Oman
 
 
The Sultanate of Oman (formerly Muscat and Oman), an independent monarchy located in the southeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Capital: Muscat. Oman was ruled by Umayyads between 661-750, Abbasids between 750-931, 932-933 and 934-967, Qarmatians between 931-932 and between 933-934, Buyids between 967-1053, Seljuks of Kirman between 1053-1154. The economy is based on agriculture, herding and petroleum. Petroleum products, dates, fish and hides are exported. The Portuguese who captured Muscat, the capital and chief port, in 1508, made the first European contact with Muscat and Oman. They occupied the city, utilizing it as a naval base and factory and holding it against land and sea attacks by Arabs and Persians until finally ejected by local Arabs in 1650. It was next occupied by the Persians who maintained control until 1741,when it was taken by Ahmed ibn Sa'id of the present ruling family. Muscat and Oman was the most powerful state in Arabia during the first half of the 19th century, until weakened by the persistent attack of interior nomadic tribes. British influence, initiated by the signing of a treaty of friendship with the Sultanate in 1798,remains a dominant fact of the civil and military phases of the government, although Britain recognizes the Sultanate as a sovereign state. Sultan Sa'id bin Taimur was overthrown by his son, Qabus bin Sa'id, on July 23, 1970. The new sultan changed the nation's name to Sultanate of Oman.
 

               c.650        Kings of the Azd clan convert to Islam.
         661 - 1811/1821    Oman (Uman) ruled by the Ibadi community under a leader styled
                            Imam al-Muslimin, a member of the Azd clan.
         697 - 748          Direct rule by the Caliph.
  16 May 893 - 897          Direct rule by the Caliph.
         931 - 932          Rule by the Karmatian heretics (Qaramita).
         933 - 934          Rule by the Karmatian heretics (Qaramita).
         943 - 951          Direct rule by the Caliph
         972 - 1050         Rule by the Iranian Buyid dynasty.
        1053 - 1154         Rule by the Saljuq Turks.
        1154 - 1406         Ruled by Nabhani Kings (style Malik).
        1443 - 1470         Ruled by Nabhani Kings.
 01 Apr 1515 - 26 Jan 1650  Muscat a Portuguese possession (Mascate).
        1550 - 1551         Muscat occupied by the Ottoman Empire.
        1581 - 1588         Muscat occupied by the Ottoman Empire.
      c.1600 - 1624         Ruled by Nabhani Kings.
               1624         Imami rule restored, under Ya`ariba lineage.
        1741 - 1749         Muscat occupied by Persia.
               10 Jun 1749  Al ´Bu Sa`id lineage accedes to the Imamate.
               1784         While Imams rule continues, Muscat and Oman becomes a de facto
                            sovereign state under a secular Al ´Bu Sa`id ruler.
        1800 - 1801         Bahrain occupied by Muscat and Oman.
        1792 - 08 Sep 1958  Gwadar (Gwadur), port enclave in Baluchistan, part of Oman.
                            Ceded to Pakistan on 08 Sep 1958.
               20 Mar 1820  First treaty with Britain.
 14 Jul 1854 - 30 Nov 1967  Kuria Muria (Khuryan Muryan) Islands ceded to U.K.
                            (from 1 Apr 1937 under Aden [Yemen] to 1963; from 1963 under
                            the chief political resident of the Persian Gulf
                            of the Persian Gulf [at Bahrain] [included the islands of
                            Hasikiya, Sawda, Hallaniya, and Qibliya]).

                         04 May 1855  Second treaty with Britain.
               06 Apr 1861  Separation of Zanzibar from Oman and style Sultan recognized
                            (though not immediately in domestic use) by U.K. mediation.
               03 Oct 1868  Imams rule briefly restored.
               30 Jan 1871  Sultanate of Muscat and Oman restored.
 20 Mar 1891 - 02 Dec 1971  British protectorate over Muscat and Oman (under the chief
                            political resident of the Persian Gulf; see under Bahrain).
 24 May 1913 - 11 Aug 1957  Imami government in the interior of Oman, usually in
                            opposition to the sultan's rule.
 09 Jun 1965 - 11 Dec 1975  Secessionist rebellion in Dhofar (Zufar).
               09 Aug 1970  Sultanate of Oman
 
  • 'AD
  • An ancient district in what is now southwestern Oman, running from the sea up into the Dhofar Mountains and thence to the edge of the Rub` al-Khali. In the highlands are to be found scattered groves of the frankincense tree, source of what some regard as the finest of aromatic incenses. The region may also be roughly the locale where camels were first domesticated. 'Ad is known as the tribal Kingdom in which lay the city of Ubar, a major transshipment point for the frankincense trade in ancient times. Kingdom of 'Ad Existed as a tribal state from perhaps 900 BCE to perhaps 500 CE. Claudius Ptolemy's (2nd Cent. CE) Geographos refers to the place by a Hellenized version of the inhabitants of the chief city: the Iobaritae (Ubar).
  • Ad ibn Kin'ad.........................................fl. 10th cent. BCE ?
  • Unknown rulers
  • al-Dahn ?
  • Khuljan...............................................fl. 4th or 3rd cent. BCE ?
  • Unknown rulers
  • Shaddad...............................................fl. 4th, 5th, or 6th cent. CE ?
  • Sometime between 300 and 600 CE the 'Adid state seems to have crumbled, due in large measure to a natural catastrophe which seems to have destroyed much of Ubar, but also owing to increasing pressure from the Kingdom of Hadramaut (and after c. 290 CE, of Himyar) and, oddly enough, the rise of Christianity (in which burial customs shifted, leaving a far smaller market for frankincense).
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................650 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................750 - c. 1000
  • Local sheikhdoms and petty emirates..................c. 1000 - c. 1500
  • Badr ibn Tuwariq...............................................fl. c. 1500
  • Portugal................................................1508 - 1649
  • Within Oman thereafter...
  • In the immediate district there resides a local tribe, the Shahra, who still collect frankincense, use among themselves a language very different from Arabic, and regard themselves as a people to be descendents of 'Ad.
  • Kingdom of Makan c.2200-c. 550 BCE. The Sumerians referred to Oman as "Makan". It was a primary source of copper for Mesopotamia throughout the Bronze Age. At this time the names of the kings of Makan are mostly undocumented.
  • Manium........................................................late 2200's BCE
  • Unknown rulers
  • Pade (in Izki-Qade, in the interior)..........................fl. c. 640
  • Taharka.......................................................early 600's
  • Unknown rulers
  • Persia...........................................6th, 5th, and 4th cent. BCE
    • Artabazus.................................................early 400's
  • MASCAT
  • Banu KAHTAN
  • Himyar Azangadjar ben Abd al-Shams....................c. 370 - c. 348
  • Malik ben Himyar......................................c. 348 - c. 320
  • --- ben Malik.........................................c. 320 - c. 300
  • Saqsaq
  • Yasar
  • An-Numan
  • Asma
  • Shaddad ben Ad.................................................c. 200
  • Luqman ben Ad
  • Zu-Shadakh ben Ad
  • Persia after about c. 140 BCE
  • generally unknown sequence.........................130's BCE - 635 CE
  • QALHAT
  • al-'AZDI
  • Malik ibn Fahm...........................................200's CE ? followed by...
  • Honat ibn Malik and...
  • Selim ibn Malik
  • The region was inhabited by local Semitic populations who formed several tribal Kingdoms (for example, Ad), but otherwise left little mark. The area was no doubt heavily influenced by successive Persian regimes, but periods of actual occupation by Persia are difficult to trace.
  • Sporadic Persian occupations.............................3rd - 7th centuries
  • al-JULANDA The al-Julanda were the first Imams of the radical Ibadi-Khariji sect of Islam which held most of the Omani interior for centuries. The Kharijis began as a fundamentalist sect in Iraq which murdered the Caliph Ali and attempted to murder his rival and successor, Mu'awiyah, because they rejected the premise that any man could be a successor to the Prophet.
  • al-Julanda ibn al-Muntasir............................c. 600 - c. 630
  • Djafar ibn al-Julanda.................................c. 630 - c. 651 with...
  • Abbad I ibn al-Muntasir...............................c. 630 - c.640
  • Abbad II..............................................c. 651 - c. 659
  • Sulayman..............................................c. 659 - 697
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................697 - 750
    • Caliphate governors
    • Sa'id ibn Abbad.....................................fl. early 700's with...
    • Sulayman ibn Abbad..................................fl. early 700's
    • al-Julanda ibn Masud................................748 - 751
  • Imams with an annual term of office......................751 - 791
  • Shaykh Musa ibn Abu Djabar al-Azdi.............................791
  • Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abu Affan al-Azdi....................791 - 792
  • Shaykh al-Waris ibn Ka'ab................................792 - 804
  • Unknown ruler
  • Shaykh Hasan.............................................807 - 823
  • Shaykh Abd al-Malik......................................824 - 840
  • Unknown ruler
  • Shaykh al-Muhanna........................................842 - 851
  • as-Salt ibn Malik al-Azdi................................851 - 887
  • Shaykh Rashid ibn Nasr...................................887 - 890
  • Shaykh al-Azzan..........................................890 - 893
  • Unknown ruler
  • Shaykh Muhammed ibn al-Hasan al-Azdi (1st time)..........897 - 898
  • Azzan ibn Hizr al-Maliki.................................898 - 899
  • Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Haddani.........................899 - 900
  • as-Salt ibn al-Qasim...........................................900
  • Shaykh Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Azdi (2nd time)................900
  • al-Hasan ibn Said al-Shahtani............................900 - 905
  • al-Hawari ibn Masraf al-Haddani..........................905 - 912
  • Umar ibn Muhammad........................................912 - 931
  • Muhammad ibn Yazid al-Kindi..............................932 - 933
  • al-Haqim ibn al Mulla....................................933 - 935
  • Abu'l Qasim Said ibn Abdallah............................936 - 939
  • Rashid ibn al-Wahid......................................939 - 943
  • Unknown ruler
  • Badr ibn Khattal (at Huzu, Iran).........................945 - 946
  • He is known to produce extremely rare silver Dirhams at Huzu in c. AH 334 (945-946). This ruler may not been related to the Julandids. All known coins struck at Huzu are rather well-struck though often found worn or damaged.
  • Abu Muhammad Rizwan ibn Djafar...........................951 - 973
  • He is known to produce very rare silver Dirhams at Huzu in c. AH 338-349 (949-960).
  • Shaykh Ward ibn Ziyad..........................................973
  • Buyids of Iraq...........................................973 - 1050
  • Rashid ibn Said.........................................1050 - 1053
  • Hafs ibn Rashid................................................1053
  • Rashid ibn Ali..........................................1053 - 1055
  • Abu Djaber Musa ibn Musa al-Maali.......................1055 - 1057
  • Unknown ruler
  • Seljuqs of Kirman.......................................1063 - 1116
  • Mohammed ibn Habis......................................1116 - 1119
  • Rashid ibn Ali..........................................1119 - 1130
  • Musa ibn Djaber al-Maali................................1130 - 1154
  • Mohammed ibn Hanbash....................................1154 - 1161
  • Hafs ibn Muhammad.......................................1162 - 1165
  • Disunity. Omani territory represented by several local states, most notably Suhar in the north, and later Nizwa in the central area. The hinterland very thinly occupied, if at all, by nomadic Bedouins.
  • NIZWA
  • A settlement in central Oman, the site of a Kharijite Imamate in later Mediaeval times.
  • al-JULANDA
  • Malik ibn Ali...........................................1406 - 1429
  • Abu'l Hasan Abdallah....................................1430 - 1443/51
  • Umar ibn al-Khattab al-Azdi (1st time)..................1451 - 1452 d. 1489
  • Unknown ruler
  • Umar ibn al-Khattab al-Azdi (2nd time)..................1480 - 1489
  • Muhammad ibn Sulayman...................................1489 - 1491
  • Umar ash-Sharif.........................................1491 - 1492
  • Muhammad ibn Sulayman..........................................1492
  • Ahmad ibn Muhammad ar-Raiki.............................1492 - 1499
  • Abu'l Hasan ibn Abd as-Salam............................1499 - 1500
  • Muhammed ibn Ismail.....................................1500 - 1535
  • Portugal................................................1515 - 1560
  • Portuguese Protectorate imposed on 15 Apr 1515 and expelled on 01 Jan 1650.
    • Baraqat ibn Muhammad (1st time)....................1535 - 1560
    • Abdallah ibn Muhammad.....................................1560
    • Baraqat ibn Muhammad (2nd time)...........................1560
  • Suhar after 1560...
  • SUHAR (SOHAR)
  • A town on the coast of northern Oman, about 135 miles (215 km.) northwest of Mascat.
  • Persia.....................................< 4th century CE - 633
  • The Prophet Muhammad's elected successors...............633 - 661
  • Umayyad Caliphate.......................................661 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate.......................................750 - c. 800
  • al-Julanda Imams.....................................c. 800 - c. 970
  • With the disintegration of Abbasid authority over Oman, local governors began to add their names to the coinage. Two rulers are known for producing very rare silver Dirham coins.
  • Ahmad ibn Hilal......................................c. 903 - c. 918 (AH 290-305)
  • Abd al-Halim ibn Ibrahim.............................c. 925 - c. 926 (AH 313)
  • WAJIHID
  • An Arab dynasty in Oman, originally empowered by Abbasid governors of the region. All coins produced by this dynasty bear the mint name "Uman". Most coins are well-struck though rarely well preserved. They are extremely rare coins.
  • Yusuf ibn Wajih.........................................925 - 943 (AH 314-332)
  • Silver Dirhams are known to be produced from 925 to 936, while gold Dinar from 925 to 943 and silver Dirham from 937 to 943 are with heir Muhammad ibn Yusuf.
  • Muhammad ibn Yusuf...................................c. 943 - 952
  • Gold Dinar and silver Dirham are known to be produced from 943 to 952 on his name.
  • Umar ibn Yusuf.......................................c. 952 - c. 961
  • Extremely rare gold Dinar and silver Dirham are known to be produced from 952 to 961 on his name.
  • Amirs of Oman
  • After the collapse of the Wajihid, various local amirs gained authority over parts of Oman, only one ruler is known to produce some extremely rare silver Dirhams.
  • Hallaj ibn Hatim.....................................c. 978 - c. 982 (AH 358-361)
  • BUYID
  • Fana Khusraw Abu Shuja Adud al-Dawla..................< 972 - 983
  • Buyid overlordship not acknowledged 983-990.
  • Marzuban Abu Kalinjar Samsam al-Dawla ibn Adud al-Dawla.990 - 998
  • He was governor of Khuzistan under his father Adud al-Dawla from 978 to 983. During this time he produced gold Dinars and debased silver Dirhams cite his father as overlord. Samsam al-Dawla became ruler of Iraq from 983 to 987 and produced gold Dinars debased silver Dirhams. Later he became ruler in Fars and Kirman from 990 to 998. He produced silver Dirhams as nominal vassal of Fakhr al-Dawla from 990-997 and later as independent ruler 997-998.
  • Firuz Abu Nasr Baha ad-Dawla ibn Adud al-Dawla..........998 - 1012
  • Ruler of Iraq and Khuzistan from 989-1012 and in Fars from 998. He has produced gold Dinars during all this reign. His Dinars of Suq al-Ahwaz mint are among the most common of all Islamic gold coins, especially those dated AH 398 and 399. Heavily debased Dinars (viruallu pure silver with gold wash) of these two dates are considered imitation or presumably contemporary, though their function remains unknown. Other mints are rare. Baha al-Dawla is cited as overlord on numerous Hasanwayhid, Uqaylid and Marwanid coins in addition to his own coins.
  • Abu Shuja Sultan ad-Dawla ibn Baha al-Dawla............1012 - 1021
  • Ruler of Iraq, Khuzistan and Fars and is known to produce gold Dinar and silver Dirhams.
  • Musharrif al-Dawla.....................................1021 - 1024
  • Coins in the name of Sultan al-Dawla struck in AH 413 (1022) and 414 (1023) are issues of Musharrif al-Dawla (1021-1024), who for diplomatic reasons refrained from placing his own name on the coinage, but continued to recognize the deposed Sultan al-Dawla.  
  • Marzuban Abu Kalijar Imad ad-Din ibn Sultan al-Dawla...1024 - 1048
  • Ruler of Fars and Iraq after 1044. He is known to produce gold Dinar and silver Dirhams.
  • MUKRAMID - Local governors of the Buyids
  • The family of Mukram was briefly independent in Oman. All Mukramid coins are extremely rare and bear the name of "Uman". The billion Dirham coins were carelessly struck on broad flans, and usually occur poorly struck and much worn. The Dinars were relatively well manufactured and rarely exhibit much sign of wear.
    • Abu Muhammad I al-Husayn ibn Mukram............1000/04 - c.1020
    • Ali ibn al-Husayn Abu 'l Qasim Nasir ad-Din.....c.1020 - c.1036
    • Very rare gold Dinar and extremely rare silver Dirham are known to be produced on his name.
    • (Abu'l-Jaysh) Abu'l-Hasan ibn Ali Nasir ad-Din..c.1036 - c.1039
    • Extremely rare gold Dinar are known to be produced from 1036 to 1039 on his name. Omani coins command a large premium due to strong demand in Oman and in the gulf region. They are far more expensive than coins of similar rarity from less avidly collected mints. After Abu'l-Hasan there was no further coinage in Oman until AH1311 (1893-1894). Imported coins were used, mainly from India. 
    • vacant
    • Abu Muhammad II ibn Ali...........................1040 - 1042
  • Under Buyids directly..................................1042 - 1055
  • Unknown rulers
  • NABHANID
  • First capital at Bakhla; later transferred to Suhar.
  • Malik ibn Ali..........................................1106 - ?
  • Abu Muhammed al-Fallah.................................1154 - c. 1170
  • Abu Muhammed Arar.............................................c. 1170
  • Unknown rulers
  • Abu Muhammad al-Muzaffar......................................c. 1250
  • Unknown ruler
  • Abu Maali Kahlan.......................................1262 - 1265
  • Umar...................................................1265 - 1276
  • Hilal..................................................1276 - 1278
  • Khahtan................................................1278 - 1285
  • Unknown ruler
  • Abu Muhammad ibn Habhan.......................................c. 1330
  • Unknown rulers
  • Mahzum ibn al-Fallah................................c. 1380 - c. 1406
  • Unknown ruler
  • Sulayman ibn Sulayman...............................c. 1450 - 1488
  • Ibadi Imams (al-Julanda) at Nizwa......................1488 - 1507
  • Portugal...............................................1507 - 1560
  • Abdullah ibn Muhammad...............................c. 1560 - 1615/1624 with ...
  • Habhan ibn al-Fallah................................c. 1615 - 1617 and then ?
  • Umayr ibn Himyar.......................................1617 - 1624
  • Yarubids (Oman) thereafter...
  • Several coastal points to Portugal......................1508 - 1649
    • Captain-Major Rui Freire de Andrada................1623 - 1633
  • OMAN
  • YARUBI (YA'ARIBA) 
  • Nasr ibn Murshid........................................1625 - 1649
  • Sultan I ibn Saif.......................................1649 - 1669
  • Ab'ul-Arab ibn Sultan...................................1669 - 1692
  • Saif I ibn Sultan "Qayd al-Ard".........................1692 - 15 Oct 1711
  • He was also Imam from 1692 to 15 Oct 1711. He pressed down the East African coast. A major obstacle was Fort Jesus (renamed to Fort Isa), housing the garrison of a Portuguese settlement at Mombasa. After a two-year siege, it fell to Saif in 1698.
  • Sultan II ibn Saif...............................15 Oct 1711 - 1719
  • Saif II ibn Sultan (1st time)...........................1719 - Sep 1724
  • al-Muhanna ibn Sultan ibn Majid (dissident).............1719 - 1720
  • Ya'rub ibn Ab’ul-Arab (dissident)................14 Jun 1722 - 16 Mar 1723
  • BANU GHAFIR
  • Muhammad ibn Nasir...............................02 Oct 1724 - Mar 1728
  • YARUBI (YA'ARIBA)
  • Saif II ibn Sultan (2nd  time)...................11 Apr 1728 - 1743 with...
  • Sultan III ibn Murshid ibn Adi......................Feb 1742 - 20 Jun 1743
  • Ab’ul-Arab II ibn Himyar ibn Sultan al-Ghafiri (1st)....1732 - 1738 as dissident
  • Persia..................................................1741 - 1749
  • Ab’ul-Arab II ibn Himyar ibn Sultan al-Ghafiri (2nd)....1744 - 1748
  • al BU SA'IDI (title: Imams)
  • Abu Hilal Ahmad ibn Sa'id........................10 Jun 1749 - 14 Dec 1783
  • Sa'id I ibn Ahmad................................15 Dec 1783 - 1784
  • He abdicated secular power to his son Hamid and retired to Rustaq and died in 1803.
  • [title: Hami Masqat wa Uman (or Sayyid) (Hami of Muscat and Oman)]
  • Hamid ibn Sa'id.........................................1784 - 13 Mar 1792
  • Sultan ibn Ahmad....................................Mar 1792 - 14 Nov 1804
  • Salim I ibn Sultan...............................20 Nov 1804 - 14 Sep 1806 with...
  • Sa'id II ibn Sultan..............................20 Nov 1804 - 19 Oct 1856
  • Said deposed his brother as joint-ruler on 14 Sep 1806. In 1840 he moved his capital from Muscat, Oman, to Stone Town, Zanzibar. Upon Sa'id's death in 1856, his third son Thuwayni ibn Sa'id became Sultan of Muscat and Oman, while his sixth son Sayyid Majid bin Sa'id became Sultan of Zanzibar.
    • Badr ibn Sayf (regent).............................1804 - 31 Jul 1806
  • Sayyid Thuwayni ibn Sa'id........................19 Oct 1856 - 11 Feb 1866
  • Sayyid Salim II ibn Thuwayni.....................11 Feb 1866 - 01 Oct 1868
  • [title: Imam; from 06 Apr 1861, Sultan Masqat wa Uman (Sultan of Muscat and Oman)]
  • Azzan ibn Qays...................................03 Oct 1868 - 30 Jan 1871
  • He deposed his distant relative Sayyid Salim ibn Thuwaini and ruled according to religious law. He also opposed the Saudi interference in the Buraimi Oasis and was eventually killed by Salim's uncle, Sayyid Turki ibn Sa'id.
  • Sayyid Turki ibn Sa'id...........................31 Jan 1871 - 04 Jun 1888
  • He was the fifth son of Said ibn Sultan. British Protectorate imposed on 20 March 1891.
    • Abdul-Aziz ibn Said (regent)...................Aug 1875 - Dec 1875
  • Sayyid Faisal ibn Turki..........................04 Jun 1888 - 05 Oct 1913
  • He was the Imam and second son of Turki ibn Sa'id. By 1913 control over the interior was completely lost, and a reconstituted imamate was again a threat to Muscat. In May 1913, Salim ibn Rashid al Harthi was elected imam at Tanuf and spearheaded a revolt against the sultan that combined both Hinawi and Ghafiri tribal groups.
  • alWasik Billah alMajid Sayyid Taimur ibn Faisal..09 Oct 1913 - 10 Feb 1932
  • Between 1915 and 1920, the sultan's forces were aided by British financial and matériel support against the rebel tribes, ensuring adequate resistance but not total victory. An uneasy situation of no war, no peace, existed, with the sultan controlling Muscat and the coastal towns and the imam ruling the interior. This was tacitly codified in the Treaty of As Sib in 1920, brokered by the British political agent in Muscat. The treaty was between the sultan and the tribes, represented by Shaykh Isa ibn Salih al Harthi, leader of the Al Harth tribe.
  • Ali (in rebellion at Suhar as Sultan)...................1920 - 1932
  • He was a Paramount chief (tamimah) of Bani Bu `Ali (Ghafiri Arabs) from 1913 to 1932.
  • Sa'id III ibn Taimur.............................10 Feb 1932 - 23 Jul 1970
  • When Sultan Taimur ibn Faisal abdicated for financial reasons in 1932, his twenty-two-year-old elder son Said ibn Taimur inherited an administration that was in debt. Despite the wealth that Oman accumulated through its vast petroleum reserves, the Sultan Sa'id ibn Taimur refused to use this money for the benefit of his subjects, and the country essentially remained a feudal monarchy, run at Said's whim. In 1965, the province of Dhofar revolted, this time with the support of China and some of the nationalist Arab states, followed by an assassination attempt in 1966, which had a marked effect on Said causing him to become even more erratic in governing the country. Reportedly, even wearing eyeglasses was discouraged, and the Sultan meted out punishments to people who appeared in his dreams. No one was safe from the sultan's paranoia, not even his own son, Qaboos, who was kept under virtual house arrest at the Sultan's palace in Salalah. Qaboos staged a coup in 1970 and exiled / deposed his father to the United Kingdom.
  • [title: from 09 Aug 1970, Sultan Uman (Sultan of Oman)]
  • Qaboos ibn Sa'id.................................23 Jul 1970 - date
  • Omani Tribal Polities (Paramount chiefs) existed from 1880's to 1971. They were from al-Hiri (al-Harith tribe of al-Sharquiyyah), Bani Bu `Ali (Ghafiri Arabs), Bani Hina, Bani Riyam (Ghafiri Arabs) and Bani Ruwaha. Tariq ibn Taimur served as the first Prime Minister from 14 Aug 1970 to 02 Jan 1972. Later Qaboos ibn Sa'id became Prime Minister from 02 Jan 1972 onwards. Boundary agreement reportedly signed and ratified with UAE in 2003 for entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah exclave, but details have not been made public.
  • (title: Imam) - They were always in opposition towards the government. Some part of Oman was ruled by Ibadite imams who exercised spiritual and often temporal authority over the region. There were often tensions between these imams and the sultans of Muscat and in 1913, the election of Salim ibn Rashid al-Kharusi as imam led to the proclamation of the Imamate of Oman with its capital at Nizwa.
  • Salim ibn Rashid al-Kharusi.................................24 May 1913 - 23 Jul 1920
  • Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Abd Allah al-Khalili al-Kharusi..30 Jul 1920 - May 1954
  • Ghalib ibn Ali al-Hinawi (1st time)............................May 1954 - 26 Sep 1955
  • Ghalib ibn Ali al-Hinawi (2nd time)............................Jul 1957 - 11 Aug 1957
  • In 1954, a new imam, Ghalib bin Ali, attempted to gain further Omani independence from Muscat, an effort that took Sultan Said Bin Taimur of Muscat and his British suzerains five years to suppress. In 1957, Nizwa was taken, the imam was overthrown and exiled, and his position was abolished. In 1959, the last forces of the Imamate were defeated and the name of the whole of Muscat and Oman was changed to the Sultanate of Oman in 1970. Following its overthrow, the Imamate of Oman issued postage stamps of dubious postal value with silver and gold coins dated 1971 under the name of the State of Oman.
 
Coinage of Oman
 
In the 1890s, coins for 1⁄12 and ¼ anna (⅓ and 1 paisa) were minted specifically for use in Muscat and Oman by ruler Faisal bin Turki. Before 1940, the Indian rupee and the Maria Theresa Thaler (known locally as the Rial) were the main currencies circulating in Muscat and Oman, as the state was then known, with rupees circulating on the coast and Thaler in the interior. Maria Theresa Thaler were valued at 230 paisa, with 64 paisa equal to the rupee. In AH 1359 (1940), coins were introduced for use in Dhofar region in denominations of 10, 20 and 50 baisa. ½ Rial coins were added in AH 1367 (1948), followed by 3 baisa in AH 1378 (1959) for Dhofar region as well. In AH 1365 (1946), 2, 5 and 20 baisa (mistakenly written as baiza) coins were introduced for general use in Oman. In AH 1378 (1959) Rial Saidi (not to be confused with Saudi riyal) and later in AH 1380 (1960) and AH 1381 (1961) ½  Rial Saidi were introduced in Oman. Saidi Riyal was equal to the British pound. It replaced the Gulf rupee at a rate of approximately 21 rupees to the Saidi Rial. In AH 1380 (1960) 3 baisa and in AH 1381 (1961) 5 baisa were particularly introduced for Muscat province. The Indian Rupee and, from 1959, the Gulf Rupee continued to circulate in Oman till 1970. The Kuwaiti Dinar from 1961 and Bahraini Dinar from 1965 were also concurrently used till 1970. The new Saidi Rial was subdivided into 1000 baisa. The Rial Omani replaced the Rial Saidi at par in 1973. The currency name was altered due to the regime change in 1970 and the subsequent change of the country's name.
In AH 1390 (1970), a coinage for all of Muscat and Oman was introduced. Denominations were 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 baisa. In AH 1395 (1975), new coins were issued with the country's name given as Oman. 100 baisa, ¼ and ½ Rial coins in base metal were introduced for circulation in late 1970s and early 1980s.
 
Click below on earlier coinage of British India used on the coastal areas of Oman:
  • East India Company (inc. William IV and Victoria)16 Aug 1765 - 30 Sep 1858
  • Victoria.........................................01 Nov 1858 - 22 Jan 1901
  • Edward VII.......................................22 Jan 1901 - 06 May 1910
  • George V.........................................06 May 1910 - 20 Jan 1936
  • George VI........................................12 Dec 1936 - 15 Aug 1947
 
Muscat & Oman Coinage under ruler: Faisal bin Turki.
Currency: Rupee = 16 Annas = 64 baisas.
 
These Quarter Annas were produced of the same size as used in the British India.

KM#2 Quarter Anna. Year: AH1311 [1894]. Weight: 6.63 g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 26.2 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse Legends clockwise from 1311 in English: Imam of Muscat & Oman Sultan Fessal Bin Toorky. 1311. Reverse legends in Arabic: Imam Muscat and Oman Al Sultan Faisal bin Turki bin Sa'id bin Sultan 1311. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Year on both sides.

KM#4.1 Quarter Anna. Year: AH1312 [1895]. Weight: 6.18 g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 25.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Muscat. Obverse Legends "Fessul · Bin · Turkee" (upper part) and "· Imam · Muscat ·" (lower part). Reverse legends in Arabic from bottom to top: Faisal bin Turki bin Sa'id bin Sultan, Imam Muscat and Oman. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#6 Quarter Anna. Year: AH1312 [1895]. Weight: 6.32 g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 26.2 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Muscat. Obverse Legends clockwise from dot in English: Fessul Bin Turkee Imam of Muscat and Oman. Reverse legends in Arabic from bottom to top: Faisal bin Turki bin Sa'id bin Sultan, Imam Muscat and Oman. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 1312-1313.

Reverse: Star between wreath points. Local Coinage.

KM#8.1 Quarter Anna. Year: AH1312 [1895]. Weight: 5.96 g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 25.3 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Muscat. Obverse Legends clockwise from dot in English: Fessul Bin Turkee Imam of Muscat and Oman. Reverse legends in Arabic from bottom to top: Faisal bin Turki bin Sa'id bin Sultan, Imam Muscat and Oman. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#3.1 Quarter Anna. Year: AH1315 [1898]. Weight: 5.18 g. Metal: Copper or Brass. Diameter: 25.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Heaton Mint, Birmingham, UK. Obverse Legends clockwise from star in English: Fessul Bin Turkee Imam of Muscat and Oman. Reverse legends in Arabic from bottom to top: Faisal bin Turki, Sultan Oman. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Heaton mint coin exists in Copper or Brass. No Star between wreath points on reverse side.

Same as above coin, but rotated as shown.

Weight: 5.31 g.

KM#3.2 Quarter Anna. Year: AH1315 [1898]. Weight: 5.69 g. Metal: Copper or Brass. Diameter: 26.3 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: probably at Bombay, India. Obverse Legends clockwise from star in English: Fessul Bin Turkee Imam of Muscat and Oman. Reverse legends in Arabic from bottom to top: Faisal bin Turki, Sultan Oman. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type. This type is known as crude issue with many die varieties. It has an angled "5" in date and has squares instead of dots in both sides of Arabic legends.

Same as above coin with thinner Arabic legends. Weight: 5.74 g.

KM#12.4 Quarter Anna. Year: AH1315 [1898]. Weight: 5.32 g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 26.3 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Muscat. Obverse Legends clockwise from star in English: Fessul Bin Turkee Imam of Muscat and Oman. Reverse legends in Arabic from bottom to top: Faisal bin Turki, Sultan Oman. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type. No Star between wreath points on reverse side. Local Coinage.

Quarter Anna. Year: AH1315 [1898]. Weight: 5.45 g. Metal: Copper or Brass. Diameter: 24.8 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse Legends clockwise from star in English: Fessul Bin Turkee Imam of Muscat and Oman. Reverse legends in Arabic from bottom to top: Faisal bin Turki, Sultan Oman. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: Not listed style in Krause publication to have a above dot between 1 and 5 in the date.

Quarter Anna. Year: AH1315 [1898]. Weight: 5.93 g. Metal: Copper or Brass. Diameter: 25.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse Legends clockwise from star in English: Fessul Bin Turkee Imam of Muscat and Oman. Reverse legends in Arabic from bottom to top: Faisal bin Turki, Sultan Oman. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: Not listed style in Krause publication to have a star on both sides with different type of "5" in date and Arabic legend touching second "N" in ANNA.

Quarter Anna. Year: AH1315 [1898]. Weight: 6.47 g. Metal: Copper or Brass. Diameter: 24.8 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse Legends clockwise from star in English: Fessul Bin Turkee Imam of Muscat and Oman. Reverse legends in Arabic from bottom to top: Faisal bin Turki, Sultan Oman. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: Not listed style in Krause publication to have only "3" retrograde (opposite in direction) in the date. Heavier due to part of ex-jewelry.

KM#15 Quarter Anna. Year: AH1316 [1899]. Weight: 5.72 g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 26.2 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Muscat. Obverse Legends clockwise from the top most point in English: Fessul Bin Turkee Imam of Muscat and Oman. Reverse legends in Arabic from bottom to top: Faisal bin Turki, Sultan Oman. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Reverse: Star between wreath points. Local Coinage.

Same as above coin with different size of legend like in date and "1/4 ANNA" on observe side in center circle . Weight: 5.82 g.
 
Zufar (Dhofar, Dhufar) time line and coinage under Muscat and Oman Ruler: Sa'id bin Taimur.
 
               c.1096       Zafar founded with capital at Mirbat.
        1265 - 1271         Persian occupation.
        1325 - 1429?        Ruled by Kathiri Sultanate (Hadramaut).
               1421         Sultanate of Zafar
     1462/63 - 1804         Ruled by Kathiri Sultanate (Hadramaut).
        1804 - 1829         Ruled by Saiyid Muhammad Aqil Adjaybi.
               1539         Ottoman occupation.
               1829         Annexed by Oman.
               1876         Katiri and Qara` tribes recognize suzerainty of Oman.
               1879         Annexed by Oman.
        1885 - 1886         Independent during revolt. Ruled by Saiyid Fadl Alawi Moplah.
               09 Jun 1965  Dhofari revolt directed by the Dhofar Liberation Front (DLF).
                            Secretary General Musalim bin Nufl (09 Jun 1965 - 1968).
               Sep 1968     Renamed Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied
                            Arabian Gulf (PFLOAG). Secretary General Mohammad Ahmad Saïd
                            al Ghassani (01 Sep 1968 - 1975).
               1971         PFLOAG merged with the National Democratic Front Liberation of
                            Oman and Arabian Gulf (armed activity in central and northern
                            Oman from June 1970) to form the Popular Front for the
                            Liberation of Oman and the Arab Gulf.
               Late 1971    A revolutionary government was set up de facto in Dhofar.
               19 Jan 1972  Failed attack on port of Mirbat.
               Mar 1975     Peace agreement signed.
               01 Dec 1975  Last PFLOAG occupied village, Dulkut, liberated.
               11 Dec 1975  Sultan of Oman declares the rebellion terminated.
 

KM#22 10 Baisa. Year: AH1359 [1940]. Weight: 3.75g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 22 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "Dhofar" written on the top. Reverse legends in Arabic: Al-Fasak Billah Sa'id bin Taimur, Sultan Muscat Wa Oman. Mintage: 572,000. Mintage Years: One year type.
KM#23 20 Baisa AH1359 Copper-Nickel (Mintage: 35,000) and KM#24 50 Baisa AH1359 Copper-Nickel (Mintage: 65,000) also exists. All these three coins are also produced in Gold.

KM#29 ½ Rial. Year: AH1367 [1948]. Weight: 13.92g (14.03g). Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 35 mm. Edge: Security. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "Dhofar Half Riyal" written on the top and then "Al-Sultanate Al-Sa'idya". Reverse legends in Arabic from bottom to top: Sa'id bin Taimur, Sultan Muscat Wa Oman. Mintage: 200,000 including 410 Proof. Mintage Years: One year type.

Reverse: Larger outer circle with thinner legends than the below coin.

½ Rial. Year: AH1367 [1948]. Weight: 13.90 g (14.03 g). Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 35 mm. Edge: Security. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "Dhofar Half Riyal" written on the top and then "Al-Sultanate Al-Sa'idya". Reverse legends in Arabic from bottom to top: Sa'id bin Taimur, Sultan Muscat Wa Oman. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Thick reverse legends with smaller outer circle, unlisted style in Krause publication. Legends are same as for KM#29a in gold metal.

KM#30 3 Baisa. Year: AH1378 [1959]. Weight: 2.73 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 20 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "Dhofar" written at the bottom. Reverse legends in Arabic: Sa'id bin Taimur (top) Sultan Muscat Wa Oman (bottom). Mintage: 8,000,000. Mintage Years: One year type.
 
Muscat province coinage under Muscat and Oman. Ruler: Sa'id bin Taimur.
 

KM#32 3 Baisa. Year: AH1380 [1960]. Weight: 1.98 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 18 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "Muscat" written at the bottom. Reverse legends in Arabic: Sa'id bin Taimur (top), Sultan Muscat Wa Oman (bottom). Mintage: 10,000,000. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#33 5 Baisa. Year: AH1381 [1961]. Weight: 3.59 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 20 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Sailing Ship - "Muscat" written at the bottom. Reverse legends in Arabic: Sa'id bin Taimur (top), Sultan Muscat Wa Oman (bottom). Mintage: 5,000,000. Mintage Years: One year type.
 
General coinage of Muscat and Oman under ruler: Sa'id bin Taimur.
 
Currency: Saidi Rial = 1000 (new) baisas.
 
AH 1365 [1946]
 

KM#25 2 Baiza. Year: AH1365 [1946]. Weight: 2.87 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 20 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Sultan Muscat Wa Oman (top), Sa'id bin Taimur (centre). Reverse: Value in words and numeric. Mintage: 1,500,000. Mintage Years: One year type.

This coin is similar in shape and size of British India 1/2 Anna. The word "Baiza" is used instead of "Baisa".

KM#26 5 Baiza. Year: AH1365 [1946]. Weight: 3.84 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 21 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Sultan Muscat Wa Oman (top), Sa'id bin Taimur (centre). Reverse: Value in words and numeric. Mintage: 3,849,000. Mintage Years: One year type.

This coin is similar in shape and size of British India one Anna. The word "Baiza" is used instead of "Baisa".

KM#27 20 Baiza. Year: AH1365 [1946]. Weight: 5.70 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 26.5 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Sultan Muscat Wa Oman (top), Sa'id bin Taimur (centre). Reverse: Value in words and numeric. Mintage: 1,135,000. Mintage Years: One year type.

This coin is similar in shape and size of British India two Annas. The word "Baiza" is used instead of "Baisa".

 
AH 1378 - 1381 [1959-1961]
 

KM#31 Saidi Riyal. Year: AH1378 [1959]. Weight: 28.00 g (28.07 g). Metal: 0.833 Silver. Diameter: 26.5 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Saidi Riyal (top), Al-Sultanate Al-Sa'idya (bottom). Reverse within circle: Sa'id bin Taimur (top), Sultan Muscat Wa Oman (bottom). Mintage: 1,000,000 + 100 Proof. Mintage Years: One year type. KM#31a also exists with the same weight, shape, date and design but having 0.500 silver with mintage of 400,000.

KM#34 1/2 Saidi Riyal. Year: AH1380 [1960]. Weight: 13.91 g (14.03 g). Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 35 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Nusuf Saidi Riyal (top). Reverse: Sa'id bin Taimur (top), Sultan Muscat Wa Oman (bottom). Mintage: 300,000. Mintage Years: AH 1380 and AH 1381.
KM#34 1/2 Saidi Riyal. Year: AH1381 [1961]. Weight: 13.90 g (14.03 g). Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 35 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Nusuf Saidi Riyal (top). Reverse: Sa'id bin Taimur (top), Sultan Muscat Wa Oman (bottom). Mintage: 850,000. Mintage Years: AH 1380 and AH 1381.
 
AH 1390 [1970]
 
Currency: Rial = 100 baisas.
 

KM#36 2 Baisa. Year: AH1390 [1970]. Weight: 1.75 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 16 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: Sa'id bin Taimur (top), Sultan Muscat Wa Oman (bottom). Mintage: 4,000,000. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#37 5 Baisa. Year: AH1390 [1970]. Weight: 3.10 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 19 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: Sa'id bin Taimur (top), Sultan Muscat Wa Oman (bottom). Mintage: 3,400,000. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#38 10 Baisa. Year: AH1390 [1970]. Weight: 4.70 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 22.5 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: Sa'id bin Taimur (top), Sultan Muscat Wa Oman (bottom). Mintage: 4,500,000. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#39 25 Baisa. Year: AH1390 [1970]. Weight: 2.90 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 18 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: Sa'id bin Taimur (top), Sultan Muscat Wa Oman (bottom). Mintage: 2,000,000. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#40 50 Baisa. Year: AH1390 [1970]. Weight: 6.40 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: Sa'id bin Taimur (top), Sultan Muscat Wa Oman (bottom). Mintage: 1,600,000. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#40a 50 Baisa also exists in 12.81 g, 0.916 Gold. Mintage: 350 pieces.

KM#41 100 Baisa. Year: AH1390 [1970]. Weight: 11.30 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: Sa'id bin Taimur (top), Sultan Muscat Wa Oman (bottom). Mintage: 1,000,000. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#41a 100 Baisa also exists in 22.63 g, 0.916 Gold. Mintage: 350 pieces.

 
Sultanate of Oman coinage. Ruler: Qaboos ibn Sa'id.
 
AH 1395 [1975]
 

KM#50 5 Baisa. Year: AH1395 [1975]. Weight: 3.10 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 19 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: 6,000,000. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).

KM#51 10 Baisa. Year: AH1395 [1975]. Weight: 4.70 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 22.5 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: Sultanate Oman (bottom). Mintage: 1,000,000. Mintage Years: One year type. Subject: F.A.O. issue.

KM#52 10 Baisa. Year: AH1395 [1975]. Weight: 4.70 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 22.5 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultanate Oman (bottom). Mintage: 6,000,000. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).

KM#45a 25 Baisa. Year: AH1395 [1975]. Weight: 3.03 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 18 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms - Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: 4,500,000. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).

KM#46a 50 Baisa. Year: AH1395 [1975]. Weight: 6.40 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms - Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: 2,500,000. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).
 
1978
 

KM#64 1/2 Rial. Year: AH1398 - 1978. Weight: 13.45 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 7-sided, 32 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms flanked by dates. Reverse: Lemon. Mintage: 15,000. Mintage Years: One year type. Subject: F.A.O. issue.
 
AH 1400 [1979-1980]
 

KM#50 5 Baisa. Year: AH1400 [1979]. Weight: 3.10 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 19 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: 3,000,000. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997.

KM#52 10 Baisa. Year: AH1400 [1979]. Weight: 4.70 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 22.5 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultanate Oman (bottom). Mintage: 5,250,000. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).

KM#45a 25 Baisa. Year: AH1400 [1979]. Weight: 3.03 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 18 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms - Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: 5,250,000. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).

KM#46a 50 Baisa. Year: AH1400 [1979]. Weight: 6.40 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms - Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: 2,750,000. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).

KM#66 1/4 Rial. Year: AH1400 - 1980. Weight: 6.50 g. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 26 mm. Edge: Lettered in Arabic "Sultanate | Oman | 1400 |". Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms - Sultanate Oman (top). Reverse: Central Bank of Oman (top), Quarter Rial (bottom). Mintage: 4,000,000. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: By keeping the date side on top the edge description is upside down.

KM#67 1/2 Rial. Year: AH1400 - 1980. Weight: 10.00 g. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 30 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms - Sultanate Oman (top). Reverse: Central Bank of Oman (top), Half Rial (bottom). Mintage: 2,000,000. Mintage Years: One year type.
 
AH 1404 [1984]
 

KM#68 100 Baiza. Year: AH1404 - 1984. Weight: 4.20 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 21.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms - Sultanate Oman (top). Reverse: Central Bank of Oman (top). Mintage: 4,000,000. Mintage Years: One year type.
 
AH 1406 [1985]
 

KM#50 5 Baisa. Year: AH1406 [1985]. Weight: 3.10 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 19 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: 2,000,000. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).

KM#52 10 Baisa. Year: AH1406 [1985]. Weight: 4.70 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 22.5 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultanate Oman (bottom). Mintage: 3,000,000. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).

KM#45a 25 Baisa. Year: AH1406 [1985]. Weight: 3.03 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 18 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms - Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: 4,000,000. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).

KM#46a 50 Baisa. Year: AH1406 [1985]. Weight: 6.40 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms - Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: 4,000,000. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).
 
AH 1410 [1989]
 

KM#50 5 Baisa. Year: AH1410 [1989]. Weight: 3.10 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 19 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: 5,000,000. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).

KM#52 10 Baisa. Year: AH1410 [1989]. Weight: 4.70 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 22.5 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultanate Oman (bottom). Mintage: 6,000,000. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).

KM#45a 25 Baisa. Year: AH1410 [1989]. Weight: 3.03 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 18 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms - Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: 7,000,000. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).

KM#46a 50 Baisa. Year: AH1410 [1989]. Weight: 6.40 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms - Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: 4,000,000. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).
 
AH 1411 - 1991
 

KM#82 100 Baisa. Year: AH1411 - 1991. Weight: 7.00 g. Metal: Bi-Metallic, Aluminumn-Bronze center and Copper-Nickel ring. Diameter: 25 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms - Value. Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Reverse: 100 Years of Oman coinage with Oman KM#2 picture of observe side. Mintage: N/A + 1,000 Proof. Mintage Years: One year type.
 
ND (1995)
 

KM#94 10 Baisa. Year: ND (1995). Weight: 4.70 g. Metal: Bronze Clad Steel. Diameter: 22.5 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms - Value. Qaboos bin Sa'id, Sultan of Oman. Reverse: Commemorating fifty years of F.A.O. UN. Mintage: N/A + 224 Proof. Mintage Years: One year type. Subject: F.A.O. UN issue.

KM#95 50 Baisa. Year: ND (1995). Weight: 6.40 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms - Value. Qaboos bin Sa'id, Sultan of Oman. Reverse: "Commemorating fifty years of UN 1945-1995" with UN 50 Years logo. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type. Subject: UN issue.
 
AH 1418 [1997]
 

KM#50 5 Baisa. Year: AH1418 [1997]. Weight: 3.10 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 19 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).

Note: Unlisted in Krause publication 37th edition 2009.

KM#52 10 Baisa. Year: AH1418 [1997]. Weight: 4.70 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 22.5 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultanate Oman (bottom). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).

KM#45a 25 Baisa. Year: AH1418 [1997]. Weight: 3.03 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 18 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms - Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).

KM#46a 50 Baisa. Year: AH1418 [1997]. Weight: 6.40 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms - Value. Reverse: Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH1395 (1975), AH1400 (1979), AH1406 (1985), AH1410 (1989) and AH1418 (1997).
 
AH 1420 - 1999
 

KM#150 5 Baisa. Year: AH1420 - 1999. Weight: 2.65 g. Metal: Bronze Clad Steel. Diameter: 19 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms - Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH1420 - 1999, AH1429 - 2008 and AH1432 - 2011.

KM#151 10 Baisa. Year: AH1420 - 1999. Weight: 4.04 g. Metal: Bronze Clad Steel. Diameter: 22.5 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms - Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH1420 - 1999, AH1429 - 2008 and AH1432 - 2011.

KM#152 25 Baisa. Year: AH1420 - 1999. Weight: 3.03 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 18 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms - Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH1420 - 1999 and AH1428 - 2008.

KM#153 50 Baisa. Year: AH1420 - 1999. Weight: 6.40 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 24 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms - Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH1420 - 1999 and AH1428 - 2008.
 
AH 1428 - 2008 [Note: The last nine days of AH1428 coincides with 01st Jan to 09th Jan 2008]
 

KM#152 25 Baisa. Year: AH1428 - 2008. Weight: 3.03 g. Metal: Nickel Clad Steel. Diameter: 18 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms - Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH1420 - 1999 and AH1428 - 2008.

KM#153 50 Baisa. Year: AH1428 - 2008. Weight: 6.40 g. Metal: Nickel Clad Steel. Diameter: 24 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms - Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH1420 - 1999 and AH1428 - 2008.
 
AH 1429 - 2008
 

KM#150 5 Baisa. Year: AH1429 - 2008. Weight: 2.65 g. Metal: Bronze Clad Steel. Diameter: 19 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms - Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH1420 - 1999, AH1429 - 2008 and AH1432 - 2011.

KM#151 10 Baisa. Year: AH1429 - 2008. Weight: 4.04 g. Metal: Bronze Clad Steel. Diameter: 22.5 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms - Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH1420 - 1999, AH1429 - 2008 and AH1432 - 2011.
 
AH 1431 - 2010
Note: This year coins were produced with different design emblem.
 

25 Baisa. Year: AH1431 - 2010. Weight: 3.03 g. Metal: Nickel Clad Steel. Diameter: 18 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms - Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

50 Baisa. Year: AH1431 - 2010. Weight: 6.40 g. Metal: Nickel Clad Steel. Diameter: 24 mm. Edge: Reeded. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms - Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.
 
AH 1432 - 2011
 

KM#150 5 Baisa. Year: AH1432 - 2011. Weight: 2.61 g. Metal: Bronze Clad Steel. Diameter: 19 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms - Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH1420 - 1999, AH1429 - 2008 and AH1432 - 2011.

KM#151 10 Baisa. Year: AH1432 - 2011. Weight: 4.09 g. Metal: Bronze Clad Steel. Diameter: 22.5 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms - Qaboos bin Sa'id (top), Sultan Oman (bottom). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH1420 - 1999, AH1429 - 2008 and AH1432 - 2011.
 
 
 
 
 
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