Bahrain
 
 
A small island nestled between the east Arabian coast and the peninsula of Qatar. In ancient times, this was the fabled land of Dilmun, noted among Sumerians for its wealth and as a source of spiritual authority. During the classical era, it was known as Tylos, and was famed as a source for pearls. The modern Emirate had a special protectorate relationship with Great Britain from 1861 to 1971. Capital: Manama (Zubara from 1783-1870).
 
  • DILMUN EMPIRE

  • A considerable commercial nexus between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley, Dilmun controlled much territory adjacent to the island, though how much is unclear. There are at least two distinct phases, an early city existing from c. 2800 - c. 2300, and a second from c. 2300 - c. 1750. Dilmun was regarded as being the final home of Ziusudra, the Sumerian Noah, and was famed on account of its natural springs as the gate into Abzu, the abyss, or the Ocean Below, which the Sumerians believed mirrored the Sea Above.

  • Early Dilmun City-State..............................c. 2800 - c. 2300 BCE
  • Intermediate Dilmun City-State.......................c. 2300 - c. 1750
  • Rimun..........................................................fl. late 1800's
  • Kassite occupation...................................c. 1600 - c. 1200
  • Late Dilmun City-State...............................c. 1100 - c. 709
  • Classic-Age dependency or minor city-state........c. 709 BCE - c. 635 CE
  • Assyrian dependency...................................c. 709 - 609
    o Uperi................................................709 ? - 706
    o Ahundaru I.............................................706 - 685
    o Qanayeh................................................685 - 660
    o Ahundaru II............................................660 - 635
  • Babylon..................................................609 - 539
  • Gerrha...............................................539 BCE - c. 125 BCE ?
  • Characene.........................................c. 125 BCE - 117 CE
    • Kingdom of Tylos. Originally a dependency of Characene.
  • Persia...................................................117 - 380
  • Iarhai bar Nebozabad...........................................fl. c. 131
  • Santaruq.......................................................fl. c. 230
  • Hirah....................................................380 - 602
  • Persia...................................................602 - c. 635
  • The Prophet Muhammad's elected successors.............c. 635 - 661
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................661 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................750 - c. 900
  • The Carmathians of Arabia.............................c. 900 - 1077
  • al-Haasa................................................1077 - ?
  • Djazirat Kays............................................. ? - 1235
  • Fars....................................................1235 - 1253
  • al-Haasa................................................1253 - ?
  • Djazirat Kays............................................. ? - 1330
  • Hormuz..................................................1330 - 1440
  • DJABRID
  • unknown name (Djabr ibn Zamil ?)........................1440 - ?
  • Ajwad ibn Zamil........................................... ? - 1505
  • Zamil ? ................................................1505 - ?
  • Migrin ibn Zamil.......................................... ? - 1520
  • Portugal................................................1521 - 1602
    • Portuguese Commanders (subordinated to the captains-major in Hormuz)
    • António Correia................................Jul 1521 - 1521
    • Bernardino Ribeiro........................................1560s or 1570s
    • unknown.............................................. ? - 1602
  • Persia..................................................1602 - 1783
    • Persian governors
    • Badruddin Muhammad........................................c. 1529
    • Allah-Vardi Khan Shirazi..........................1602? - 3 Jun 1613 (d. 1613)
    • Imam Qoli Khan Shirazi............................1613? - 1633 (d. 1633)
    • Davud Khan Shirazi.................................1633 - 16.. 
    • unknown............................................16.. - 1737
    • Muhammad Taqi Khan Zand............................1737 - 1753?
    • Sheikh Nasir Al-Mazkur............................1753? - 1783
    • He is also known as Sheikh Nasir-eddin Shah Bushehri.
 
    Jul 1521 - 1602         Portuguese occupation (Bahrein).
        1602                Annexed to Persia.
        1783                Al Khalifah lineage conquers and settles Bahrain.
        1783 - 12 Sep 1868  Al Khalifah dynasty rules both Bahrain and Qatar.
        1800 - 1801         Occupied by Muscat and Oman.
        1801 - 1813         Vassal of Diriyah (see Saudi Arabia).
 05 Feb 1820                Informal protection treaty with Britain, abolishing slave
                            trade and forbidding piracy.
        1822 - 1873         Subordinated to the governor of Bombay.
        1835                Treaty with the Trucial States, installing a truce of six 
                            months a year, during the pearling season.
        1843                Treaty renews the treaty of 1835 for ten years.
        1853                Treaty with Trucial States, renewing the treaty of 1835 for
                            an unlimited period.
 31 May 1861                British protected state. Treaty with Bahrain
        1873 - 1946         Subordinated to British India (resident in Bahrain from 1946).
 02 Dec 1880 - 15 Aug 1971  British protectorate completed. Later treaty in 1892.
 29 Jul 1913                Ottomans recognizes British administration.
        1961                Autonomy
 16 Aug 1971                State of Bahrain (independence).
 16 Dec 1971                End of British protectorate presence in the Gulf.
 14 Feb 2002                Kingdom of Bahrain.
 
Click on the links provided on below Rulers to view coinage used in their era.
 
Before 16 October 1965, Indian Rupee and later Gulf Rupee were used. The dinar was introduced in 1965, replacing the Gulf rupee at a rate of 10 rupees = 1 dinar.
 
Earlier coinage of British India used:
  • East India Company (inc. William IV and Victoria)16 Aug 1765 - 30 Sep 1858
  • Victoria.........................................01 Nov 1858 - 22 Jan 1901
  • Edward VII.......................................22 Jan 1901 - 06 May 1910
  • George V.........................................06 May 1910 - 20 Jan 1936
  • George VI........................................12 Dec 1936 - 15 Aug 1947
 
  • al-KHALIFAH (Banu 'Utab Dynasty)
  • title: Hakim from 1783, Emir from 1971 and King from 1999.
  • Ahmad ibn Muhammad......................................1783 - 18 Jul 1795
  • He is commonly referred to as Ahmed al-Fateh (Ahmed the Conqueror) for conquering Bahrain.
  • Salman I ibn Ahmad (1st time)...........................1796 - 1800 d. 1825: with...
  • Abdallah ibn Ahmad (1st time)...........................1796 - 1800 d. 1843
  • Oman....................................................1800 - 1801
  • Najd....................................................1801 - 1810
  • Both Salman and Abdullah were detained in Diriyah (near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) 1801-1810.
  • Salman I ibn Ahmad (2nd time)...........................1810 - 1825 with...
  • Abdallah ibn Ahmad (2nd time)...........................1810 - Apr 1843 with...
  • Khalifah ibn Salman I...................................1825 - 31 May 1834
  • Muhammad ibn Khalifah (1st time).................31 May 1834 - Jun 1842
  • Muhammad ibn Khalifah (2nd time)....................Apr 1843 - 06 Sep 1868
  • Ali ibn Khalifah.................................06 Sep 1868 - 28 Sep 1869
  • Muhammad ibn Abdullah...............................Sep 1869 - 01 Dec 1869 with...
  • Isa I ibn Ali.......................................Dec 1869 - 09 Dec 1932 with...
  • Ahmad ibn Ali.......................................Dec 1869 - Oct 1888
  • Hamad I ibn Isa I................................10 Dec 1932 - 24 Feb 1942
  • Salman II ibn Hamad I............................24 Feb 1942 - 02 Nov 1961
  • Isa II ibn Salman II.............................02 Nov 1961 - 06 Mar 1999
  • He became Emir on getting Independence on 16 Aug 1971.
    • Khalifah ibn Salman.........................19 Jan 1970 - date
    • President of the State Council from 19 Jan 1970 to 16 Aug 1971 and then Prime minister since 16 Aug 1971.
  • Hamad II ibn Isa II..............................06 Mar 1999 - date
  • On 16 Mar 2001, the World Court granted to Bahrain sovereignty on the Hawar Islands and Qitat Jaradah shallows, and to Qatar sovereignty on Zubara and the shallows surrounding the islet of Fasht-el-Dibal. Hamad II became King on 14 Feb 2002.
 
 
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