|A general survey of empires spanning much,
if not all, of the subcontinent of southern Asia. Local states will be found
below, in their own section. Capital:
New Delhi (Delhi: 1192-1327, 1344-1501, 1648-1858; Daulatabad: 1327-1344;
Agra 1501-1540, 1555-1570, 1599-1613, 1616-1648; Fatehpur Sikri 1570-1585; Lahore
1585-1599; Ajmer 1613-1616). Capital during
British India: New Delhi from 1929; Calcutta
1774 - 23 Dec 1929; Summer capital [Apr-Oct]: Simla 1911-1947.
3300 BC - 1700 BC
Indus Valley Civilization.
1700 BC - 1300 BC Late
1500 BC - 500 BC Vedic
1200 BC - 316 BC Kuru dynasty.
BC Aryans expand into the Ganga valley.
900 BC Mahabharata War.
800 BC Aryans expand into Bengal. Beginning of
the Epic Age:
First version of Ramayana.
700 BC - 321 BC
684 BC - 321 BC
550 BC Composition of the Upanishads
544 BC Buddha's Nirvana
327 BC Alexander's Invasion
325 BC Alexander marches ahead till
324 BC Chandragupta Maurya defeats Seleacus Nicator
322 BC Rise of the Mauryas: Chandragupta establishes first Indian
321 BC - 180 BC Mauryan Empire
272 BC Ashoka begins regin
180 BC Fall of the Mauryas. Rise of the Sungas
by Pushyamatra Sunga
1400 BCE and around 800 BCE, the Indian subcontinent saw a succession of
invasive waves of Aryan peoples, migrating southeast out of Central Asia. No
single, all-encompassing empire took shape immediately, but as the earlier
inhabitants of the region (the Dravidians) were pushed ever southward,
numerous states emerged from the Indus Valley to the Ganges and Brahmaputra
River systems, and extending south into the Deccan Plateau. Among these
states were Gandhara, Kurut, Kosala, Magadha, Avanti, Bhoja, and Andhra,
among many others. One of the smaller states, located north of the Ganges
and approaching the Himalayas (the modern India/Nepal frontier) was Sakya,
the homeland of Gautama Buddha. Eventually, large empires did emerge, the
first to do so was the Mauryan Empire.
The Empire was founded in 322 BC by
Chandragupta Maurya, who had overthrown the Nanda Dynasty when he was
only about 20 years old and rapidly expanded his power westwards across
Northern, Central and Eastern parts of India along with parts of
Afghanistan and Baluchistan. He took advantage of the disruptions of
local powers in the wake of the withdrawal westward by Alexander the
Great's Greek and Persian armies. By 320 BC the empire had fully
occupied Northwestern India, defeating and conquering the Macedonian
satraps, among them was Seleucus I Nicator left by Alexander.
Chandragupta established centralized rule throughout South Asia with
capital at Pataliputra (mordern-day Patna). Silver punch mark coin of
the Maurya empire, with symbols of wheel and elephant are known.
- Chandragupta Maurya (Sandrakottos)....................c. 320 - c. 300
- He was born in a humble family, orphaned and
abandoned, raised as a son by another pastoral family, was picked up,
taught and counselled by Chanakya,
the author of the Arthashastra.
- Bindusara S/o Chandragupta............................c. 300 - c. 273
- He had two sons, Sumana and Ashoka, who were
the viceroys of Taxila and Ujjain respectively. Bindusara extended this
empire to the southern part of India, as far as what is now known as
Karnataka. He brought sixteen states under the Mauryan Empire and thus
conquered almost all of the Indian peninsula (he is said to have
conquered the 'land between the two seas' - the peninsular region
between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea). Bindusara didn't conquer
the friendly Dravidian kingdoms of the Cholas, Pandyas, and Cheras.
Apart from these southern states, Kalinga (the modern Orissa) was the
only kingdom in India that didn't form the part of Bindusara's empire.
It was later conquered by his son Ashoka, who served as the viceroy of
Ujjaini during his father's reign.
- Ashoka Vardhana S/o Bindusara.........................c. 273 - c. 232
- His empire stretched from present-day
Pakistan, Afghanistan in the west, to the present-day Bangladesh and the
Indian state of Assam in the east, and as far south as northern Kerala
and Andhra except Tamil Nadu. He conquered the kingdom named Kalinga,
which no one in his dynasty had conquered before. He ruled almost 40
years and died at the age of 72 years. After two thousand years, the
influence of Ashoka is seen in Asia and especially the Indian
subcontinent. An emblem excavated from his empire is today the national
Emblem of India. His twin sibling; son Mahindra (known to be a Buddhist
monk) and daughter Sanghamitta are depicted in Buddhist sources as
bringing Buddhism to Sri Lanka.
- Kunala (in the West)
S/o Ashoka Vardhana..............c.
232 - c. 225 with...
- Tishyaraksha was one of the wives of emperor
Ashoka. Around the year 300 BC, she managed to blind Kunala who was the
son of Ashoka by another wife, at a young age in jealousy. For this
Ashoka ordered that Tishyaraksha be killed.
- Dasaratha (in the East)...............................c.
232 - c. 225
- He succeeded his grandfather Ashoka the Great
at the age of twenty after his uncle Kunala became blind, which made him
unfit to rule.
- Samprati S/o Kunala...................................c. 225 -
- According to Jaina tradition, King Samprati
had no children. He considered it the consequence of earlier Karma and
observed the religious customs more scrupulously.
215 - c. 202
- Devadharma [Devavarman]...............................c.
202 - c. 195
- Satamdhanu [Satadhanvan]..............................c.
195 - c. 187
187 - c. 180
- Mauryan territories during his reign just
centered around the capital of Pataliputra and had shrunk considerably.
He was killed in 180 BCE and power usurped by his commander-in-chief,
the Brahmin general Pusyamitra Sunga, who then took over the throne and
established the Sunga dynasty. Also in 180 BCE, northwestern India
(parts of modern day Afghanistan and Pakistan) were attacked by the
Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius I and established his rule in the Kabul
Valley and parts of the Punjab in modern-day Pakistan.
|Silver Punchmarked Karshapana.
Weight: 3.15g (32 rattis).
Diameter: 12.5 mm
x 14.0 mm.
5th to 2nd century BCE coin.
|Silver Punchmarked Karshapana.
Weight: 3.37g (32 rattis).
Diameter: 14.5 mm
x 15.0 mm. Reverse:
Snake sitting. Various natural green and red patina marks on
punched designed shown on both sides on the coin.
Ruler: probably Asoka
Vardhana (c.273 - c.232 BCE).
|Silver Punchmarked Karshapana.
Weight: 3.13g (32 rattis).
Three human figure standing + various punched
marked above. Reverse:
Vardhana (c.273 - c.232 BCE).
state swiftly lost cohesion, and was replaced by lesser territories. Two of
the largest and most stable were the core of the Mauryan Empire, Magadha,
located in the central Ganges plain, and Satavahana, in the central Deccan
in the south. But by the 1st century BCE, the Indian subcontinent was a mass
of lesser states with no pretensions to Imperial status. Not until the 3rd
century CE did another large state emerge - like the Mauryans, from Magadha.
At its greatest extent, the Gupta Empire covered all of Northern India, from
the Indus to the Bengal Delta, but it could not subdue the Deccan or lands
| c. 187 BC - c. 75 BC Sunga dynasty (in Magadha)
145 BC Chola King Erata conquers Ceylon
c. 75 BC - c. 30 BC Kanva
58 BC Epoch of the Krita-Malava-Vikram Era
BC Rise of the Satvahana Dynasty in the Deccan
40 CE Sakas in
power in Indus Valley and Western India
50 The Kushans and Kanishkas
78 Saka Era
c. 275 - 550 CE Gupta dynasty
320 Chandragupta I
properly establishes the Gupta dynasty
360 Samudragupta conquers the North and most of the Deccan
380 Chandragupta II comes to power. Golden Age of Gupta Literary
begins his travels through the Gupta Empire
415 Accession of Kumara Gupta I
Gupta assumes power
476 Birth of
606 Accession of Harshavardhana
622 Era of Hejira begins
711 Invasion of Sind by Muhammad Bin Qasim
892 Rise of the
622 Era of Hejira begins
848 - 1279 Chola
Empire (in the south)
985 The Chola
Dynasty: Accession of Rajaraja I Dev the Great
1001 Defeat of Rajyapala of
Pratihara by Sultan Mahumd Ghazni
1022 - 1346 Hoysala
Empire (in the south)
1026 Mahmud Ghazni sacks Somnath Temple
- An ancient Indian empire Founded by Maharaja
Sri-Gupta, which existed approximately from 275 to 550 CE and covered
much of the Indian Subcontinent with capital at was Pataliputra (present
day Patna, in the north Indian state of Bihar).
- Gupta.................................................c. 275 - c. 300
- At the beginning of the 5th century the
Maharaja Sri-Gupta, established and ruled a few small Hindu kingdoms in
Magadha (northern India) and around modern-day Bihar / Bengal. The Poona
copper inscription of Prabhavati Gupta, a daughter of Chandragupta II,
describes "Maharaja Sri-Gupta" as the founder of the Gupta dynasty. Sri
Gupta is identified with the king Che-li-ki-to mentioned in the writings
of the Chinese traveller Yijing, who wrote around 690 CE, and described
the king as having ruled 500 years earlier. According to Yijing's
account, Śri Gupta ordered the construction of a temple at Mṛgaśikhāvana
for the use of Buddhist pilgrims coming from China, endowing it with the
revenue from 40 villages.
- Ghatotkacha S/o Gupta.................................c. 300 - c. 320
- Chandragupta I S/o Ghatotkacha........................c. 320 - c. 350
- In a breakthrough deal, Chandra Gupta was
married to Kumardevi, a Lichchhavi princess; the main power in Magadha.
With a dowry of the kingdom of Magadha (capital Pataliputra) and an
alliance with the Lichchhavis, Chandra Gupta set about expanding his
power, conquering much of Magadha, Prayaga and Saketa. He established a
realm stretching from the Ganga River (Ganges River) to Prayaga
(modern-day Allahabad) by 321 CE. He assumed the imperial title of “Maharajadhiraja”.
- Samudragupta S/o Chandragupta.........................c. 350 - c. 370
- Samudragupta succeeded his father. He took the
kingdoms of Shichchhatra and Padmavati early in his reign. He then
attacked the Malwas, the Yaudheyas, the Arjunayanas, the Maduras and the
Abhiras, all of which were tribes in the area. By his death, he had
incorporated over twenty kingdoms into his realm and his rule extended
from the Himalayas to the river Narmada and from the Brahmaputra to the
Yamuna. He gave himself the titles King of Kings and World Monarch. He
is considered the Napoleon of north India. He performed Ashwamedha yajna
(horse sacrifice) to underline the importance of his conquest. Much is
known about Samudragupta through coins issued by him. These were of
eight different types and all made of pure gold. His conquests brought
him the gold and also the coin-making expertise from his acquaintance
with the Kushana.
- Ramagupta S/o Samudragupta............................c. 370 - c. 376
- Samudragupta was succeeded by his elder son
Ram Gupta , a weak king, he agreed to surrender his wife Dhruvadevi to
the Saka Chief Rudrasimha II.
- Chandragupta II S/o Samudragupta......................c. 376 - c. 415
- Ram Gupta’s younger brother Chandra Gupta II
went to the Saka camp disguised as the queen and assassinated the Saka
Chief. After this he killed his brother Ram Gupta, married Dhruvadevi
and ascended to the throne. He became known as the Sun of Power (Vikramaditya).
He also married to a Kadamba princess of Kuntala region and a Nag
princess, Kubernag. His daughter Prabhavatigupta from this Nag wife was
married to Rudrasena II, the Vakataka king of Deccan (this daughter was
forced to be married by the father). Only marginally less successful
than his father, Chandra Gupta II expanded his realm westwards,
defeating the Saka Western Kshatrapas of Malwa, Gujarat and Saurashtra
in a campaign lasting until 409, but with his main opponent Rudrasimha
III defeated by 395, and crushing the Bengal (Vanga) chiefdoms. This
extended his control from coast-to-coast, established a second (trading)
capital at Ujjain and was the high point of the empire.
- Kumaragupta I S/o Chandragupta II.....................c. 415 - c. 455
- He is known as the Mahendraditya. Towards the
end of his reign a tribe in the Narmada valley, the Pushyamitras, rose
in power to threaten the empire. The Pushyamitras were a tribe of
foreigners who were settled in Central India. However, Kumaragupta was
successful in defeating the invaders and performed Ashvamedha Yajna
(horse sacrifice) to celebrate his victory. He issued new coins with
images of Lord Kartikeya.
- Skandagupta S/o Kumaragupta I ........................c. 455 - c. 467
- He was also faced with invading Indo-Hephthalites
or "White Huns", known in India as Hunas, from the northwest.
Skandagupta had warred against the Huns during the reign of his father,
and was celebrated throughout the empire as a great warrior. He crushed
the Huna invasion in 455, and managed to keep them at bay; however, the
expense of the wars drained the empire's resources and contributed to
its decline. After his death, the Gupta empire began to decline rapdily.
Some historian believe that Purugupta and Skandagupta were the same
- Purugupta S/o Kumaragupta
I...........................c. 467 - c. 473
- Purugupta was a son of the Gupta emperor
Kumaragupta I by his queen Anantadevi. He succeeded his half-brother
Skandagupta. No inscription of Purugupta has been found so far. He is
known from the Bhitari silver-copper seal of his grandson Kumaragupta
III and Nalanda clay sealings of his sons Narasimhagupta and Budhagupta
and his grandson Kumaragupta III. From the Saranath Buddha image
inscription, it is concluded that he was succeeded by Kumaragupta II.
According to a Nalanda seal of Vishnugupta, Vishnugupta was son of
Kumaragupta (II), and grandson of Purugupta.
- Kumaragupta II........................................c. 473 - c. 477
- An image of Gautama Buddha at Sarnath notes
that he succeeded Purugupta who was most likely his father.
- Budhagupta S/o Purugupta..............................c. 477 - c. 495
- In the 480's the Hephthalite King Oprah broke
through the Gupta defenses in the northwest, and much of the empire was
overrun by the Huna by 500. The empire disintegrated under the attacks
of Toramana and his successor Mihirakula. Budhagupta had close ties with
the rulers of Kannauj kingdom. He asked help of Kannauj ruler
Yashovarman and together with Narasimhagupta Baladitya, they sought to
rule the Huns out of the fertile plains of Northern India.
- Chandragupta III......................................c. 495 - c. 500
- Vainyagupta S/o Purugupta.............................c. 500 - c. 510
- He was one of the lesser known kings of the
Gupta Dynasty. He is known from the fragmentary clay sealing discovered
at Nalanda and the Gunaighar copper plate inscription dated Gupta era
188 (507 CE). R. C. Majumdar considers him as son of Purugupta. In the
Nalanda fragmentary clay sealing he is mentioned as the Maharajadhiraja
and a paramabhagavata (devout worshipper of Vishnu), while the Gunaighar
copper plate inscription mentions him as the Maharaja and a Bhagavan
Mahadeva padanudhyato (devotee of Shiva).
- Narasimhagupta Baladitya S/o Purugupta................c. 510 - c. 530
- Kumaragupta III S/o Narasimhagupta....................c. 530 - c. 540
- Vishnugupta Candraditya S/o Kumaragupta III...........c.
540 - c. 550
- He was one of the lesser known kings of the
Gupta Dynasty. He is generally considered to be the last recognized king
of the Gupta Empire. His reign lasted 10 years, from 540 to 550 CE. From
the fragment of his clay sealing discovered at Nalanda during the
excavations of 1927-1928, it is revealed that he was the son of
Kumaragupta III and the grandson of Narasimhagupta.
- Bhanugupta was one of the lesser known kings
of the Gupta dynasty. He is only known from a stone pillar inscription
in Eran dated 510 CE at Malwa mentioned in the Manjushri-mula-kalpa
text. In this inscription, he is a "Raja" and not a "Maharaja" or a "Maharajadhiraja"
as would be customary for a Gupta Empire ruler. Bhanugupta may only have
been a Governor for the region of Malwa, under Gupta Emperor
Narasimhagupta. The inscription was translated by John Faithfull Fleet
in 1888, and then second time in 1981, leading to different
- The Indian numerals which is the first
positional base 10 numeral systems in the world have originated from
Gupta India. Kama Sutra the ancient Gupta text is widely considered to
be the standard work on human sexual behavior in Sanskrit literature
written by the Indian scholar Vatsyayana. These ideas spread throughout
the world through trade. The Gupta reign was certainly the "Golden Age"
of north India. Scholars of this period include Aryabhatta, who is
believed to be the first to come up with the concept of zero, postulated
the theory that the Earth moves round the Sun, and studied solar and
lunar eclipses. Kalidasa, who was a great playwright, who wrote plays
such as Shakuntala, which is said to have inspired Goethe, and marked
the highest point of Sanskrit literature is also said to have belonged
to this period.
- Naravardhana..........................................c. 500 - ?
- Rajyavardhana I
- Prabhakaravardhana....................................c. 580 - c. 605
- Rajyavardhana II S/o Prabhakaravardhana...............c. 605 - c. 606
- Harshavardhana S/o Prabhakaravardhana.................c. 606 - 647
- He was a Hindu in earlier life, became a
Buddhist later, emperor who ruled Northern India for forty one years. He
was the son of Prabhakar Vardhan and younger brother of Rajyavardhan, a
king of Thanesar. At the height of his power his kingdom spanned the
Punjab, Gujarat, Bengal, Orissa and the entire Indo-Gangetic plain North
of the Narmada River. After the downfall of the Gupta Empire in the
middle of the sixth century C.E., North India reverted to small
republics and small monarchical states. Harsha united the small
republics from Punjab to Central India, and they, at an assembly,
crowned Harsha king in April 606 AD when he was just very young.
Nagabhata I replaced Harshavardhana as king when The Pratiharas (also
called the Gurjara-Pratiharas) took over western India from the
Pushpabhuti empire. The Pratiharas were an Indian dynasty who ruled
kingdoms in Rajasthan and northern India from the sixth to the eleventh
|Once more, the
Empire crumbled, and was replaced by lesser states. The era between about
500 CE and about 1200 CE is dominated by three contending powers, the
Pratiharas (west), the Rastrakutas (east), and the Palas (south). Around
these, a host of minor states arose, endured for a time and faded.
- The Pratiharas came to power in western India
and, from their capital at Kannauj, dominated western and northern India
for centuries, before being overwhelmed in turn by the Ghurids of
- Nagabhata I...........................................c. 750 - ?
- Vatsaraja.............................................c. 783 - c. 815
- Nagabhata II..........................................c. 815 - c. 833
- Ramabhadra............................................c. 833 - c. 836
- Bhoja I...............................................c. 836 - c. 893
- Mahendrapala I........................................c. 893 - c. 914
- Mahipala..............................................c. 914 - ?
- Bhoja II
- Mahendrapala II.......................................c. 946 - c. 948
- Devapala..............................................c. 948 - c. 960
- Vijayapala............................................c. 960 - ?
- Trilochanapala.......................................c. 1018 - 1030
Important events in Indian history:
| 1191 Prithviraj Chauhan routs Muhammad Ghori: The first battle of Tarain
1192 Ghori defeats Prithviraj Chauhan: The second battle of Tarain
1206 Qutb Al-Din establishes the Slave Dynasty in North
1221 Mongol invasion under Genghis Khan
1232 Foundation of the Qutub Minar
1288 Marco Polo visits India
1290 Jalal ud-Din Firuz Shah Khalji established the Khalji dynasty
1320 Ghayas Al-Din Tughluq founds the Tughluq dynasty
1325 Accession of Muhammad bin Tughluq
1336 Foundation of Vijayanagar (Deccan) in south till 23 Jan 1565
1347 - 1518 Bahmani Sultanate (in the south)
1398 Timur invades India
1424 Rise of the Bahmani Dynasty (Deccan)
19 Apr 1451 The Lodi dynasty established in Delhi
1469 Guru Nanak born in Taiwandi (Nankana Shib, Distt. Sheikhupura)
1485 Chetnia born in Bengal, who later started Bhagti movement for Sikhs
1489 Adil Shah dynasty at Bijapur
1490 Nizam Shahi dynasty at Ahmednagar
1498 Portuguese first voyage lead by Vasco da Gama
1510 Portuguese Capture Goa
1518 Kutub Shahi dynasty establishes at Golconda
21 Apr 1526 Establishment of the Mughal Dynasty: First Battle of Panipat.
Babur defeats Lodis.
| 27 May 1526 Babur founds Empire of Hind, usually known by Historian
as Mughal Empire
1526 - 1530 Reign of Babur.
17 Mar 1527 The Battle of Khanwa. Babar defeats Rajput Confederation
loyalists. Raja Shiladitya (Silhadi) betrayed Rajput Confederate in the
Battle. Expansion of the Mughal Empire into north-east and central India.
06 May 1529 Battle of Ghaghra. Babur defeats Eastern Afghan
Confederates and Sultanate
of Bengal. Bihar annexed by Mughal Empire and surrounding territories.
Peace settlement with Sultanate of Bengal ruler Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah.
28 Dec 1530 Humayun succeeds Babur. Bahur dies at the age of 47 on
26 Dec 1530.
22 Sep 1539 Death of Guru Nanak
17 May 1540 The Mughal rulers are expelled and superseded by the Afghan Suri dynasty
23 Jul 1555 Empire of Hind under the Mughal rulers restored
27 Jan 1556 Death of Humayun, Accession of Akbar
14 Feb 1556 Akbar was enthroned at Kalanaur, in Punjab at the age of 13
06 Oct 1556 Hemu defeated the Mughal army in the Battle of Delhi, near Tughlaqabad
07 Oct 1556 Hemu was crowned at Purana Qila fortress, re-establishing Hindu rule in
05 Nov 1556 Hindu ruler from Rawari, Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya
and planning to capture rest of India was finally defeated
after 22 successful battles by Akbar in the Second
battle of Panipat.
1562 Akbar abolishes poll tax on Hindus. Tax imposed again 1575-1580
26 Jan 1565 Battle of Talikota, Muslim rulers in Deccan destroys Vijaynagar Empire
23 Feb 1568 Akbar captures Chittor (Chittorgarh) Fort in Rajasthan from Rajputs
21 Mar 1569 Akbar captures Ranthambore Fort in Rajasthan from Rajputs
1571 Foundation of Fatehpur
Sikri as capital by Akbar
1572 Akbar annexes Gujarat
07 Aug 1574 Akbar captures Patna
02 Sep 1573 Surat surrenders to Akbar
03 Mar 1575 Battle of Tukaroi. Akbar's victory over Sultanate
of Bangala and Bihar
21 Jun 1576 Battle of Haldighati, Akbar
defeats Maharana Pratap Singh of Mewar
Jul 1576 Battle of Rajmahal. Subjugation of Bengal
1577 Akbar troops invade
Khandesh ruled by the Faruqi dynasty
1580 Accession of Ibrahim Adil
Shah II in Bengal, Rebellion in Bihar and Bengal
10 Aug 1581 Akbar's march against
Muhammad Hakim of Kabul and reconciliation with him
1582 Divine Faith (Din-i-Ilahi) promulgated
16 Feb 1583 Akbar's court wit Raja
Birbal dies during expedition to Swat and Bajaur
11 Mar 1584 Nauruz festival introduced the Divine Era after Akbar's
22 Feb 1586 Akbar's annexation of Kashmir due to Bhagwan Das
1585 Akbar moved his capital
from Fatehpur Sikri to Lahore
1591 Mughal conquest of Sind
1592 Annexation of Orissa
Nov 1595 Akbar invaded Ahmednagar,
Annexation of Baluchistan
1597 Akbar's son Murad dies in
1599 Finally Akbar captures Ahmednagar
31 Dec 1600 Charter to the English
East India Company by Elizabeth I
17 Jan 1601 Akbar’s army occupied Burhanpur and Khandesh become part
of Mughal Empire
20 Mar 1602 Formation of the United
East India Company of Netherlands
27 Oct 1605 Death of Akbar and
Accession of Jahangir [Salim]
06 Apr 1606 Rebellion of Khusrau Mirza S/o Jahangir
30 May 1606 Execution of the Fifth Sikh Guru Arjan by Jahangir for
30 May 1607 Ali Quli Khan Istaju Sher Afghan, first husband
of Nur Jahan killed
1608 Malik Ambar takes
1609 The Dutch open a factory
1611 The English establish a
factory at Masulipatnam
1612 The Mughal Governor of
Bengal defeats the rebellious Afghans
1612 Mughuls annex Koch Hajo
from Parikshit Narayan
1615 Submission of Mewar to the
Mughuls. Arrival of Sir Thomas Roe in India
1616 The Dutch establish a
factory at Surat
1622 Capture of Kangra Fort
after a siege of fourteen months by Jahangir's troop
1622 Malik Ambar revolts in the
1622 Shah Abbas I of Persia
beseiges and takes Qandahar from Jahangir
1623 Shah Jahan revolts against
1624 Suppression of Shah
1626 100 days rebellion of
Mughal general Mahabat Khan against Jahangir
08 Nov 1627 Death of Jahangir.
Accession of Shah Jahan
25 Jan 1628 Shah Jahan proclaimed
17 Jun 1631 Death of Shah Jahan's wife
Mumtaz Mahal. The construction of Taj Mahal
1632 Mughal invasion of Bijapur.
Grant of the "Golden Firman" of the English
Company by the Sultan of Golkunda
1633 End of Ahmednagar Dynasty.
After the death of Malik Ambar in May 1626, his
son Fath Khan surrendered Ahmadnagar to the Mughals
14 Jul 1636 Aurangzeb appointed
Viceroy of Deccan and re-appointed in 1652
1639 Foundation of Fort St.
George at Madras by the English
1645 16 year old Shivaji Bhosle captures Torna
Fort of the Bijapur kingdom
1656 The Mughal attacks
Hyderabad and Golkunda. Annexation of Javli by Shivaji
1657 Invasion of Bijapur by
Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb captures Bidar and Kalyani
31 Jul 1658 Aurangzeb deposed Shah
Jehan in coup d'etat. Coronation of Aurangzeb
1659 Battles of Khajwah and
1661 Mughul capture of Cooch
1664 Shivaji sacks and looted Surat and
assumes royal title
18 Feb 1665 Bombay (Mumbai) ceded to England by Portugal
22 Jan 1666 Death of Shah Jahan after
8 years imprisoned in Octagonal Tower of Agra Fort
1666 Shivaji's visit to Agra
06 Jun 1674 Shivaji assumes the title
1678 Marwar occupies by the
03 Apr 1680 Death of Shivaji
1680 Rebellion of Prince Akbar
1686 English war with the
Mughuls. Fall of Bijapur and Adil Shahi dynasty ends
11 Mar 1689 Execution of Sambhaji, elder son of Shivaji at Tulapur,
c. 1690 Calcutta founded by England
1690 Peace between the Mughuls
and the English
1691 Aurangzeb at the zenith of
1698 The new English company
trading to the East Indies
1699 First Maratha raid on
30 Mar 1699 Khalsa: a military order of "saint-soldiers" established
by 10th Sikh Guru,
02 Mar 1700 Death of Rajaram at Sinhagad and
regency of his widow Tara Bai
1702 Amalgamation of English
and the London East India Companies
03 Mar 1707 Death of Aurangzeb. Battle
of Jajau and rise of Churaman Jat of Bharatpur
1714 Husain Ali appointed
Viceroy of the Deccan
1714 The treaty of the Marathas
with Husain Ali
1720 Accession of Baji Rao
Peshwa at Poona (Pune) under Emperor Shahu
17 Feb 1739 Battle of Karnal - Nadir Shah defeats Mughals and
1739 The Marathas capture Salsette and Bassein
28 Apr 1740 Death of Balaji Rao
Peshwa. The Marathas invade Arcot
1742 Marathas invade Bengal
18 Oct 1748 First Anglo-French war (Austrian Succession) ends
1750 War of the Deccan and
16 Dec 1750 Death of Nasir Jang, ruler of Hyderabad (02 Jun 1748 -
16 Dec 1750)
1751 Treaty of Alivadi with the
Jun 1756 Siraj-ud-daulah captures
Calcutta (renamed as Alinagar)
23 Jun 1757 Battle of Plassey: The British
defeat Siraj ud-Daulah and French Army
22 Jan 1760 Battle of Wandiwash (Third Carnatic War): The British defeat the French
14 Jan 1761 Third battle of Panipat: Ahmad Shah Abdali defeats the
16 Jan 1761 French restricted to Pondicherry and they surrendered to
1761 Surrender of Khande Rao
and rise of Hyder Ali at Mysore
23 Jun 1761
Accession of Madhava Rao as fourth Peshwa of the Maratha Empire
1762 Hyder Ali's first war with the Marathas and captures Sira
1762 Hyder Ali captures Ikkeri
and ends Keladi Nayaka Kingdom (Bednore)
22 Oct 1764 Battle of Buxar: The British defeat Mir Kasim (Nawab of
Shuja-ud-Daula (Nawab of Oudh) and Shah Alam II (Mughal Emperor)
12 Aug 1765 British take over administration of Bengal as East India
16 Aug 1765 Lord Clive for the British get Diwani Rights in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa
from Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II as Treaty of Allahabad
03 Sep 1767 First Mysore War starts: The British had to conclude a
pact with with Hyder Ali at Madras on 29 March 1769
1770 Bengal famine of 1770
(1769-1773) decreased 1/3 population in Bengal
(10 million deaths).
1773 Warren Hastings appointed as Governor of Bengal
1773 The Regulating Act passed
by the British Parliament to have some
administrative control over East India Company
1773 - 1774 First Rohilla War; Shuja-ud-Daula, Nawab of Awadh was
supported by British
East India Company against the Rohillas
07 Oct 1774 A Rohilla state under British protection was set up in
1774 Warren Hastings appointed as Governor-General
20 Oct 1774 Union of all East India Company Settlements
1775 - 1782 The First Anglo-Maratha war at Pune
1780 - 1784 Second Mysore War between British and Hyder Ali
17 May 1782 Treaty of Salbai between British East India Company
1782 - 1783 Famine in Madras and
surrounding areas including Kingdom of Mysore.
1783 - 1784 Chalisa famine in Delhi, Western Oudh, Eastern Punjab
region, Rajputana and
Kashmir. 11 million people died during 1782–1784.
15 Jan 1784 The Indian Asiatic Society created by Sir William Jones.
11 Mar 1784 Treaty of Mangalore was signed between Tipu Sultan and
British East India
Company to end Second Mysore War
1784 Pitt's India Act - British East India Company under the control
1789 - 1792 Doji bara famine (Skull famine) killed 11 million
people in Hyderabad,
Southern Maratha country, Deccan, Gujarat and Marwar.
1790 - 1792 Third Mysore War between the British and Tipu Sultan
19 Mar 1792 Treaty of Seringapatam - Tipu Sultan lost half of its
Travancore , Nizam
of Hyderabad and Marathas.
1793 Permanent Settlement of Bengal (Cornwallis Code)
12 Feb 1794 Death of Mahadaji Sindhia; Maratha ruler of the state of
1794 Jaipur came under British
1795 Travancore came under
1795 Cochin become
semi-protected States under British
1796 British occupies Andaman
Islands and coastal area of Ceylon from Dutch
1798 Nizam of Hyderabad becomes
first State to sign Subsidiary alliance
1799 Fourth Mysore War: The British defeat Tipu. Partition of Mysore.
04 May 1799 Tipu Sultan dies in the Battle of Seringapatam (05 April
– 04 May 1799)
31 Dec 1802 Treaty of Bassein between British and Baji Rao II,
Maratha peshwa of Pune
13 May 1803 Baji Rao II was restored to Peshwarship under the
protection of the East
India Company. This was not acceptable to all Marathas chieftains
1803 - 1805 The Second Anglo-Maratha war: The British defeat the Marathas
1805 - 1834 Ceded and Conquered Provinces established by British
10 Jul 1806 Vellore Mutiny (Indian sepoys against the British East India Company)
1815 Annexation of Kumaon, Garhwal and east Sikkim. Cis-Sutlej states
1814 - 1816 The Anglo-Gurkha war (Anglo–Nepalese War). Nepal lost
1817 States of Rajputana accept
1817 - 1818 Third Anglo–Maratha War (Pindari war). End of the Maratha
1818 Kutch accepts British
1819 Gaikwads of Baroda accept British suzerainty
1824 - 1826 The First Burmese war (05 Mar 1824 – 24 Feb 1826).
Treaty of Yandabo.
Annexation of Assam, Manipur, Arakan, and Tenasserim from Burma
04 Dec 1829 Prohibition of Sati
1831 Mysore State goes under
British administration till 1881
1833 Renewal of Company's Charter; Abolition of Company's trading rights.
Bahawalpur accepts British
1834 Coorg annexed by British
1835 Education Resolution
1836 North-Western Provinces established
1836 – 1848 Thuggee and Dacoity Suppression Acts (14 Nov 1836 - 20 May 1848)
1837 Post Offices were established
1837 - 1838 Agra famine - approximately 800,000 people had died
Jun 1838 Tripartite treaty between Shah Shuja, Ranjit Singh and the British
19 Jan 1839 port of Aden in Yemen is captured by the British
East India Company
1839 - 1842 First Anglo-Afghan War. Decisive Afghan victory and
Jan 1842 Massacre of Elphinstone's army led by Akbar
Khan of Afghanistan
12 Feb 1843 British annexation of Sindh.
07 Apr 1843
Abolition of slavery in British India
Dec 1843 Gwalior war between British and
11 Dec 1845 First Anglo-Sikh war; ended 10 Feb 1846.
09 Mar 1846 Treaty of Lahore - Sikhs cede Jullundur Doab, Hazara, and
Kashmir to British
16 Mar 1846 Treaty of Amritsar - settle Kashmir dispute
after the First Sikh War
British sold Kashmir to Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh
for 7.5 million rupees
12 Jan 1848 Lord Dalhousie becomes the Governor-General
1848 - 1849 Second Anglo-Sikh war: (Rise of Sikh Power) British annex Punjab
Sikhs are defeated.
1848 British took over
Satara using Doctrine of Lapse
1849 British annexation of
Punjab and North-West Frontier Province.
British took over Jaipur and Sambalpur using Doctrine of Lapse
1850 Construction begins on Indian Railways
11 Apr 1850 The Caste Disabilities Removal Act 1850
1851 First telegraph line laid in India
1852 - 1853 Second Anglo-Burmese war (05 Apr 1852 – 20 Jan 1853). Company's
Annexation of Lower Burma
16 Apr 1853 Railway opened from Bombay to Thane
1853 Telegraph line from Calcutta to Agra.
British annexation of Berar
1854 Postage Stamps for
India were introduced. Great Ganges Canal opened.
British took over Nagpur and Jhansi using Doctrine of Lapse.
British creates Central India Agency
- adding 148 princely states in one
area with headquarter at Indore.
1855 Public Telegram
services starts operation
25 Jul 1856 Hindu Widows Remarriage Act
1856 British took
over Awadh with the reason: ruler was not ruling properly
Jan-Sep 1857 First Indian universities founded
10 May 1857 First War of Indian Independence and the Sepoy Mutiny
till 20 Jun 1858
29 Mar 1858 The last Mughal ruler Bahadur Shah Zafar is deposed
04 Jun 1858 John Bright in British parliament suggested "India
should be divided into
1858 Liquidation of the English
East India Company under Government of India Act
| 1858 British Crown takes over
the Indian Government.
Reorganization of British Indian Army.
02 Aug 1858 British Act of Parliament annexes the Empire, creating
01 Nov 1858 British India starts effectively.
1860 Construction begins: University of Bombay, University of Madras, and
University of Calcutta.
Indian Penal Code passed into law.
1860-1861 Upper Doab famine. Upper Doab of Agra; Delhi
and Hissar divisions of the
Punjab. 2 million people died.
1861 Indian Councils Act. Indian High Courts Acts. Indian Police Act.
Establishment of Archaeological Survey of India. James Wilson, financial
member of Council of India reorganizes customs, imposes income tax, creates
1862 Indian Penal Code came
into force, drafted in 1860.
20 Nov 1863 James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine died in
Dharamsala, Punjab due to heart attack.
1864 - 1865 British won the Bhutan War (Duar War) from Bhutan. Treaty of Sinchula signed
on 11 Nov 1865. British suzerainty over Cooch Behar and the Duars.
1865 - 1867 Orissa famine 0f 1866. In Orissa and Bihar; Bellary and Ganjam districts of
Madras. 1 million died (814,469 in Orissa, 135,676 in Bihar and 10,898 in
1867 Creation of Imperial Forestry Service. Creation of Department of Irrigation.
1868 Punjab Tenancy Act. Railway opened from Ambala to Delhi
16 Oct 1868 Denmark sold the rights of Nicobar Islands to Britain. Nicobar Islands
incorporated into India in 1869.
1869 Rajputana famine. 1.5 million died.
Creation of Department of Agriculture.
Major extension of railways, roads, and canals.
1870 Indian Councils Act
1871 - 1872 India Census was carried out in some provinces and areas
1872 Chief Commissionership established in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
08 Feb 1872 Richard Southwell Bourke, 6th Earl of Mayo was assassinated at Port Blair,
Andaman Islands by Sher Ali Afridi.
1873 - 1874 The Bihar Famine in Bihar, Bengal and United Provinces. Mortalities was
prevented by importation of rice from Burma.
10 Apr 1875
Gaikwad of Baroda, Malhar Rao Gaekwar dethroned for misgovernment
by the orders of the Secretary of State for India, Lord Salisbury. Anyhow
dynasty continued to a child ruler: Sayaji Rao III Gaekwar [Gopalrao].
1875 – 1876 Eight-month tour of the sub-continent by the Prince of Wales, future King
1876 – 1878 Great Famine (Southern India famine of 1876–78). Madras, Bombay, Mysore and
Hyderabad. 5.5 million died in British territory. Mortality unknown for
princely states. Total famine mortality estimated 6.1 to 10.3 million.
01 Jan 1877 Delhi Durbar: The Queen of England proclaimed Empress of India, proclamation
on 28 Apr 1876.
19 Jun 1877 Baluchistan established as a Chief Commissionership.
1878 Vernacular Press Act, repealed on 07 Dec 1881.
Creation of Famine Commission of 1878–80 under Sir Richard Strachey.
Indian Forest Act of 1878.
University of Calcutta became one of the first
universities to admit female graduates to its degree programmes.
1878 - 1880 The Second Anglo-Afghan War. Treaty of Gandamak in
May 1879. British
withdraw from Afghanistan but will maintain foreign relations of
1881 Factory Act. Rendition of Mysore
1882 University of Punjab established at Lahore became the fourth
The Ilbert Bill - Introduced by Viceroy Ripon to allow Indian judges and
magistrates the jurisdiction to try British offenders in criminal cases at
the District level. Famine Code promulgated by the Government of India.
25 Jan 1884 Criminal Procedure Code Amendment Act 1884, effective on 01 May.
1884 Creation of the Education Commission.
Creation of indigenous schools, especially for Muslims.
Repeal of import duties on cotton and of most tariffs. Railway extension.
1885 Passage of Bengal Tenancy Act.
30 Mar 1885 Panjdeh Incident - Russian forces seized Afghan territory south of the Oxus
River (modern name Amu Darya). Diplomatic crisis between Russia and Great
Britain as part of The Great Game. Anglo-Russian Boundary Commission was
established without Afghanistan's concern.
07 Nov 1885 Third Anglo-Burmese War; ended 29 Nov. British victory. End of the
Konbaung dynasty in Upper Burma.
The province of Burma becomes part of the
British India (separated in 1937).
28 Dec 1885 Indian National Congress was founded by suggestion of British civil servant
Allan Octavian Hume at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College in Bombay, with
72 delegates. First meeting of the Indian National Congress ended 31 Dec.
1886 – 1887 Report of Public Services Commission. Creation of Imperial Civil Service.
23 Sep 1887 University of Allahabad established. The foundation
stone as the Muir
Central College was laid by Governor-General of India, Lord Northbrook on
December 09, 1873.
1888 – 1889 Ganjam, Orissa and North Bihar Famine. 150,000 deaths in Ganjam.
Deaths were due to starvation as famine relief was not provided in time.
1891 Indian Factory Act. Census covering India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Burma
1892 Indian Councils Act to regulate Indian administration
1893 The Durand Line - agreement between Mortimer Durand of British India and
Afghan Amir Abdur Rahman Khan for fixing the limit of their respective
spheres of influence. Railways, roads, and irrigation works begun in Burma.
Border between Burma and Siam finalized.
1873 – 1893 Fall of the Rupee, resulting from the steady depreciation of silver.
1894 Indian Prisons Act of 1894
1895 Pamir agreement Russia. The Chitral Campaign.
1896 – 1897 Tirah Campaign. Ended 04 April 1898.
Indian famine of 1896–97 beginning in Bundelkhand.
5 million deaths.
Bubonic plague in Bombay (1896), Poona (1897) and Calcutta (1898).
Riots in wake of plague prevention measures.
1897 Famine Commission.
12 Jun 1897 The Assam earthquake of 1897 with estimated magnitude of 8.1Mw.
1897 - 1898 British military campaign against the Mohmands.
09 Dec 1898 The Bombay City Improvement Trust
06 Jan 1899 Lord George Curzon becomes Governor-General and Viceroy
1899 – 1900 Indian famine of 1899–1900 in Bombay, Central Provinces, Berar, Ajmer
Hyderabad, Rajputana, Central India, Baroda, Kathiawar and Cutch. 1 million
deaths in British territories.
1899 Financial Reform Act of 1899; Gold Reserve Fund created for India.
Punjab Land Alienation Act.
Inauguration of Department (now Ministry) of Commerce and Industry.
22 Jan 1901 Queen Victoria dies.
1901 Census of 1901 gives the total population at 294 million, including 62
million in the princely states and 232 million in British India.
09 Nov 1901 Creation of the North West Frontier Province under a Chief Commissioner.
1903 The Durbar of Delhi was held to celebrate the coronation of King Edward VII
and Queen Alexandra as Emperor and Empress of India.
1903 – 1904 Francis Younghusband's British expedition to Tibet.
1904 Ceded and Conquered Provinces and Oudh renamed United Provinces.
Reorganization of Indian Universities Act.
Systemization of preservation and restoration of ancient monuments by
Archaeological Survey with Indian Ancient Monument Preservation Act.
Inauguration of agricultural banking with Cooperative Credit Societies Act.
16 Oct 1905 The First Partition of Bengal, announced on 07 July 1905
by Lord Curzon.
Due to political protests, Bengal was reunited on 12 December 1911.
The administrative capital in 1911 of British India was moved from
Calcutta to New Delhi as well.
1905 – 1906 Bombay Bundelkhand Famine. 235,062 deaths in Bombay (of which 28,369
attributed to Cholera).
1906 Congress declaration regarding Swaraj
1906 Jugantar Patrika was a Bengali revolutionary newspaper founded in Calcutta
30 Dec 1906 Formation of All-India Muslim League
31 Aug 1907 Anglo-Russian Convention at St. Petersburg, Russia to
control in Persia, Afghanistan and Tibet.
Jun 1908 Newspaper Act
25 May 1909 Indian Councils Act 1909 (also Minto-Morley Reforms)
Appointment of Indian Factories Commission.
1910 Establishment of Department of Education
1911 Visit of King George V and Queen Mary: commemoration as Emperor and Empress
of India at last Delhi Durbar. King George V announces creation of new
city of New Delhi to replace Calcutta as capital of India.
Indian High Courts Act of 1911.
Indian Factories Act of 1911.
Partition of Bengal modified to create Presidency of Bengal.
1912 The Imperial capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi.
Construction of New Delhi 1912–1929.
1913 Education Resolution of the Government of India
1914 - 1918 World War I - Indian Army in: Western Front, Belgium
1914; German East
Africa (Battle of Tanga, 1914); Mesopotamian Campaign
(Battle of Ctesiphon
1915, Siege of Kut 1915–1916 and Fall of Baghdad 1917); Battle of
Sinai and Palestine Campaign (Battle of Megiddo 1918).
1915 Passage Defense of Indian Act - gave the police a free hand.
1916 Home Rule League founded. Foundation of Woman's University at Poona
29&31 Dec 1916 Lucknow Pact - Sarojini Naidu gave Jinnah, the chief architect of the
Lucknow Pact, the title of "the Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim
10 Mar 1919 Roelatt Act. Later Rowlatt Act evokes protests. A "hartal"
on 06th April.
The Montague Chelmsford Reforms offer limited autonomy.
10 Apr 1919 Protest in Amritsar for releasing Satya Pal and
13 Apr 1919 Martial law in Punjab. Amritsar massacre (Jallianwala
06 May 1919 Third Anglo-Afghan War; ended 08 Aug 1919. Treaty of
Reaffirmation of the Durand Line.
23 Dec 1919 Government of India Act (Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms) - expand participation
of Indians in the government.
1920 The Khilafat Movement
started. Mahatma Gandhi leads the Congress.
Non-co-operational Movement lasted till 10 Mar 1922
Aug 1921 Moplah (Muslim) rebellion
in Malabar. Census of India.
1922 Civil Disobedience
Movement. Chauri-Chaura violence leads to Gandhi
suspending movement in Feb 1922. University of Delhi established.
10 Mar 1922 Gandhi was arrested. Released in Feb 1924
for appendicitis operation.
1923 Swarajists in Indian
Councils. Certification of Salt Tax.
Hindu-Muslim riots. Indian Workers Compensation Act of 1923.
1925 Reforms Enquiry committee
1926 Royal Commission on
Agriculture. Factories Act.
Indian Trade Unions Act of 1926.
Royal (Hilton Young) Commission on Indian Currency & Finance, guidelines by
1927 Indian Navy Act. Simon
1928 Simon Commission comes to
India; Bombay on 03 Feb and Lahore on 30 Oct.
Boycott by all parties. All Parties Conference.
Aug 1928 Nehru Report - memorandum outlining a proposed
new Dominion constitution
for India chaired by Motilal Nehru with his son Jawaharlal acting as
30 Oct 1928 Lala Lajpat Rai protest against the Simon Commission at Lahore. The police
responded with a violent lathi charge which caused his death on 17th Nov.
Dec 1928 Resolution at the Calcutta by Ghandi demanding
British government to grant
India dominion status within one year or face a new campaign of
non-cooperation with complete independence.
28 Mar 1929 "The Fourteen Points of Jinnah" against "Nehru Report"
1929 Lord Irwin promises
Dominion Status for India. Trade Union split.
Appointment of Royal Commission of Indian Labour.
31 Dec 1929 The flag of India was unfurled in Lahore.
26 Jan 1930 India's Independence Day by the Indian National Congress meeting in Lahore.
12 Mar 1930 Civil Disobedience movement continues. Ghandi's
Satyagraha against the tax
on salt. Salt March from Ahmedabad to Dandi
of 388 Kilometers. Ended on 06
23 Apr 1930 Massacre at the "Qissa Khawani Bazaar" in Peshawar.
12 Nov 1930 First Round Table Conference; ends on 19 Jan 1931
1931 Census of India. New
Delhi inaugurated as capital of India.
05 Mar 1931 Irwin-Gandhi Pact
23 Mar 1931 Bhagat Singh was hanged at 19:30 in Lahore jail with
Rajguru and Sukhdev
Sep 1931 Second Round Table
Conference; ends in Dec 1931
1932 Suppression of the
04 Aug 1932 The Communal Award - Granted separate electorates to
Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar
successfully granted untouchables separate
electorates under this new constitution. Similar provisions were already
available for other minorities, including Muslims, Christians, Anglo-Indians
20 Sep 1932 Gandhi embarked indefinite fast while imprisoned at the Yerwada Jail, Pune
against Communal Award.
24 Sep 1932 Poona Pact - agreement between Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi at the
Yerwada Jail, Pune through negotiations mediated by Palwankar Baloo.
It was a pact between lower (Dalits) and upper caste Hindus.
01 Oct 1932
Indian Military Academy at Dehradun established.
08 Oct 1932 Royal Indian Air Force created.
17 Nov 1932 Third Round Table Conference starts; ends on 25 Dec 1932
1933 Publication of White Paper on Indian reforms.
Indian Workmen's Compensation Act of 1933.
08 May 1933 Gandhi began a 21-day fast of self-purification and launched a one-year
campaign to help the Harijan movement.
15 Jan 1934 Bihar Earthquake of 8.1 magnitude. 30,000 people died. Munger and
Muzaffarpur were completely destroyed.
1934 Civil Disobedience Movement called off. Indian Factories Act of 1934.
01 Apr 1935 Creation of Reserve Bank of India at Calcutta.
31 May 1935 Earthquake of magnitude of 7.7 Mw at 3:02 am at Quetta,
60,000 people died.
Aug 1935 The Government of India Act 1935.
Indian Payment of Wages Act of 1936.
Feb 1937 Final results of the Provincial elections were declared.
Elections were held in eleven provinces - Madras, Central Provinces, Bihar,
Orissa, United Provinces, Bombay Presidency, Assam, NWFP, Bengal, Punjab
and Sindh. The Indian National Congress emerged in power in all the
provinces except for three - Bengal, Punjab and Sindh. The All-India Muslim
League failed to form the government in any province.
1937 Inauguration of Provincial Autonomy. Congress ministries formed in a
majority of Indian provinces.
Burma administration separated.
03 Sep 1939 Viceroy Linlithgow declared India at war with Germany without prior
consultation with Indians.
Jinnah agree to support the War.
22 Oct 1939 Political deadlock in India as Congress ministries resign on Viceroy
Linlithgow decision of War. Linlithgow and Jinnah pleased with the
1939 - 1945 Indian Army in Mediterranean, Middle East and African theatres of
World War II [North African campaign: Operation Compass 1940-1941,
Operation Crusader 1941, First Battle of El Alamein 1942, Second Battle of
El Alamein 1942. East African campaign 1940-1941, Anglo-Iraqi War 1941,
Syria-Lebanon campaign 1941, Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran 1941, Battle of
Hong Kong 1941, Battle of Malaya 1941-1942, Battle of Singapore 1942, and
Burma Campaign 1942-1945.
23 Mar 1940 All-India Muslim League demanded a separate sovereign state for Muslims in
1942 Japanese occupy Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Mar 1942 to Aug 1945).
Mar 1942 Cripps Mission to India.
Apr 1942 Subhash Chandra Bose forms Indian National Army.
14 Jul 1942 Congress adopts Quit India Resolution and later Congress leaders arrested
08 Aug 1942 The Quit India Movement (August Movement) - Ghandi called for a civil
disobedience movement "Do or Die" for immediate independence of India at
Gowalia Tank Maidan, Bombay.
09 Aug 1942 Gandhi and the entire Congress Working Committee were arrested in Bombay.
21 Oct 1943 Provisional Government of Free India proclaimed (Arzi Hukumate-e-Azad Hind)
(administering the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Dec 1943 to
18 Aug 1945).
1943 - 1944 Bengal famine of 1943. 1.5 million died from starvation and 3.5 million
died from epidemics.
06 May 1944 Gandhi release from jail because of his failing health & necessary surgery.
Sep 1944 Gandhi-Jinnah Talks break
down on Pakistan issue.
27 Nov 1945 Baluchistan Earthquake at 21:56, with its epicentre in
1945 First trial of the Indian
Army men opened.
25 Jun 1945 Simla Conference - Wavell
Plan for Indian self-government; ended 14 Jul.
18 Feb 1946 Mutiny in Royal Indian Navy.
16 May 1946 Cabinet Mission's plan announced. A united Dominion of
India would be given
independence. Muslim League decides to participate
in the Interim
16 Jun 1946 16 June Plan - India to be divided into Hindu-majority India and a
Muslim-majority India that would later be renamed Pakistan.
16 Aug 1946 Jinnah called for Direct Action Day (Great Calcutta Killings).
Gandhi was infuriated and personally visited the most riot-prone areas to
stop the massacres.
25 Aug 1946 India granted limited self rule.
02 Sep 1946 Interim Government formed. Constitutional Assembly's first meeting.
03 Jun 1947 Announcement of Lord Mountbatten's plan for partition of India.
18 Jul 1947 Indian Independence Act 1947 of the British Parliament enacted.
09 Aug 1947 Sir Cyril Radcliffe's Award on Boundary Commission
15 Aug 1947 Partition of India and Independence completed.
17 Aug 1947 The Radcliffe Line was published.
Coins of India can be viewed by clicking on the links
below, sorted yearly according to respective ruler and state.
- 21 Apr 1526 with...
- This era saw
the emergence of Muslim influence in India, extending into the region from
beyond the Indus River. The next large state to hold sway was, in fact, a
Muslim one: the Sultanate of Delhi in the north. The Sultanate of Delhi
consists of Ghulyam (Slaves) or also known as Mumluk Dynasty: 1206-1290,
Khalji (Gharzai Dynasty): 1290-1320, Tughluqid: 1320-1414, Sayyid:
1414-1451 and Lodi: 1451-1526.
315 - c. 1660
- This era consists of
Pallava Empire c.315-897, Chola Empire c.846-c.1279 and Vijayanagar
May 1526 - 17 May 1539
May 1539 - 1555
Mughal Empire (restored)
Feb 1555 - 29 Mar 1858 with...
coins]...................16 Aug 1765 - 30 Sep 1858
- On 22 October 1764, The British defeat Mir Kasim (Nawab of
Bengal), Shuja-ud-Daula (Nawab of Oudh) and Shah Alam II (Mughal Emperor) at
the Battle of Buxar. Later Lord Clive for the British get Diwani Rights in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa from Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II as Treaty of Allahabad
on 16 August 1765.
- HANOVER (WELF)
Victoria (female)[108 coins]......................01
Nov 1858 - 22 Jan 1901
Full name: Alexandrina Victoria. On 02 Aug 1858 U.K. Act of
Parliament annexes the Empire, creating British India (effective 01 Nov 1858).
On 28 Apr 1876 U.K. proclamation, the Queen takes the style "Empress of India"
(proclaimed in India on 01 Jan 1877).
or SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA (WINDSON after 1917)
VII [60 coins].............................22 Jan 1901 - 06 May 1910
V [193 coins]..............................06 May 1910 - 20 Jan 1936
George Frederick Ernest Albert.
VIII.......................................20 Jan 1936 - 12 Dec 1936
Edward Albert Christian George
Andrew Patrick David Windsor.
VI [212 coins].............................12 Dec 1936 - 15 Aug 1947
Albert George Frederick Arthur George Windsor.
George VI remain the Head of State until 26 Jan 1950 when India became Republic
without the titular as "emperor".
coinage of India, refer to the links below on various princely states,
having coins in my collection.
- Baroda 1731-1949
and Zafarid: 1391-1583)
Kutch 1147-1948 [187 coins displayed]
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu bf. 1000 BCE - 1846 [01 coin displayed]
bf. 1000 BCE - 1948 [08 coins displayed]
- Deccan -
Bahmanid 1347-1527 [it covered almost all Maharashtra, parts of
Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh]
- Mahisur (Mysore)
- Bhopal 1723-1949
Branch 1728-1948 [01 coin displayed]
- Gwalior c.
- Indore 1731-1948
- Malwa 1392-1436
- Narwar 1761-1805
[taken into Gwalior State in 1805]
- Ratlam 1651-1948
- Kangara Rajas [Jagir
in Jallundar (Jalandhar)
district] [01 coin displayed]
- Khalsa Military Government + Sikh
1716-1849 [04 coins displayed]
[03 coins displayed]
[01 coin displayed]
- Bundi 1342-1949
- Jaipur 1093-1949
- Jaisalmer bf.
- Jodhpur c.
- Mewar (Udaipur)
- Tonk 1818-1949
[some exclaves in Madhya Pradesh]
[55 coins including "Hyderabad Feudatories - Elichpur"]
Awadh (oudh) 1720-1857
[02 coins displayed]
Gorkhaland territorial administration autonomous.
- UNION TERRITORIES
and Nicobar Islands
Haryana and Punjab States)
and Nagar Haveli
Daman and Diu
National Capital Territory of Delhi
Puducherry (Karaikal, Puducherry, Mahne, Yanam)
15 Aug 1947 British India, together with acceded states, is partitioned
into Dominion of India and
Dominion of Pakistan; style
"Emperor of India"
is abandoned (retroactive proclamation
is dated 22 Jun 1948).
21 Oct 1947 India-Pakistan War of 1947-48 starts; ends 31 Dec 1948.
27 Oct 1947 Jammu and Kashmir accede to India.
30 Jan 1948 Nathuram Vinayak Godse assassinated Ghandi by shooting.
17 Sep 1948 Hyderabad annexed by India.
27 Jul 1949 Karachi Agreement with India on Cease-Fire Line in the State of Jammu
and Kashmir, monitored by United Nations observers.
26 Jan 1950 Republic of India, styled "India, that
01 Nov 1954 French India incorporated into India.
01 Nov 1956 States Reorganization Act implemented.
26 Jan 1957 The incorporation of Jammu and Kashmir is declared completed.
19 Sep 1960 "Indus Waters Treaty" is signed with Pakistan at
19 Dec 1961 Goa, Damão, and Diu under Portugal were occupied by
16 Mar 1962 Goa annexed by India.
21 Nov 1962 China occupies Aksai Chin region of Kashmir. Sino-Indian
20 Mar 1965 India-Pakistan War of 1965 starts; ends 23 Sep 1965.
03 Dec 1971 India-Pakistan War of 1971 starts; ends 16 Dec 1971.
02 Jul 1972 "Line of Control" signed with Pakistan at Simla.
31 Dec 1974 Goa annexation recognized by Portugal.
26 Apr 1975 Annexation of Sikkim.
25 Jun 1975 The Indian Emergency; ends 21 Mar 1977.
13 Apr 1984 Operation Meghdoot: Siachen Conflict with Pakistan.
26 May 1999 Kargil conflict with Pakistan; ends 11 Jul 1999.
- Independence - Governor-General
(representing the British monarch as head of state)
Louis Francis Mountbatten........................15 Aug 1947 - 21 Jun 1948
- He is also known as Earl
Mountbatten of Burma.
- Chakravarti Rajagopalachari......................21 Jun 1948 - 26 Jan 1950
He was an Indian lawyer, freedom-fighter, politician,
writer, statesman and leader of the Indian National Congress who served as the
last Governor-General of India. He served as the Chief Minister or Premier of
the Madras Presidency, Governor of West Bengal, Minister for Home Affairs of the
Indian Union and Chief Minister of Madras state. He was the founder of the
Swatantra Party and the first recipient of India's highest civilian award, the
Jan 1950 - 13 May 1962
India became as Republic on 26 Jan
- Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.........................13 May 1962 - 13 May 1967
- Zakir Hussain....................................13
May 1967 - 03 May 1969
- Varahagiri Venkata Giri (1st
time - acting)......03 May 1969 - 20 Jul 1969
- Muhammad Hidayatullah (acting)...................20
Jul 1969 - 24 Aug 1969
- Varahagiri Venkata Giri (2nd
time)...............24 Aug 1969 - 24 Aug 1974
- Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed.............................24
Aug 1974 - 11 Feb 1977
- Basappa Danappa Jatti (acting)...................11
Feb 1977 - 25 Jul 1977
- Neelam Sanjiva Reddy.............................25 Jul
1977 - 25 Jul 1982
- Giani Zail Singh.................................25 Jul
1982 - 25 Jul 1987
- Ramaswamy Venkataraman...........................25 Jul
1987 - 25 Jul 1992
- Shankar Dayal Sharma.............................25 Jul
1992 - 25 Jul 1997
- Kocheril Raman Narayanan.........................25 Jul
1997 - 25 Jul 2002
- Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam..............25 Jul
2002 - 25 Jul 2007
- Pratibha Devisingh Patil (female)................25 Jul
2007 - 25 Jul 2012
- Pranab Kumar Mukherjee...........................25
Jul 2012 - 25 Jul 2017
- Ram Nath Kovind..................................25
Jul 2017 - date
- Ram Nath Kovind resigns as governor of Bihar on 20 Jun
2017. On 17 Jul 2017, Ram Nath Kovind is elected president by the electoral
college, winning 2,930 votes with a value of 702,044 (65.7%), while Meira Kumar
gets 1,844 votes with a value of 367,314 (34.3%).
- Prime Ministers
Nehru...................................25 Aug 1946 - 27 May
- Gulzarilal Nanda (1st
May 1964 - 09 Jun 1964
- Lal Bahadur Shastri................................09
Jun 1964 - 11 Jan 1966
- Gulzarilal Nanda (2nd
Jan 1966 - 19 Jan 1966
- Indira Priyadarshini
Gandhi (female - 1st time)....19
Jan 1966 - 24 Mar 1977
- Morarji Ranchhodji
Desai...........................24 Mar 1977 - 28 Jul 1979
- Choudhary Charan
Singh.............................28 Jul 1979 - 14 Jan 1980
- Indira Priyadarshini
Gandhi (female - 2nd time)....14
Jan 1980 - 31 Oct 1984
- On 31 October 1984, two of Gandhi's
bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, shot her with their
service weapons in the garden of the Prime Minister's residence
at 1 Safdarjung Road, New Delhi. The assailants had fired 31
bullets at her, of which 30 had hit; 23 had passed through her
body while 7 were trapped inside her. Indira Gandhi was brought
at 9:30 AM to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, where
doctors operated on her. She was declared dead at 2:20 PM.
Gandhi.......................................31 Oct 1984 - 02
- Rajiv Gandhi's last public meeting was
at Sriperumbudur campaigning for a Lok Sabha Congress candidate
on 21 May 1991, in a village approximately 30 miles from
Chennai, Tamil Nadu. At 10:10 pm, a woman (later identified as
Thenmozhi Rajaratnam) approached Rajiv Gandhi in public and
greeted him. She then bent down to touch his feet and detonated
a belt laden with 700 grams of RDX explosives tucked under her
dress. The explosion killed Rajiv Gandhi, his assassin and at
least 25 other people.
- Vishwanath Pratap
Singh............................02 Dec 1989 - 10 Nov 1990
- He was 41st Raja Bahadur of Manda.
- Chandra Shekhar
Singh..............................10 Nov 1990 - 21 Jun 1991
- Pamulaparthi Venkata
Narasimha Rao.................21 Jun 1991 - 16 May 1996
- Atal Bihari Vajpayee (1st
May 1996 - 01 Jun 1996
- BJP failed to muster enough support
from other parties to obtain a majority. Therefore Atal resigned
after 13 days, when it became clear that he could not garner a
- Haradanahalli Doddegowda
Deve Gowda................01 Jun 1996 - 21 Apr 1997
- Inder Kumar Gujral.................................21
Apr 1997 - 19 Mar 1998
- Atal Bihari Vajpayee (2nd
Mar 1998 - 22 May 2004
Singh.....................................22 May 2004 - 24 May
- Narendra Damodardas Modi...........................24
May 2014 - date
- He is India's first prime minister
born after the country's independence. He served as Chief
Minister of Gujarat state from 07 Oct 2001 to 22 May 2014.
Indian Coins literature and references:
- Brown C. J. – Catalogue of Coins in
the Provincial Museum Lucknow / The Mughal Emperors – Vol. I-II,
Oxford, 1920 (reprinted 1985).
- Goron, Stan / Goenka, J.P - The Coins
of the Indian Sultanates - Munshiram Manoharlal Pub Pvt Ltd,
- Krause C. and Mishler C. – Standard
Catalog of World Coins 1601-1700 – Krause Publications, 3rd
Edition, USA, 2003.
- Lane-Poole Stanley – The Coinage of
the Moghul Emperors of Hindustan in the British Museum – London,
1892 (reprinted 1983).
- Manik Jain – Couplets on Mughal Coins
of India – Calcutta, India, 1998.
- Michael Mitchiner - Oriental Coins and
their values - The World of Islam. Hawkins publication 1977
- Plant R. J. – Arab Coins and how to
read them – Spink and Son Ltd., London, 1973, 1980 (revised),
- Rajgor, Dilip - Standard Catalogue of
Sultanate Coins of India - Amrapali Pub., First Edition, Bombay,
- Rajgor, Dilip – Collector's Guide to
Mughal Coins – University of Mumbai, India, 2002.
- Whitehead R. B. – Catalogue of Coins
in the Panjab Museum, Lahore / The Mughal Emperors – Vol. II,
Oxford, 1914 (reprinted 1977).
- Wright H. N. – Catalogue of the Coins
in the Indian Museum, Calcutta / The Mughal Emperors – Vol. III,
Oxford, 1908 (reprinted 1972).