate of England"). Date above Motto. All within a raised toothed rim. Reverse: Numeral "4" at the top with value in Persian "Chahar Pai" and date "1240", all within wreath. All with a raised, toothed border. Mintage: 7,136,448. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: There are some varieties of 4 Pies, regarding the wreath tip at the top. This coins has left tip straight and right tip down as shown. Some more varieties are as follow:

  • KM#430 4 PIES 1824//AH1240, left tip straight and right tip down (different date than above coin).
  • KM#432 4 PIES 1825//AH1240, right tip points up.
  • KM#433 4 PIES 1825//AH1240, right tip in straight line.
 
 
  • Governor General of India
  • Below is the list of Governor Generals of India according to Charter Act of 1833.
  • William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, Lord Bentinck............1833 - 20 Mar 1835
  • Sir Charles Theophilus (Lord) Metcalfe (acting).....20 Mar 1835 - 04 Mar 1836
  • George Eden, Baron Auckland.........................04 Mar 1836 - 28 Feb 1842
  • From 1839, George Eden, Earl of Auckland
  • Edward Law, Baron (Earl of ) Ellenborough...........28 Feb 1842 - Jun 1844
  • William Wilberforce Bird (acting)......................Jun 1844 - 23 Jul 1844  
  • Sir Henry Hardinge..................................23 Jul 1844 - 12 Jan 1848
  • From May 1846, Viscount Hardinge.
  • James Andrew Broun Ramsay...........................12 Jan 1848 - 28 Feb 1856
  • From 1849, Marquess and Earl of Dalhousie.
  • Charles John Canning, Viscount Canning..............28 Feb 1856 - 30 Oct 1858
  • He continued as Governor General & Viceroy of India until 21 Mar 1862. As East India Company was dissolved on 30 Oct 1858, Queen Victoria became the ruler of British India until her death on 22 Jan 1901.
 
In 1833, the three presidency was united as East India Company and started to produce one common coinage. Monetary System: Rupee = 64 Pice (Paisa) = 192 Pie. [Mohur (Ashrafi) = 15 Rupees]
 
1835 - coinage during William IV
Banner words: AUSP: REG: & SEN. ANG = "Under the auspices of the king and senate of England".
 

KM#445 1/12 Anna / Pie. Year: 1835. Weight: 1.97g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Bombay. Obverse: Arms of the Company, with the date between the scroll and the ribbon. The ribbon bears the abbreviated Latin motto: AUSP: REG: & SEN: ANG: with date 1835. Reverse: The Value in English and Persian (Suls pai = One-third pice): 1/12 ANNA Within a laurel wreath. Around this is the legend: EAST INDIA COMPANY. Large legends.  Mintage: 72,313,000. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: Size differentiate between Bombay, Calcutta and Madras mints.

KM#445 1/12 Anna / Pie. Year: 1835. Weight: 2.15g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 17.85 mm [17.7 - 17.9]. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Madras. Obverse: Arms of the Company, with the date between the scroll and the ribbon. The ribbon bears the abbreviated Latin motto: AUSP: REG: & SEN: ANG: with date 1835. Reverse: The Value in English and Persian (Suls pai = One-third pice): 1/12 ANNA Within a laurel wreath. Around this is the legend: EAST INDIA COMPANY. Small legends. Mintage: 133,788,000. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: Calcutta mint coins with diameter 17.5 mm were produced in 1835 as proof and in 1848 with mintage of 14,380,000.

KM#446.2 Quarter Anna. Year: 1835. Weight: 6.47g. Metal: Copper. Obverse: Arms of the Company, with the date between the scroll and the ribbon. The ribbon bears the abbreviated Latin motto: AUSP: REG: & SEN: ANG: Reverse: The value within a wreath of laurel: ONE QUARTER ANNA. Between the tips of the wreath is the value in Persian (Yek Pai = One Pice): Around this the legend: EAST INDIA COMPANY. Mintage Years: One year type.

Quarter annas dated 1835 were issued from Calcutta starting in December 1835 although there was much debate about whether or not to go ahead with the coinage. In the middle of 1836 the coinage of copper coins was suspended due to the lack of copper driving up the price. By the end of June about 17 million pieces had been struck. It was not until 1838 that a new method for getting the coins into circulation was introduced [9]. Madras began to strike the coins in the middle of 1837. Bombay continued to issue the quarter annas that had been introduced in 1830, before the uniform coinage, and it was not until 1846/47 that this mint began to strike quarter annas with the same design as that of the other two mints. Attribution of the quarter annas dated 1835 to the different mints is difficult. Pridmore chose to assign coins to the various mints based on the diameter of their flans. Diameter is certainly a distinguishing feature for some coins (26.1-26.3mm compared with 25.2-25.5mm). Pridmore assigns the larger diameter coins to Calcutta, though his grounds for doing so are not clearly apparent. It may be because he identifies some proofs with broad rims as issues of the Calcutta Mint, and these have diameters of 26.2mm. He then divides the smaller diameter coins between Bombay (25.2-25.3mm) and Madras (25.4-25.5mm). This difference is very difficult substantiate.

Differences in Quarter Anna 1835 coins:

  • Diameter of the coin: Size differentiate between Bombay: 25.2 mm (Mintage: 36,766,903), Calcutta: 26.2 mm (Mintage: 755,059,377) and Madras: 25.5 mm (Mintage: 186,529,741). 1849 date is known without any mint details. There is only one type for Bombay mint, seven varieties of Calcutta mint and two varieties for Madras.
  • The numeral 1 in the date may have a flat top (F) or a sloping top (S). There are other differences e.g. ornament below shield is attached to the shield on sloping top variety but detached on flat top variety. Flat top variety belongs purely to Calcutta mint only.
  • The ribs of the lions also differ: Less clear ribs or very clear ribs.
  • The number of berries in wreath may vary:
  • BOMBAY
    • 30 (15L;15R), Loops of Ribbon: Large (like two circles), Ribbon ends: Forked, Wreath tip leaves: 3.
  • CALCUTTA
    • 18 (9L;9R), Loops of Ribbon: Small, Y in Company: Above. Ribbon ends: Pointed, Wreath tip leaves: 3. Sloping top of Numeral "1" in date.
    • 18 (9L;9R), Loops of Ribbon: Small, Y in Company: At. Ribbon ends: Pointed, Wreath tip leaves: 3. Sloping top of Numeral "1" in date.
    • 23 (12L;11R), Loops of Ribbon: Small, Y in Company: Below. Ribbon ends: Pointed, Wreath tip leaves: 3. Sloping top of Numeral "1" in date.
    • 23 (12L;11R), Loops of Ribbon: Small, Y in Company: Below. Ribbon ends: Pointed, Wreath tip leaves: 3. Flat top of Numeral "1" in date.
    • 24 (13L;11R), Loops of Ribbon: Smallest, Y in Company: Below. Ribbon ends: Forked, Wreath tip leaves: 3. Flat top of Numeral "1" in date.
    • 24 (12L;12R), Loops of Ribbon: Smallest, Y in Company: At. Ribbon ends: Forked, Wreath tip leaves: 4. Flat top of Numeral "1" in date.
    • 27 (13L;14R), Loops of Ribbon: Smallest, Y in Company: At. Ribbon ends: Forked, Wreath tip leaves: 4. Flat top in Numeral "1" in date.
  • MADRAS
    • 17 (8L;9R), Loops of Ribbon: Small, Y in Company: Above. Ribbon ends: Pointed, Wreath tip leaves: 3.
    • 18 (9L;9R), Loops of Ribbon: Small, Y in Company: Above. Ribbon ends: Pointed, Wreath tip leaves: 3.
  • Loops of Ribbon: Large, Small and Smallest.
  • Y of COMPANY: The Y of COMPANY may point above a berry in the wreath, at a berry in the wreath, or below a berry.
  • Ribbon Ends: The ends of the ribbon below the bow may be forked or pointed.
  • Wreath tip leaves: The number of leaves in the wreath tip may be 3 or 4.
  • Alignment: The 1835 dated coins exists in both medal and coin rotations.
  • Full stop after COMPANY: Bombay mint only.

Note: KM#446.1 has smaller shield produced by Bombay and Madras mint in both medal and coin rotations.

Weight: 6.17g [6.47g]. Diameter: 26.20 mm. Mint: Calcutta.

Note: Berries: 18 (9L;9R). Sloping 1 in date. No ribs of the lion. Loop of Ribbon: Small. Y in COMPANY above berry. Ribbon Ends: Pointed. 3 leaves in Wreath tip leaves.

Weight: 5.74g [6.47g]. Diameter: 26.20 mm. Mint: Calcutta.

Note: Berries: 18 (9L;9R). Sloping 1 in date. Very clear ribs of the lion. Loop of Ribbon: Small. Y in COMPANY at berry. Ribbon Ends: Pointed. 3 leaves in Wreath tip leaves.

Weight: 6.41g [6.47g]. Diameter: 26.20 mm. Mint: Calcutta.

Note: Berries: 23 (12L;11R). Sloping 1 in date. Very clear ribs of the lion. Loop of Ribbon: Small. Y in COMPANY below berry. Ribbon Ends: Pointed. 3 leaves in Wreath tip leaves.

Weight: 6.69g [6.47g]. Diameter: 26.20 mm. Mint: Calcutta.

Note: Berries: 24 (13L;11R). Flat 1 in date. Very clear ribs of the lion. Loop of Ribbon: Smallest. Y in COMPANY below berry. Ribbon Ends: Forked. 3 leaves in Wreath tip leaves.

Same as above coin, but slightly rotated as shown.

Weight: 6.47g [6.47g].

Weight: 6.23g [6.47g]. Diameter: 25.50 mm. Mint: Madras.

Note: Berries: 17 (8L;9R). Sloping 1 in date. Not clear ribs of the lion. Loop of Ribbon: Small. Y in COMPANY above berry. Ribbon Ends: Pointed. 3 leaves in Wreath tip leaves.

Weight: 6.40g [6.47g]. Diameter: 25.50 mm. Mint: Madras.

Note: Berries: 18 (9L;9R). Sloping 1 in date. Not clear ribs of the lion. Loop of Ribbon: Small. Y in COMPANY above berry. Ribbon Ends: Pointed. 3 leaves in Wreath tip leaves.

KM#447.1 Half Anna. Year: 1835. Weight: 12.72g [12.95g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 29.70 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Bombay. Obverse: Arms of the Company. Date between the scroll and the ribbon. The motto on the ribbon: AUSP: REG: & SEN: ANG: Reverse: The value within a wreath of laurel: ONE ANNA. Between the tips of the wreath is the value in Persian (Do pai = two pice). Around this the legend: EAST INDIA COMPANY. Mintage: 8,658,092. Mintage Years: One year type with 1845 dated at Calcutta. This coin has slightly larger legends.
Note: Bombay coin size is 29.5 to 30.5 mm, Calcutta 30.8 mm and Madras 30.7 to 31.2 mm. Normal and wider rim exists for all these three mints. Calcutta mint has reeded edge with beaded rim while Bombay and Madras have plain edge with plain border.

Same as below coin, but...

Dark in colour. Slightly reduced legends.

Weight: 12.99g [12.95g]. Diameter: 30.50 mm.

Same as below coin but...

One side is slightly rotated as shown.

Weight: 12.84g [12.95g]. Diameter: 30.50 mm.

 

 

Differences in Quarter Rupee 1835 coins:

  • Types:
    • Bombay Mint: No initial on neck with 20 berries. ANNA word in Hindi. Mintage: 5,759,761.
    • Calcutta Mint: RS on neck with 20 berries. ANNA word with Hindi or Persian. Mintage: 921,840.
    • Calcutta Mint: F incuse or F relief on neck, 20, 19, 18 or 10 berries exists. Mintage: 9,841,680.
  • Date numeral:  The date numerals may be small or large.
  • Language of value: The word: ANNA may be in Hindi or Persian for 20 berries issues only.
  • Dot after date: There may or may not be a dot after the date.
  • The number of berries in wreath may vary: 20 (10L;10R), 19 (10L;9R), 18 (10L;8R) or 10 (6L;4R). Bombay mint contains only 20 berries while Calcutta mint has all four varieties.
  • Initials on bust: There may or may not be initials in the centre of the truncation of the bust. Initials on bust can be R.S, F incuse or F relief.

Note: The quarter rupees were proclaimed current at the same time as the rupees in September 1835.

KM#448.6 Quarter Rupee. Year: 1835. Weight: 2.75g [2.92g]. Metal: 0.917 Silver. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: The value in English and Persian (Chahar ana = Four annas): RUPEE Within a wreath of laurel. Around this the legend: EAST INDIA COMPANY 1835. 18 berries (10L;8R). Reverse: Head of the King facing right. Divided legend: WILLIAM IIII, KING. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: The type should have in obverse side "F" in relief truncation, which could not be detected.

Same as above coin with 18 berries. Could not detect the F in relief truncation. Weight 2.83g.
 

Differences in Half Rupee 1835 coins:

  • Types:
    • Bombay Mint: No initial on neck with 20 berries. Mintage: 3,572,756.
    • Calcutta Mint: RS on neck with 21 berries. Mintage: 521,380.
    • Calcutta Mint: F incuse or F relief on neck, 21, 20 or 19 berries exists. Mintage: 6,700,099.
  • The number of berries in wreath may vary: 21 (11L;10R), 20 (10L;10R) and 19 (9L;10R). Bombay mint contains only 20 berries while Calcutta mint has all three varieties.
  • Initials on bust: There may or may not be initials in the centre of the truncation of the bust. Initials on bust can be R.S, F incuse or F relief.

Note: The half rupees were proclaimed current at the same time as the rupees in September 1835.

KM#449.1 Half Rupee. Year: 1835. Weight: 5.70g [5.83g]. Metal: 0.917 Silver. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal but reverse side is slightly rotated showing the bust downwards. Mint: Bombay. Obverse: The value in English and Persian (Hasht ana = Eight annas): HALF RUPEE Within a wreath of laurel. Around this the legend: EAST INDIA COMPANY 1835. 20 berries (10L;10R). Reverse: Head of the King facing right. Surrounded by the divided legend: WILLIAM IIII, KING. Mintage: 3,572,756. Mintage Years: One year type.
 
Some of the features to distinguish the types in William IV Rupees.
 
Rupees were authorized by Act XVII, dated 17th August 1835, and details were announced by proclamation dated 2nd September 1835. With the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837, a new act, XXXI, 1837, suspended those parts of Act XVII, 1835 that referred to the issue of the coins with the effigy of the reigning monarch. Rupees dated 1835 were issued from September 1835 until November 1840, when a proclamation announced the restoration of Act XVII.

They were only issued from the mints of Bombay and Calcutta, although there is an official return from the Madras mint claiming a mintage of 1.2 million rupees bearing the date 1835. Designs for both the obverse and reverse were prepared at Calcutta. The initials on the truncation of the neck refer to the mint masters at Calcutta: RS = Robert Saunders (07.04.1826 to 04.01.1836), and F = William Forbes (05.01.1836 to 23.01.1855). Coins bearing the initials F and RS can definitely be attributed to Calcutta. Pridmore states that the ratio of 'F' to 'plain' rupees is approximately 2:1 and, since the ratio of actual coins struck also occurs at this ratio, it is fair to assume that the 'plain' bust belongs to Bombay.

The major die varieties are fairly easy to identify. However, there have been a number of observations recording very small differences, particularly referring to the mid-veins (or ribs) on various leaves in the reverse wreath by various collectors.

Initials: None

Initials: F relief

Initials: F incuse

Initials: R.S.

 

Bud style.

Two leaves Style Leaf group: The second inner leaf group at the top right of the wreath may look like a flower bud or like two leaves. It is above E in ONE.

Wreath end very near.

Wreath end near. Wreath Ends: The distance between the ends of the wreath can vary.

No Extra Berry.

Extra Berry. Extra berry: There may be an extra berry in the gap between the leaves under the 2nd I of INDIA.

The gap between N and leaf tip are near.

The gap between N and leaf tip are far. Gap between Wreath & N: The gap between the right corner of the N in COMPANY, and the leaf tip and berry in the wreath, can vary.
 

KM#450.1 Rupee. Year: 1835. Weight: 11.40g [11.66g]. Metal: 0.917 Silver. Diameter: 30.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Bombay. Obverse: The value in English and Persian: ONE RUPEE. All within a wreath of laurel. Around this the legend: EAST INDIA COMPANY 1835. All within a raised, toothed rim. Reverse: Head of the King facing right. Surrounded by the divided legend: WILLIAM IIII, KING. All within a raised, toothed border. No initial on truncation. Mintage: 53,713,502. Mintage Years: One year type.

The above coin has Two leaves in leaf group, Wreath end near, Extra Berry with gap between N and leaf tip are far. This coin also exists in thin legends.

KM#450.2 Rupee. Year: 1835. Weight: 11.51g [11.66g]. Metal: 0.917 Silver. Diameter: 30.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: The value in English and Persian: ONE RUPEE. All within a wreath of laurel. Around this the legend: EAST INDIA COMPANY 1835. All within a raised, toothed rim. Reverse: Head of the King facing right. Surrounded by the divided legend: WILLIAM IIII, KING. All within a raised, toothed border. Raised F initial on truncation. Mintage: 93,329,258 (including F incuse, RS incuse and No initial with thin legends). Mintage Years: One year type.

The above coin has Bud in leaf group, Wreath end very near, No Extra Berry with gap between N and leaf tip are near. Note: Thin dots in Persian one Rupee.

KM#450.3 Rupee. Year: 1835. Weight: 11.37g [11.66g]. Metal: 0.917 Silver. Diameter: 30.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: The value in English and Persian: ONE RUPEE. All within a wreath of laurel. Around this the legend: EAST INDIA COMPANY 1835. All within a raised, toothed rim. Reverse: Head of the King facing right. Surrounded by the divided legend: WILLIAM IIII, KING. All within a raised, toothed border. F incuse initial on truncation. Mintage: N/A (see above). Mintage Years: One year type.

The above coin has Bud in leaf group, Wreath end near, No Extra Berry with gap between N and leaf tip are far.

KM#450.4 Rupee. Year: 1835. Weight: 11.36g [11.66g]. Metal: 0.917 Silver. Diameter: 30.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: The value in English and Persian: ONE RUPEE. All within a wreath of laurel. Around this the legend: EAST INDIA COMPANY 1835. All within a raised, toothed rim. Reverse: Head of the King facing right. Surrounded by the divided legend: WILLIAM IIII, KING. All within a raised, toothed border. RS initial on truncation. Mintage: 15,758,812. Mintage Years: One year type.

The above coin has Bud in leaf group, Wreath end very near, Extra Berry with gap between N and leaf tip are far. Note: This coin also exists in thin legends as KM#450.7. The above mintage includes both Thick and thin legends.

 
 
Coinage during Queen Victoria
1840
 
Differences in Quarter Rupee 1840 continuous legend coins:
  • KM#453.1 => Diameter: 19.5 mm. Mint: Bombay. Obverse: English head. Mintage: 10,617,480.
  • KM#453.2 => Diameter:  19.3 mm. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: English head. Reverse: With crescent on left ribbon bow, 20 berries. Mintage: 12,994,320.
  • KM#453.3 => Diameter:  19.6 mm. Mint: Madras. Obverse: English head.with S incuse on truncation. Reverse: “v” on right ribbon bow, 20 berries. Mintage: 6,450,480.
  • KM#453.4 => Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: “Indian” head with thinner features. Reverse: 34 berries. Mintage: including above type.

KM#453.1 Quarter Rupee. Year: 1840. Weight: 2.90g [2.92g]. Metal: 0.917 Silver. Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Bombay. Obverse: The value in English and Persian (Chahar ana = four annas): ¼ RUPEE within a wreath of laurel. Around this the legend and date: EAST INDIA COMPANY 1840. 20 Berries (10L; 10R). Crossbar of the Numeral 4 in Serif; pointing north upwards in Value. Dot after Date. Reverse: Head of the Queen facing left. Continuous legend: VICTORIA QUEEN. Mintage: 10,617,480. Mintage Years: One year type with some varieties.

Differences in Quarter Rupee 1840 divided legend coins:

Initials on bust:

  • Mule coin having divided legends with 34 berries. Mint: Bombay & Calcutta. Mintage: 40,532.
  • W.W. - [Bombay and Calcutta mints and slightly larger ones by Madras mint]. Mintage: Calcutta: 32,012,400 and Bombay: 8,519,480. This coin exists as Plain 4 and Crosslet 4 in Value from both mints.
  • W.W.S - [Madras mint] - Total Mintage for Madras (including this and below type: 13,663,510.
  • W.W.B  [Madras mint]

As with the rupee, the quarter rupee dies had to be modified by Calcutta after the originals had been received from London in 1849. Again, distinction between coins struck at Bombay and Calcutta is not possible although Pridmore has raised the possibility that the coins with a Serif on the 4 in the date may be from Bombay and Sans Serif for Calcutta. There is no evidence to support this. The tiny crescent mark on the bow is usually quite clearly visible on some Serif variety. Madras mint coins have no Dot after date, Serif Cross-bar of 4 and no Crescent on the bow of the ribbon.

KM#454.2 Quarter Rupee. Year: 1840. Weight: 2.83g [2.92g]. Metal: 0.917 Silver. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: The value in English and Persian (Chahar ana = four annas): ¼  RUPEE within a wreath of laurel. Around this the legend and date: EAST INDIA COMPANY 1840. Reverse: Head of the Queen facing left. Divided legend: VICTORIA QUEEN. Mintage: 32,012,400. Mintage Years: One year type and some plain and reeded edge variety exists for 1849.
Note: W.W. truncation mark on the above coin. No Dot after date, Cross-bar of 4 in Sans serif pointing eastwards and No Crescent. All coins dated 1840 without dot after date have obverse legend "Victoria Queen" divided.

 

Differences in Half Rupee 1840 Continuous legends coins:

  • Types:
    • Bombay Mint: No initial on neck. English head. No privy mark on bow. Dot after date. Mintage: 9,844,380.
    • Calcutta Mint: Mintage: 8,049,420 for both types indicated below.
      • No initial on neck. English head. Crescent privy mark on bow. Dot after date.
      • No initial on neck. Indian head. Thinner features. Crescent privy mark on bow. Dot after date.
    • Madras Mint: No initial on neck. English head. Probably visible v privy mark on bow. Dot after date. Mintage: 1,874,420.
    • Madras Mint: S initial on neck. English head. v privy mark on bow. Dot after date. Mintage: 1,874,420.
  • Diameter:
    • Bombay Mint: 24.5 - 24.6 mm. Restrikes are an exception to this, often having the diameter of the Bombay mint (where they were actually struck) but having the design of another mint.
    • Calcutta Mint: 24.2 - 24.4 mm.
    • Madras mint: 24.7 - 24.9 mm.
  • Initials on bust: There may or may not be initials on the truncation of the bust. The only Initial is S incuse and so far no specimen is traced.
  • Style: The bust may have an English or Indian appearance. The most notable distinguishing feature is the nose.
  • Privy mark on Bow: There may be a crescent or a v on the ribbon bow (images shown below under Rupee coins). Only one specimen is found having the crescent.
  • Dot after date: There is usually a dot after the date. Occasionally this dot is missing and are considered MULE or rare samples.

Specimens of a half rupee were submitted for approval on 25th February 1842, and these were received on 15th March. As with the rupees, differences such as Indian / English heads or presence or absence of crescent on ribbon on reverse, are often difficult to identify.

KM#455.1 Half Rupee. Year: 1840. Weight: 5.58g [5.83g]. Metal: 0.917 Silver. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Bombay. Obverse: The value in English and Persian (Hasht ana = eight annas): HALF RUPEE Within a wreath of laurel. Around this the legend: EAST INDIA COMPANY 1840. Reverse: Head of the Queen facing left. Surrounded by a continuous legend: VICTORIA QUEEN. Mintage: 9,844,380. Mintage Years: One year type with various varieties and mints.

Note: No initials found as usually. English head. No privy mark on Bow. There is dot after date.

 
Some of the features to distinguish the types in Queen Victoria Rupees.
 
Victoria had acceded to the throne in 1837 but the Calcutta Mint was not able to start work on dies bearing the head of the new Queen until 1838, and even this work was superseded by the arrival of the obverse matrix die in 03rd April 1839, prepared under the inspection of Mr Boulton of Birmingham. This die proved to be the wrong size and more work was required so that coins were not issued until 1840. Meanwhile the Bombay Mint saw an opportunity to re-establish to some extent, their independence from Calcutta and produced a pattern for the new rupee coinage. The engraver of the die is not certainly known but may have been Jewram Shamji, who was employed at the mint as a die-cutter and also an engraver. Five specimens were sent to Calcutta in February 1839, but the design was rejected by the Governor General who was awaiting dies from England.

The new rupees were announced by proclamation dated 18.11.1840. This stated that from and after 11th November for Calcutta and from and after 1.4.1841 for Bombay and Madras, the coins would bear the effigy of Queen Victoria. Striking of the coins continued for a number of years until the matrix dies became worn. A new design, the so-called 'divided legend' type, was prepared by William Wyon and began to be used in Calcutta in 1850 and Bombay and Madras in 1851. The obverse die for the Victorian coinage originated from a matrix die prepared in England under the inspection of Mr. Boulton. This required some local modifications, which were undertaken at Calcutta and then shipped to Bombay and Madras. Some coins bear the initial S on the truncation of the neck, and this is attributed to J. T. Smith, who was master of the mint at Madras from February 1840 to September 1855. Coins with the S initial on the bust, therefore, can be attributed to Madras. In addition, Pridmore uses two privy marks to assign coins to the various mints. Some coins have a tiny crescent on the left part of the ribbon bow on the reverse. These he assigns to Calcutta. However, this mark is very difficult to see. Some coins have a tiny v on the right part of the ribbon, and these he attributes to Madras. Again, this mark is so tiny that it is difficult to see. However, using these marks it is possible to determine that the diameter of the coins is an easier guide to the mint of manufacture. Coins of 31.1 to 31.4 mm come from Calcutta; 31.6 to 31.7 mm from Bombay; and 31.8 to 32.3 mm from Madras. As stated above, the crescent on the bow on the reverse (see below), because it is in relief, is often worn away, so its absence can be due to wear. However, this feature has been included in the main part of the catalogue because Pridmore has established it. The distinction between 'Indian' and 'English' heads is not easy to see, with the shape of the nose probably being the best comparator (see pictures of obverse varieties). There are a number of minor 'varieties' that have not been included in the catalogue, such as reverse varieties identified by presence and absence of leaf veins, simply because these minute differences are very hard to identify. All these differences make the varieties difficult to distinguish one from another. The simplest approach is probably to start with diameter and identify the mint. This can then be followed by each of the features in the tables showing obverse and reverse varieties. Proof restrikes were all struck at the Bombay Mint and therefore diameters may not match design varieties.

M incuse variety of calcutta mint with 35 berries, sometimes appears like 'I' instead of 'M' incuse because the die became worn out as the large number of coins were minted continuously with this die.

 

No initial

NO IMAGE AVAILABLE

S initial

Crescent Privy Mark (Highlighted)

v Privy Mark (Highlighted)

No Privy Mark

M incuse on left ribbon end

Large Date Digits. Note the 0 and serif on cross-bar of 4.

Small Date Digits. Note the 0 and no serif on cross-bar of 4.

Bud above E in ONE

Two Leaves above E in ONE

34 Berries (Highlighted). 19 left and 15 right. Arrow shows the location of a special berry.

34 Berries (Highlighted). 19 left and 15 right. Arrow shows the location of a special berry left of O in ONE.

35 berries variety coin contains both of these special berries.

English Head

Indian Head Various small difference exits like the nose style, bottom of the bust, the neck alignment, the floating curl, forehead style, etc.


2 mm distance on the left side of the bust  from the rim.
 

1 mm distance on the left side of the bust  from the rim.

No Hair on Ribbon

Hair on Ribbon

NO IMAGES AVAILABLE

There may or may not be diagonal ridges on the top right and the bottom ribbons. The lock of hair may or may not cross the ridge on the bottom ribbon.

NO IMAGES AVAILABLE

 
 
Rupee. Year: 1840. Weight: 11.66g. Metal: 0.917 Silver. Diameter: 31.10 - 32.20 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. Obverse: The value in English and Persian (Yek Rupiya = One rupee): ONE RUPEE. All within a wreath of laurel. Around this the legend and date: EAST INDIA COMPANY 1840. All within a raised, toothed rim. Reverse: The head of the Queen facing left. Continuous legend: VICTORIA QUEEN on the top of the bust.

Below are the various varieties recorded on continuous legend of VICTORIA QUEEN:

  • Bombay Mint [Diameter = 31.6 - 31.7 mm, Total Mintage = 109,838,073] - 3 types
    • Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 2mm, Lock of Hair: No, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 19 (10L;9R), Leaf group: Two Leaves, Privy Mark: None, Date Digits: Large.
    • Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 2mm, Lock of Hair: No, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 19 (10L;9R), Leaf group: Bud, Privy Mark: None, Date Digits: Large.
    • Ridges on Ribbon: Present, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 1mm, Lock of Hair: Yes, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 35 (20L;15R), Leaf group: Two Leaves, Privy Mark: None, Date Digits: Small.
  • Calcutta Mint [Diameter = 31.1 - 31.4 mm, Total Mintage = 179,934,670] - 10 types
    • Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 2mm, Lock of Hair: Yes, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 34 (19L;15R bead by ONE), Leaf group: Two Leaves, Privy Mark: Crescent, Date Digits: Small.
    • Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 2mm, Lock of Hair: Yes, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 19 (10L;9R), Leaf group: Two Leaves, Privy Mark: None, Date Digits: Large. (this type are in Proof only - rare).
    • Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 2mm, Lock of Hair: Yes, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 19 (10L;9R), Leaf group: Bud, Privy Mark: None (Crescent may be worn away?), Date Digits: Large.
    • Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 2mm, Lock of Hair: No, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 19 (10L;9R), Leaf group: Two Leaves, Privy Mark: None (Crescent may be worn away?), Date Digits: Large.
    • Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 2mm, Lock of Hair: No, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 19 (10L;9R), Leaf group: Bud, Privy Mark: Crescent, Date Digits: Large. Diameter: 31.60 mm.
    • Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 2mm, Lock of Hair: No, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 34 (19L;15R bead by ONE), Leaf group: Two Leaves, Privy Mark: Crescent, Date Digits: Small. (in Proof only - rare)
    • Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 1mm, Lock of Hair: Yes, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 35 (20L;15R), Leaf group: Two Leaves, Privy Mark: None, Date Digits: Small.
    • Ridges on Ribbon: Present, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 1mm, Lock of Hair: Yes, Head Type: Indian. Berries in wreath: 35 (20L;15R), Leaf group: Two Leaves, Privy Mark: Crescent, Date Digits: Small. (Proof types also exits and are considered rare).
    • Ridges on Ribbon: Present, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 1mm, Lock of Hair: Yes, Head Type: Indian. Berries in wreath: 34 (19L;15R bead by ONE), Leaf group: Two Leaves, Privy Mark: Crescent, Date Digits: Small. (in Proof only - rare)
    • Ridges on Ribbon: Present, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 1mm, Lock of Hair: Yes, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 35 (20L;15R), Leaf group: Two Leaves, Privy Mark: Crescent, Date Digits: Small.
  • Madras Mint [Diameter = 31.8 - 32.3 mm, Total Mintage = 21,898,181] - 6 types
    • Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 2mm, Lock of Hair: No, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 19 (10L;9R), Leaf group: Two Leaves, Privy Mark: v, Date Digits: Large.
    • Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: S, Point of Bust: 2mm, Lock of Hair: No, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 19 (10L;9R), Leaf group: Two Leaves, Privy Mark: v, Date Digits: Large.
    • Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: S, Point of Bust: 2mm, Lock of Hair: No, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 19 (10L;9R), Leaf group: Two Leaves, Privy Mark: None, Date Digits: Large. (Proof types also exits and are considered rare).
    • Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: S, Point of Bust: 2mm, Lock of Hair: No, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 20 (10L;10R), Leaf group: Bud, Privy Mark: None, Date Digits: Large or Small ?.
    • Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: S, Point of Bust: 1mm, Lock of Hair: Yes, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 35 (20L;15R), Leaf group: Two Leaves, Privy Mark: None, Date Digits: Small.
    • Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: S, Point of Bust: 1mm, Lock of Hair: Yes, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 34 (19L;15R lower bead type), Leaf group: Two Leaves, Privy Mark: None, Date Digits: Small.

KM#457.3  Mint: Bombay. Diameter: 31.7 mm. Weight: 11.49g.

Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 2mm, Lock of Hair: No, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 19 (10L;9R), Leaf group: Bud, Privy Mark: None, Date Digits: Large.

Small diamonds in Persian legend. Surprising there is a dot between C and Queen Victoria's eye.

KM#457.4  Mint: Bombay. Diameter: 31.7 mm. Weight: 11.28g.

Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 2mm, Lock of Hair: No, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 19 (10L;9R), Leaf group: Bud, Privy Mark: None, Date Digits: Large.

Large diamonds in Persian legend. Unknown countermark "B" on Queen Victoria's bust.

KM#457.7  Mint: Madras. Diameter: 31.9 mm. Weight: 11.59g.

Ridges on Ribbon: None, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 2mm, Lock of Hair: No, Head Type: English. Berries in wreath: 19 (10L;9R), Leaf group: Bud, Privy Mark: v, Date Digits: Large.

Unlisted type as this coin has Bud instead of Two Leaves.

KM#457.11 Mint: Calcutta. Diameter: 31.2 mm. Weight: 11.55g.

Ridges on Ribbon: Present, Initials on bust: None, Point of Bust: 1mm, Lock of Hair: Yes, Head Type: Indian. Berries in wreath: 34 (19L;15R lower bead type), Leaf group: Two Leaves, Privy Mark: Crescent, Date Digits: Small (Note the 0 and no serif on cross-bar of 4).

Unlisted type as Privy Mark: Crescent, 34 berries (lower bead type instead of bead by ONE) and M incuse on left ribbon end.

 
When Wyon's new matrices for the silver coinage reached India in December 1849, work began immediately on preparing the dies. However, problems were encountered with the convexity of the reverse and this prevented the obverse being fully raised. New reverse dies were therefore prepared, copied from Wyon's originals, and were completed in May 1850. The coins continued to show the fixed date of 1840. Dies were sent to Bombay on 11th February 1851 and to Madras on 17th June 1851. Madras coins are most easily distinguished by the presence of extra initials added after W.W. on the truncation of the neck (W.W.S for J. T. Smith, W.W.B for J.H. Bell? and W.W.BO for T. Boycott?). It is interesting to note that the diameter of coins with the extra initial, and therefore from Madras, is 30.7-30.8mm, as opposed to 30.5-30.6mm for most coins with the simple W.W. initials. However, there are a small number of coins with the W.W. initials that have a diameter of 30.7mm. This would suggest that an extra initial was not added to all Madras coins, and that diameter should be used to distinguish the Madras coins from those struck at Bombay and Calcutta, and that mint attribution should not rely solely on the presence or absence of the extra initial. Therefore, an extra coin has been added to the catalogue. NB Total Mintage = 767m. Calcutta = 399m [398,553,660] (52%), Bombay = 313m [312,598,076] (41%), Madras = 55m [55,049,201] (7%). Of the coins examined, those with diameter 30.5-30.6 = 54 coins (90%), diameter 30.7-30.8 = 6 coins (10%). These figures support the assertion that the coins with diameter 30.5-30.6 are those from Calcutta plus Bombay and the larger coins are from Madras.
No marks have been identified to conclusively distinguish Calcutta minted coins from those struck at Bombay, although some possible features have been suggested such as the presence or absence of a raised mid-vein on the leaf to the left of the ribbon on the reverse. The mints usually made their privy marks clearer than this and the argument for this as the distinguishing mark seems unconvincing. The shading on the ribbon on the reverse recorded by Pridmore is very difficult to see. This feature has therefore been excluded the catalogue. Many other minute differences can be identified such as differences in the leaf veins. Again these have not been included in the main part of the catalogue since they are too difficult to identify.

Initials on bust:

  • W.W. - [Bombay and Calcutta mints and slightly larger ones by Madras mint]
  • W.W.S - [Madras mint]
  • W.W.B (large B) - [Madras mint]
  • W.W.B (Small B) - [Madras mint]
  • W.W.BO - [Madras mint]
  • W.W.B. (dot after B) - [Madras mint]

On both issues, the "S" is the initial of Major, later Lt. Col. J. T. Smith, mintmaster at Madras from February 1840 to September 1855. The "B" which occurs only on Rupees of Type II, is the initial of Major, later Lt. Col. J. H. Bell (mintmaster at Madras, 1855-1859). The initials WW which appears on all coins of Type II, are those of William Wyon. Chief Engraver of the Royal Mint, London, who prepare obverse design in 1849.

KM#458.2 Rupee. Year: 1840. Weight: 11.52g [11.66g]. Metal: 0.917 Silver. Diameter: 30.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: The value within a wreath of laurel: ONE RUPEE Around this is the legend and date: EAST INDIA COMPANY 1840 All within a raised, toothed rim. 28 berries with large diamonds in Persian One Rupee. Reverse: "Victoria Queen" divided by bust facing left. Mintage: 398,553,660 (including small diamond varirty). Mintage Years: One year type with various varieties including Bombay mint. 1849 date also exits as KM#458.8.

Note: 28 berries (13 on left and 15 on right). KM#458.1 with small diamonds in Persian legends also exits.

Note: Same as above coin but the Queen Victoria bust side shows some cracks, probably produced on broken die.

 
1841
 

Differences in Two Annas 1841 coins:

  • Types:
    • Bombay Mint: .W.W (Bombay mint has dot before the Ws) initials on bust. Mintage: 8,427,040.
    • Calcutta Mint: W.W. initials on bust. Mintage: 43,002,080.
    • Madras Mint: S.W.W initials on bust. Mintage: 26,930,380.
  • Diameter:
    • Bombay Mint: 15.7 mm.
    • Calcutta Mint: 15.3 mm.
    • Madras mint: 15.7 mm.
  • The number of berries in wreath may vary: 16 (?L;?R), 10 (6L;4R), 9 (5L;4R), 8 (4L;4R). Bombay mint contains 9 or 10 berries, Calcutta mint contains 9 or 16 berries and Madras has 8 or 9 berries.
  • Dot after date: There may or may not be a dot after the date.

Note: As with the rupee, the two anna dies had to be modified by Calcutta after the originals had been received from London in 1849.

KM#460.2 Two Annas. Year: 1841. Weight: 1.41g [1.46g]. Metal: 0.917 Silver. Diameter: 15.30 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: The value in English and Persian (= Do ana = two annas): TWO ANNAS. All within a wreath of laurel. Around this the legend: EAST INDIA COMPANY 1841. Reverse: Head of the Queen facing left. Divided legend: VICTORIA QUEEN. Mintage: 43,002,080. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: W.W. initial on truncation. No dot after date. 9 Berries (5L;4R).

Same as above coin with weight 1.38g.
 
1845
 
Note: Between 1835 and 1844 copper coins continued to be issued in the style of those of William IV, and continued to be dated 1835 (see above William IV).  Bombay had continued to strike coins in the pre 1835 style (i.e. with the scales design) and it was not until 1844 that the design was standardized throughout the EIC territories. However, the coins issued by the Bombay Mint were dated 1835 in line with those from the Madras Mint. In January 1845 permission was granted for the Calcutta mint to strike half annas. These coins were dated 1845 and the mint continued to issue them with this fixed date until 1860.

KM#447.1 Half Anna. Year: 1845. Weight: 12.95g [12.95g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 31.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: Arms of the Company. Date between the scroll and the ribbon. The motto on the ribbon: AUSP: REG: & SEN: ANG: Reverse: The value within a wreath of laurel: HALF ANNA. Between the tips of the wreath is the value in Persian (Do pai = Two Pice). Around this is the legend: EAST INDIA COMPANY. Mintage: 7,788,197 (crossbar of the Numeral 4 in Serif; pointing north upwards). Mintage Years: 1835 and 1845.

KM#447.1 Half Anna. Year: 1845. Weight: 12.14g [12.95g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 29.70 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: Arms of the Company. Date between the scroll and the ribbon. The motto on the ribbon: AUSP: REG: & SEN: ANG: Reverse: The value within a wreath of laurel: HALF ANNA. Between the tips of the wreath is the value in Persian (Do pai = Two Pice). Around this is the legend: EAST INDIA COMPANY. Mintage: 9,371,813 (crossbar of the Numeral 4 in San Serif; pointing straight east). Mintage Years: 1835 and 1845.
 
1853
 
In 1848, in response to the Court of Directors request that copper coin be superseded by silver fractions of a rupee, the Government of India produced a report that included, inter alia, reference to the fact that cowrie shells still passed current for small purchases in Bengal. The Directors, having read this report, then revised their earlier view and suggested that a further copper denomination of half pice should be added to the coinage for use in Bengal. The Government of India agreed to this and coinage started at the Calcutta mint in 1853, which is the fixed date shown on the obverse of the coin.

KM#464 Half Pice. Year: 1853. Weight: 3.16g [3.23g]. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Calcutta. Obverse: Arms of the Company, with the date between the scroll and the ribbon. The ribbon bears the abbreviated Latin motto: AUSP: REG: & SEN: ANG:. Reverse: The value within a laurel wreath: PICE. Around this is the legend: EAST INDIA COMPANY. Mintage: 62,408,000. Mintage Years: One year type.
 
1858
 
The inability of the Indian mints to meet the enormous demand for coins led to a request for copper coins to be struck in England. The Royal Mint was unable to meet these requirements and contracts were placed with Ralph Heaton & Sons and with James Watt & Co. for the supply of quarter annas. Dies for the coinage were prepared in the Royal Mint.
  • 1857 Quarter Anna coins produced by Soho Mint in July 1857. Mintage: 47,040,000. The tips of the leaves may be formed from double leaves or single leaves. This is most obvious at the tips of the wreath.
  • 1858 Quarter Anna coins produced by James Watt & Co., Birmingham in May 1860. Mintage: 62,720,000. The tips of the leaves is formed of a single leaves only. Usually they have large shield.
  • 1858 Quarter Anna coins produced by Ralph Heaton & Sons, Birmingham. Total Mintage: 172,480,000 (October 1859: 54,880,000, May 1860: 62,720,000, April? 1862: 54,880,000). The tips of the leaves is formed of double leaves. Usually they have small shield.

KM#463.1 Quarter Anna. Year: 1858. Weight: 6.05g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: James Watt & Co., Birmingham. Obverse: Arms of the Company, with the date between the scroll and the ribbon. The ribbon bears the abbreviated Latin motto: AUSP: REG: & SEN: ANG: Large Shield with date. Wreath tips are single leaves. Reverse: The value in Persian and English: ONE QUARTER ANNA Within a wreath of laurel. Around this the legend: EAST INDIA COMPANY. Mintage: 62,720,000. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: One of the last coins of East India Company.

KM#463.2 Quarter Anna. Year: 1858. Weight: 6.29g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Ralph Heaton & Sons, Birmingham. Obverse: Arms of the Company, with the date between the scroll and the ribbon. The ribbon bears the abbreviated Latin motto: AUSP: REG: & SEN: ANG: Large Shield with date. Wreath tips are double leaves. Reverse: The value in Persian and English: ONE QUARTER ANNA Within a wreath of laurel. Around this the legend: EAST INDIA COMPANY. Mintage: 172,480,000. Mintage Years: One year type.
 
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