USA Coinage: 1865 - 1868
under President: Andrew Johnson
 
Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 July 31, 1875) was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. Johnson became president as he was vice president at the time of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. A Democrat who ran with Lincoln on the National Union ticket, Johnson came to office as the Civil War concluded. The new president favored quick restoration of the seceded states to the Union.
In 1860, Lincoln's running mate had been Maine Senator Hannibal Hamlin. Vice President Hamlin had served competently, was in good health, and was willing to run again. Nevertheless, Johnson emerged as running mate for Lincoln's re-election bid in 1864.
On Good Friday, April 14, 1865 night, President Abraham Lincoln was shot and mortally wounded by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. The shooting of the President was part of a conspiracy to assassinate Lincoln, Johnson, and Seward the same night. Seward barely survived his wounds, while Johnson escaped attack as his would-be assassin, George Atzerodt, got drunk instead of killing the vice president. Leonard J. Farwell, a fellow boarder at the Kirkwood House, awoke Johnson with news of Lincoln's shooting at Ford's Theatre. Johnson rushed to the President's deathbed, where he remained a short time, on his return promising, "They shall suffer for this. They shall suffer for this". Lincoln died at 7:22 am the next morning; Johnson's swearing in occurred between 10 and 11 am with Chief Justice Salmon Portland Chase presiding in the presence of most of the Cabinet. Johnson's demeanor was described by the newspapers as "solemn and dignified". Some Cabinet members had last seen Johnson, apparently drunk, at the inauguration. At noon, Johnson conducted his first Cabinet meeting in the Treasury Secretary's office, and asked all members to remain in their positions.
His plans did not give protection to the former slaves, and he came into conflict with the Republican-dominated Congress, culminating in his impeachment by the House of Representatives. He was acquitted in the Senate by one vote. On 16th May 1967, thirty-five senators voted "guilty" and 19 "not guilty", thus falling short by a single vote of the two-thirds majority required for conviction.
Johnson returned home after the special session concluded. In late July 1875, convinced some of his opponents were defaming him in the Ohio gubernatorial race, he decided to travel there to give speeches. He began the trip on July 28, and broke the journey at his daughter Mary's farm near Elizabethton, where his daughter Martha was also staying. That evening he suffered a stroke, but refused medical treatment until the next day, when he did not improve and two doctors were sent for from Elizabethton. He seemed to respond to their ministrations, but suffered another stroke on the evening of July 30, and died early the following morning at the age of 66. President Grant had the "painful duty" of announcing the death of the only surviving past president. Northern newspapers, in their obituaries, tended to focus on Johnson's loyalty during the war, while Southern ones paid tribute to his actions as president. Johnson's funeral was held on August 03 in Greeneville. He was buried with his body wrapped in an American flag and a copy of the U.S. Constitution placed under his head, according to his wishes. The burial ground was dedicated as the Andrew Johnson National Cemetery in 1906, and with his home and tailor's shop, is part of the Andrew Johnson National Historic Site.
 
 
Currency: Dollar = 100 cents
Monetary System: Penny = Cent, Trime = 3 Cents, Nickel = 5 Cents, Dime = 10 Cents, Quarter = 25 Cents, Half Dollar = 50, Cents, Dollar = 100 Cents, Quarter Eagle = $2.50 Gold, Stella = $4.00 Gold, Half Eagle = $5.00 Gold, Eagle = $10.00 Gold and Double Eagle = $20.00 Gold.
Mint Marks:
C Charlotte, N.C., 1838-1861.
CC Carson City, NV, 1870-1893.
D Dahlonega, GA, 1838-1861.
D Denver, CO, 1906-present.
O New Orleans, LA, 1838-1909.
P Philadelphia, PA, 1793-present (coins without mintmark also belongs to Philadelphia).
S San Francisco, CA, 1854-present.
W West Point, NY, 1984-present.

 

1865
 

Pit or curve on the end of the horizontal bar in digit "5" as shown. This is known as Fancy 5 type.
KM#90a 1 cent. Year: 1865 (Fancy 5 type). Weight: 3.06 g [3.11 g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Philadelphia, USA. Obverse: Liberty with Indian headdress bearing the word "LIBERTY" facing left in the center. "UNITED STATES" written at the left side clockwise and "OF AMERICA" at the left side clockwise. Date at the bottom. Reverse: Shield at the top. "ONE CENT" written in the center surrounded with wreath. Mintage: 35,429,286 (including fancy 5 and plain 5 types). Mintage Years: 1864, 1864 L pointed bust, 1865 plain 5, 1865 fancy 5, 1866, 1867, 1867/1867, 1868, 1869/9, 1869, 1870 Bold N, 1870 Shallow N, 1871 Bold N, 1871 Shallow N, 1872 Bold N, 1872 Shallow N, 1873 closed 3, 1873 open 3, 1873 Double Liberty die 1, 1873 Double Liberty die 2, 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886 Type 1 obverse, 1886 Type 2 obverse, 1887, 1888, 1888/7, 1889, 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894/94, 1894, 1895, 1896, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1908S, 1909 and 1909S. Engraver: James Barton Longacre (both sides). This coin is commonly known by coin collectors as "Bronze Indian Head Cent". The 1864 "L" variety has the designer's initial in Liberty's hair to the right of her neck. The "S" mintmark is below the wreath in 1908S and 1909S issues. The engraver J. B. Longacre may have use his daughter face for this portrait.
 
 
 
Information on various type of "Bronze Indian Head" types to distinguish.
 

1864 L type.

1865 "Fancy 5" and "Plain 5" types.

Shallow "N" and Bold "N" types in 1870, 1871 and 1872 issues.

1886 Type 1 and Type II.

Some coins have large characters and some have small characters in various dates.

1908S and 1909S with "S" mintmark.

 
Additional Notes:
 
Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808  May 07, 1873) sought the Republican nomination for president in the 1860 presidential election, but the 1860 Republican National Convention nominated Abraham Lincoln. After Lincoln won the election, he asked Chase to serve as 25th Secretary of the Treasury (March 7, 1861  June 30, 1864). Chase served in that position from 1861 to 1864, ensuring that the Union was well-financed during the Civil War. Chase resigned from the Cabinet in June 1864, but retained support among the Radical Republicans. Partly to appease the Radical Republicans, Lincoln nominated Chase to fill the Supreme Court vacancy as 6th Chief Justice (December 06, 1864  May 07, 1873) that arose following Chief Justice Roger Taney's death.
The first U.S. federal currency, the greenback demand note, was printed in 18611862 during Chase's tenure as Secretary of the Treasury. It was Chase's responsibility to design the notes. In an effort to further his political career, his face appeared on a variety of U.S. paper currency, starting with the $1 bill so that the people would recognize him. His first issue of $1 notes was printed in 1862 as legal tender. Chase also appeared on the 1934 $10,000 Gold certificate banknote.
 
1866
 

KM#96 5 cents (Nickel). Year: 1866. Weight: 4.91 g [5.00 g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 20.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Philadelphia, USA. Obverse: "IN GOD WE TRUST" written at the top. Union Shield in the center. Date at the bottom. No mint mark belongs to Philadelphia, USA.

Reverse: "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" written at the top section. Numeral "5" written in the center surrounded by alternative 13 stars and 13 rays. " CENTS " written at the bottom. Mintage: 14,742,500 + 600 Proofs + N.A. Restrikes. Mintage Years: 1866 and 1867. Engraver: James Barton Longacre (both sides).

Note: This coin is commonly known by coin collectors as "Union Shield Nickel with Rays".

 
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