Bangladesh
 

 
Bangladesh (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ - lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ Gaṇaprajātantrī Bāṃlādēśa), is a country in South Asia. It shares land borders with India and Myanmar (Burma). Nepal, Bhutan and China are located near Bangladesh but do not share a border with it. The country's maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is roughly equal to the size of its land area. Bangladesh is the world's eighth most populous country. Dhaka is its capital and largest city, followed by Chittagong, which has the country's largest port. Bangladesh forms the largest and easternmost part of the Bengal region. Bangladeshis include people from a range of ethnic groups and religions. Bengalis, who speak the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population. The politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's third largest Muslim-majority country. Islam is the official religion of Bangladesh.
 
                    c. 750  Bengal (Bangla) sultanate
               12 Jul 1576  Bengal annexed by Mughal Empire.
                      1703  Mughal governor, with the style Nawab Nazim, establishes
                             a quasi-independent state.
               21 Aug 1765  British administration begins (under India).
               26 May 1770  Part of British India (see India).
               15 Aug 1947  Bengal province of British India divided; eastern part
                             becomes Pakistan province of East Bengal.
               14 Oct 1955  Renamed East Pakistan.
               07 Oct 1958  Autonomy abolished.
 26 Mar 1971 - 16 Dec 1971  Bangladesh war of independence.
               26 Mar 1971  Independence proclaimed (People's Republic of Bangladesh)
                             by the exile government.
               16 Dec 1971  De facto independence (capitulation of Pakistan).
               22 Feb 1974  Independence recognized by Pakistan.
 

Most of Bangladesh is covered by the Bengal delta, the largest delta on Earth. The country has 700 rivers and 8,046 km (5,000 miles) of inland waterways. Highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country. Bangladesh has many islands and a coral reef. The longest unbroken sea beach, Cox's Bazar Beach, is located here. It is home to the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plant and wildlife, including endangered Bengal tigers, the national animal.

Territorial Disputes: Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea, which were settled in favor of Bangladesh on 14 Mar 2012 and 8 Jul 2014 respectively; Indian Prime Minister Singh's Sep 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, which was implemented 31 Jul 2015; Bangladesh struggles to accommodate 29,000 Rohingya, Burmese Muslim minority from Arakan State, living as refugees in Cox's Bazar; Burmese border authorities are constructing a 200 km (124 mi) wire fence designed to deter illegal cross-border transit and tensions from the military build-up along border.

 
 
BENGAL (Bangladesh)
In the northeast corner of the subcontinent, along the coast, and involving the vast delta region associated with the Ganges and Brahmaputra River systems.
Many of archaeological excavations in Bangladesh revealed evidences of the Northern Black Polished Ware culture (abbreviated NBPW or NBP) of the Indian Subcontinent (c. 700–200 BC) which was an Iron Age culture developed beginning around 700 BC and peaked from c. 500–300 BC, coinciding with the emergence of 16 great states or mahajanapadas in Northern India, and the subsequent rise of the Mauryan Empire. The eastern part of ancient India, covering much of current days Bangladesh was part of one of such mahajanapadas, the ancient kingdom of Anga, which flourished in the 6th century BCE. Linguistically, the oldest population of this land may have been speakers of Dravidian languages, such as the Kurux, or perhaps of Austroasiatic languages such as the Santals. Subsequently, people speaking languages from other language families, such as Tibeto-Burman, settled in Bengal. Indic Bengali represents the latest settlement. While western Bangladesh, as part of Magadha, became part of the Indo-Aryan civilisation by the 7th century BCE, the Nanda Dynasty was the first historical state to unify all of Bangladesh under short Indo-Aryan rule despite lasting for only 24 years in 345–321 BCE . Later after the rise of Buddhism many missionaries settled in the land to spread the religion and established many monuments such as Mahasthangarh.
  • NANDA / GANGARIDAI EMPIRE (345 - 321 BCE.)
  • The Nanda dynasty originated from the region of Magadha in ancient India during the 4th century BCE and lasted between 345–321 BCE. At its greatest extent, the empire ruled by the Nanda Dynasty extended from Bengal in the east, to the Punjab region in the west and as far south as the Vindhya Range. The capital of this dynasty was Pataliputra. The rulers of this dynasty were famed for the great wealth which they accumulated. The Nanda Empire was later conquered by Chandragupta Maurya, founder of the Mauryan Empire.
  • Mahapadma Nanda S/o Mahanandin........................345 BCE - ?
  • The Puranas describe Mahapadma as a son of Mahanandin by a woman from the Shudra caste. Sons of Mahanandin from his other wives opposed the rise of Mahapadma Nanda, on which he eliminated all of them to claim the throne. According to Puranas Mahapadma had eight sons. He defeated many kingdoms, including the Panchalas, Kasis, Haihayas, Kalingas, Asmakas, Kurus, Maithilas, Surasenas and the Vitihotras.
  • Pandhuka S/o Mahapadma Nanda
  • Panghupati S/o Mahapadma Nanda
  • Bhutapala S/o Mahapadma Nanda
  • Rashtrapala S/o Mahapadma Nanda
  • Govishanaka S/o Mahapadma Nanda
  • Dashasidkhaka S/o Mahapadma Nanda
  • Kaivarta S/o Mahapadma Nanda
  • Dhana Nanda (Agrammes, Xandrammes) S/o Mahapadma Nanda.....? - 321
  • Though north and west Bengal were part of the empire southern Bengal thrived and became powerful with her overseas trades. In 326 BCE, with the invasion of Alexander the Great the region again came to prominence. The Greek and Latin historians suggested that Alexander the Great withdrew from India anticipating the valiant counterattack of the mighty Gangaridai empire that was located in the Bengal region. Alexander, after the meeting with his officer, Coenus, was convinced that it was better to return. Diodorus Siculus mentions Gangaridai to be the most powerful empire in India whose king possessed an army of 20,000 horses, 200,000 infantry, 2,000 chariots and 4,000 elephants trained and equipped for war. The allied forces of Gangaridai Empire and Nanda Empire (Prasii) were preparing a massive counterattack against the forces of Alexander on the banks of Ganges. Gangaridai, according to the Greek accounts, kept on flourishing at least up to the 1st century AD. A number of modern scholars locate Gangaridai in the Ganges Delta of the Bengal region, although alternative theories also exist. Gange or Ganges, the capital of the Gangaridai (according to Ptolemy), has been identified with several sites in the region, including Chandraketugarh (East Bengal, India) and Wari-Bateshwar (Bangladesh).
  • MAURYA (322 - 184 BCE.)
  • The Empire was founded in 322 BC by Chandragupta Maurya, who had overthrown the Nanda Dynasty when he was only about 20 years old and rapidly expanded his power westwards across Northern, Central and Eastern parts of India along with parts of Afghanistan and Baluchistan. Ashoka the great was one of the famous ruler of this dynasty, ruling c. 273 - c. 232 BCE. This dynasty lasted till c. 184 BCE.
  • Shunga Dynasty (185–73 BCE)
  • The Shunga Empire (IAST: Śuṅga) was an ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled areas of the central and eastern Indian subcontinent from around 185 to 73 BCE. The dynasty was established by Pushyamitra Shunga, after the fall of the Maurya Empire. Its capital was Pataliputra, but later emperors such as Bhagabhadra also held court at Besnagar (modern Vidisha) in eastern Malwa. The dynasty is noted for its numerous wars with both foreign and indigenous powers. They fought the Kalinga, the Satavahana dynasty, the Indo-Greek Kingdom and possibly the Panchalas and Mathuras.
  • Pushyamitra Shunga........................................185 – 149
  • The Shunga dynasty was a Brahmin dynasty, established in 185 BCE, when the emperor Brihadratha Maurya, the last ruler of the Maurya Empire, was assassinated by his Senānī or commander-in-chief, Pushyamitra Shunga, while he was reviewing the Guard of Honour of his forces. Pushyamitra Shunga then ascended the throne.
  • Agnimitra S/o Pushyamitra.................................149 – 141
  • After the death of Agnimitra, the empire rapidly disintegrated. Agnimitra's reign ended in 141 BCE and he was succeeded either by his son Vasujyeshtha (according to the Matsya Purana) or Sujyeshtha (according to the Vayu, Brahamānda, Vishnu, and Bhagavata Puranas).
  • Vasujyeshtha S/o Agnimitra................................141 – 131
  • Vasumitra S/o Agnimitra...................................131 – 124
  • He was the son of Agnimitra by his queen Dharini and brother or half-brother of Vasujyeshtha.
  • Andhraka..................................................124 – 122
  • Pulindaka.................................................122 – 119
  • Ghosha
  • Vajramitra
  • Bhagabhadra
  • Devabhuti..................................................83 – 73
  • He was assassinated by his minister Vasudeva Kanva and is said to have been overfond of the company of women. Following his death, the Shunga dynasty was then replaced by the subsequent Kanvas.
  • Kanva Dynasty (75–30 BCE)
  • The Kanva dynasty or Kanvayana was a Brahmin dynasty that replaced the Shunga dynasty in parts of Eastern and Central India, and ruled from 75 BCE to 30 BCE. Although the Puranic literature indicates that the Kanva Dynasty ruled in Magadha (in eastern India), their coins are primarily found in and around Vidisha in central India, which had also been the capital.
  • Vasudeva Kanva..........................................c. 75 - c. 66
  • He was originally an Amatya (minister) of last Shunga ruler Devabhuti. Bana's Harshacharita informs us that he came to power after the death of Devabhuti by a daughter of his slave woman disguised as his queen.
  • Bhumimitra S/o Vasudeva Kanva...........................c. 66 - c. 52
  • Coins bearing the legend Bhumimitra have been discovered from Panchala realm.
  • Narayana S/o Bhumimitra.................................c. 52 - c. 40
  • Susharman S/o Narayana..................................c. 40 - c. 30
  • GUPTA EMPIRE (275 - 550 CE.)
  • The pre-Gupta period of Bengal is shrouded with obscurity. Before its conquest by Samudragupta (Reign: c. 350 - c. 370 CE), Bengal was divided into two kingdoms: Pushkarana and Samatata. Chandragupta II (Reign: c. 376 - c. 415 CE) had defeated a confederacy of Vanga kings resulting in Bengal becoming part of the Gupta Empire.
  • GAUDA KINGDOM
  • By the 6th century, the Gupta Empire, which ruled over the northern Indian subcontinent had largely broken up. Eastern Bengal splintered into the kingdoms of Vanga, Samatata and Harikela while the Gauda kings rose in the west with their capital at Karnasuvarna (near modern Murshidabad). Shashanka, a vassal of the last Gupta Emperor proclaimed independence and unified the smaller principalities of Bengal (Gaur, Vanga, Samatata). He vied for regional power with Harshavardhana in northern India after treacherously murdering Harsha's elder brother Rajyavardhana. Harsha's continuous pressure led to the gradual weakening of the Gauda kingdom founded by Shashanka and finally ended with his death. This burst of Bengali power ended with the overthrow of Manava (his son), Bengal descended into a period marked by disunity and intrude once more.
  • Shashanka...............................................c.590 – 625
  • After the death of Mahasenagupta, Shashanka drove the later Guptas and other prominent nobles out of the region and established his own kingdom with a capital at Karnasubarna (present-day Murshidabad in West Bengal.). He is the contemporary of Harsha and of Bhaskaravarman of Kamarupa. The development of the Bengali calendar is often attributed to Shashanka because the starting date falls within his reign. Coins are known on his name.
  • Manava S/o Shashanka............................................625 (8 months)
  • He was the last recorded ruler of the dynasty and was likely deposed by Harshavardhana (Emperor of Northern India) or Bhaskaravarman (King of Kamarupa).
  • Khadga kingdom
  • Khadgodyama...............................................625 - 640
  • Jatakhadga ...............................................640 - 658
  • Devakhadga................................................658 - 673
  • Rajabhata.................................................673 - 690
  • Balabhata.................................................690 - 705
  • Udirnakhadga (undetermined reign)
  • PALA
  • Pala dynasty were the first independent Buddhist dynasty of Bengal. The name Pala (Bengali: পাল pal) means "protector" and was used as an ending to the names of all Pala monarchs. The Palas were followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism. The Pala stronghold was located in Bengal and Bihar, which included the major cities of Vikrampura, Pataliputra, Gauda, Monghyr, Somapura, Ramvati (Varendra), Tamralipta and Jaggadala. The ethnic origins of the dynasty are unknown, although the later records claim that Gopala was a Kshatriya belonging to the legendary Solar dynasty. The Ballala-Carita states that the Palas were Kshatriyas, a claim reiterated by Taranatha in his History of Buddhism in India as well as Ghanaram Chakrabarty in his Dharmamangala (both written in the 16th century CE). The Ramacharitam also attests the fifteenth Pala emperor, Ramapala, as a Kshatriya. The Pala dynasty has also been branded as Śudra in some sources such as Manjushri-Mulakalpa; this might be because of their Buddhist leanings. According to Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak (in Ain-i-Akbari), the Palas were Kayasthas. There are even accounts that claim Gopala may have been from a Brahmin lineage. The Pala period is considered one of the golden eras of Bengali history. The Palas brought stability and prosperity to Bengal after centuries of civil war between warring divisions. They advanced the achievements of previous Bengali civilisations and created outstanding works of art and architecture. They laid the basis for the Bengali language, including its first literary work, the Charyapada. The Pala legacy is still reflected in Tibetan Buddhism.
  • Most of the Pala inscriptions mention only the regnal year as the date of issue, without any well-known calendar era. Because of this, the chronology of the Pala kings is hard to determine. Based on their different interpretations of the various epigraphs and historical records, different historians estimate the Pala chronology differ in the ruler's duration. Below is the Pala chronology based on Dilip Kumar Ganguly, which was compiled in 1994.
  • Gopala I S/o Vapyata......................................750 - 774
  • According to the Khalimpur copper plate inscription, the first Pala king Gopala was the son of a warrior named Vapyata. The Ramacharitam attests that Varendra (North Bengal) was the fatherland (Janakabhu) of the Palas.
  • Dharmapala S/o Gopala I...................................774 - 806
  • Gopala's empire was greatly expanded by his son Dharmapala and his grandson Devapala. Dharmapala was initially defeated by the Pratihara ruler Vatsaraja. Later, the Rashtrakuta king Dhruva defeated both Dharmapala and Vatsaraja. After Dhruva left for the Deccan region, Dharmapala built a mighty empire in the northern India. He defeated Indrayudha of Kannauj, and installed his own nominee Chakrayudha on the throne of Kannauj. Several other smaller states in North India also acknowledged his suzerainty. Soon, his expansion was checked by Vatsaraja's son Nagabhata II, who conquered Kannauj and drove away Chakrayudha. Nagabhata II then advanced up to Munger and defeated Dharmapala in a pitched battle. Dharmapala was forced to surrender and to seek alliance with the Rashtrakuta emperor Govinda III, who then intervened by invading northern India and defeating Nagabhata II. The Rashtrakuta records show that both Chakrayudha and Dharmapala recognised the Rashtrakuta suzerainty. In practice, Dharmapala gained control over North India after Govinda III left for the Deccan. He adopted the title Paramesvara Paramabhattaraka Maharajadhiraja.
  • Devapala S/o Dharmapala...................................806 - 845
  • Dharmapala was succeeded by his son Devapala, who is regarded as the most powerful Pala ruler. His expeditions resulted in the invasion of Pragjyotisha (present-day Assam) where the king submitted without giving a fight and the Utkala (present-day Orissa) whose king fled from his capital city.
  • Mahendrapala S/o Devapala.................................845 - 860
  • Mahendrapala has been mentioned in some Pala records, but earlier, the historians used to believe that these mentions referred to the Gurjara-Pratihara king Mahendrapala I. However, the discovery of the Jagjivanpur copper plate charter issued by Mahendrapala made it clear that he was a distinct Pala emperor, who succeeded Devapala. He was the son of Devapala and his queen Mahata.
  • Shurapala I S/o Devapala..................................860 - 872
  • Previously, the historians believed that Shurapala and Vigrahapala were the two names of the same person. However, the discovery of a copper plate in 1970 in the Mirzapur district conclusively established that these two were cousins. They either ruled simultaneously (perhaps over different territories) or in rapid succession. According to the Jagjivanpur inscription Shurapala I was Mahendrapala's younger brother and royal envoy.
  • Vigrahapala I S/o Jayapala................................972 - 873
  • Vigrahapala was a grandson of Dharmapala's younger brother Vakapala and son of Jayapala. Following the death of Devapala, the Pala empire gradually started disintegrating. Vigrahapala I, who was Devapala's nephew, abdicated the throne after a brief rule, and became an ascetic.
  • Narayanapala S/o Vigrahapala I............................873 - 927
  • Vigrahapala's son and successor Narayanapala proved to be a weak ruler. During his reign, the Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha defeated the Palas. Encouraged by the Pala decline, the King Harjara of Assam assumed imperial titles and the Sailodbhavas established their power in Orissa.
  • Rajyapala S/o Narayanapala................................927 - 959
  • Naryanapala's son Rajyapala ruled for at least 12 years, and constructed several public utilities and lofty temples.
  • Gopala II S/o Rajyapala...................................959 - 976
  • He lost Bengal after a few years of rule, and then ruled only Bihar. The Chandellas and Kalachuris of Tripuri emerged in lands formerly of the Pratiharas. The Kamboja tribes also established themselves in the North of Bengal, pushing Gopala II to southern Bihar and western Bengal.
  • Vigrahapala II............................................976 - 977
  • He had to bear the invasions from the Chandelas and the Kalachuris. During his reign, the Pala empire disintegrated into smaller kingdoms like Gauda, Radha, Anga and Vanga. Kantideva of Harikela (eastern and southern Bengal) also assumed the title Maharajadhiraja, and established a separate kingdom, later ruled by the Chandra dynasty. The Gauda state (West and North Bengal) was ruled by the Kamboja Pala dynasty. The rulers of this dynasty also bore names ending in the suffix -pala (e.g. Rajyapala, Narayanapala and Nayapala). However, their origin is uncertain, and the most plausible view is that they originated from a Pala official who usurped a major part of the Pala kingdom along with its capital.
  • Mahipala I S/o Vigrahapala II.............................977 - 1027
  • Mahipala's reign marked a resurgence in fortunes for the Pala empire whose boundaries were expanded as far as Varanasi. His rule was however temporarily hampered by the northern expedition of the Chola king, Rajendra I.
  • Nayapala S/o Mahipala I..................................1027 - 1043
  • He defeated the Kalachuri king Karna after a long struggle. The two later signed a peace treaty at the mediation of the Buddhist scholar Atiśa.
  • Vigrahapala III S/o Nayapala.............................1043 - 1070
  • The Kalachuri king Karna once again invaded Bengal but was defeated. The conflict ended with a peace treaty, and Vigrahapala III married Karna's daughter Yauvanashri. Vigrahapala III was later defeated by the invading Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI. The invasion of Vikramaditya VI saw several soldiers from South India into Bengal, which explains the southern origin of the Sena Dynasty. Vigrahapala III also faced another invasion led by the Somavamsi king Mahasivagupta Yayati of Orissa. Subsequently, a series of invasions considerably reduced the power of the Palas. The Varmans occupied eastern Bengal during his reign. During his reign, the emergent Sena dynasty seize Radha from the Palas beginning the decline of their power in the region.
  • Mahipala II..............................................1070 - 1071
  • Shurapala II.............................................1071 - 1072
  • Ramapala.................................................1072 - 1126
  • Rampala is recognised as the last great ruler of the dynasty, managing to restore much of the past glory of the Pala lineage. He crushed the Varendra Rebellion and extended his empire farther to Kamarupa, Orissa and Northern India. After gaining control of Varendra, Ramapala tried to revive the Pala empire with limited success. He ruled from a new capital at Ramavati, which remained the Pala capital until the dynasty's end. He reduced taxation, promoted cultivation and constructed public utilities. He brought Kamarupa and Rar under his control, and forced the Varman king of east Bengal to accept his suzerainty. He also struggled with the Ganga king for control of present-day Orissa; the Gangas managed to annex the region only after his death. Ramapala maintained friendly relations with the Chola king Kulottunga to secure support against the common enemies: the Ganas and the Chalukyas. He kept the Sens in check, but lost Mithila to a Karnataka chief named Nanyuadeva. He also held back the aggressive design of the Gahadavala ruler Govindachandra through a matrimonial alliance. According to Bengali legend he died by walking into the sea.
  • Kumarapala...............................................1126 - 1128
  • During his reign he put down an uprising in Kamarupa by the governor Timgyadeva, eventually replacing him with Vaidyadeva (who would rebel four years after the death of Kumarapala).
  • Gopala III...............................................1128 - 1143
  • Madanapala...............................................1143 - 1161
  • During his reign, the encroachment by the Sena dynasty eventually reduced the Pala domains to Bihar. In Harikela, the Varman dynasty were conquered by the Sena dynasty leaving the Palas as the only other significant power in Bengal.
    • Govindapala.........................................1161 - 1165
    • Palapala............................................1165 - 1200
  • SENA
  • The resurgent Hindu Sena dynasty dethroned the Pala Empire in the 12th century, ending the reign of the last major Buddhist imperial power in the subcontinent. The rulers of the Sena Dynasty traced their origin to the south Indian region of Karnataka. The dynasty's founder was Samanta Sena. The Senas were the supporters of orthodox Hinduism.
    • Samanta Sena
    • Hemanta Sena (usurper)..............................1070 - 1096
    • Vijaya Sena.........................................1095 - 1159
    • He helped lay the foundations of the dynasty, and had an unusually long reign of over 60 years. He succeeded in conquering a large part of Pala territory.
  • Ballalasena..............................................1159 - 1179
  • Ballala Sena conquered Gaur from the Pala in 1161 and became the ruler of the Bengal Delta, and made Nabadwip the capital as well. Ballala Sena married Ramadevi a princess of the Western Chalukya Empire which indicates that the Sena rulers maintained close social contact with south India.
  • Lakhsmanasena S/o Ballalasena............................1179 - 1205
  • He ruled Bengal for approximately 20 years, and expanded the Sena Empire to Assam, Odisha, Bihar and probably to Varanasi. He defeated King Jayachandra. The capital city of his kingdom was at Bikrampur. He was interested in literature and wrote due part of Adbhuta Sagara, a book incompletely written by his father. In 1203-1204 AD, the Turkic general Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khalji [military general of Qutb al-Din Aibak] attacked Nabadwip. Khalji defeated Lakshman Sen and captured northwest Bengal – although Eastern Bengal remained under Sena control.
  • Vishvarupasena [Biswaroop Sen]...........................1205 - 1225
  • Keshavarsena [Keshab Sen]................................1225 - 1250
  • Vacant c. 1250 - 1281.
    • Deva
    • It was a Hindu dynasty which originated in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent; the dynasty ruled over eastern Bengal after the Sena dynasty. The capital of the dynasty was Chittagaung in present-day Munshiganj District of Bangladesh.
    • Purushottamadeva
    • Madhusudanadeva (Madhumathana) S/o Purushottamadeva
    • Vasudeva S/o Madhusudanadeva
    • Damodaradeva S/o Vasudeva...........................1231 – 1243
    • He was the most powerful ruler of this dynasty. He took the title of Ariraja-Chanura-Madhava-Sakala-Bhupati-Chakravarti. The inscriptional evidences show that his kingdom was extended up to the present-day Comilla-Noakhali-Chittagong region.
    • Dasharathadeva.............................................1281
    • Ariraja-Danuja-Madhava Dasharathadeva extended his kingdom up to Bikrampur and made it his capital. He made an alliance with Ghiyas-ud-Din Balban in 1281. His brother Bikramaditya Deva later moved to the eastern side of the kingdom in 1294. This is the last recorded history of this dynasty.
 
  • Khalji (Khilji) dynasty Governors at Bengal
  • Ikhtiyar al-Din Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khalji................1203 - 1206
  • Izz al-Din Shiran Khalji.................................1206 - 1207
  • Husam al-Din Iwad Khalji.................................1207 - 1208
  • No coin were issued on the name of above three rulers. However coins were issued in the name of Muhammad Bin Sam after his death (died in AH 599) during AH 601-602 (1204-1206) with pictorial device of a galloping horseman by Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khalji. The gold Tanka bear the inscription in Nagari "Gauda-vijaye" (on the conquest of Gaur) and the month of the issue. The 20 rati (2.3 grams) gold coins were struck in both Arabic and Nagari inscription types. The coins with Arabic inscriptions call Muhammad as "al-sultan al-muazzam" (the great or glorious rather than the supreme sultan "al-sultan al-azam"). These coins are all rare to extremely rare and trend to be found nowadays in Pakistan rather than Bengal, which suggests that they were commemorative issue presented to the victorious troops and were taken back in due course to their home territory. Full title on the coins: "al-sultan al-mu'azzam mu'izz al-dunya wa'd din abu'l muzaffar muhammad bin sam".
  • Rukn al-Din Ali Mardan (Sultan from 1210)................1208 - 1213
  • His coins follow a similar pattern as of Muhammad bin Sam, except that all were inscribed in Arabic and the Tankas were of standard weight.  Full title on the coins: "al-sultan al-mu'azzam rukn al-dunya wa'd din abu'l muzaffar ali mardan". All his coins are very rare.
  • Ghiyath al-Din Iwad S/o al-Husain.........................1213 - 1227
  • Iwad took over as governor of Bengal in AH 609 or 610 (1213). He does not appear to have struck any coins until AH 614. In AH 614 (1217) and AH 616 (1220). He struck a series of gold and silver horseman coins in the name of his overload, the sultan of Delhi, Shams al-Din Iltutmish. Some of these coins bear dates that include not only the month but also the day. Therefore they are considered as commemorative issue by nature. On these coins Iltutmish is entitled "al-qutbi". This may refer to his original position as a freed slave of Qutb al-Din Aibak or the fact that he belonged to the Qutbi rather than to the Mu'izzi faction of nobles. On most of these coins, Iltutmish is also entitled "abu'l muzaffar", but some coins bear a different kunya, which is not clear. The Obverse marginal legends all contain the Shahada and the date, but the date is not always easy to decipher. Full title on these coins: "al-sultan al-mu'azzam shams al-dunya wa'd din abu'l muzaffar iltutmish al-qutbi nasir amir al-mu'minin". These coins are mostly extremely rare. Towards the end of year AH 616 (1220), Iwad must have felt his position secure enough to declare himself independent from Delhi Sultanate. In that year, he struck coins in his own name with a date that has been read as both 12 Dhu'l-Qa'dah or 19 Safar. The engraving is very crude. Three main Tanka types are known for AH 616, one with only the year mentioned and two with month and day. They all quote his father, al-Husain and have the Shahada on the reverse, with the date in the margin. There is no mint name on any of his coins. Full title on these coins: "al-sultan al-mu'azzam ghiyath al-dunya wa'd din abu'l fath iwad bin al-husain nasir amir al-mu'minin". On later coins the word "nasir" is replaced by "qasim" (helper).
  • Sultanate of Delhi - Mamluk Sultanate dynasty Governors at Bengal
  • Nasir al-Din Mahmud......................................1227 - 1229
  • Daulat Shah S/o Maudud...................................1229 - 1230
  • Ala al-Din Jani.................................................1230
  • Saif al-Din Aibak........................................1230 - 1233
  • Izz al-Din Tughril Tughan Khan...........................1233 - 1243
  • Malik Qamar al-Din Tamar Khan Qiran......................1244 - 1246
  • Jalal al-Din Masud Malik........................................1249
  • Maghith al-Din Yuzbak (Sultan from 1255).................1253 - 1257
  • Izz al-Din Balban...............................................1258
  • Arslan Khan Sanjar..............................................1258
  • Tatar Khan...............................................1265 - 1266
  • Sher Khan
  • Amin Khan
  • Mu'izz al-Din Tughril (Sultan from 1280).................1268 - 1282
  • ILYAS
  • Nasir al-Din Mahmud Bughra Khan (Sultan from 1288).......1282 - 1289
  • He was Governor of Bengal AH 680-686 (1282-1287) and then Sultan AH 687-688 (1288-1289).
  • Jalal al-Din Mahmud.............................................1287
  • Rukn al-Din Kai Ka'us....................................1290 - 1300
  • Shams al-Din Daulat Shah.................................1299 - 1300
  • Shams al-Din Firuz Shah I................................1300 - 1320
  • Shihab al-Din Bughda Shah (West Bengal)..................1317 - 1318 with...
  • Ghiyath al-Din Bahadur Shah..............................1320 - 1328 with...
  • He ruled all Benegal: 1320-1324 and then ruled joined with Bahram Khan as Governor of Sunargaon: 1326-1328.
  • Nasir al-Din Ibrahim Shah (West Bengal - G. Lakhnauti)...1324 - 1325 and...
  • Azam ul-Mulk (at Satgaon)................................1323 - 1339 and...
  • Bahram Shah (East Bengal - Gov. of Sunargaon & Satgaon)..1324 - 1336 and...
  • Qadr Khan (West Bengal - Governor of Lakhnauti)..........1325 - 1339 and...
  • Izz al-Din Yahya (East Bengal - Gov. of Satgaon).........1326 - 1328 and...
  • Fakhruddin Mubarrak Shah (East Bengal)...................1338 - 1349 and...
  • He ruled was an independent kingdom in areas that lie within modern-day eastern and southeastern Bangladesh. He is also the first Muslim ruler to conquest Chittagong, the principal port of Bengal region. Fakhruddin's capital was Sonargaon. Sonargaon emerged as the principal city of the region. His conquests of Comilla and Noakhali were followed by territorial gains to the north Sylhet and south Chittagong. His military initiatives included a successful naval action against Sultan Alauddin Ali Shah of Lakhnauti. Shah sponsored several construction projects, including a trunk road and raised embankments, along with mosques and tombs. Ibn Batuta, after visiting his capital in 1346, described Shah as "a distinguished sovereign who loved strangers, particularly the fakirs and sufis." He is credited to be the founder of independent Sultanate of Bengal, which lasted for about 200 years. His son Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah was his successor and ruled the independent Sultanate from Sonargaon till 1352.
  • Ala al-Din Ali Shah (West Bengal)........................1339 - 1345 and...
  • Shams al-Din Ilyas Shah (West Bengal, all from 1352).....1345 - 1357 and...
  • Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah founded an independent dynasty that lasted from 1342 to 1487. The dynasty successfully repulsed attempts by Delhi to conquer them. They continued to extend their territory across what is modern-day Bengal, reaching to Khulna in the south and Sylhet in the east. The sultans developed civic institutions and became more responsive and "native" in their outlook and became increasingly independent from Delhi influence and control. Considerable architectural projects were completed including the massive Adina Mosque and the Darasbari Mosque which still stands in Bangladesh near the border with India. The Sultans of Bengal were patrons of Bengali literature and began a process in which Bengali culture and identity would flourish. During the rule of this dynasty, Bengal, for the first time, achieved a separate identity. Indeed, Ilyas Shah named this province as 'Bangalah' and united different parts into a single, unified territory.
  • Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah (East Bengal)...................1349 - 1352
  • Sikandar I Shah S/o Ilyas Shah...........................1357 - 1390 opposed by...
  • Ghiyath al-Din Azam Shah.................................1369 - 1410
  • Saif al-Din Hamza Shah...................................1410 - 1412
  • Shams al-Din S/o Hamza Shah.....................................1412
  • Shihab al-Din Bayazid I Shah ............................1412 - 1414
  • Ala al-Din Firuz II Shah........................................1414

SG#B88 Tanka. Year: AH 689-690 (1290-1291). Weight 10.59 grams. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 29.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal; slightly rotated. Mint: Lakhnauti from land-tax of Banga.

Obverse: "السلطان الاعظم رکن الدنیا والدین ابوالمظفر کیکاوس السلطن بن السلطان بن سلطان" (al-sultan al-azam rukn al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar kaikaus al-sultan bin al-sultan bin sultan) in the center square.

Reverse: "الامام المستعصیم امیر المؤمنین" (al-imam al-musta'sim amir al-mu'minin) in the center circle. Mintage: N.A. Mintage Years: AH 689 and AH 690 (1290-1291). Ruler: Rukn Al-Din Kaikaus (1290-1300). Scarce type.

 
  • GANESA
  • Raja Ganesh (1st time)...................................1414 - 1415
  • The Ganesha dynasty began with Raja Ganesha in 1414. After Raja Ganesha seized control over Bengal, he faced an imminent threat of invasion. Ganesha appealed to a powerful Muslim holy man named Qutb al Alam to stop the threat. The saint agreed on the condition that Raja Ganesha's son, Jadu, would convert to Islam and rule in his place. Raja Ganesha agreed and Jadu started ruling Bengal as Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah in 1415.
  • Jalal al-Din Muhammad Shah (1st time)....................1415 - 1416
  • Qutb al Alam died in 1416 and Raja Ganesha was emboldened to depose his son and return to the throne as Danujamarddana Deva. Jalaluddin was reconverted to Hinduism by the Golden Cow ritual.
  • Danujamardana Deva (Raja Ganesh = 2nd time)..............1416 - 1418
  • Mahendra Deva...................................................1418
  • Jalal al-Din Muhammad Shah (2nd time)....................1418 - 1432
  • After the death of his father, Jalaluddin once again converted to Islam and started ruling again. Jalaluddin's son, Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah ruled for a brief period, due to chaos and anarchy. The dynasty is known for its liberal policies as well as its focus on justice and charity.
  • Shams al-Din Ahmad Shah..................................1432 - 1433
  • Qutb al-Din Azam Shah (in the East?).....................1433 - 1434 with...
  • Nasir al-Din Shahim Shah (Shadi Khan?)...................1433 - 1434 with...
  • Ghiyath al-Din Nusrat (Nasir Khan?)......................1433 - 1434
  • ILYAS
  • Nasir al-Din Mahmud I....................................1434 - 1459
  • Rukn al-Din Barbak I Shah................................1459 - 1474
  • Shams al-Din Yusuf Shah..................................1474 - 1481
  • Nur al-Din Sikandar II Shah.....................................1481
  • Jalal al-Din Fath Shah...................................1481 - 1487
  • HABSHIS
  • Ghiyath al-Din Barbak II.................................1487 - 1488
  • During the reign of Jalaluddin Fateh Shah, Abyssinians (Habshis) took important and influential positions in the royal court. Jalaluddin took steps to take back control. But Barbak, the commander of the palace-guards, led a conspiracy against him. Later Jalaluddin was killed. Shahzada Barbak took power and founded the Habshi dynasty in 1487 CE. He assumed the title Sultan Shahzada. But his reign was short-lived. He was killed in 1488 by former loyal Ilyas dynasty army commander, Saifuddin Firuz Shah. His gold Tanka at Khazana and silver Tanka at Dar al-Darb, Fathabad and two types of Khazana mint are all extremely rare. Legend on Obverse side: "ghiyath al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar barbakshah al-sultan khallada allah mulkahu". Reverse side has Shahada, mint name and Date.
  • Saif al-Din Firuz III....................................1488 - 1490
  • His original name is Malik Indil. He was a former army commander of Bengal's Ilyas dynasty. Most of his coins are in silver but a few gold coins are also known. Coins struck in Dar al-Darb, Fathabad and Khazana are the usually come across, but it is interesting to note that both Firuzabad and Mu'azzamabad were used as was Muhammadabad. A single fraction Tanka has been found so far. Another interesting feature is that the ruler's name Saif is spelt on the coins in two different ways: "سایف" or "صایف". Legend on Obverse side: "saif al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar firuz shah al-sultan khallada allah mulkahu wa sultanahu". Reverse side has Shahada, mint name and Date. 
  • Qutb al-Din Mahmud II S/o Firuz III.............................1490
  • He was an infant ruler of Bengal. He and his regent Habash Khan were killed by Shams al-Din Muzaffar Shah. Three Extremely Rare silver Tanka was known for this ruler issued at Dar al-Darb (dated AH x96), Fathabad (dated AH 892 instead of AH 896) and Khazana (dated AH 892 instead of AH 896). Legend on Obverse side: "qutb al-dunya wa'l din abu'l mujahid mahmud shah al-sultan ibn firuz shah al-sultan". Reverse side has Shahada, mint name and Date.
  • Shams al-Din Muzaffar Shah...............................1490 - 1493
  • Sidi Badr first killed Habash Khan, the regent of the boy-king Mahmud Shah II, and later killed the sultan also. He ascended the throne under the title of Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah. He is described by the Indo-Persian historians as a tyrant, whose cruelty alienated the nobles as well as his common subjects. He was killed in 1493 by the rebels led by his wazir Sayyid Husain, who succeeded him as Alauddin Husain Shah. His coins are known in both gold and silver. The legends on the Obverse of all but commemorative coins are "shams al-dunya wa'l din abu'l nasr muzaffar shah al-sultan khallada allah mulkahu wa sultanahu" and Reverse side has Shahada, mint name and Date. Most of the coins were struck at Dar al-Darb and Khazana, but there were also issues from Barbakabad, Fathabad, Muhammadabad and a new mint, Khairabad. Some unusual issues was made in AH 898 (1493) to celebrate a military campaign in the Kamta area. These bear the expression "kamta mardan" (the pillage of Kamta). His coins are Scarce to Very Rare.
  • HUSAINI
  • Ala al-Din Husain Shah S/o Sayyid Ashraf.................1493 - 1519
  • Alauddin Hussain Shah, is considered one of the greatest sultans of Bengal, for his encouragement of a cultural renaissance during his reign. He extended the sultanate all the way to the port of Chittagong, which witnessed the arrival of the first Portuguese merchants. During his time Bengal entered its most prosperous period. He repaired the damage done to the kingdom by misrule of Habshi sultans. He reorganized the administration, install discipline into the army and undertook many military campaigns. A number of such campaigns are commemorated on certain of his coins. After the collapse of the Juanpur sultanate, he agreed a non-aggression pact with Sikandar Lodi of Delhi. In doing this pact, he gained parts of Bihar. He also undertook military campaigns into Kamta and Kamrup in the northeast, Jajnagar and Orissa in the southwest. In addition, he recovered, at least temporarily, the Chittagong area. Various coins with different legends are known for this ruler. The coins produced in various mints were: Arsah (probably Chatgaon), Barbakabad, Chandrabad, Dar al-Darb, Fathabad, Dar al-Darb Husainabad (perhaps this place is Lakhnauti or a new town near it), Khazana, Muhammadabad, Muazzamabad (or Mustafabad) and Sharifabad.
  • Nasir al-Din Nusrat Shah S/o Husain Shah.................1519 - 1531
  • Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah gave refuge to the Afghan lords during the invasion of Babur though he remained neutral. Later, Nasrat Shah made a treaty with Babur which saved Bengal from a Mughal invasion. The coins of Nasrat Shah are as prolific as those of his father, Husain Shah. While they are predominantly silver, there are several gold types known. Fractions of various types also exist, often struck from specially prepared dies. There is no religious expression on the coins apart from "khallada allah mulkahu". The dates on the coins of his reign are difficult to interpret in many cases, while Muhammadabad continues to show the actual date of issue clearly. Other mints either have the fix accession date of AH 925 (1519) or have garbled or deliberately erroneous dates. Nusrat's coins were struck at many mints: Arsah, Barbakabad, Chatgaon (Arsah Chatgaon), Dar al-Darb, Dawabad, Dar al-Darb Fathabad, Dar al-Darb,Husainabad, Khairabad, Khalifatabad, Khazana, Muhammadabad, Muzaffarabad, Nusratabad and Tirhut Mardan. The legends on his coin: "al-sultan bin al-sultan nasir al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar" (Obverse side) and "nusrat shah al-sultan bin husain shah al-sultan al-husaini khallada allah mulkahu" (Reverse side).   
  • Ala al-Din Bibban Shah S/o Nusrat Shah..........................1531
  • Nusrat Shah had nominated his younger brother Mahmud as heir apparent, but on his death, a group of nobles, hostile to Mahmud, supported the claim of Nusrat's elder son, whose name is not recorded. This son was enthroned but was soon killed by his uncle Mahmud. Only a Tanka coin issued at Husainabad is known for Bibban Shah dated AH 938 (1531). Recently (ND Vol 19 1995), Syed Ejaz Hussain published a coin from Husainabad upon which he read the name Bibban. This coin , however is the same type as struck by Nusrat Shah's other son, Firuz from the same mint. Firuz's name is often poorly engraved on his sons and it is likely that the "Bibban" coin is a badly engraved coin of Firuz. The legends on the coin: "al-sultan bin al-sultan [bin] al-sultan ala al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar bibban shah al-sultan" (Obverse side) and "bin nasir shah al-sultan bin husain shah al-sultan al-husaini khallada allah mulkahu wa sultananahu husainabad" (Reverse side).
  • Ala al-Din Firuz IV S/o Nusrat Shah......................1531 - 1532
  • He struck silver tankas similar to those of his father at Arsah, Barbakabad, Fathabad, Husainabad, Khalifatabad, Muhammadabad, Nusratabad and Tirhut Mardan. Gold Tanka were issued at Fathabad and unknown mint and are extremely rare. The legends on his coin: "al-sultan bin al-sultan bin al-sultan ala al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar firuz shah al-sultan" (Obverse side) and "bin nasir shah al-sultan bin husain shah al-sultan al-husaini khallada allah mulkahu wa sultananahu" (Reverse side).
  • Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud III S/o Husain Shah................1532 - 1538
  • The last sultan of the dynasty, who continued to rule from Gaur, had to contend with rising Afghan activity on his north-western border. Eventually, the Afghans broke through and sacked the capital in 1538 where they remained for several decades until the proper arrival of the Mughals in 1576. Mahmud III's coinage is puzzling. It comprises two main series: the "badr shahi" coinage, where each side of the coins has those words in a central circle and the other with normal linear inscriptions. The "badr Shahi" coins are dated before Mahmud's accession in AH 939 (1532). While there are some clearly fictitious dates, many coins are dated AH 933 while Muhammadabad, a reliable mint are dated AH 933-935 (1527-1529). This indicates that Mahmud was permitted to strike coins in his own name during the reign of his elder brother, Nusrat Shah. He may well have been given a share in the administration of the sultanate. The "badr shahi" coins were struck not only at important mints like Fathabad, Husainabad and Muhammadabad but also at places what occur only on coins of this series, like Arkan, Arsah, Barbakabad, Chandrabad, Khairabad, Khalifatabad, Nusratabad, Rahillabad Badarpur, Saifabad, Sayyidabad, "Da" and "Ha" (or "Kha").  Badr Shahi coin legends: "badr shahi" in the center on both sides of the coin. "al-sultan bin al-sultan ghiyath al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar mahmud" (Obverse side arranged horizontally) and "shah al-sultan bin husain shah al-sultan khallada allah mulkahu wa sultananahu" (Reverse side). It is very strange that there are very few coin found with dates from his own reign AH 939-945 (1532-1538). Therefore coins with normal linear inscriptions are much scarcer than "badr shahi". Linear inscription coins were produced at Arkan, Barbakabad, Fathabad, Husainabad, Muhammadabad, Nusratabad and Tirhut Mardan. One interesting silver Tanka with linear inscriptions on his name was struck in Muhammadabad in AH 938 (1531), indicates that it was produced immediately after the death of Nusrat Shah. Mahmud's own reign was disastrous for the Bengal sultanate, as he appeared to be over-generous to the Portuguese in granting them concessions and he tended to back the wrong side in the stuggle between the Afghana and the the Mughals with the result that Bengal was lost first to Humayun, the Mughal and then to Sher Shah Suri.

SG#B741 Tanka. Year: AH 914 (1508). Weight 10.23 grams. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Husainabad.

Crudely engraved type.

Obverse: "السلطن الفاتح الكامرو و كمته و جاجنکر و اريسه علاو الدنيا و الدين ابو المظفر" (al-sultan al-fath al-kamru wa kamta wa jajnagar wa orissa ala al-dunya wa'l din abu muzaffar).

Reverse: "حسین شاه السلطن بن سعید اشرف الحسینی خلد اللہ ملکه و سلطانه" (husain shah al-sultan bin sayyid ashraf al-husaini khallada allah mulkahu wa sultanahu). Date at the bottom left side. There is a word before mint name, which may be "Khazana Husainabad" (Treasury of Husainabad) written at the bottom right side in two lines. Mintage: N.A. Mintage Years: AH 907, AH 908, AH 912, AH 914, AH 915, AH 918 and AH 919 (1502-1503, 1506, 1508-1509 and 1512-1513). Ruler: Ala al-Din Husain Shah (1493-1519). 

Note: This coin is very Common type and known as fourth Victory type of this ruler. It adds "Orissa" to the list of places conquered but omits the expression "bi-inayat Allah". These fourth type of coin series were struck at various mints and there are some types without mint name. Some of these coins are quite crudely engraved. Several gold and fraction in silver are also known in this series.

Below are various types of legends and titles of this ruler. His coins were mint at Arsah, Barbakabad, Chandrabad, Dar al-Darb, Fathabad, Husainabad (often with Dar al-Darb), Khazana, Muhammadabad, Muazzamabad (Mustafabad) and Sharifabad.

  • Type1: Issued in AH 899 (1494). al-sultan al-adil al-badhil walad sayyid al-mursalin ala al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar husain shah al-sultan khallada allah mulkahu wa sultanahu. Shahada on the Reverse side with mint name at the bottom.
  • Type2: Issued in AH 899-922 (1494-1516). ala al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar husain shah al-sultan khallada allah mulkahu wa sultanahu. Shahada on the Reverse side with mint name at the bottom.
  • Type3: Issued in AH 907 (1502). ala al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar husain shah al-sultan bin sayyid ashraf husaini khallada allah mulkahu. Shahada on the Reverse side with mint name at the bottom.
  • Victory Type1: Issued in AH 900 (1495). al-sultan al-mutawakkil ala allah al-fath al-kamru wa al-kamta bi-inayat allah ala al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar husain shah al-sultan fath kamta. Shahada on the Reverse side with mint name at the bottom.
  • Victory Type2: Issued in "26". al-sultan al-fath al-kamru al-kamta ala al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar (Obverse side). husain shah al-sultan bin sayyid ashraf al-husaini khallada allah mulkahu wa sultanahu (Reverse side).
  • Victory Type3: Issued in AH 899 (1494). al-sultan al-fath al-kamru al-kamta wa jajnagar bi-inayat allah ala al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar (Obverse side). husain shah al-sultan bin sayyid ashraf al-husaini khallada allah mulkahu wa sultanahu / Fathabad (Reverse side). Only one Tanka coin is known and is rare, produced at Fathabad. Date has only the last 9 of 899.
  • Victory Type4: Issued in AH 899-922 (1494-1516). See above displayed coin for legends.
  • Short Type 1: ala al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar (Obverse side). husain shah al-sultan khallada allah mulkahu (Reverse side). Only one Very rare Gold Tanka is unknown with his legends, having no mint name and date.
  • Short Type 2: Issued in AH 904-913 (1499-1507). al-sultan al-adil ala al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar (Obverse side). husain shah al-sultan bin sayyid ashraf al-husaini khallada mulkahu (Reverse side).
  • Short Type 3: Issued in AH 899-924 (1494-1518). Same as above type but Reverse side having in the end khallada allah mulkahu wa sultanahu instead of khallada mulkahu.
 
  • MUGHAL EMPIRE
  • Muhammad Humayun S/o Muhmmad Babur.......................1538 - 17 May 1539
  • The Muhgal emperor, Humayun was concerned about ther growing strength of the Afghans in Bihar and parts of Bengal under Sher Shah Khan Suri. Humayun marched eastwards and captured Chunar from Afghans and then went on to Lakhnauti and was able to occupy it. Mahmud III, the sultan of Bengal fled and Humayun stayed in Bengal for around nine months, during which time he issued silver coins at two different standards: a rather light Tanka standard of around 10.4 - 10.6 grams (issued at Arsah and Fathabad) and a heavier Rupee standard of 11.2 - 11.4 grams (issued at Bangala and Laknur). There are similar in style to much lighter Shahrukhi struck in other parts of India and usually have a date on them as well. Full title on Obverse side of his coins: "muhammad humayun ghazi" written in the center and "al-sultan al-azam wa al-khaqan al-mukarram khallada allah dhatahu wa mulkahu wa sultanahu adil bangala" in the margin around. Reverse side of his coins: Shahada and "yarzaq allah man tasha bi-ghair hisab" (God provides of those whom He pleases, without account) in the center while "ba-sadiq abu bakr ba-adil umar ba-hiya uthman bi-ilm ali radi allah anhum" (by the truth of Abu Bakr, by the justice of Umar, by the modesty of Uthman, by the wisdom of Ali, God reward him) in the margin around.
  • SURI
  • Farid ud-Din Sher Shah............................17 May 1539 - 22 May 1545
  • He was commander in the Mughal Army under Babur and then as the governor of Bihar. When Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Khan overran the state of Bengal and established the Suri Empire in Bengal and northern India. After the Battle of Chausa, Sher Shah was the only Muslim Sultan of Bengal to establish an empire in northern India. Sher Shah's son, Islam Shah, appointed Muhammad Khan Sur as the governor of Bengal. Pashtun rule in Bengal and the most impressive achievement of Sher Shah's was the construction of the Grand Trunk Road connecting Sonargaon, Delhi and Kabul. Sher Shah has produced various coins during his rule and set the standard [11.66 grams (one tola)] of silver Rupee, used by various dynasties after him and even by British India. A separate listing on Sher Shah Suri coins can be seen at Suri Dynasty. He struck silver Tankas and Rupees from his commenced base area of Bihar and Bengal. As his empire expanded mintless silver and copper varieties were produced. The same applies to the copper coins struck at Kalpi of which numerous varieties exists. He died in 1545.
  • Islam Shah [Jalal Khan] S/o Sher Shah.............26 May 1545 - 1553
  • He was the second son of Sher Shah Suri. On his father's death, an emergency meeting of nobles chose him to be successor instead of his elder brother Adil Khan. Islam Shah's coinage follows the same pattern as his predecessor's silver Rupees and copper paisas. A few gold coins are known but their status in some cases are uncertain.
  • Shams al-Din Muhammad Khan Sur Shah Ghazi................1552 - 1554
  • After the death of Islam Shah, there was a power vacuum in the east. Muhammad Khan Sur governor of Bengal, declared his independence from Delhi. His coins, like all remaining coins of the Sultans of Bengal were struck on the rupee standard. There are three types of Rupee with mint name Arkan. Two of them are of distinct style, suggesting that they were struck at Lakhnauti and Chunar. They are all rare coins. Full title on his coins: "(sultan) muhammad shah ghazi khallada allah mulkahu wa sultanahu" and "shams al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar" in the margins.
  • Ghiyath al-Din Bahadur Shah S/o Muhammad Shah Ghazi......1555 - 1560
  • Barhadur succeeded his father in AH 963 (1555) and set about consolidating his kingdom. He defeated the army of Muhammad Adil Suri at a battle near Monghyr and thereby secured the undisputed mastery of Bengal and part of Bihar. This is reflected in the fact that his coins are known from three different mints, Mulk Satgaon in the south, Hajipur in the west and  Lakhnauti (without mint name). All the coins are on the rupee standard. No gold coins are known but there are a few very rare fractions. Full title on his coins: "bahadur shah bin muhammad shah ghazi khallada allah mulkahu (wa sultanahu)", "sri bahadur shahi" in Nagari and "ghiyath al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar" in the margins. On the Satgaon coins there is an additional word before "abu'l muzaffar". which appears to be "al-mujazi" (the requiter).
  • Ghiyath al-Din Jalal Shah S/o Muhammad Shah Ghazi.......1560 - 1563
  • Bahadur was succeeded by his brother, who took the title Ghiyath al-Din Jalal. His coins are similar to his brother. His coins were struck at Hajipur, Satgaon and Lakhnauti (without mint name). Again, no gold coins are known and there are a few very rare fractions. Full title on his coins: "sultan jalal al-din bin muhammad shah ghazi khallada allah mulkahu". Some coins have the ruler's name in Nagari. Margin legends: "ghiyath al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar".

SG#B972 Rupee. Year: AH 968 (1561). Weight 10.87 grams. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 30.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: N.A (probably Lakhnauti).

Obverse: "سلطان جلال الدین بن محمد شاہ غازی خلد اللہ ملکه" (sultan jalal al-din bin muhammad shah ghazi khallada allah mulkahu) in the center square. In four marginal legends includes "غیاث الدنیا و الدین ابوالمظفر" (ghiyath al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar). Date at the right side anti-clockwise. Reverse: Shahada "لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا ٱلله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ ٱلله" (lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh muḥammadun rasūlu llāh) in the center square. Names of four caliphs in each margin. Mintage: N.A. Mintage Years: AH 968-971 (1561-1564). Ruler: Ghiyath al-Din Jalal Shah (1560-1563). Common type.

 
  • KARARANI
  • Sulaiman Shah............................................1563 - 1572
  • Sulaiman Khan Karrani annexed Odisha to the Muslim sultanate permanently. The Kararanis were Afghans who had become powerful under the Suris, the two brothers holding provisional governorship. After the death of Jalal Shah and his son, in AH 971 (1563), they seized Lakhnauti and establish themselves there, with the younger brother occupying the throne as Sulaiman Shah Kararani. He moved his capital from Lakhnauti to Tanda. He died in AH 980 and was succeeded briefly briefly by his eldest son, Bayazid Shah. Neither of these two appear to have struck coins in their own names, as none has so far been found. 
  • Bayazid II Shah S/o Sulaiman Shah...............................1572
  • After the death of Bayazid, his younger brother was raised to the throne with the title Daoud Shah.
  • Daoud Shah S/o Sulaiman Shah.............................1572 - 1576
  • Daoud Shah Karrani declared independence from Akbar which led to four years of bloody war between the Mughals and the Pashtuns. The Mughal onslaught against the Pashtun Sultan ended with the battle of Rajmahal in 1576, led by Khan Jahan. However, the Pashtun and the local landlords (Baro Bhuyans) led by Isa Khan resisted the Mughal invasion. The Mughal commander occupied Lakhnauti but his army soon fell victim to a virulent pestilence and he, himself died on it. This led to a general uprising by the Afghans in Bengal and Daoud put himself to their head. The revolt was in due course suppressed and Daoud was captured and executed. Thus ended the Bengal sultanate as Bengal became part of the Mughal empire.

SG#B982 Rupee. Year: AH 980 (1572). Weight 11.48 grams. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 29.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin; slightly rotated. Mint: Tanda. Obverse: "داؤد شاہ سلیمان کررانی خلد اللہ ملکه و سلطانه" (da'ud shah sulaiman shah kararani khallada allah mulkahu wa sultanahu) in the center square and "sri da'ud shahi" in Nagari. at the bottom. The four marginal legends cannot be read fully, but includes "ابوالمظفر" (abu'l muzaffar) at the top, Date at the right side anti-clockwise and Mint name at the left side. Reverse: Shahada "لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا ٱلله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ ٱلله" (lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh muḥammadun rasūlu llāh) in the center square. Names of four caliphs in each margin. Mintage: N.A. Mintage Years: AH 980 and AH 981 (1572-1573). Ruler: Da'ud Shah (1572-1576). Scarce type.

Note: Daoud's coins are similar to those of his Afghan predecessors. Three mint names are found on his name: Patna (opposite Hajipur), Satgaon and Tanda. The mint names are often off flan. Various mintmarks are to be found on these coins. There are no gold coins known, four type of silver Rupee are known and Half Rupee (5.6 grams) of Tanda is extremely rare.

 
  • Mughal Empire............................................1576 - 1757
    • NAWABS of BENGAL (title from 1716, Naib Nazim)
    • Murshid Quli Djafar Khan...........................1703 - 30 Jun 1727
    • He became de fact ruler from 1716.
    • Shoja ud-Din Muhammad Khan..................30 Jun 1727 - 1739 d. 1739
    • Alauddin Haidar Jang Safaraz Khan..................1739 - 06 Apr 1740 d. 1740
    • 'Ali Vardi Khan (Mirza Muhammad Ali)...............1740 - 09 Apr 1756 d. 1756
    • Siraj ud-Daula Muhammad Khan.......................1756 - 23 Jun 1757 d. 1757
    • Siraj ud-Daula, a young, active, and contentious man, is responsible for the incident known ever afterward as the "Black Hole of Calcutta". The commencement of his reign occured during an era of open hostilities between British and French interests. Actively courted by the French, and treated to some particularly egregious blunders by the British (involving their sheltering a rival to Siraj's throne, and the suspicious-looking repair of fortifications in the Calcutta area), Siraj mounted an offensive against the British trading colony of Calcutta in early June of 1756. After an intensely-fought four day siege (June 16-20), the garrison was overwhelmed - 146 survivors were thrown into the military dungeon (a single cell, 18 by 14.8 feet (5.5 by 4.5 meters); only 23 were taken out alive the next morning, the rest succumbing to suffocation and heat prostration. Calcutta was retaken by the British East India Company in January of 1757. Siraj's openly forming a French alliance in response gave the British regional commander, Robert Clive, the excuse to arrange an full-scale expedition - the Bengali and French were defeated at Plassey June 23, 1757, insuring BEIC control of India until the Sepoy mutiny just a century later.
 
Coins used in Bangladesh can be viewed by clicking on the below ruler links:
 
  • British East India Company..............................1757 - 30 Sep 1858
    • NAWABS of BENGAL
    • Mir Muhammad Djafar Ali Khan (1st time).....29 Jun 1757 - 20 Oct 1760 d. 1765
    • Mir Muhammad Qasim Ali Khan.................20 Oct 1760 - 1763 d. c, 1777
    • Mir Muhammad Djafar Ali Khan (2nd time)............1763 - 17 Jan 1765
    • Najm ud-Dawlah (Najimuddin Ali Khan)........17 Jan 1765 - 03 May 1766 d. 1766
      • Regent
      • Reza Khan (1st time)...................17 Jan 1765 - 03 May 1766 d. 1791
    • Saif ud-Dawlah Najabut Ali Khan.............03 May 1766 - 1770 d.c. 1770
    • On 22 October 1764, The British defeat Mir Qasim (Nawab of Bengal), Shuja-ud-Daula (Nawab of Oudh) and Shah Alam II (Mughal Emperor) at the Battle of Buxar. Later Lord Clive for the British get Diwani Rights in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa from Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II as Treaty of Allahabad on 16 August 1765.
      • Regent
      • Reza Khan (2nd time)...................03 May 1766 - 1770
  • Great Britain....................................01 Nov 1858 - 15 Aug 1947
  • HANOVER (WELF)
  • Victoria (female)................................01 Nov 1858 - 22 Jan 1901
  • Full name: Alexandrina Victoria. On 02 Aug 1858 U.K. Act of Parliament annexes the Empire, creating British India (effective 01 Nov 1858). On 28 Apr 1876 U.K. proclamation, the Queen takes the style "Empress of India" (proclaimed in India on 01 Jan 1877).
  • WITTIN or SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA (WINDSON after 1917)
  • Edward VII.......................................22 Jan 1901 - 06 May 1910
  • Full name: Albert Edward.
  • George V.........................................06 May 1910 - 20 Jan 1936
  • Full name: George Frederick Ernest Albert.
  • Edward VIII......................................20 Jan 1936 - 12 Dec 1936
  • Full name: Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David Windsor.
  • George VI........................................12 Dec 1936 - 14 Aug 1947
  • Full name: Albert George Frederick Arthur George Windsor. George VI remain the Head of State of India until 26 Jan 1950 when India became Republic without the titular as "emperor".
  • East Bengal as part of Pakistan..................14 Aug 1947 - 16 Dec 1971
  • Governor-General of Pakistan (representing the British monarch as head of state)
  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah [Mahomedali Jinnahbhai]......14 Aug 1947 - 11 Sep 1948
  • Khwaja Nazimuddin................................14 Sep 1948 - 17 Oct 1951
  • Became Prime Minister on 17th Oct 1951 upon the assassination of Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan.  
  • Malik Ghulam Mohammad............................17 Oct 1951 - 06 Oct 1955
  • He was the 1st Finance Minister of Pakistan from 15 August 1947 to 19 October 1951. His signature in English appears on 5, 10 and 100 Rupees, issued on 01st Oct 1948 by State Bank of Pakistan. His signature in Urdu also appears on the rarest banknote of Pakistan, the 100 Rupees, issued in May 1950 [for Pilgrims from Pakistan for use in Iraq and Saudi Arabia].
  • Sahibzada Sayyid Iskander Ali Mirza (Military)..06 Oct 1955 - 27 Oct 1958
  • Became President on 23 Mar 1956 from Republican Party. Martial Law declared on 07 Oct 1958.
    • Governors of East Bengal
    • Sir Frederick Chalmers Bourne...............15 Aug 1947 - 05 Apr 1950 d. 1977
      • A.S.M. Akram (acting for Bourne).......16 Mar 1949 - 25 Apr 1949 d. 1968
    • Sir Malik Firoz Khan Noon...................05 Apr 1950 - 26 Mar 1953 d. 1970
    • He became 7th Prime Minister of Pakistan: 16 December 1957 – 07 October 1958.
    • Abdur Rahman Siddiqui (acting)..............26 Mar 1953 - 04 Apr 1953 d. 1953
    • Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman......................04 Apr 1953 - 30 May 1954 d. 1973
    • Iskandar Ali Mirza..........................30 May 1954 - 21 Sep 1954 d. 1969
    • Sir Thomas Hobart Ellis (acting)............21 Sep 1954 - 22 Dec 1954 d. 1981
    • Mohammad Shahabuddin (acting)...............22 Dec 1954 - 14 Jun 1955 d. 1971
    • Governors of East Pakistan
    • Amiruddin Ahmad (acting)....................14 Jun 1955 - 09 Mar 1956 d. 19..
    • He was born on 22 December 1895 in West Bengal. He joined as the Deputy Legal Remembrancer of Bengal on 01 April 1942. He was elevated to additional judge of the Calcutta High Court on 06 January 1947. After partition, of India he moved to East Pakistan. On 15 August 1947 was made the judge of the Dhaka High Court. He was judge in the Rawalpindi conspiracy Tribunal in Hyderabad, Sindh. On 10 November 1953 he was made the chairman of the Boundary Commission. On 22 September 1954 he was made the Chief Justice of Dhaka High Court. On 14 June 1955 he was appointed Acting Governor of East Bengal. On 09 March 1956 he was appointed a judge in the Federal Court of Pakistan.
    • Abul Kashem Fazlul Huq......................09 Mar 1956 - 31 Mar 1958 d. 1962
    • He was born in 26 October 1873. He was a Bengali lawyer, legislator and statesman in the 20th century. Huq was a major political figure in British India and later in Pakistan (including East Pakistan, which is now Bangladesh). He was one of the most reputed lawyers in the High Court of Calcutta and High Court of Dacca. Born in Bakerganj, he was an alumnus of the University of Calcutta. He worked in the regional civil service and began his political career in Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1906. Huq boycotted titles and knighthood granted by the British government. He is popularly known with the title of Sher-e-Bangla (Lion of Bengal). He was notable for his English oratory during speeches to the Bengali legislature. Jawaharlal Nehru was Huq's political secretary between 1918 and 1919. Muhammad Ali Jinnah's comment while making way for Huq, who entered the hall, to address the All India Muslim League at Lahore Resolution Session in March 1940: "When the tiger arrives, the lamb must give away". He became the 1st Prime Minister of Bengal: 01 April 1937 – 29 March 1943. 3rd Chief Minister of East Bengal: 03 April 1954 – 29 May 1954. 5th Home Minister of Pakistan: 11 August 1955 – 09 March 1956. Huq was appointed Governor of East Pakistan in 1956. He served in the position for two years until the 1958 Pakistani coup d'état. Huq was again placed under house arrest after the coup. He died on 27 April 1962.
    • Muhammad Hamid Ali (acting).................01 Apr 1958 - 03 May 1958 d. ?
    • Ali was born in Lukhnow, Uttar Pradesh, British Raj on 04 September 1906. On 13 October 1931 He joined the Indian Civil Service. He was posted to subdivisions and districts in various posts in India. He served as the deputy transport commissioner and deputy secretary. On 28 January 1946 he was the joint secretary in the office of the Prime Minister. On 14 November 1946 he was promoted to additional secretary. On 15 August 1947 he joined the Government of East Bengal as secretary of the Department of Finance and Revenue. He was promoted to chief secretary. From 01 April 1958 to 03 May 1958 he was the acting governor of East Pakistan. After his term ended he returned to his post of Chief Secretary.
    • Sultanuddin Ahmad...........................03 May 1958 - 10 Oct 1958 d. 1977
    • He was born in 1902 in Narsingdi, East Bengal. He graduated from Dhaka University in 1926. He started his law practice in Dhaka in 1927. He was a lecturer at Dhaka University law department. He was also the Acting Vice Chancellor of the Dhaka University. He was also a Public Prosecutor in East Pakistan. He was the Director and Deputy Chairman of the Dhaka Central Cooperative Bank and went on to become a director of State Bank of Pakistan for four years. He was the assistant secretary of the Muslim League. In 1943 he was elected to the Bengal Legislative Assembly, he served till 1947. He was appointed ambassador of Pakistan to Myanmar after the partition of India. In April 1955 he was made the ambassador to China. On 26 April 1958 he was made the governor of East Pakistan, taking his oath on the 03rd of May. Zakir Hossain replaced him as the governor. From January 1959 to January 1964 he served as the ambassador of Pakistan to Indonesia. From 1964-1965 he was part of Pakistan's delegation to the United Nations General Assembly.
  • Presidents of Pakistan
  • Mohammad Ayub Khan Tareen (Military).............27 Oct 1958 - 25 Mar 1969
  • 3rd Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army from 16 Jan 1951 to 26 Oct 1958 belonging to 1/14 Punjab Regiment Unit.
  • Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan Qizilbash (Military)....25 Mar 1969 - 20 Dec 1971
  • 5th Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army from 18 Jun 1966 to 20 Dec 1971 belonging to 4/10 Baluch Regiment Unit. Chief martial law administrator to 31 Mar 1969.
  • Zulfikar Ali Bhutto S/o Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto....20 Dec 1971 - 13 Aug 1973
  • Fazal Elahi Chaudhry.............................14 Aug 1973 - 16 Sep 1978
  • Pakistan recognized East Pakistan as Bangladesh on 22 Feb 1974 during 2nd Islamic conference at Lahore.
    • Governors of East Pakistan
    • Zakir Hussain................................10 Oct 1958 - 14 Apr 1960 d. 1971
    • Lieutenant General Mohammad Azam Khan........15 Apr 1960 - 10 May 1962 d. 1996
      • Syed Hashim Raza (acting for A. Khan)...01 Jul 1961 - 05 Aug 1961 d. 2003
    • Ghulam Faruque Khan..........................11 May 1962 - 28 Oct 1962 d. 1992
    • Abdul Monem Khan.............................28 Oct 1962 - 23 Mar 1969 d. 1971
    • Mirza Nurul Huda.............................23 Mar 1969 - 25 Mar 1969 d. 1991
    • Huda was appointed a member of the council of advisers of government of Bangladesh on 26 November 1975 and held the charge of the ministries of agriculture, commerce, finance, industries and planning. In 1979, President Ziaur Rahman appointed him the minister of finance of Bangladesh. He was made Vice President of Bangladesh by Justice Abdus Sattar on 24 November 1981 and served until 23 March 1982.
    • Martial Law Administrators of East Pakistan
    • Major-General Muzaffaruddin..................25 Mar 1969 - 23 Aug 1969 d. 1997
    • Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub Ali Khan..23 Aug 1969 - 01 Sep 1969 d. 2016
    • He was born on born 23 December 1920 and was a Pakistani statesman, diplomat, military figure, pacifist, linguist, and a retired three-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army.. He served as Pakistan Ambassador to the United States: 19 December 1973 – 03 January 1979, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Western Sahara: 23 March 1992 – August 1995 and Foreign Minister of Pakistan: 11 November 1996 – 24 February 1997. After retiring from diplomatic services in 1997, he spent his remaining years in Islamabad and died in Islamabad on 26 January 2016.
    • Vice-Admiral Saiyid Mohammad Ahsan...........01 Sep 1969 - 07 Mar 1971 d. 1989
    • On 01 September 1969, Vice-Admiral Ahsan assumed the command of the East Pakistani military while enforcing the martial law, and continued to lead the East Pakistani government and its Eastern Command until his resignation, in protest, on 07 March 1971. He was then posted back to West Pakistan.
    • Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan................07 Mar 1971 - 31 Aug 1971 d. 2002
    • He was the first Pakistan Chief of Army staff from 03 March 1972 till retiring on 01 March 1976. Upon retirement from the military in 1976, he was subsequently appointed as National Security Advisor: 01 March 1976 – 04 July 1977 by Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, only to removed in 1977 as a result of enforced martial law. In the 1980s, he remained active as a political worker of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and emerged as its leader when appointed as Governor of Punjab: 09 December 1988 – 06 August 1990 after the general elections held in 1988. After Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto was dismissed by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan in 1990, his tenure was terminated and was succeeded by Mian Muhammad Azhar. He retired from the politics in 1990. He died on 28 March 2002 and was buried with full military honours in Westridge cemetery in Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.
    • Governor of East Pakistan
    • Abdul Motaleb Malik..........................31 Aug 1971 - 14 Dec 1971 d. 1977
    • He was born on 1905 in Chuadanga, Bengal Presidency, British India. He was a trade unionist in Bengal. From 1949 to 1955 he was the Minister for Minorities Affairs, and Works, Health and Labour of Liaqat Ali Khan cabinet. Afterwards he served as the Ambassador of Pakistan to Switzerland, Yugoslavia, Austria, People's Republic of China, Philippines, Australia and New Zealand. From August 1969 to February 1971 he was made the Minister for Health, Labour, Works and Social Welfare. He was made the Governor of East Pakistan on August 31, 1971. His inauguration was attended by Abdul Monem Khan, Syed Azizul Huq, Fazlul Qadir Chaudhry, Khan A Sabur, Yusuf Ali Chowdhury, Sultanuddin Ahmad, Abdul Jabbar Khan, Ghulam Azam and Pir Mohsinuddin. He resigned on December 14, 1971 with his entire cabinet and sought refuge in the Red Cross shelter at Dhaka Hotel Intercontinental. On November 20, 1972 he was sentenced to life in prison for waging war against Bangladesh. He was the last civilian Governor of East Pakistan. He died in 1977.
    • Martial Law Administrator of East Pakistan
    • Lieutenant-General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi..31 Aug 1971 - 16 Dec 1971 d. 2004
    • He was known for commanding the Eastern Command of Pakistani military in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) during the Bangladesh Liberation War & Indo-Pakistani war of 1971 until surrendering on 16 December 1971 to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOC-in-C) of the Eastern Command and Bangladesh Armed Forces. After taken and held as war prisoner by the Indian Army, he was repatriated to Pakistan on 30 April 1975 and was dishonored from his military service after confessing at the War Enquiry Commission led by Chief Justice Hamoodur Rahman. In 1999, he authored the book, "Betrayal of East Pakistan", where he provided his "own true version of the events of that fateful year. On 01 February 2004, Niazi died in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
  • Republic of Bangladesh...........................16 Dec 1971 - date
  • Chief Ministers of East Pakistan
  • Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin...........................15 Aug 1947 - 14 Sep 1948 d. 1964
  • He became the Governor-General of Pakistan after Muhammad Ali Jinnah's death on 14 September 1948.
  • Nurul Amin.......................................14 Sep 1948 - 03 Apr 1954 d. 1974
  • Abul Kashem Fazlul Huq...........................03 Apr 1954 - 29 May 1954
  • Governor's rule: 29 May 1954 - Aug 1955.
  • Abu Hossain Sarkar (1st time).......................Aug 1955 - Sep 1956 d. 1969
  • He was suspended from his post 26 May - 01 Jun 1956.
  • Ataur Rahman Khan (1st time)........................Sep 1956 - Mar 1958 d. 1991
  • Abu Hossain Sarkar (2nd time)..................................Mar 1958
  • Ataur Rahman Khan (2nd time)........................Mar 1958 - 18 Jun 1958
  • Abu Hossain Sarkar (3rd time)....................18 Jun 1958 - 22 Jun 1958
  • Governor's rule: 22 Jun 1958 - 25 Aug 1958.
  • Ataur Rahman Khan (3rd time).....................25 Aug 1958 - 07 Oct 1958
  • Post abolished: 07 Oct 1958 - 30 Jun 1970 and later Martial law: 01 Jul 1970 - 16 Dec 1971.
 
People's Republic of Bangladesh
 
  • Presidents
  • Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (1st time).................11 Apr 1971 - 12 Jan 1972 d. 1975
  • He was Pakistani prisoner to 08 January 1972.
  • Syed Nazrul Islam (acting for Mujibur Rahman)....11 Apr 1971 - 10 Jan 1972 d. 1975
  • During the Bangladesh Liberation War, he was declared as the Vice President of Bangladesh by the Provisional Government. He served as the Acting President in the absence of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
  • Abu Sayeed Chowdhury.............................12 Jan 1972 - 24 Dec 1973 d. 1987
  • He held the positions of the 41st Chairmen of the United Nations Commission on Human rights, the vice-chancellor of the University of Dhaka, the 3rd Foreign Minister of Bangladesh (August 1975 – November 1975) and the first Bangladesh High Commissioner to the UK (01 August 1971 - 08 January 1972).
  • Mohammad Mohammadullah...........................24 Dec 1973 - 25 Jan 1975 d. 1999
  • Mohammadullah became the Acting President on 24 December 1973. He was elected President on 24 January 1974 and took oath of office on 27 January 1974. He remained President until 25 January 1975.
  • Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (2nd time).................25 Jan 1975 - 15 Aug 1975
  • Sheikh Mujib and all but two members of his family (his daughters, who were in West Germany at the time and thus escaped the carnage) were assassinated in a gun fight orchestrated by a group of army personnel on 15 August 1975. Following the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Syed Nazrul Islam fled underground with other Mujib loyalists such as Tajuddin Ahmad (Prime Minister), Abul Hasnat Muhammad Kamaruzzaman (Home Minister) and Muhammad Mansur Ali (Finance Minister), but was ultimately arrested by the regime of the new president Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad. The four leaders were imprisoned in the Dhaka Central Jail and assassinated on 03 November 1975 under controversial and mysterious circumstances. This day is commemorated every year in Bangladesh Jail Killing Day. Captain (relieved) Mohammad Kismat Hashem was sentenced to life in prison for the killings. He died due to cardiac arrest on 26 March 2015 in Montreal, Canada.
  • Khundaker Mostaq Ahmad...........................15 Aug 1975 - 06 Nov 1975 d. 1996
  • The Khondaker Mostaq regime was overthrown on 03 November 1975 of the same year by pro-Mujib officers led by Brigadier Khaled Mosharraf and Colonel Shafat Jamil. Mosharraf appointed Justice Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem as President of the country. A counter-coup on 07 November 1975 brought army Chief Maj. Gen. Ziaur Rahman to power. In 1977, Ziaur Rahman assumed the post of president and handed over the post of army chief to Lt. Gen. Hussain Muhammad Ershad.
  • Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem.........................06 Nov 1975 - 21 Apr 1977 d. 1997
  • He was first Chief Justice of Bangladesh (12 January 1972 - 06 November 1975). He was Chief martial law administrator 24 Aug - 04 Nov 1975 and 07 Nov 1975 - 29 Nov 1976.
  • Ziaur Rahman.....................................21 Apr 1977 - 30 May 1981 d. 1981
  • He was Chief martial law administrator 29 Nov 1976 - 06 Apr 1979. He was an army general turned politician who, as a major in the army, had read out the Independence Declaration for Bangladesh on behalf of its first independent Head of State Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on 27 March 1971. He became President of Bangladesh on 21 April 1977, he was assassinated on 30 May 1981 in Chittagong by Bangladeshi army personnel under Maj. Gen. Abul Manzoor.
  • Abdus Sattar.....................................30 May 1981 - 24 Mar 1982 d. 1985
  • He severed as acting on this post till 20 Nov 1981. Beset by health problems and old age, his short lived presidency was marked by growing political turmoil and interference from the military. Sattar was overthrown on 24 March 1982 as Bangladesh coup d'état by Lt. Gen. Ershad.
  • Hossain Mohammad Ershad (1st time)...............24 Mar 1982 - 27 Mar 1982
  • He was Chief martial law administrator 24 Mar 1982 - 30 Mar 1984. Three days after the coup, a Supreme Court of Bangladesh justice Abul Fazal Muhammad Ahsanuddin Chowdhury was appointed president by Ershad, who also took the title of president of the council of ministers. Ershad declared that he had undertaken the coup to save the country from the corruption and inefficiency of the BNP-led government. The Parliament of Bangladesh was dissolved and all political parties banned. Several hundred politicians were arrested on charges of corruption. In 1983, Ershad took over as president of Bangladesh.
  • Abul Fazal Mohammad Ahsanuddin Choudhury.........27 Mar 1982 - 11 Dec 1983 d. 2001
  • Hossain Mohammad Ershad (2nd time)...............11 Dec 1983 - 06 Dec 1990
  • Shahabuddin Ahmed (1st time - acting)............06 Dec 1990 - 09 Oct 1991
  • He was the 6th Chief Justice of Bangladesh (14 January 1990 – 01 January 1995).
  • Abdur Rahman Biswas..............................09 Oct 1991 - 09 Oct 1996 d. 2017
  • Biswas represented Pakistan at the United Nations General Assembly prior to the independence of Bangladesh.
  • Shahabuddin Ahmed (2nd time).....................09 Oct 1996 - 14 Nov 2001
  • Abdul Qasim Mohammad Badruddoza Chowdhury........14 Nov 2001 - 21 Jun 2002
  • He is also a physician, and former cultural activist, an author, essayist, playwright, television presenter and an orator of distinction. He was awarded the National Television Award in 1976. He resignation as President of Bangladesh on 21 June 2002 [He was accused of betraying the party by not deciding to visit BNP founder Ziaur Rahman's grave on his death anniversary].
  • Muhammad Jamiruddin Sircar (acting)..............21 Jun 2002 - 06 Sep 2002
  • He served as the speaker of the Parliament of Bangladesh (28 October 2001 – 25 January 2009).
  • Iajuddin Ahmed...................................06 Sep 2002 - 12 Feb 2009 d. 2012
  • With a doctorate in soil science, Ahmed became a full professor at the University of Dhaka and chairman of the department. Beginning in 1991, he started accepting appointments to public positions, as chairman of the Public Service Commission (1991 to 1993) and of the University Grants Commission (1995 to 1999). In 2002 he won election as president. In 2004 he helped establish the private university, Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology (ADUST). Ahmed had additional heart surgery on 28 October 2012. After developing kidney-related complications, he spent more than a month on life support before dying on 10 December 2012 at Bumrungrad International Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand.
  • Mohammed Zillur Rahman...........................12 Feb 2009 - 20 Mar 2013 d. 2013
  • He was also a senior presidium member of the Awami League. He is the third president of Bangladesh, after Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Ziaur Rahman, to die in office, while being the first to die of natural causes.
  • Abdul Hamid......................................14 Mar 2013 - date
  • He served as the Speaker of the National Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad) from 25 January 2009 to 24 April 2013. He was acting President for Rahman till 20 Mar 2013 and continued to be acting President till 24 Apr 2013. He was elected as president on 22 April 2013 and sworn into office two days later on 24 April 2013.
 
Currency: Taka = 100 poisha.
The Bangladeshi taka (Bengali: টাকা, sign: ৳ or Tk, code: BDT) is the currency of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Issuance of banknotes ৳10 and larger is controlled by Bangladesh Bank, and for the ৳2 and ৳5 banknotes, which are the responsibility of the Ministry of Finance of the government of Bangladesh. The most commonly used symbol for the taka is "৳" and "Tk", used on receipts while purchasing goods and services. ৳1 is subdivided into 100 poisha.
The word taka is derived from the Sanskrit term tangka (ṭaṃka), which was an ancient denomination for silver coins. In the region of Bengal, the term has always been used to refer to currency. In the 14th century, Ibn Battuta noticed that people in the Bengal Sultanate referred to gold and silver coins as taka instead of dinar.
The word taka in Bangla is also commonly used generically to mean any money, currency, or notes. Thus, colloquially, a person speaking in Bangla may use "taka" to refer to money regardless of what currency it is denominated in. This is also common in the Indian states of West Bengal and Tripura, where the official name of the Indian rupees is "taka" as well. In Assam it is "टका" and it is टंका in Orissa
After the Partition of Bengal in 1947, in East Bengal, which later became the eastern wing of Pakistan union and was renamed to East Pakistan in 1956, the Pakistani rupee also bore the word taka on official notes and coins. Bangla was one of the two national languages of the Pakistan union between 1956 and 1971 (the other being Urdu in West Pakistan). The Bangladeshi taka came into existence on 01 January 1972. The conversion was established as Pakistan Rupee (PKR) = Bangladesh Taka (BDT).
Prior to the Liberation war in 1971, banknotes of the State Bank of Pakistan circulated throughout Bangladesh, and continued to be used in Bangladesh even after independence for only about three months until the official introduction of the taka on 04 March 1972. During the war, it was an unofficial practice of some Bengali nationalists to protest Pakistani rule by stamping banknotes with "বাংলা দেশ" and "BANGLA DESH" as two words in either Bangla or English. These locally produced stamps are known to exist in several varieties, as are forgeries. On 08 June 1971, the Pakistani government declared that all banknotes bearing such stamps ceased to be legal tender. Furthermore, to prevent looted high-denomination notes from disrupting the Pakistani economy, the government also withdrew the legal tender status of all 100- and 500-rupee notes.
In 1973, coins were introduced in denominations of 5, 10, 25 and 50 poisha. 1 poisha coins followed in 1974, with ৳1 coins introduced in 1975. The 1, 5 and 10 poisha were struck in aluminium, with the 25 and 50 poisha struck in steel and the ৳1 in copper-nickel. The 5 poisha were square with rounded corners, and the 10 poisha were scalloped. Steel ৳5 were introduced in 1994, and a steel ৳2 coin followed in 2004. 1 and 5 poisha coins are rarely found in circulation. 10, 25, and 50 poisha coins do not circulate widely. Only the ৳1, ৳2 and ৳5 are regularly found in circulation.
 
১৯৭৩ (1973)
 

KM#1 5 Poisha. Year: 1973. Weight 1.42 grams. Metal: Aluminium. Diameter: 22.50 mm; square. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: VEB Münze, Berlin, East Germany. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top in center within Cog with Date "১৯৭৩" (1973) below it. Numeral "৫" (5) written below the swing plough in the center. "পয়সা" (Poisha) written at the bottom right side within the Cog. Cog surrounds all details in the center. Full circular Cog type. Square is 18.50 mm.
Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Mintage: 150,000,000. Mintage Years: 1973-1974.

KM#2 10 Poisha. Year: 1973. Weight 1.90 grams. Metal: Aluminium. Diameter: 24.00 mm; Scalloped (with 8 notches). Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: VEB Münze, Berlin, East Germany. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top with Date "১৯৭৩" (1973) below it. Large Betel leaf in the center. Three Dashes on left and right sides. Numeral "১০" (10) written at the bottom. "দশ" (dosh = ten) written at the bottom left side and "পয়সা" (Poisha) written at the bottom right side. Dashes in each edge.
Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Dashes in each edge. Mintage: 100,000,000. Mintage Years: 1973-1974.

KM#3 25 Poisha. Year: 1973. Weight 2.62 grams. Metal: Steel. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: VEB Münze, Berlin, East Germany. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top in center with Date "১৯৭৩" (1973) below it. Rohu Fish (known as 'Rui' in Bangla) facing right in the center. Numeral "২৫" (25) written at the bottom. "পঁচিশ" (pochish = twenty-five) written at the bottom left side and "পয়সা" (Poisha) written at the bottom right side. Wreath in circular form surrounds all details in the center.

Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Mintage: 50,000,000. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#4 50 Poisha. Year: 1973. Weight 4.09 grams. Metal: Steel. Diameter: 22.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: VEB Münze, Berlin, East Germany. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top in center with Date "১৯৭৩" (1973) below it. Pigeon standing facing left in the center. Numeral "৫০" (50) written at the bottom. Design on both left and right sides. "পঞ্চাশ" (ponchash = fifty) written at the bottom left side and "পয়সা" (Poisha) written at the bottom right side.
Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Mintage: 18,000,000. Mintage Years: One year type. Issued Date: 15 September 1973.
 
১৯৭৪ (1974)
 

KM#5 Poisha. Year: 1974. Weight 0.50 grams. Metal: Aluminium. Diameter: 16.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: VEB Münze, Berlin, East Germany. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top in center with Date "১৯৭৪" (1974) below it. Numeral "১" (1) in the center. Design on left and right sides in the center. "এক পয়সা" (Aek Poisha) written at the bottom in the center. Wreath in circular form surrounds all details in the center.
Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Mintage: 300,000,000. Mintage Years: One year type.

Same as above KM#1 5 Poisha, but...

Year: 1974. Weight 1.38 grams. Mintage: 69,000,000.

KM#6 5 Poisha. Year: 1974. Weight 1.43 grams. Metal: Aluminium. Diameter: 22.50 mm; square. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: VEB Münze, Berlin, East Germany. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top in center within Cog with Date "১৯৭৪" (1974) below it. Numeral "৫" (5) written below the swing plough in the center. "পয়সা" (Poisha) written at the bottom right side. Cog surrounds half details in the top section in the center. "উংপাদন বাডান" (increase production / grow more food) written at the bottom with Dash circular pattern below it. Half circular Cog type. Square is 18.50 mm.
Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Mintage: 5,000,000. Mintage Years: 1974-1979. Subject: F.A.O. issue.

Same as above KM#2 10 Poisha, but...

Year: 1974. Weight 1.92 grams. Mintage: 43,000,000.

KM#7 10 Poisha. Year: 1974. Weight 1.96 grams. Metal: Aluminium. Diameter: 24.00 mm; Scalloped (with 8 notches). Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: VEB Münze, Berlin, East Germany. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top with Date "১৯৭৪" (1974) below it. Grain sprig on the left side and tractor ploughing on the right side in the center with "সবুজ বিপ্লব" (Green Revolution) written below them. Numeral "১০" (10) written at the bottom. "দশ" (dosh = ten) written at the bottom left side and "পয়সা" (Poisha) written at the bottom right side. Dashes in each edge.
Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Dashes in each edge. Mintage: 5,000,000. Mintage Years: 1973-1979.

KM#8 25 Poisha. Year: 1974. Weight 2.64 grams. Metal: Steel. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: VEB Münze, Berlin, East Germany. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top with Date "১৯৭৪" (1974) below it. Ruhi Fish (type of Carp), an Egg, two Bananas and a Squash in the center with "সবার জন্য খাদ্য" (Food For All) written below them. Numeral "২৫" (25) written at the bottom. "পঁচিশ" (pochish = twenty-five) written at the bottom left side and "পয়সা" (Poisha) written at the bottom right side.
Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Mintage: 5,000,000. Mintage Years: 1974-1979. Subject: F.A.O. issue.
 
১৯৭৫ (1975)
 

Same as above KM#6 5 Poisha, but...

Year: 1975. Weight 1.42 grams. Mintage: 3,000,000.

Same as above KM#7 10 Poisha, but...

Year: 1975. Weight 1.98 grams. Mintage: 4,000,000.

Same as above KM#8 25 Poisha, but...

Year: 1975. Weight 2.67 grams. Mintage: 6,000,000.

KM#9 Taka. Year: 1975. Weight 5.92 grams. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Singapore. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top. Four stylized human figures (parents with son & daughter) in the center. Stylish plant at center left side. Numeral "১" (1) written at the right side with "এক" (One) written above it and "টাকা" (Taka) written below it. Date "১৯৭৫" (1975) below the four human figures. "পরিকল্পিত পরিবার - সবার জন্য খাদ্য" (Planned Family- Food for All) written at the bottom. Thick dots, Dotted circular border.
Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Small dots, Dotted circular border. Mintage: 2,000,000. Mintage Years: 1975-1977. Subject: F.A.O. issue.
 
১৯৭৬ (1976)
 

Same as above KM#8 25 Poisha, but...

Year: 1976. Weight 2.69 grams. Mintage: 6,000,000.

 
১৯৭৭ (1977)
 

KM#10 5 Poisha. Year: 1977. Weight 1.38 grams. Metal: Aluminium. Diameter: 18.50 mm; square. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Royal Canadian Mint. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top. A gear on the left side. A swing plough and an tractor pulling a plough in the center. Numeral "৫" (5) written on the right side with Date "১৯৭৭" (1977) below it. "পাঁচ পয়সা" (Five Poisha) written at the bottom.
Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Mintage: 90,000,000. Mintage Years: 1977-1980 and 1994.

Same as above KM#8 25 Poisha, but...

Year: 1977. Weight 2.70 grams. Mintage: 6,000,000.

KM#12 25 Poisha. Year: 1977. Weight 2.58 grams. Metal: Steel. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Royal Canadian Mint. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top outside center circle. Head of a Bengal tiger in the center circle. Date "১৯৭৭" (1977) divided by center circle. Numeral "২৫" (25) written at the bottom. "পঁচিশ" (pochish = twenty-five) written at the bottom left side and "পয়সা" (Poisha) written at the bottom right side.
Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Mintage: 45,300,000. Mintage Years: 1977-1980, 1983-1984, 1991 and 1994.

Note: 1991 issues were produced by Royal Australian Mint at Canberra.

KM#13 50 Poisha. Year: 1977. Weight 3.94 grams. Metal: Steel. Diameter: 22.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Royal Canadian Mint. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top outside center circle. A hilsa (the national fish of Bangladesh), a chicken, a pineapple and a banana in the center circle. Date "১৯৭৭" (1977) divided by center circle. Numeral "৫০" (50) written at the bottom. "পঞ্চাশ" (ponchash = fifty) written at the bottom left side and "পয়সা" (Poisha) written at the bottom right side. Dotted circular border.
Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Dotted circular border. Mintage: 12,700,000. Mintage Years: 1977-1980, 1983-1984 and 1994. Subject: F.A.O. issue.

Same as above KM#9 One Taka, but...

Year: 1977. Weight 6.05 grams. Mintage: 1,000,000.

 
১৯৭৮ (1978)
 

Same as above KM#10 5 Poisha, but...

Year: 1978. Weight 1.40 grams. Mintage: 52,432,000.

Same as above KM#8 25 Poisha, but...

Year: 1978. Weight 2.64 grams. Mintage: 66,750,000.

Same as above KM#12 25 Poisha, but...

Year: 1978. Weight 2.67 grams. Mintage: 66,750,000.

 
১৯৭৯ (1979)
 

Same as above KM#10 5 Poisha, but...

Year: 1979. Weight 1.40 grams. Mintage: 120,096,000.

Same as above KM#7 10 Poisha, but...

Year: 1979. Weight 2.03 grams. Mintage: N.A.

Same as above KM#8 25 Poisha, but...

Year: 1979. Weight 2.73 grams. Mintage: N.A.

 
১৯৮০ (1980)
 

KM#11.1 10 Poisha. Year: 1980. Weight 1.98 grams. Metal: Aluminium. Diameter: 24.00 mm; Scalloped (with 8 notches). Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Royal Canadian Mint. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top. Abstract family of four in the center dividing with Date "১৯৮০" (1980) in the center. Numeral "১০" (10) written at the bottom. "দশ" (dosh = ten) written at the bottom left side and "পয়সা" (Poisha) written at the bottom right side. Mountain in each edge. Large design type.
Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Mountain in each edge. Mintage: 200,000,000. Mintage Years: 1977-1980.

Same as above KM#12 25 Poisha, but...

Year: 1980. Weight 2.65 grams. Mintage: 228,992,000.

Same as above KM#13 50 Poisha, but...

Year: 1980. Weight 3.97 grams. Mintage: 124,512,000. 

 
১৯৮৩ (1983)
 

KM#11.2 10 Poisha. Year: 1983. Weight 1.38 grams. Metal: Aluminium. Diameter: 22.00 mm; Scalloped (with 8 notches). Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Royal Canadian Mint. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top. Abstract family of four in the center dividing with Date "১৯৮৩" (1983) in the center. Numeral "১০" (10) written at the bottom. "দশ" (dosh = ten) written at the bottom left side and "পয়সা" (Poisha) written at the bottom right side. Mountain in each edge. Small design type.

Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Mountain in each edge. Mintage: 142,848,000. Mintage Years: 1983 and 1994.

Same as above KM#12 25 Poisha, but...

Year: 1983. Weight 2.68 grams. Mintage: 96,128,000.

Same as above KM#13 50 Poisha, but...

Year: 1983. Weight 4.14 grams. Mintage: 31,392,000. 

 
১৯৮৪ (1984)
 

Same as above KM#12 25 Poisha, but...

Year: 1984. Weight 2.73 grams. Mintage: 228,992,000.

Same as above KM#13 50 Poisha, but...

Year: 1984. Weight 4.07 grams. Mintage: 168,608,000.

 
১৯৯১ (1991)
 

Same as above KM#12 25 Poisha, but...

Year: 1991. Weight 2.59 grams. Mintage: 50,002,000. Mint: Canberra, Royal Australian Mint.

Other coins produced this year:

  • KM#17 One Taka Commemorative coin on "20th Anniversary of Independence" (16th December - 20th Victory Day - 1991) was produced in 0.925 Silver. 31.35 grams with diameter 38.61 mm. Mintage: 3,000. Mint: Hamburg, Germany.

 
১৯৯২ (1992)
 

KM#9a Taka. Year: 1992. Weight 6.08 grams. Metal: Steel. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Royal Canadian Mint. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top. Four stylized human figures (parents with son & daughter) in the center. Stylish plant at center left side. Numeral "১" (1) written at the right side with "এক" (One) written above it and "টাকা" (Taka) written below it. Date "১৯৯২" (1992) below the four human figures. "পরিকল্পিত পরিবার - সবার জন্য খাদ্য" (Planned Family- Food for All) written at the bottom. Thick dots, dotted circular border.
Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Small dots, dotted circular border. Mintage: N.A. Mintage Years: 1992, 1993 and 1995. Subject: F.A.O. issue.
Other coins produced this year:
  • KM#14 One Taka Commemorative coin were produced dated 1992 on "Summer Olympics, Barcelona". 0.925 Silver. 31.35 grams with diameter 38.61 mm. Mintage: 40,000. Mint: Hamburg, Germany.
 
১৯৯৩ (1993)
 

Same as above KM#9a One Taka, but...

Year: 1993. Weight 6.01 grams. Mintage: N.A.

KM#16 Taka. Year: 1993. Weight 31.19 grams [35.35 g]. Metal: Steel. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Hamburg, Germany. Obverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Dotted circular border. Date "১৯৯৩" (1993) written at the bottom. Reverse:: "FOOTBALL WORLD CUP 1994" written at the top section. Two players, playing football in the center and Value "ONE TAKA" written below them. "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the bottom left side and "BANGLADESH" at the bottom right side. Mintage: 40,000. Mintage Years: One year type. Subject: .

Note: The 1994 FIFA World Cup was the 15th FIFA World Cup, held in nine cities across the United States from 17 June to 17 July 1994. The United States was chosen as the host by FIFA on 04 July 1988. Despite the host nation's lack of a national top-level football league, the tournament was the most financially successful in the tournament's history; it broke the World Cup average attendance record with nearly 69,000 spectators per game, a mark that still stands today. 24 countries participated in this tournament. Brazil won the tournament after beating Italy 3–2 in a penalty shootout at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California near Los Angeles, after the game had ended 0–0 after extra time. It was the first World Cup final to be decided on penalties. The total attendance of nearly 3.6 million for the final tournament remains the highest in World Cup history. The victory made Brazil the first nation to win four World Cup titles. Greece, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia made their first-ever appearances at the tournament.

Other coins produced this year:
  • KM#15 One Taka Commemorative coin were produced dated 1993 on "Endangered Wildlife". 0.925 Silver. 31.35 grams with diameter 38.50 mm. Mintage: 15,000. Mint: Hamburg, Germany.
 
১৯৯৪ (1994)
 

Same as above KM#10 5 Poisha, but...

Year: 1994. Weight 1.38 grams. Mintage: N.A.

Same as above KM#11.2 10 Poisha, but...

Year: 1994. Weight 1.42 grams. Mintage: N.A.

Same as above KM#12 25 Poisha, but...

Year: 1994. Weight 2.67 grams. Mintage: N.A.

Same as above KM#13 50 Poisha, but...

Year: 1994. Weight 4.03 grams. Mintage: N.A.

KM#18.1 Taka. Year: 1994. Weight 7.98 grams. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 27.15 mm; Dodecagonal (12-sided). Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Royal Canadian Mint.

Type1 clouds on 1994 issues. 1996 issues have other two different types of clouds, therefore they are listed as KM#18.2 and KM#18.3.

Obverse: "যমুনা বহুমুখী সেতু ১৯৯৬" (Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge 1996) written at the top section. Jamuna Multi-purpose Bridge in the center with clouds above it. "FIVE TAKA" written at the bottom left side, Numeral "৫" (5) at the bottom in the center and "পাঁচ টাকা" (five taka) at the bottom right side. Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. "বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংক" (Bangladesh Bank) written at the bottom. Mintage: N.A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: Bangabandhu Bridge, commonly called the Jamuna Multi-purpose Bridge (Bengali: যমুনা বহুমুখী সেতু Jomuna Bohumukhi Setu) is a bridge opened in Bangladesh in June 1998. It connects Bhuapur / Tangail on the Jamuna River's east bank to Sirajganj on its west bank. It is 5.63 km long. It was the 11th longest bridge in the world when constructed in 1998 and currently the 6th longest bridge in South Asia. It was constructed over the Jamuna River, one of the three major rivers of Bangladesh, and fifth largest in the world in discharge volume. The bridge established a strategic link between the eastern and western parts of Bangladesh. It generates multifarious benefits for the people and, especially, promotes inter-regional trade in the country. Apart from quick movement of goods and passenger traffic by road and rail, it facilitated transmission of electricity and natural gas, and integration of telecommunication links. The bridge is on the Asian Highway and the Trans-Asian Railway which, when fully developed, will provide uninterrupted international road and railway links from southeast Asia through Central Asia to northwest Europe.

 
১৯৯৫ (1995)
 

Same as above KM#9a One Taka, but...

Year: 1995. Weight 6.02 grams. Mintage: N.A.

 
১৯৯৬ (1996)
 

KM#9b Taka. Year: 1996. Weight 3.98 grams. Metal: Brass. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Royal Canadian Mint. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top. Four stylized human figures (parents with son & daughter) in the center. Stylish plant at center left side. Numeral "১" (1) written at the right side with "এক" (One) written above it and "টাকা" (Taka) written below it. Date "১৯৯৬" (1996) below the four human figures. "পরিকল্পিত পরিবার - সবার জন্য খাদ্য" (Planned Family- Food for All) written at the bottom. All details within octagon (8-sided) shape.
Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. All details within octagon (8-sided) shape. Mintage: N.A. Mintage Years: 1996 and 1999. Subject: F.A.O. issue.

KM#18.2 Taka. Year: 1996. Weight 8.09 grams. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 27.00 mm; Dodecagonal (12-sided). Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Royal Canadian Mint.

Type2 clouds on this issue.

KM#18.3 Taka. Year: 1996. Weight 7.95 grams. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 26.75 mm; Dodecagonal (12-sided). Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: India Government Mint Alipore, Calcutta.

Type3 clouds on this issue. This issue has thicker details on both sides and has reduced size from above coin.

Other coins produced in 1996 and 1998:
  • KM#19 10 Taka Commemorative coin were produced dated 1996 on "50th Anniversary of the Bank of Bangladesh". 0.925 Silver. 31.47 grams with diameter 38.00 mm. Mintage: 5,000. Mint: Madrid, Spain.
  • KM#20 10 Taka Commemorative coin were produced dated 1996 on "25th Anniversary of Independence". 0.925 Silver. 31.47 grams with diameter 41.00 mm (8-sided). Mintage: 5,000. Mint: Madrid, Spain.
  • KM#21 10 Taka Commemorative coin were produced dated 1998 on "Inauguration of Jamuna Bridge / Dhaka University memorial". 0.925 Silver. 25.00 grams with diameter 33.00 mm. Mintage: 2,000. Mint: Royal Canadian Mint.
  • KM#22 20 Taka Commemorative coin were produced dated 1998 on "Inauguration of Jamuna Bridge / Sheikh Mujibur Rahman". 0.925 Silver. 25.00 grams with diameter 38.00 mm. Mintage: 2,000. Mint: Mincovna Kremnica, Slovakia.
 
১৯৯৯ (1999)
 

Same as above KM#9b One Taka, but...

Year: 1999. Weight 3.97 grams. Mintage: N.A.

Other coins produced in 2000:
  • KM#23 20 Taka Commemorative coin were produced dated 2000 on "International Mother Language Day". 0.917 Gold. 10.00 grams with diameter 25.00 mm. Mintage: 5,000. Mint: Royal Canadian Mint.
 
২০০১ (2001)
 

KM#24 50 Poisha. Year: 1977. Weight 3.94 grams. Metal: Steel. Diameter: 19.25 mm - 8 sided.. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Royal Canadian Mint. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top outside center circle. A hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha), a chicken, a pineapple and a banana in the center circle. Date "২০০১" (2001) divided by center circle. Numeral "৫০" (50) written at the bottom. "পঞ্চাশ" (ponchash = fifty) written at the bottom left side and "পয়সা" (Poisha) written at the bottom right side. Oval dotted circular border.
Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Oval dotted circular border. Mintage: 50,000,000. Mintage Years: One year type. Subject: F.A.O. issue.
 
২০০২ (2002)
 

KM#9c Taka. Year: 2002. Weight 4.25 grams. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Royal Canadian Mint. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top. Four stylized human figures (parents with son & daughter) in the center. Stylish plant at center left side. Numeral "১" (1) written at the right side with "এক" (One) written above it and "টাকা" (Taka) written below it. Date "২০০২" (2002) below the four human figures. "পরিকল্পিত পরিবার - সবার জন্য খাদ্য" (Planned Family- Food for All) written at the bottom. All details within octagon (8-sided) shape.
Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. All details within octagon (8-sided) shape. Mintage: N.A. Mintage Years: 2002-2003. Subject: F.A.O. issue.
 
২০০৩ (2003)
 

Same as above KM#9b One Taka, but...

Year: 2003. Weight 4.24 grams. Mintage: N.A.

 
২০০৪ (2004)
 

KM#25 2 Taka. Year: 2004. Weight 6.95 grams. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Jakarta, Indonesia. Obverse: "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the top left side. Boy at the left and girl at the right holding opened books in the center. "ক অ ১" (KA AO 1) written on cover pages of books. Date "২০০৪ইং" (2008 GY) written at the left side clockwise. "সবার জন্য শিক্ষা" (Education for All) written at the right side clockwise. "দুই ২ টাকা" (two 2 taka) written at the bottom. Thick dots, Dotted circular border.
Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Value "TWO 2 TAKA" written at the bottom. Thick dots, dotted circular border. Mintage: 200,000,000. Mintage Years: 2004 and 2008. Issued Date: 26th Oct 2004.

Note: GY means Gregorian Year. 2008 issued were produced by Malaysian Mint.

 
২০০৫ (2005)
 

KM#26.1 Taka. Year: 2005. Weight 8.00 grams. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 26.50 mm; Dodecagonal (12-sided). Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: India Government Mint Alipore, Calcutta.

Type1: Continuous cloud over bridge. Train at 3rd pillar. Bold text on Obverse side.

Obverse: "যমুনা বহুমুখী সেতু" (Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge) written at the top. Jamuna Multi-purpose Bridge in the center with clouds above it. "FIVE TAKA" written at the bottom left side, Numeral "৫" (5) at the bottom in the center and "পাঁচ টাকা" (five taka) at the bottom right side. Date above Value "৫" (5) in the waters. Dotted circular border. Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Dotted circular border. "বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংক" (Bangladesh Bank) written at the bottom. Mintage: N.A. Mintage Years: One year type.
 
২০০৬ (2006)
 

KM#26.2 Taka. Year: 2006. Weight 7.99 grams. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 26.50 mm; Dodecagonal (12-sided). Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: India Government Mint Alipore, Calcutta.

Type2: Thick cloud over bridge. Train at 2nd pillar. Fine text on Obverse side.

 
২০০৮ (2008)
 

Same as above KM#25 Two Taka, but...

Year: 2008. Weight 7.09 grams. Mintage: 200,000,000. Mint: Kilang Wang, Shah Alam, Malaysia.

KM#26.3 Taka. Year: 2008. Weight 7.99 grams. Metal: Steel (Magnetic). Diameter: 26.50 mm; Dodecagonal (12-sided). Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Kilang Wang, Shah Alam, Malaysia. Mintage: 300,000,000.

Type3: Thin cloud over bridge. Train reaching 3rd pillar. 

 
2010
 

KM#32 Taka. Year: 2010. Weight 3.27 grams. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 21.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Monnaie de Paris, Pessac.

Obverse: "গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ সরকার" (Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh) written at the top section. Portrait of Father of the Nation, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman facing tilted right in the center. Numerical Value of the coin is written in Bangla "১" at the left and English "1" at the right sides. "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the bottom left side, Date "2010" at the bottom in the center and "BANGLADESH" at the bottom right side. Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Value "ONE TAKA" written at the bottom. Mintage: 500,000,000. Mintage Years: 2010, 2013 and 2014. Issued Date: 08th July 2010.

KM#31.1 2 Taka. Year: 2010. Weight 5.54 grams. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Mincovna Kremnica, Slovakia.

Note: 2010 dated type have outline details on both sides of the coin (bust on the obverse side and waves/stars on the reverse side). 2013 dated coins are listed as KM#31.2 and have filled details, produced by Japan Mint at Osaka.

Obverse: "গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ সরকার" (Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh) written at the top section. Portrait of Father of the Nation, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman facing tilted right in the center. Numerical Value of the coin is written in Bangla "২" at the left and English "2" at the right sides. "বাংলাদেশ" (Bangladesh) written at the bottom left side, Date "2010" at the bottom in the center and "BANGLADESH" at the bottom right side. Reverse: The National Emblem of Bangladesh: Shapla (water lily) bordered on two sides by rice sheaves. Above are a three-leaf clover of tea leaves and four stars representing the four principles of the first constitution of Bangladesh in 1972: nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. Value "ONE TAKA" written at the bottom. Mintage: N.A. Mintage Years: One year type. Issued Date: 12th October 2010.
Other coins produced in 2011:
  • KM#27 10 Taka Commemorative coin were produced dated 2011 on "Cricket World Cup". 0.925 Silver. 30.00 grams with diameter 38.00 mm. Mintage: 10,500. Mint: Stuttgart, Germany. Issued Date: 08th Feb 2011.
  • KM#28 10 Taka Commemorative coin were produced dated 2011 on "150th Anniversary of the Birth of Rabindranath Tagore". 0.925 Silver. 22.10 grams with diameter 38.00 mm. Mintage: 10,000. Mint: Stuttgart, Germany. Issued Date: 27th Nov 2011.
  • KM#29 10 Taka Commemorative coin were produced dated 2011 on "Bidrohi poem - 90th Anniversary of Kazi Nazrul Islam". 0.999 Silver. 25.00 grams with diameter 38.00 mm. Mintage: N.A. Mint: Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt N.V., Utrecht. Issued Date: 26th Feb 2011.
  • KM#30 10 Taka Commemorative coin were produced dated 2011 on "Sheikh Mujibur Rahman". 0.999 Silver. 25.00 grams with diameter 38.00 mm. Mintage: N.A. Mint: Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt N.V., Utrecht. Issued Date: 26th Feb 2011.
 
2012
 

KM#33 5 Taka. Year: 2012. Weight 6.51 grams. Metal: Stainless Steel clad Iron. Diameter: 25.25 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Suomen Rahapaja OY, Vantaa, Finland. Obverse: "BANGLADESH BANK" written at the top. Portrait of Father of the Nation, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman facing tilted right in the center. Numerical Value of the coin is written in Bangla "৫" at the left and English "5" at the right sides. "পাঁচ টাকা" (five taka) written at the bottom left side, Date "2012" at the bottom in the center and "FIVE TAKA" written at the bottom right side.

Reverse: "বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংক" (Bangladesh Bank) written at the top. Central Bank of Bangladesh emblem in the center. "পাঁচ" (five) written at the bottom left side. "৫" (5) written at bottom in the center and "টাকা" (taka) written at the bottom right side. Mintage: 600,000,000. Mintage Years: 2012-2013. Issued Date: 07th June 2012.

 
2013
 

Same as KM#33, Five Taka above...

Weight 6.51 grams. Mint: N.A. Mintage: N.A.

Other coins produced in 2013:
  • KM#34 100 Taka Commemorative coin were produced dated 2013 on "100th Anniversary of the Bangladesh National Museum". 0.925 Silver. 22.00 grams with diameter 38.00 mm. Mintage: N.A. Mint: Osaka, Japan Mint.
 
2014
 

Same as above KM#32 Taka, but...

Year: 2014. Weight 3.26 grams. Mintage: N.A. Mint: N.A.

 
 
  • Prime Ministers
  • Tajuddin Ahmed...................................11 Apr 1971 - 12 Jan 1972 d. 1975
  • Sheikh Mujibur Rahman............................12 Jan 1972 - 26 Jan 1975 d. 1975
  • Mohammad Mansur Ali..............................26 Jan 1975 - 15 Aug 1975 d. 1975
  • Mashiur Rahman (senior minister).................29 Jun 1978 - 12 Mar 1979 d. 1979
  • Shah Azizur Rahman...............................15 Apr 1979 - 24 Mar 1982 d. 1988
  • Ataur Rahman Khan................................30 Mar 1984 - 09 Jul 1986 d. 1991
  • Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury.........................09 Jul 1986 - 27 Mar 1988 d. 2006
  • Moudud Ahmed.....................................27 Mar 1988 - 12 Aug 1989
  • Kazi Zafar Ahmed.................................12 Aug 1989 - 06 Dec 1990 d. 2015
  • Khaleda Zia (female - 1st time)..................20 Mar 1991 - 30 Mar 1996
  • Mohammad Habibur Rahman (chief adviser)..........30 Mar 1996 - 23 Jun 1996 d. 2014
  • Sheikh Hasina Wazed (female - 1st time)..........23 Jun 1996 - 15 Jul 2001
  • Latifur Rahman (chief adviser)...................15 Jul 2001 - 10 Oct 2001 d. 2017
  • Khaleda Zia (female - 2nd time)..................10 Oct 2001 - 29 Oct 2006
  • Iajuddin Ahmed (chief adviser)...................29 Oct 2006 - 11 Jan 2007
  • Fazlul Haque (acting chief adviser)..............11 Jan 2007 - 12 Jan 2007
  • Fakhruddin Ahmed (chief adviser).................12 Jan 2007 - 06 Jan 2009
  • Sheikh Hasina Wazed (female - 2nd time)..........06 Jan 2009 - date
 
 
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins