A general survey of empires spanning much, if not all, of the subcontinent of southern Asia. Local states will be found below, in their own section. Capital: New Delhi (Delhi: 1192-1327, 1344-1501, 1648-1858; Daulatabad: 1327-1344; Agra 1501-1540, 1555-1570, 1599-1613, 1616-1648; Fatehpur Sikri 1570-1585; Lahore 1585-1599; Ajmer 1613-1616). Capital during British India: New Delhi from 1929; Calcutta 1774 - 23 Dec 1929; Summer capital [Apr-Oct]: Simla 1911-1947.
     3300 BC - 1700 BC      Indus Valley Civilization.
     1700 BC - 1300 BC      Late Harappan Culture.
     1500 BC - 500 BC       Vedic Civilization..
     1200 BC - 316 BC       Kuru dynasty.
               1000 BC      Aryans expand into the Ganga valley.
               900 BC       Mahabharata War.
               800 BC       Aryans expand into Bengal. Beginning of the Epic Age:
                            Mahabharata composed. First version of Ramayana.
      700 BC - 321 BC       Maha Janapadas
      684 BC - 321 BC       Magadha Empire
               550 BC       Composition of the Upanishads
               544 BC       Buddha's Nirvana
               327 BC       Alexander's Invasion
               325 BC       Alexander marches ahead till Multan
               324 BC       Chandragupta Maurya defeats Seleacus Nicator
               322 BC       Rise of the Mauryas: Chandragupta establishes first Indian
      321 BC - 180 BC       Mauryan Empire
               298 BC       Bindusara Coronated
               272 BC       Ashoka begins regin
               180 BC       Fall of the Mauryas. Rise of the Sungas by
Pushyamatra Sunga
Between about 1400 BCE and around 800 BCE, the Indian subcontinent saw a succession of invasive waves of Aryan peoples, migrating southeast out of Central Asia. No single, all-encompassing empire took shape immediately, but as the earlier inhabitants of the region (the Dravidians) were pushed ever southward, numerous states emerged from the Indus Valley to the Ganges and Brahmaputra River systems, and extending south into the Deccan Plateau. Among these states were Gandhara, Kurut, Kosala, Magadha, Avanti, Bhoja, and Andhra, among many others. One of the smaller states, located north of the Ganges and approaching the Himalayas (the modern India/Nepal frontier) was Sakya, the homeland of Gautama Buddha. Eventually, large empires did emerge, the first to do so was the Mauryan Empire.
  • The Empire was founded in 322 BC by Chandragupta Maurya, who had overthrown the Nanda Dynasty when he was only about 20 years old and rapidly expanded his power westwards across Northern, Central and Eastern parts of India along with parts of Afghanistan and Baluchistan. He took advantage of the disruptions of local powers in the wake of the withdrawal westward by Alexander the Great's Greek and Persian armies. By 320 BC the empire had fully occupied Northwestern India, defeating and conquering the Macedonian satraps, among them was Seleucus I Nicator left by Alexander. Chandragupta established centralized rule throughout South Asia with capital at Pataliputra (mordern-day Patna). Silver punch mark coin of the Maurya empire, with symbols of wheel and elephant are known.

  • Chandragupta Maurya (Sandrakottos)....................c. 320 - c. 300 BC
  • He was born in a humble family, orphaned and abandoned, raised as a son by another pastoral family, was picked up, taught and counselled by Chanakya, the author of the Arthashastra.
  • Bindusara S/o Chandragupta............................c. 300 - c. 273
  • He had two sons, Sumana and Ashoka, who were the viceroys of Taxila and Ujjain respectively. Bindusara extended this empire to the southern part of India, as far as what is now known as Karnataka. He brought sixteen states under the Mauryan Empire and thus conquered almost all of the Indian peninsula (he is said to have conquered the 'land between the two seas' - the peninsular region between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea). Bindusara didn't conquer the friendly Dravidian kingdoms of the Cholas, Pandyas, and Cheras. Apart from these southern states, Kalinga (the modern Orissa) was the only kingdom in India that didn't form the part of Bindusara's empire. It was later conquered by his son Ashoka, who served as the viceroy of Ujjaini during his father's reign.
  • Ashoka Vardhana S/o Bindusara.........................c. 273 - c. 232
  • His empire stretched from present-day Pakistan, Afghanistan in the west, to the present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of Assam in the east, and as far south as northern Kerala and Andhra except Tamil Nadu. He conquered the kingdom named Kalinga, which no one in his dynasty had conquered before. He ruled almost 40 years and died at the age of 72 years. After two thousand years, the influence of Ashoka is seen in Asia and especially the Indian subcontinent. An emblem excavated from his empire is today the national Emblem of India. His twin sibling; son Mahindra (known to be a Buddhist monk) and daughter Sanghamitta are depicted in Buddhist sources as bringing Buddhism to Sri Lanka.
  • Kunala (in the West) S/o Ashoka Vardhana..............c. 232 - c. 225 with...
  • Tishyaraksha was one of the wives of emperor Ashoka. Around the year 300 BC, she managed to blind Kunala who was the son of Ashoka by another wife, at a young age in jealousy. For this Ashoka ordered that Tishyaraksha be killed.
  • Dasaratha (in the East)...............................c. 232 - c. 225
  • He succeeded his grandfather Ashoka the Great at the age of twenty after his uncle Kunala became blind, which made him unfit to rule.
  • Samprati S/o Kunala...................................c. 225 - c. 215
  • According to Jaina tradition, King Samprati had no children. He considered it the consequence of earlier Karma and observed the religious customs more scrupulously.
  • Salisuka..............................................c. 215 - c. 202
  • Devadharma [Devavarman]...............................c. 202 - c. 195
  • Satamdhanu [Satadhanvan]..............................c. 195 - c. 187
  • Brihadratha...........................................c. 187 - c. 180
  • Mauryan territories during his reign just centered around the capital of Pataliputra and had shrunk considerably. He was killed in 180 BCE and power usurped by his commander-in-chief, the Brahmin general Pusyamitra Sunga, who then took over the throne and established the Sunga dynasty. Also in 180 BCE, northwestern India (parts of modern day Afghanistan and Pakistan) were attacked by the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius I and established his rule in the Kabul Valley and parts of the Punjab in modern-day Pakistan.

Silver Punchmarked Karshapana. Weight: 3.15g (32 rattis). Diameter: 12.5 mm x 14.0 mm.

5th to 2nd century BCE coin.

Silver Punchmarked Karshapana. Weight: 3.37g (32 rattis). Diameter: 14.5 mm x 15.0 mm. Reverse: Snake sitting. Various natural green and red patina marks on punched designed shown on both sides on the coin.

Ruler: probably Asoka Vardhana (c.273 - c.232 BCE).

Silver Punchmarked Karshapana. Weight: 3.13g (32 rattis). Diameter: 14.0 mm. Obverse: Three human figure standing + various punched marked above. Reverse: Bird sitting.

Ruler: probably Asoka Vardhana (c.273 - c.232 BCE).

The Mauryan state swiftly lost cohesion, and was replaced by lesser territories. Two of the largest and most stable were the core of the Mauryan Empire, Magadha, located in the central Ganges plain, and Satavahana, in the central Deccan in the south. But by the 1st century BCE, the Indian subcontinent was a mass of lesser states with no pretensions to Imperial status. Not until the 3rd century CE did another large state emerge - like the Mauryans, from Magadha. At its greatest extent, the Gupta Empire covered all of Northern India, from the Indus to the Bengal Delta, but it could not subdue the Deccan or lands farther south.
   c. 187 BC - c. 75 BC     Sunga dynasty (in Magadha)
               145 BC       Chola King Erata conquers Ceylon (now Srilanka)
    c. 75 BC - c. 30 BC     Kanva dynasty
               58 BC        Epoch of the Krita-Malava-Vikram Era
               30 BC        Rise of the Satvahana Dynasty in the Deccan
               40 CE        Sakas in power in Indus Valley and Western India
               50           The Kushans and Kanishkas
               78           Saka Era begins
      c. 275 - 550 CE       Gupta dynasty
               320          Chandragupta I properly establishes the Gupta dynasty
               360          Samudragupta conquers the North and most of the Deccan
               380          Chandragupta II comes to power. Golden Age of Gupta Literary
               405          Fa-hein begins his travels through the Gupta Empire
               415          Accession of Kumara Gupta I
               455          Skanda Gupta assumes power
               476          Birth of astronomer Aryabhatta
               606          Accession of Harshavardhana
               622          Era of Hejira begins
               711          Invasion of Sind by Muhammad Bin Qasim
               892          Rise of the Eastern Chalukyas
               622          Era of Hejira begins
         848 - 1279         Chola Empire (in the south)
               985          The Chola Dynasty: Accession of Rajaraja I Dev the Great
               1001         Defeat of Rajyapala of Pratihara by Sultan Mahumd Ghazni
        1022 - 1346         Hoysala Empire (in the south)
               1026         Mahmud Ghazni sacks Somnath Temple
  • An ancient Indian empire Founded by Maharaja Sri-Gupta, which existed approximately from 275 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent with capital at was Pataliputra (present day Patna, in the north Indian state of Bihar).
  • Gupta.................................................c. 275 - c. 300
  • At the beginning of the 5th century the Maharaja Sri-Gupta, established and ruled a few small Hindu kingdoms in Magadha (northern India) and around modern-day Bihar / Bengal. The Poona copper inscription of Prabhavati Gupta, a daughter of Chandragupta II, describes "Maharaja Sri-Gupta" as the founder of the Gupta dynasty. Sri Gupta is identified with the king Che-li-ki-to mentioned in the writings of the Chinese traveller Yijing, who wrote around 690 CE, and described the king as having ruled 500 years earlier. According to Yijing's account, Śri Gupta ordered the construction of a temple at Mṛgaśikhāvana for the use of Buddhist pilgrims coming from China, endowing it with the revenue from 40 villages.
  • Ghatotkacha S/o Gupta.................................c. 300 - c. 320
  • Chandragupta I S/o Ghatotkacha........................c. 320 - c. 350
  • In a breakthrough deal, Chandra Gupta was married to Kumardevi, a Lichchhavi princess; the main power in Magadha. With a dowry of the kingdom of Magadha (capital Pataliputra) and an alliance with the Lichchhavis, Chandra Gupta set about expanding his power, conquering much of Magadha, Prayaga and Saketa. He established a realm stretching from the Ganga River (Ganges River) to Prayaga (modern-day Allahabad) by 321 CE. He assumed the imperial title of “Maharajadhiraja”.
  • Samudragupta S/o Chandragupta.........................c. 350 - c. 370
  • Samudragupta succeeded his father. He took the kingdoms of Shichchhatra and Padmavati early in his reign. He then attacked the Malwas, the Yaudheyas, the Arjunayanas, the Maduras and the Abhiras, all of which were tribes in the area. By his death, he had incorporated over twenty kingdoms into his realm and his rule extended from the Himalayas to the river Narmada and from the Brahmaputra to the Yamuna. He gave himself the titles King of Kings and World Monarch. He is considered the Napoleon of north India. He performed Ashwamedha yajna (horse sacrifice) to underline the importance of his conquest. Much is known about Samudragupta through coins issued by him. These were of eight different types and all made of pure gold. His conquests brought him the gold and also the coin-making expertise from his acquaintance with the Kushana.
  • Ramagupta S/o Samudragupta............................c. 370 - c. 376
  • Samudragupta was succeeded by his elder son Ram Gupta , a weak king, he agreed to surrender his wife Dhruvadevi to the Saka Chief Rudrasimha II.
  • Chandragupta II S/o Samudragupta......................c. 376 - c. 415
  • Ram Gupta’s younger brother Chandra Gupta II went to the Saka camp disguised as the queen and assassinated the Saka Chief. After this he killed his brother Ram Gupta, married Dhruvadevi and ascended to the throne. He became known as the Sun of Power (Vikramaditya). He also married to a Kadamba princess of Kuntala region and a Nag princess, Kubernag. His daughter Prabhavatigupta from this Nag wife was married to Rudrasena II, the Vakataka king of Deccan (this daughter was forced to be married by the father). Only marginally less successful than his father, Chandra Gupta II expanded his realm westwards, defeating the Saka Western Kshatrapas of Malwa, Gujarat and Saurashtra in a campaign lasting until 409, but with his main opponent Rudrasimha III defeated by 395, and crushing the Bengal (Vanga) chiefdoms. This extended his control from coast-to-coast, established a second (trading) capital at Ujjain and was the high point of the empire.
  • Kumaragupta I S/o Chandragupta II.....................c. 415 - c. 455
  • He is known as the Mahendraditya. Towards the end of his reign a tribe in the Narmada valley, the Pushyamitras, rose in power to threaten the empire. The Pushyamitras were a tribe of foreigners who were settled in Central India. However, Kumaragupta was successful in defeating the invaders and performed Ashvamedha Yajna (horse sacrifice) to celebrate his victory. He issued new coins with images of Lord Kartikeya.
  • Skandagupta S/o Kumaragupta I ........................c. 455 - c. 467
  • He was also faced with invading Indo-Hephthalites or "White Huns", known in India as Hunas, from the northwest. Skandagupta had warred against the Huns during the reign of his father, and was celebrated throughout the empire as a great warrior. He crushed the Huna invasion in 455, and managed to keep them at bay; however, the expense of the wars drained the empire's resources and contributed to its decline. After his death, the Gupta empire began to decline rapdily. Some historian believe that Purugupta and Skandagupta were the same person.
  • Purugupta S/o Kumaragupta I...........................c. 467 - c. 473
  • Purugupta was a son of the Gupta emperor Kumaragupta I by his queen Anantadevi. He succeeded his half-brother Skandagupta. No inscription of Purugupta has been found so far. He is known from the Bhitari silver-copper seal of his grandson Kumaragupta III and Nalanda clay sealings of his sons Narasimhagupta and Budhagupta and his grandson Kumaragupta III. From the Saranath Buddha image inscription, it is concluded that he was succeeded by Kumaragupta II. According to a Nalanda seal of Vishnugupta, Vishnugupta was son of Kumaragupta (II), and grandson of Purugupta.
  • Kumaragupta II........................................c. 473 - c. 477
  • An image of Gautama Buddha at Sarnath notes that he succeeded Purugupta who was most likely his father.
  • Budhagupta S/o Purugupta..............................c. 477 - c. 495
  • In the 480's the Hephthalite King Oprah broke through the Gupta defenses in the northwest, and much of the empire was overrun by the Huna by 500. The empire disintegrated under the attacks of Toramana and his successor Mihirakula. Budhagupta had close ties with the rulers of Kannauj kingdom. He asked help of Kannauj ruler Yashovarman and together with Narasimhagupta Baladitya, they sought to rule the Huns out of the fertile plains of Northern India.
  • Chandragupta III......................................c. 495 - c. 500
  • Vainyagupta S/o Purugupta.............................c. 500 - c. 510
  • He was one of the lesser known kings of the Gupta Dynasty. He is known from the fragmentary clay sealing discovered at Nalanda and the Gunaighar copper plate inscription dated Gupta era 188 (507 CE). R. C. Majumdar considers him as son of Purugupta. In the Nalanda fragmentary clay sealing he is mentioned as the Maharajadhiraja and a paramabhagavata (devout worshipper of Vishnu), while the Gunaighar copper plate inscription mentions him as the Maharaja and a Bhagavan Mahadeva padanudhyato (devotee of Shiva).
  • Narasimhagupta Baladitya S/o Purugupta................c. 510 - c. 530
  • Kumaragupta III S/o Narasimhagupta....................c. 530 - c. 540
  • Vishnugupta Candraditya S/o Kumaragupta III...........c. 540 - c. 550
  • He was one of the lesser known kings of the Gupta Dynasty. He is generally considered to be the last recognized king of the Gupta Empire. His reign lasted 10 years, from 540 to 550 CE. From the fragment of his clay sealing discovered at Nalanda during the excavations of 1927-1928, it is revealed that he was the son of Kumaragupta III and the grandson of Narasimhagupta.
  • Bhanugupta
  • Bhanugupta was one of the lesser known kings of the Gupta dynasty. He is only known from a stone pillar inscription in Eran dated 510 CE at Malwa mentioned in the Manjushri-mula-kalpa text. In this inscription, he is a "Raja" and not a "Maharaja" or a "Maharajadhiraja" as would be customary for a Gupta Empire ruler. Bhanugupta may only have been a Governor for the region of Malwa, under Gupta Emperor Narasimhagupta. The inscription was translated by John Faithfull Fleet in 1888, and then second time in 1981, leading to different interpretations.
  • The Indian numerals which is the first positional base 10 numeral systems in the world have originated from Gupta India. Kama Sutra the ancient Gupta text is widely considered to be the standard work on human sexual behavior in Sanskrit literature written by the Indian scholar Vatsyayana. These ideas spread throughout the world through trade. The Gupta reign was certainly the "Golden Age" of north India. Scholars of this period include Aryabhatta, who is believed to be the first to come up with the concept of zero, postulated the theory that the Earth moves round the Sun, and studied solar and lunar eclipses. Kalidasa, who was a great playwright, who wrote plays such as Shakuntala, which is said to have inspired Goethe, and marked the highest point of Sanskrit literature is also said to have belonged to this period.
  • Naravardhana..........................................c. 500 - ?
  • Rajyavardhana I
  • Adityavardhana
  • Prabhakaravardhana....................................c. 580 - c. 605
  • Rajyavardhana II S/o Prabhakaravardhana...............c. 605 - c. 606
  • Harshavardhana S/o Prabhakaravardhana.................c. 606 - 647
  • He was a Hindu in earlier life, became a Buddhist later, emperor who ruled Northern India for forty one years. He was the son of Prabhakar Vardhan and younger brother of Rajyavardhan, a king of Thanesar. At the height of his power his kingdom spanned the Punjab, Gujarat, Bengal, Orissa and the entire Indo-Gangetic plain North of the Narmada River. After the downfall of the Gupta Empire in the middle of the sixth century C.E., North India reverted to small republics and small monarchical states. Harsha united the small republics from Punjab to Central India, and they, at an assembly, crowned Harsha king in April 606 AD when he was just very young. Nagabhata I replaced Harshavardhana as king when The Pratiharas (also called the Gurjara-Pratiharas) took over western India from the Pushpabhuti empire. The Pratiharas were an Indian dynasty who ruled kingdoms in Rajasthan and northern India from the sixth to the eleventh centuries.
Once more, the Empire crumbled, and was replaced by lesser states. The era between about 500 CE and about 1200 CE is dominated by three contending powers, the Pratiharas (west), the Rastrakutas (east), and the Palas (south). Around these, a host of minor states arose, endured for a time and faded.
  • The Pratiharas came to power in western India and, from their capital at Kannauj, dominated western and northern India for centuries, before being overwhelmed in turn by the Ghurids of central Asia.
  • Nagabhata I...........................................c. 750 - ?
  • Devaraja
  • Vatsaraja.............................................c. 783 - c. 815
  • Nagabhata II..........................................c. 815 - c. 833
  • Ramabhadra............................................c. 833 - c. 836
  • Bhoja I...............................................c. 836 - c. 893
  • Mahendrapala I........................................c. 893 - c. 914
  • Mahipala..............................................c. 914 - ?
  • Bhoja II
  • Vinayakapala
  • Mahendrapala II.......................................c. 946 - c. 948
  • Devapala..............................................c. 948 - c. 960
  • Vijayapala............................................c. 960 - ?
  • Rajyapala
  • Trilochanapala.......................................c. 1018 - 1030
Important events in Indian history:
        1191  Prithviraj Chauhan routs Muhammad Ghori: The first battle of Tarain
        1192  Ghori defeats Prithviraj Chauhan: The second battle of Tarain
        1206  Qutb Al-Din establishes the Slave Dynasty in North India
        1221  Mongol invasion under Genghis Khan
        1232  Foundation of the Qutub Minar
        1288  Marco Polo visits India
        1290  Jalal ud-Din Firuz Shah Khalji established the Khalji dynasty
        1320  Ghayas Al-Din Tughluq founds the Tughluq dynasty
        1325  Accession of Muhammad bin Tughluq
        1336  Foundation of Vijayanagar (Deccan) in south till 23 Jan 1565
 1347 - 1518  Bahmani Sultanate (in the south)
        1398  Timur invades India
        1424  Rise of the Bahmani Dynasty (Deccan)
 19 Apr 1451  The Lodi dynasty established in Delhi
        1469  Guru Nanak born in Taiwandi (Nankana Shib, Distt. Sheikhupura)
        1485  Chetnia born in Bengal, who later started Bhagti movement for Sikhs
        1489  Adil Shah dynasty at Bijapur
        1490  Nizam Shahi dynasty at Ahmednagar
        1498  Portuguese first voyage lead by Vasco da Gama
        1510  Portuguese Capture Goa
        1518  Kutub Shahi dynasty establishes at Golconda
 21 Apr 1526  Establishment of the Mughal Dynasty: First Battle of Panipat.

              Babur defeats Lodis.
 27 May 1526  Babur founds Empire of Hind, usually known by Historian as Mughal Empire
 1526 - 1530  Reign of Babur.
 17 Mar 1527  The Battle of Khanwa. Babar defeats Rajput Confederation and Lodis 
               loyalists. Raja Shiladitya (Silhadi) betrayed Rajput Confederate in the
               Battle. Expansion of the Mughal Empire into north-east and central India.
 06 May 1529  Battle of Ghaghra. Babur defeats Eastern Afghan Confederates and Sultanate
               of Bengal. Bihar annexed by Mughal Empire and surrounding territories.
               Peace settlement with Sultanate of Bengal ruler Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah.
 28 Dec 1530  Humayun succeeds Babur. Bahur dies at the age of 47 on 26 Dec 1530.
 26 Jun 1539  Battle of Chausa in Bihar: Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun
 22 Sep 1539  Death of Guru Nanak
 17 May 1540  The Mughal rulers are expelled and superseded by the Afghan Suri dynasty
    Feb 1555  Humayun captures Rohtas Fort and Lahore
 22 Jun 1555  Battle of Sirhind: Humayun defeated Sikandar Shah Suri
 23 Jul 1555  Empire of Hind under the Mughal rulers restored
 27 Jan 1556  Death of Humayun, Accession of Akbar
 14 Feb 1556  Akbar was enthroned at Kalanaur, in Punjab at the age of 13
 06 Oct 1556  Hemu defeated the Mughal army in the Battle of Delhi, near Tughlaqabad
 07 Oct 1556  Hemu was crowned at Purana Qila fortress, re-establishing Hindu rule in
               north India
 05 Nov 1556  Hindu ruler from Rawari, Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya (Hemu) ruling 
               northern India and planning to capture rest of India was finally defeated
               after 22 successful battles by Akbar in the Second battle of Panipat.
        1562  Akbar abolishes poll tax on Hindus. Tax imposed again 1575-1580
 26 Jan 1565  Battle of Talikota, Muslim rulers in Deccan destroys Vijaynagar Empire
 23 Feb 1568  Akbar captures Chittor (Chittorgarh) Fort in Rajasthan from Rajputs
 21 Mar 1569  Akbar captures Ranthambore Fort in Rajasthan from Rajputs
        1571  Foundation of Fatehpur Sikri as capital by Akbar
        1572  Akbar annexes Gujarat
 07 Aug 1574  Akbar captures Patna
 02 Sep 1573  Surat surrenders to Akbar
 03 Mar 1575  Battle of Tukaroi. Akbar's victory over Sultanate of Bangala and Bihar
 21 Jun 1576  Battle of Haldighati, Akbar defeats Maharana Pratap Singh of Mewar
    Jul 1576  Battle of Rajmahal. Subjugation of Bengal
        1577  Akbar troops invade Khandesh ruled by the Faruqi dynasty
        1580  Accession of Ibrahim Adil Shah II in Bengal, Rebellion in Bihar and Bengal
 10 Aug 1581  Akbar's march against Muhammad Hakim of Kabul and reconciliation with him
        1582  Divine Faith (Din-i-Ilahi) promulgated
 16 Feb 1583  Akbar's court wit Raja Birbal dies during expedition to Swat and Bajaur
 11 Mar 1584  Nauruz festival introduced the Divine Era after Akbar's accession 
 22 Feb 1586  Akbar's annexation of Kashmir due to Bhagwan Das submission
        1585  Akbar moved his capital from Fatehpur Sikri to Lahore
        1591  Mughal conquest of Sind
        1592  Annexation of Orissa
    Nov 1595  Akbar invaded Ahmednagar, Annexation of Baluchistan
        1597  Akbar's son Murad dies in Ahmednagar
        1599  Finally Akbar captures Ahmednagar
 31 Dec 1600  Charter to the English East India Company by Elizabeth I
 17 Jan 1601  Akbar’s army occupied Burhanpur and Khandesh become part of Mughal Empire
 20 Mar 1602  Formation of the United East India Company of Netherlands
 27 Oct 1605  Death of Akbar and Accession of Jahangir [Salim]
 06 Apr 1606  Rebellion of Khusrau Mirza S/o Jahangir
 30 May 1606  Execution of the Fifth Sikh Guru Arjan by Jahangir for supporting Khusrau
 30 May 1607  Ali Quli Khan Istaju Sher Afghan, first husband of Nur Jahan killed
        1608  Malik Ambar takes Ahmednagar
        1609  The Dutch open a factory at Pulicat
        1611  The English establish a factory at Masulipatnam
        1612  The Mughal Governor of Bengal defeats the rebellious Afghans
        1612  Mughuls annex Koch Hajo from Parikshit Narayan
        1615  Submission of Mewar to the Mughuls. Arrival of Sir Thomas Roe in India
        1616  The Dutch establish a factory at Surat
        1622  Capture of Kangra Fort after a siege of fourteen months by Jahangir's troop
        1622  Malik Ambar revolts in the Deccan
        1622  Shah Abbas I of Persia beseiges and takes Qandahar from Jahangir
        1623  Shah Jahan revolts against Jahangir
        1624  Suppression of Shah Jahan's rebellion
        1626  100 days rebellion of Mughal general Mahabat Khan against Jahangir
 08 Nov 1627  Death of Jahangir. Accession of Shah Jahan
 25 Jan 1628  Shah Jahan proclaimed Emperor
 17 Jun 1631  Death of Shah Jahan's wife Mumtaz Mahal. The construction of Taj Mahal
        1632  Mughal invasion of Bijapur. Grant of the "Golden Firman" of the English
              Company by the Sultan of Golkunda
        1633  End of Ahmednagar Dynasty. After the death of Malik Ambar in May 1626, his
              son Fath Khan surrendered Ahmadnagar to the Mughals
 14 Jul 1636  Aurangzeb appointed Viceroy of Deccan and re-appointed in 1652
        1639  Foundation of Fort St. George at Madras by the English
        1645  16 year old Shivaji Bhosle captures Torna Fort of the Bijapur kingdom
        1656  The Mughal attacks Hyderabad and Golkunda. Annexation of Javli by Shivaji
        1657  Invasion of Bijapur by Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb captures Bidar and Kalyani
 31 Jul 1658  Aurangzeb deposed Shah Jehan in coup d'etat. Coronation of Aurangzeb
        1659  Battles of Khajwah and Deorai
        1661  Mughul capture of Cooch Bihar
        1664  Shivaji sacks and looted Surat and assumes royal title
 18 Feb 1665  Bombay (Mumbai) ceded to England by Portugal
 22 Jan 1666  Death of Shah Jahan after 8 years imprisoned in Octagonal Tower of Agra Fort
        1666  Shivaji's visit to Agra and escape
 06 Jun 1674  Shivaji assumes the title of Chhatrapati
        1678  Marwar occupies by the Mughuls
 03 Apr 1680  Death of Shivaji
        1680  Rebellion of Prince Akbar
        1686  English war with the Mughuls. Fall of Bijapur and Adil Shahi dynasty ends
 11 Mar 1689  Execution of Sambhaji, elder son of Shivaji at Tulapur, near Pune.
     c. 1690  Calcutta founded by England
        1690  Peace between the Mughuls and the English
        1691  Aurangzeb at the zenith of his power
        1698  The new English company trading to the East Indies
        1699  First Maratha raid on Malwa
 30 Mar 1699  Khalsa: a military order of "saint-soldiers" established by 10th Sikh Guru,
              Gobind Singh
 02 Mar 1700  Death of Rajaram at Sinhagad and regency of his widow Tara Bai
        1702  Amalgamation of English and the London East India Companies
 03 Mar 1707  Death of Aurangzeb. Battle of Jajau and rise of Churaman Jat of Bharatpur
        1714  Husain Ali appointed Viceroy of the Deccan
        1714  The treaty of the Marathas with Husain Ali
        1720  Accession of Baji Rao Peshwa at Poona (Pune) under Emperor Shahu
 17 Feb 1739  Battle of Karnal - Nadir Shah defeats Mughals and conquers Delhi
        1739  The Marathas capture Salsette and Bassein
 28 Apr 1740  Death of Balaji Rao Peshwa. The Marathas invade Arcot
        1742  Marathas invade Bengal
 11 Mar 1748  Battle of Manupur near Sirhind: Muhammad Shah of Mughal defeats
              Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah Abdali
 18 Oct 1748  First Anglo-French war (Austrian Succession) ends
        1750  War of the Deccan and Carnatic Succession
 16 Dec 1750  Death of Nasir Jang, ruler of Hyderabad (02 Jun 1748 - 16 Dec 1750)
        1751  Treaty of Alivadi with the Marathas
    Jun 1756  Siraj-ud-daulah captures Calcutta (renamed as Alinagar)
 23 Jun 1757  Battle of Plassey: The British defeat Siraj ud-Daulah and French Army
 22 Jan 1760  Battle of Wandiwash (Third Carnatic War): The British defeat the French
 14 Jan 1761  Third battle of Panipat: Ahmad Shah Abdali defeats the Marathas
 16 Jan 1761  French restricted to Pondicherry and they surrendered to British
        1761  Surrender of Khande Rao and rise of Hyder Ali at Mysore
 23 Jun 1761  Accession of Madhava Rao as fourth Peshwa of the Maratha Empire
        1762  Hyder Ali's first war with the Marathas and captures Sira
        1762  Hyder Ali captures Ikkeri and ends Keladi Nayaka Kingdom (Bednore)
        1764  Battle of Sirhind: Sikhs captured Sirhind from Afghan ruler Taimur Shah
 22 Oct 1764  Battle of Buxar: The British defeat Mir Kasim (Nawab of Bengal),
              Shuja-ud-Daula (Nawab of Oudh) and Shah Alam II (Mughal Emperor)
 12 Aug 1765  British take over administration of Bengal as East India Company rule.
 16 Aug 1765  Lord Clive for the British get Diwani Rights in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa
              from Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II as Treaty of Allahabad
 03 Sep 1767  First Mysore War starts: The British had to conclude a humiliating peace
              pact with with Hyder Ali at Madras on 29 March 1769
        1770  Bengal famine of 1770 (1769-1773) decreased 1/3 population in Bengal
              (10 million deaths).
        1773  Warren Hastings appointed as Governor of Bengal
        1773  The Regulating Act passed by the British Parliament to have some
              administrative control over East India Company
 1773 - 1774  First Rohilla War; Shuja-ud-Daula, Nawab of Awadh was supported by British
              East India Company against the Rohillas
 07 Oct 1774  A Rohilla state under British protection was set up in Rampur
        1774  Warren Hastings appointed as Governor-General
 20 Oct 1774  Union of all East India Company Settlements
 1775 - 1782  The First Anglo-Maratha war at Pune
 1780 - 1784  Second Mysore War between British and Hyder Ali
 17 May 1782  Treaty of Salbai between British East India Company and Marathas
 1782 - 1783  Famine in Madras and surrounding areas including Kingdom of Mysore.
 1783 - 1784  Chalisa famine in Delhi, Western Oudh, Eastern Punjab region, Rajputana and
              Kashmir. 11 million people died during 1782–1784.
 15 Jan 1784  The Indian Asiatic Society created by Sir William Jones.
 11 Mar 1784  Treaty of Mangalore was signed between Tipu Sultan and British East India 
              Company to end Second Mysore War
        1784  Pitt's India Act - British East India Company under the control of the
              British Government
 1789 - 1792  Doji bara famine (Skull famine) killed 11 million people in Hyderabad,
              Southern Maratha country, Deccan, Gujarat and Marwar.
 1790 - 1792  Third Mysore War between the British and Tipu Sultan
 19 Mar 1792  Treaty of Seringapatam - Tipu Sultan lost half of its territories to
              Travancore , Nizam of Hyderabad and Marathas. 
        1793  Permanent Settlement of Bengal (Cornwallis Code)
 12 Feb 1794  Death of Mahadaji Sindhia; Maratha ruler of the state of Gwalior
        1794  Jaipur came under British protection
        1795  Travancore came under British protection
        1795  Cochin become semi-protected States under British
        1796  British occupies Andaman Islands and coastal area of Ceylon from Dutch
        1798  Nizam of Hyderabad becomes first State to sign Subsidiary alliance
        1799  Fourth Mysore War: The British defeat Tipu. Partition of Mysore.
 04 May 1799  Tipu Sultan dies in the Battle of Seringapatam (05 April – 04 May 1799)
 31 Dec 1802  Treaty of Bassein between British and Baji Rao II, Maratha peshwa of Pune
 13 May 1803  Baji Rao II was restored to Peshwarship under the protection of the East
              India Company. This was not acceptable to all Marathas chieftains
 1803 - 1805  The Second Anglo-Maratha war: The British defeat the Marathas
 1805 - 1834  Ceded and Conquered Provinces established by British
 10 Jul 1806  Vellore Mutiny (Indian sepoys against the British East India Company)
        1815  Annexation of Kumaon, Garhwal and east Sikkim. Cis-Sutlej states
 1814 - 1816  The Anglo-Gurkha war (Anglo–Nepalese War). Nepal lost 1/3 territory.
        1817  States of Rajputana accept British suzerainty
 1817 - 1818  Third Anglo–Maratha War (Pindari war). End of the Maratha empire.
        1818  Kutch accepts British suzerainty
        1819  Gaikwads of Baroda accept British suzerainty
 1824 - 1826  The First Burmese war (05 Mar 1824 – 24 Feb 1826). Treaty of Yandabo.
              Annexation of Assam, Manipur, Arakan, and Tenasserim from Burma
 04 Dec 1829  Prohibition of Sati
        1831  Mysore State goes under British administration till 1881
        1833  Renewal of Company's Charter; Abolition of Company's trading rights.
              Bahawalpur accepts British Suzerainty.
        1834  Coorg annexed by British
        1835  Education Resolution
        1836  North-Western Provinces established
 1836 – 1848  Thuggee and Dacoity Suppression Acts (14 Nov 1836 - 20 May 1848)
        1837  Post Offices were established
 1837 - 1838  Agra famine - approximately 800,000 people had died of starvation
    Jun 1838  Tripartite treaty between Shah Shuja, Ranjit Singh and the British
 19 Jan 1839  port of Aden in Yemen is captured by the British East India Company
 1839 - 1842  First Anglo-Afghan War. Decisive Afghan victory and British withdrawal.
    Jan 1842  Massacre of Elphinstone's army led by Akbar Khan of Afghanistan
 12 Feb 1843  British annexation of Sindh.
 07 Apr 1843  Abolition of slavery in British India
    Dec 1843  Gwalior war between British and Marathan forces
 11 Dec 1845  First Anglo-Sikh war; ended 10 Feb 1846.
 09 Mar 1846  Treaty of Lahore - Sikhs cede Jullundur Doab, Hazara, and Kashmir to British
 16 Mar 1846  Treaty of Amritsar - settle Kashmir dispute after the First Sikh War
              British sold Kashmir to Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh for 7.5 million rupees
 12 Jan 1848  Lord Dalhousie becomes the Governor-General
 1848 - 1849  Second Anglo-Sikh war: (Rise of Sikh Power) British annex Punjab as 
              Sikhs are defeated.
        1848  British took over Satara using Doctrine of Lapse
        1849  British annexation of Punjab and North-West Frontier Province.
              British took over Jaipur and Sambalpur using Doctrine of Lapse
        1850  Construction begins on Indian Railways
 11 Apr 1850  The Caste Disabilities Removal Act 1850
        1851  First telegraph line laid in India
 1852 - 1853  Second Anglo-Burmese war (05 Apr 1852 – 20 Jan 1853). Company's victory.
              Annexation of Lower Burma
 16 Apr 1853  Railway opened from Bombay to Thane
        1853  Telegraph line from Calcutta to Agra. British annexation of Berar
        1854  Postage Stamps for India were introduced. Great Ganges Canal opened.
              British took over Nagpur and Jhansi using Doctrine of Lapse.
              British creates Central India Agency - adding 148 princely states in one
              area with headquarter at Indore.
        1855  Public Telegram services starts operation
 25 Jul 1856  Hindu Widows Remarriage Act
        1856  British took over Awadh with the reason: ruler was not ruling properly
Jan-Sep 1857  First Indian universities founded
 10 May 1857  First War of Indian Independence and the Sepoy Mutiny till 20 Jun 1858
 29 Mar 1858  The last Mughal ruler Bahadur Shah Zafar is deposed
 04 Jun 1858  John Bright in British parliament suggested "India should be divided into
               five presidencies"
        1858  Liquidation of the English East India Company under Government of India Act
        1858  British Crown takes over the Indian Government.
              Reorganization of British Indian Army.
 02 Aug 1858  British Act of Parliament annexes the Empire, creating British India
 01 Nov 1858  British India starts effectively.
        1860  Construction begins: University of Bombay, University of Madras, and
              University of Calcutta. Indian Penal Code passed into law.
   1860-1861  Upper Doab famine. Upper Doab of Agra; Delhi and Hissar divisions of the
              Punjab. 2 million people died.
        1861  Indian Councils Act. Indian High Courts Acts. Indian Police Act.
              Establishment of Archaeological Survey of India. James Wilson, financial
              member of Council of India reorganizes customs, imposes income tax, creates
              paper currency.
        1862  Indian Penal Code came into force, drafted in 1860.
 20 Nov 1863  James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine died in
              Dharamsala, Punjab due to heart attack.
 1864 - 1865  British won the Bhutan War (Duar War) from Bhutan. Treaty of Sinchula signed
              on 11 Nov 1865. British suzerainty over Cooch Behar and the Duars.
 1865 - 1867  Orissa famine 0f 1866. In Orissa and Bihar; Bellary and Ganjam districts of
              Madras. 1 million died (814,469 in Orissa, 135,676 in Bihar and 10,898 in
        1867  Creation of Imperial Forestry Service. Creation of Department of Irrigation.
        1868  Punjab Tenancy Act. Railway opened from Ambala to Delhi
 16 Oct 1868  Denmark sold the rights of Nicobar Islands to Britain. Nicobar Islands
              incorporated into India in 1869.
        1869  Rajputana famine. 1.5 million died.
              Creation of Department of Agriculture.
              Major extension of railways, roads, and canals.
        1870  Indian Councils Act
 1871 - 1872  India Census was carried out in some provinces and areas
        1872  Chief Commissionership established in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
 08 Feb 1872  Richard Southwell Bourke, 6th Earl of Mayo was assassinated at Port Blair,
              Andaman Islands by Sher Ali Afridi.
 1873 - 1874  The Bihar Famine in Bihar, Bengal and United Provinces. Mortalities was
              prevented by importation of rice from Burma.
 10 Apr 1875  Gaikwad of Baroda, Malhar Rao Gaekwar dethroned for misgovernment
              by the orders of the Secretary of State for India, Lord Salisbury. Anyhow
              dynasty continued to a child ruler: Sayaji Rao III Gaekwar [Gopalrao].
 1875 – 1876  Eight-month tour of the sub-continent by the Prince of Wales, future King
              Edward VII.
 1876 – 1878  Great Famine (Southern India famine of 1876–78). Madras, Bombay, Mysore and
              Hyderabad. 5.5 million died in British territory. Mortality unknown for
              princely states. Total famine mortality estimated 6.1 to 10.3 million.
 01 Jan 1877  Delhi Durbar: The Queen of England proclaimed Empress of India, proclamation
              on 28 Apr 1876. 
 19 Jun 1877  Baluchistan established as a Chief Commissionership.
        1878  Vernacular Press Act, repealed on 07 Dec 1881.
              Creation of Famine Commission of 1878–80 under Sir Richard Strachey.
              Indian Forest Act of 1878. University of Calcutta became one of the first
              universities to admit female graduates to its degree programmes.
 1878 - 1880  The Second Anglo-Afghan War. Treaty of Gandamak in May 1879. British
              withdraw from Afghanistan but will maintain foreign relations of
        1881  Factory Act. Rendition of Mysore
        1882  University of Punjab established at Lahore became the fourth University. 
        1883  The Ilbert Bill - Introduced by Viceroy Ripon to allow Indian judges and
              magistrates the jurisdiction to try British offenders in criminal cases at
              the District level. Famine Code promulgated by the Government of India.
 25 Jan 1884  Criminal Procedure Code Amendment Act 1884, effective on 01 May.
        1884  Creation of the Education Commission.
              Creation of indigenous schools, especially for Muslims.
              Repeal of import duties on cotton and of most tariffs. Railway extension.
        1885  Passage of Bengal Tenancy Act.
 30 Mar 1885  Panjdeh Incident - Russian forces seized Afghan territory south of the Oxus
              River (modern name Amu Darya). Diplomatic crisis between Russia and Great
              Britain as part of The Great Game. Anglo-Russian Boundary Commission was
              established without Afghanistan's concern.
 07 Nov 1885  Third Anglo-Burmese War; ended 29 Nov. British victory. End of the
              Konbaung dynasty in Upper Burma. The province of Burma becomes part of the
              British India (separated in 1937).
 28 Dec 1885  Indian National Congress was founded by suggestion of British civil servant
              Allan Octavian Hume at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College in Bombay, with
              72 delegates. First meeting of the Indian National Congress ended 31 Dec.
 1886 – 1887  Report of Public Services Commission. Creation of Imperial Civil Service.
 23 Sep 1887  University of Allahabad established. The foundation stone as the Muir
              Central College was laid by Governor-General of India, Lord Northbrook on
              December 09, 1873.
 1888 – 1889  Ganjam, Orissa and North Bihar Famine. 150,000 deaths in Ganjam.
              Deaths were due to starvation as famine relief was not provided in time.
        1891  Indian Factory Act. Census covering India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Burma
        1892  Indian Councils Act to regulate Indian administration
        1893  The Durand Line - agreement between Mortimer Durand of British India and
              Afghan Amir Abdur Rahman Khan for fixing the limit of their respective
              spheres of influence. Railways, roads, and irrigation works begun in Burma.
              Border between Burma and Siam finalized.
 1873 – 1893  Fall of the Rupee, resulting from the steady depreciation of silver.
        1894  Indian Prisons Act of 1894
        1895  Pamir agreement Russia. The Chitral Campaign.
 1896 – 1897  Tirah Campaign. Ended 04 April 1898.
              Indian famine of 1896–97 beginning in Bundelkhand. 5 million deaths.
              Bubonic plague in Bombay (1896), Poona (1897) and Calcutta (1898).
              Riots in wake of plague prevention measures.
        1897  Famine Commission.
 12 Jun 1897  The Assam earthquake of 1897 with estimated magnitude of 8.1Mw.
 1897 - 1898  British military campaign against the Mohmands.
 09 Dec 1898  The Bombay City Improvement Trust
 06 Jan 1899  Lord George Curzon becomes Governor-General and Viceroy
 1899 – 1900  Indian famine of 1899–1900 in Bombay, Central Provinces, Berar, Ajmer
              Hyderabad, Rajputana, Central India, Baroda, Kathiawar and Cutch. 1 million
              deaths in British territories.
        1899  Financial Reform Act of 1899; Gold Reserve Fund created for India.
              Punjab Land Alienation Act.
              Inauguration of Department (now Ministry) of Commerce and Industry.
 22 Jan 1901  Queen Victoria dies.
        1901  Census of 1901 gives the total population at 294 million, including 62
              million in the princely states and 232 million in British India.
 09 Nov 1901  Creation of the North West Frontier Province under a Chief Commissioner.
        1903  The Durbar of Delhi was held to celebrate the coronation of King Edward VII
              and Queen Alexandra as Emperor and Empress of India.
 1903 – 1904  Francis Younghusband's British expedition to Tibet.
        1904  Ceded and Conquered Provinces and Oudh renamed United Provinces.
              Reorganization of Indian Universities Act.
              Systemization of preservation and restoration of ancient monuments by
              Archaeological Survey with Indian Ancient Monument Preservation Act.
              Inauguration of agricultural banking with Cooperative Credit Societies Act.
 16 Oct 1905  The First Partition of Bengal, announced on 07 July 1905 by Lord Curzon.
               Due to political protests, Bengal was reunited on 12 December 1911.
               The administrative capital in 1911 of British India was moved from
               Calcutta to New Delhi as well.
 1905 – 1906  Bombay Bundelkhand Famine. 235,062 deaths in Bombay (of which 28,369
              attributed to Cholera).
        1906  Congress declaration regarding Swaraj
        1906  Jugantar Patrika was a Bengali revolutionary newspaper founded in Calcutta
 30 Dec 1906  Formation of All-India Muslim League
 31 Aug 1907  Anglo-Russian Convention at St. Petersburg, Russia to discuss boundary
              control in Persia, Afghanistan and Tibet.
    Jun 1908  Newspaper Act
 25 May 1909  Indian Councils Act 1909 (also Minto-Morley Reforms)
              Appointment of Indian Factories Commission.
        1910  Establishment of Department of Education
        1911  Visit of King George V and Queen Mary: commemoration as Emperor and Empress
              of India at last Delhi Durbar. King George V announces creation of new
              city of New Delhi to replace Calcutta as capital of India.
              Indian High Courts Act of 1911.
              Indian Factories Act of 1911.
              Partition of Bengal modified to create Presidency of Bengal.
        1912  The Imperial capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi.
              Construction of New Delhi 1912–1929.
        1913  Education Resolution of the Government of India
 1914 - 1918  World War I - Indian Army in: Western Front, Belgium 1914; German East
              Africa (Battle of Tanga, 1914); Mesopotamian Campaign (Battle of Ctesiphon
              1915, Siege of Kut 1915–1916 and Fall of Baghdad 1917); Battle of
              Galliopoli 1915–1916; Sinai and Palestine Campaign (Battle of Megiddo 1918).
        1915  Passage Defense of Indian Act - gave the police a free hand.
        1916  Home Rule League founded. Foundation of Woman's University at Poona
29&31 Dec 1916  Lucknow Pact - Sarojini Naidu gave Jinnah, the chief architect of the
              Lucknow Pact, the title of "the Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity".
 10 Mar 1919  Roelatt Act. Later Rowlatt Act evokes protests. A "hartal" on 06th April.
              The Montague Chelmsford Reforms offer limited autonomy.
 10 Apr 1919  Protest in Amritsar for releasing Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew
 13 Apr 1919  Martial law in Punjab. Amritsar massacre (Jallianwala Bagh massacre)
 06 May 1919  Third Anglo-Afghan War; ended 08 Aug 1919. Treaty of Rawalpindi and
              Reaffirmation of the Durand Line.
 23 Dec 1919  Government of India Act (Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms) - expand participation
              of Indians in the government.
        1920  The Khilafat Movement started. Mahatma Gandhi leads the Congress.
              Non-co-operational Movement lasted till 10 Mar 1922
    Aug 1921  Moplah (Muslim) rebellion in Malabar. Census of India.
        1922  Civil Disobedience Movement. Chauri-Chaura violence leads to Gandhi
              suspending movement in Feb 1922. University of Delhi established.
 10 Mar 1922  Gandhi was arrested. Released in Feb 1924 for appendicitis operation.
        1923  Swarajists in Indian Councils. Certification of Salt Tax.
              Hindu-Muslim riots. Indian Workers Compensation Act of 1923.
        1925  Reforms Enquiry committee Report
        1926  Royal Commission on Agriculture. Factories Act.
              Indian Trade Unions Act of 1926.
              Royal (Hilton Young) Commission on Indian Currency & Finance, guidelines by
              Dr. Ambedkar.
        1927  Indian Navy Act. Simon Commission Appointed.
        1928  Simon Commission comes to India; Bombay on 03 Feb and Lahore on 30 Oct.
              Boycott by all parties. All Parties Conference.
    Aug 1928  Nehru Report - memorandum outlining a proposed new Dominion constitution
              for India chaired by Motilal Nehru with his son Jawaharlal acting as
 30 Oct 1928  Lala Lajpat Rai protest against the Simon Commission at Lahore. The police
              responded with a violent lathi charge which caused his death on 17th Nov.
    Dec 1928  Resolution at the Calcutta by Ghandi demanding British government to grant
              India dominion status within one year or face a new campaign of
              non-cooperation with complete independence.
 28 Mar 1929  "The Fourteen Points of Jinnah" against "Nehru Report"
        1929  Lord Irwin promises Dominion Status for India. Trade Union split.
              Appointment of Royal Commission of Indian Labour.
 31 Dec 1929  The flag of India was unfurled in Lahore.
 26 Jan 1930  India's Independence Day by the Indian National Congress meeting in Lahore.
 12 Mar 1930  Civil Disobedience movement continues. Ghandi's Satyagraha against the tax
              on salt. Salt March from Ahmedabad to Dandi of 388 Kilometers. Ended on 06
 23 Apr 1930  Massacre at the "Qissa Khawani Bazaar" in Peshawar.
 12 Nov 1930  First Round Table Conference; ends on 19 Jan 1931
        1931  Census of India. New Delhi inaugurated as capital of India.
 05 Mar 1931  Irwin-Gandhi Pact
 23 Mar 1931  Bhagat Singh was hanged at 19:30 in Lahore jail with Rajguru and Sukhdev
 07 Sep 1931  Second Round Table Conference; ends in Dec 1931
        1932  Suppression of the Congress movement
 04 Aug 1932  The Communal Award - Granted separate electorates to minority communities.
              Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar successfully granted untouchables separate
              electorates under this new constitution. Similar provisions were already
              available for other minorities, including Muslims, Christians, Anglo-Indians
              and Sikhs.
 20 Sep 1932  Gandhi embarked indefinite fast while imprisoned at the Yerwada Jail, Pune
              against Communal Award.
 24 Sep 1932  Poona Pact - agreement between Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi at the
              Yerwada Jail, Pune through negotiations mediated by Palwankar Baloo.
              It was a pact between lower (Dalits) and upper caste Hindus.
 01 Oct 1932  Indian Military Academy at Dehradun established.
 08 Oct 1932  Royal Indian Air Force created.
 17 Nov 1932  Third Round Table Conference starts; ends on 25 Dec 1932
        1933  Publication of White Paper on Indian reforms.
              Indian Workmen's Compensation Act of 1933.
 08 May 1933  Gandhi began a 21-day fast of self-purification and launched a one-year
              campaign to help the Harijan movement.
 15 Jan 1934  Bihar Earthquake of 8.1 magnitude. 30,000 people died. Munger and
              Muzaffarpur were completely destroyed.
        1934  Civil Disobedience Movement called off. Indian Factories Act of 1934.
 01 Apr 1935  Creation of Reserve Bank of India at Calcutta.
 31 May 1935  Earthquake of magnitude of 7.7 Mw at 3:02 am at Quetta, 60,000 people died.
    Aug 1935  The Government of India Act 1935.
        1936  Indian Payment of Wages Act of 1936.
    Feb 1937  Final results of the Provincial elections were declared.
              Elections were held in eleven provinces - Madras, Central Provinces, Bihar,
              Orissa, United Provinces, Bombay Presidency, Assam, NWFP, Bengal, Punjab
              and Sindh. The Indian National Congress emerged in power in all the
              provinces except for three - Bengal, Punjab and Sindh. The All-India Muslim
              League failed to form the government in any province.
        1937  Inauguration of Provincial Autonomy. Congress ministries formed in a 
              majority of Indian provinces. Burma administration separated.
 03 Sep 1939  Viceroy Linlithgow declared India at war with Germany without prior
              consultation with Indians. Jinnah agree to support the War.
 22 Oct 1939  Political deadlock in India as Congress ministries resign on Viceroy
              Linlithgow decision of War. Linlithgow and Jinnah pleased with the
 1939 - 1945  Indian Army in Mediterranean, Middle East and African theatres of
              World War II [North African campaign: Operation Compass 1940-1941,
              Operation Crusader 1941, First Battle of El Alamein 1942, Second Battle of
              El Alamein 1942. East African campaign 1940-1941, Anglo-Iraqi War 1941,
              Syria-Lebanon campaign 1941, Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran 1941, Battle of
              Hong Kong 1941, Battle of Malaya 1941-1942, Battle of Singapore 1942, and
              Burma Campaign 1942-1945.
 23 Mar 1940  All-India Muslim League demanded a separate sovereign state for Muslims in
              Lahore Resolution.
        1942  Japanese occupy Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Mar 1942 to Aug 1945).
    Mar 1942  Cripps Mission to India.
    Apr 1942  Subhash Chandra Bose forms Indian National Army.
 14 Jul 1942  Congress adopts Quit India Resolution and later Congress leaders arrested
 08 Aug 1942  The Quit India Movement (August Movement) - Ghandi called for a civil
              disobedience movement "Do or Die" for immediate independence of India at
              Gowalia Tank Maidan, Bombay.
 09 Aug 1942  Gandhi and the entire Congress Working Committee were arrested in Bombay.
 21 Oct 1943  Provisional Government of Free India proclaimed (Arzi Hukumate-e-Azad Hind)
              at Singapore (administering the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Dec 1943 to
              18 Aug 1945).
 1943 - 1944  Bengal famine of 1943. 1.5 million died from starvation and 3.5 million
              died from epidemics.
 06 May 1944  Gandhi release from jail because of his failing health & necessary surgery.
    Sep 1944  Gandhi-Jinnah Talks break down on Pakistan issue.
 27 Nov 1945  Baluchistan Earthquake at 21:56, with its epicentre in Makran region.
        1945  First trial of the Indian Army men opened.
 25 Jun 1945  Simla Conference - Wavell Plan for Indian self-government; ended 14 Jul.
 18 Feb 1946  Mutiny in Royal Indian Navy.
 16 May 1946  Cabinet Mission's plan announced. A united Dominion of India would be given
              independence. Muslim League decides to participate in the Interim
 16 Jun 1946  16 June Plan - India to be divided into Hindu-majority India and a
              Muslim-majority India that would later be renamed Pakistan.
 16 Aug 1946  Jinnah called for Direct Action Day (Great Calcutta Killings).
              Gandhi was infuriated and personally visited the most riot-prone areas to
              stop the massacres.
 25 Aug 1946  India granted limited self rule.
 02 Sep 1946  Interim Government formed. Constitutional Assembly's first meeting.
 03 Jun 1947  Announcement of Lord Mountbatten's plan for partition of India.
 18 Jul 1947  Indian Independence Act 1947 of the British Parliament enacted.
 09 Aug 1947  Sir Cyril Radcliffe's Award on Boundary Commission announced.
 15 Aug 1947  Partition of India and Independence completed.
 17 Aug 1947  The Radcliffe Line was published.
Coins of India can be viewed by clicking on the links below, sorted yearly according to respective ruler and state.
  • Sultanate of Delhi [53 coins]...........................1206 - 21 Apr 1526 with...
  • This era saw the emergence of Muslim influence in India, extending into the region from beyond the Indus River. The next large state to hold sway was, in fact, a Muslim one: the Sultanate of Delhi in the north. The Sultanate of Delhi consists of Ghulyam (Slaves) or also known as Mumluk Dynasty: 1206-1290, Khalji (Gharzai Dynasty): 1290-1320, Tughluqid: 1320-1414, Sayyid: 1414-1451 and Lodi: 1451-1526.
  • Southern Indian Empires [03 coins]...................c. 315 - c. 1660
  • This era consists of Pallava Empire c.315-897, Chola Empire c.846-c.1279 and Vijayanagar Empire 1336-c.1660.
  • Mughal Empire....................................27 May 1526 - 17 May 1539
  • Suri [11 coins]..................................17 May 1539 - 1555
  • Mughal Empire (restored) [295 coins].............22 Feb 1555 - 29 Mar 1858 with...
  • East India Company [108 coins]...................16 Aug 1765 - 30 Sep 1858
  • On 22 October 1764, The British defeat Mir Kasim (Nawab of Bengal), Shuja-ud-Daula (Nawab of Oudh) and Shah Alam II (Mughal Emperor) at the Battle of Buxar. Later Lord Clive for the British get Diwani Rights in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa from Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II as Treaty of Allahabad on 16 August 1765.
  • Victoria (female)[108 coins]......................01 Nov 1858 - 22 Jan 1901
  • Full name: Alexandrina Victoria. On 02 Aug 1858 U.K. Act of Parliament annexes the Empire, creating British India (effective 01 Nov 1858). On 28 Apr 1876 U.K. proclamation, the Queen takes the style "Empress of India" (proclaimed in India on 01 Jan 1877).
  • Edward VII [61 coins].............................22 Jan 1901 - 06 May 1910
  • Full name: Albert Edward.
  • George V [194 coins]..............................06 May 1910 - 20 Jan 1936
  • Full name: George Frederick Ernest Albert.
  • Edward VIII.......................................20 Jan 1936 - 12 Dec 1936
  • Full name: Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David Windsor.
  • George VI [213 coins].............................12 Dec 1936 - 15 Aug 1947
  • Full name: Albert George Frederick Arthur George Windsor. George VI remain the Head of State until 26 Jan 1950 when India became Republic without the titular as "emperor".
For earlier coinage of India, refer to the links below on various princely states, having coins in my collection.


  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Arunachal Pradesh
  • Assam
  • Bihar
  • Chhattisgarh
  • Goa
  • Gujarat
    • Baroda 1731-1949 [27 coins displayed]
    • Cambay 1730–1948
    • Gujarat  (including Maitraka: c.475-767 and Zafarid: 1391-1583)
    • Junagadh 1748-1948
    • Kutch 1147-1948 [225 coins displayed]
    • Nawanagar 1540-1948
    • Porbandar 1193-1948
  • Haryana
  • Himachal Pradesh
  • Jharkand
  • Karnataka
    • Deccan - Bahmanid 1347-1527 [it covered almost all Maharashtra, parts of Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh]
    • Mahisur (Mysore) bf. 1350-1949
  • Kerala
    • Travancore c.800-1949
  • Madhya Pradesh
    • Bhopal 1723-1949
    • Datia 1626–1950
    • Dewas Senior Branch 1728-1948 [01 coin displayed]
    • Dhar 1730–1947
    • Gwalior c. 900-1948
    • Indore 1731-1948
    • Jaora 1808–1948
    • Malwa 1392-1436
    • Narwar 1761-1805 [taken into Gwalior State in 1805]
    • Orchha c. 1501–1950
    • Ratlam 1651-1948
    • Sailana 1736-1948
  • Maharashtra
  • Manipur
  • Meghalaya
  • Mizoram
  • Nagaland
  • Orissa
  • Punjab
  • Rajasthan
    • Alwar 1775-1949 [03 coins displayed]
    • Banswara 1527-1949 [01 coin displayed]
    • Bharatpur c.1670-1949 [01 coin displayed]
    • Bikanir 1465-1949
    • Bundi 1342–1949
    • Chahamana (Chauhan) c. 650 - 1311 [01 coin displayed]
    • Jaipur 1093-1949
    • Jaisalmer bf. 800-1949
    • Jhalawar 1838-1949
    • Jodhpur c. 1250-1949
    • Kishangarh 1611-1949
    • Kotah 1631-1949
    • Mewar (Udaipur) c.530-1949
    • Tonk 1818-1949 [some exclaves in Madhya Pradesh]
  • Sikkim
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Pudukkottai c.1350-1947
  • Telangana
    • Hyderabad 1724-1950 [60 coins including Hyderabad Feudatories - Elichpur and Basmatnagar]
    • Golkonda 1489-1687
  • Tripura
  • Uttaranchal
  • Uttar Pradesh
    • Awadh (oudh) 1720-1857
    • Farrukhabad 1714-1802 [02 coins displayed]
    • Jaunpur 1394-1483
    • Rampur 1719-1949
  • West Bengal
    • Cooch Behar 1586–1949
    • Gorkhaland territorial administration autonomous.
  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  • Chandigarh (capital of Haryana and Punjab States)
  • Dadra and Nagar Haveli
  • Daman and Diu
  • Jammu and Kashmir
    • Jammu bf. 1000 BCE - 1846 [01 coin displayed]
    • Kashmir bf. 1000 BCE - 1948 [11 coins displayed]
  • Ladakh
  • Lakshadweep
  • National Capital Territory of Delhi
  • Puducherry (Karaikal, Puducherry, Mahne, Yanam)
 15 Aug 1947  British India, together with acceded states, is partitioned
              into Dominion of India and Dominion of Pakistan; style
              "Emperor of India" is abandoned (retroactive proclamation
              that is dated 22 Jun 1948).
 21 Oct 1947  India-Pakistan War of 1947-48 starts; ends 31 Dec 1948.
 27 Oct 1947  Jammu and Kashmir accede to India.
 30 Jan 1948  Nathuram Vinayak Godse assassinated Ghandi by shooting.
 17 Sep 1948  Hyderabad annexed by India.
 27 Jul 1949  Karachi Agreement with India on Cease-Fire Line in the State of Jammu
               and Kashmir, monitored by United Nations observers.
 26 Nov 1949  Constitution Day (National Law Day / Samvidhan Divas).
 26 Jan 1950  Republic of India, styled "India, that is Bharat."
 01 Nov 1954  French India incorporated into India.
 01 Nov 1956  States Reorganization Act implemented.
 26 Jan 1957  The incorporation of Jammu and Kashmir is declared completed.
 19 Sep 1960  "Indus Waters Treaty" is signed with Pakistan at Karachi.
 19 Dec 1961  Goa, Damão, and Diu under Portugal were occupied by India.
 16 Mar 1962  Goa annexed by India.
 21 Nov 1962  China occupies Aksai Chin region of Kashmir. Sino-Indian War ends.
 20 Mar 1965  India-Pakistan War of 1965 starts; ends 23 Sep 1965.
 03 Dec 1971  India-Pakistan War of 1971 starts; ends 16 Dec 1971.
 02 Jul 1972  "Line of Control" signed with Pakistan at Simla.
 31 Dec 1974  Goa annexation recognized by Portugal.
 26 Apr 1975  Annexation of Sikkim.
 25 Jun 1975  The Indian Emergency; ends 21 Mar 1977.
 13 Apr 1984  Operation Meghdoot: Siachen Conflict with Pakistan.
 26 May 1999  Kargil conflict with Pakistan; ends 11 Jul 1999.
 01 Oct 2001  A devastating attack on the state assembly in Indian-administered Kashmir
              kills 38 people.
 13 Dec 2001  An attack on the Indian parliament in Delhi leaves 14 dead.
 13 Dec 2001 – 10 June 2002  India–Pakistan standoff. 1,874 Indian soldiers killed.
 26 Nov 2008  Co-ordinated attacks on Mumbai's main railway station, Taj Hotel and
              a Jewish cultural centre kill 166 people. India blames Pakistan-based group
 25 Dec 2015  Narendra Modi made a surprise visit to Pakistan while returning from Kabul.
 02 Jan 2016  Four-day attack on Indian air base in Pathankot leaves seven Indian soldiers
              and six militants dead.
 18 Sep 2016  Attack on army base in Uri in Indian-administered Kashmir kills 19 soldiers.
 30 Sep 2016  India says it carried "surgical strikes" on militants in Pakistani Kashmir.
              Pakistan denies strikes took place.
 19 Jan 2019  Swine flu hits Rajasthan in India; 40 dead.
 26 Feb 2019  India did surgical strike by sending 12 Mirage 2000 jets that
               dropped four bombs over 1000 kilograms near Balakot, Khyber Pakthunkhwa.
               Resulting in no casualties or damage.
 27 Feb 2019  Pakistan Air force shoots down two Indian aircraft inside Pakistani
               airspace and arrested one Indian pilot.
 24 May 2019  BJP wins landslide poll victory in India.
 31 Jul 2019  Indian parliament outlaws instant divorce for Muslims.
 05 Aug 2019  The India constitutional article 370 providing for the special status
               of Jammu and Kashmir is revoked and legislation is introduced to
               split the state into two union territories, Ladakh and a smaller
               Jammu and Kashmir.
 17 Aug 2019  UNSC holds exclusive meeting on Indian-occupied Kashmir after over 50 years.
 25 Aug 2019  Indian opposition leaders denied entry into Srinagar on orders from New Delhi.
 01 Sep 2019  Amid cries of ‘ethnic cleansing’, India leaves around 2 million people in
               Assam on the verge of statelessness.
 08 Sep 2019  India loses contact with its spacecraft just before it was due to land on
               the moon.
 05 Oct 2019  India admits to having downed its own helicopter and six soldiers during
               skirmishes with Pakistan.
 14 Oct 2019  Indian-American Abhijit Banerjee at the age of 58, his French-American wife
               Esther Duflo and another economist Michael Kremer from USA jointly won
               the 2019 Nobel Economics Prize “for their experimental approach to
               alleviating global poverty”.
 10 Nov 2019  Indian Supreme Court allows temple construction on Babri Masjid site.
 19 Nov 2019  Home minister Amit Shah, declared in the Rajya Sabha of the Indian
               parliament that the National Register of Citizens (NRC) will be
               implemented throughout the country.
 04 Dec 2019  The Citizenship Amendment Act protests starts.
 12 Dec 2019  Introduction of Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2019 was signed.
              Narendra Modi given a clean chit in Gujarat massacre.
Coins of "Republic of India" can be viewed by clicking the below links, sorted yearly according to respective Presidential rule.
  • Independence - Governor-General (representing the British monarch as head of state)
  • Louis Francis Mountbatten........................15 Aug 1947 - 21 Jun 1948
  • He is also known as Earl Mountbatten of Burma.
  • Chakravarti Rajagopalachari......................21 Jun 1948 - 26 Jan 1950
  • He was an Indian lawyer, freedom-fighter, politician, writer, statesman and leader of the Indian National Congress who served as the last Governor-General of India. He served as the Chief Minister or Premier of the Madras Presidency, Governor of West Bengal, Minister for Home Affairs of the Indian Union and Chief Minister of Madras state. He was the founder of the Swatantra Party and the first recipient of India's highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna.
  • President
  • Rajendra Prasad..................................26 Jan 1950 - 13 May 1962
  • India became as Republic on 26 Jan 1950.
  • Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.........................13 May 1962 - 13 May 1967
  • Zakir Hussain....................................13 May 1967 - 03 May 1969
  • Varahagiri Venkata Giri (1st time - acting)......03 May 1969 - 20 Jul 1969
  • Muhammad Hidayatullah (acting)...................20 Jul 1969 - 24 Aug 1969
  • Varahagiri Venkata Giri (2nd time)...............24 Aug 1969 - 24 Aug 1974
  • Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed.............................24 Aug 1974 - 11 Feb 1977
  • Basappa Danappa Jatti (acting)...................11 Feb 1977 - 25 Jul 1977
  • Neelam Sanjiva Reddy.............................25 Jul 1977 - 25 Jul 1982
  • Giani Zail Singh.................................25 Jul 1982 - 25 Jul 1987
  • Ramaswamy Venkataraman...........................25 Jul 1987 - 25 Jul 1992
  • Shankar Dayal Sharma.............................25 Jul 1992 - 25 Jul 1997
  • Kocheril Raman Narayanan.........................25 Jul 1997 - 25 Jul 2002
  • Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam..............25 Jul 2002 - 25 Jul 2007
  • Pratibha Devisingh Patil (female)................25 Jul 2007 - 25 Jul 2012
  • Pranab Kumar Mukherjee...........................25 Jul 2012 - 25 Jul 2017
  • Ram Nath Kovind..................................25 Jul 2017 - date
  • Ram Nath Kovind resigns as governor of Bihar on 20 Jun 2017. On 17 Jul 2017, Ram Nath Kovind is elected president by the electoral college, winning 2,930 votes with a value of 702,044 (65.7%), while Meira Kumar gets 1,844 votes with a value of 367,314 (34.3%).


  • Prime Ministers
  • Jawaharlal Nehru...................................25 Aug 1946 - 27 May 1964
  • Gulzarilal Nanda (1st time)........................27 May 1964 - 09 Jun 1964
  • Lal Bahadur Shastri................................09 Jun 1964 - 11 Jan 1966
  • Gulzarilal Nanda (2nd time)........................11 Jan 1966 - 19 Jan 1966
  • Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (female - 1st time)....19 Jan 1966 - 24 Mar 1977
  • Morarji Ranchhodji Desai...........................24 Mar 1977 - 28 Jul 1979
  • Choudhary Charan Singh.............................28 Jul 1979 - 14 Jan 1980
  • Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (female - 2nd time)....14 Jan 1980 - 31 Oct 1984
  • On 31 October 1984, two of Gandhi's bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, shot her with their service weapons in the garden of the Prime Minister's residence at 1 Safdarjung Road, New Delhi. The assailants had fired 31 bullets at her, of which 30 had hit; 23 had passed through her body while 7 were trapped inside her. Indira Gandhi was brought at 9:30 AM to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, where doctors operated on her. She was declared dead at 2:20 PM.
  • Rajiv Gandhi.......................................31 Oct 1984 - 02 Dec 1989
  • Rajiv Gandhi's last public meeting was at Sriperumbudur campaigning for a Lok Sabha Congress candidate on 21 May 1991, in a village approximately 30 miles from Chennai, Tamil Nadu. At 10:10 pm, a woman (later identified as Thenmozhi Rajaratnam) approached Rajiv Gandhi in public and greeted him. She then bent down to touch his feet and detonated a belt laden with 700 grams of RDX explosives tucked under her dress. The explosion killed Rajiv Gandhi, his assassin and at least 25 other people.
  • Vishwanath Pratap Singh............................02 Dec 1989 - 10 Nov 1990
  • He was 41st Raja Bahadur of Manda.
  • Chandra Shekhar Singh..............................10 Nov 1990 - 21 Jun 1991
  • Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao.................21 Jun 1991 - 16 May 1996
  • Atal Bihari Vajpayee (1st time)....................16 May 1996 - 01 Jun 1996
  • BJP failed to muster enough support from other parties to obtain a majority. Therefore Atal resigned after 13 days, when it became clear that he could not garner a majority.
  • Haradanahalli Doddegowda Deve Gowda................01 Jun 1996 - 21 Apr 1997
  • Inder Kumar Gujral.................................21 Apr 1997 - 19 Mar 1998
  • Atal Bihari Vajpayee (2nd time)....................19 Mar 1998 - 22 May 2004
  • Manmohan Singh.....................................22 May 2004 - 24 May 2014
  • Narendra Damodardas Modi...........................24 May 2014 - date
  • He is India's first prime minister born after the country's independence. He served as Chief Minister of Gujarat state from 07 Oct 2001 to 22 May 2014. On 20 July 2018, the government of Prime Minister Narendra Modi survives a no-confidence motion in parliament (rejected 325-126). In parliamentary elections of 2019 held on April 11, 18, 23, 29, and May 6, 12, and 19, the Bharatiya Janata Party wins 303 of 543 seats, the Indian National Congress 52, the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 23, the All India Trinamool Congress 22, the Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party 22, Shiv Sena 18, and Janata Dal (United) 16. Prime Minister Narendra Modi resigns on May 24 and is reappointed on May 25 (sworn in on May 30). On May 31, his cabinet is appointed with Subrahmanyam Jaishankar as foreign minister, Rajnath Singh as defense minister, Amit Shah as home affairs minister, and Nirmala Sitharaman as finance minister.
Others Coins:
Indian Coins literature and references:
  • Brown C. J. – Catalogue of Coins in the Provincial Museum Lucknow / The Mughal Emperors – Vol. I-II, Oxford, 1920 (reprinted 1985).
  • Goron, Stan / Goenka, J.P - The Coins of the Indian Sultanates - Munshiram Manoharlal Pub Pvt Ltd, 2001.
  • Krause C. and Mishler C. – Standard Catalog of World Coins 1601-1700 – Krause Publications, 3rd Edition, USA, 2003.
  • Lane-Poole Stanley – The Coinage of the Moghul Emperors of Hindustan in the British Museum – London, 1892 (reprinted 1983).
  • Manik Jain – Couplets on Mughal Coins of India – Calcutta, India, 1998.
  • Michael Mitchiner - Oriental Coins and their values - The World of Islam. Hawkins publication 1977 London.
  • Plant R. J. – Arab Coins and how to read them – Spink and Son Ltd., London, 1973, 1980 (revised), reprinted 2000.
  • Rajgor, Dilip - Standard Catalogue of Sultanate Coins of India - Amrapali Pub., First Edition, Bombay, 1991.
  • Rajgor, Dilip – Collector's Guide to Mughal Coins – University of Mumbai, India, 2002.
  • Whitehead R. B. – Catalogue of Coins in the Panjab Museum, Lahore / The Mughal Emperors – Vol. II, Oxford, 1914 (reprinted 1977).
  • Wright H. N. – Catalogue of the Coins in the Indian Museum, Calcutta / The Mughal Emperors – Vol. III, Oxford, 1908 (reprinted 1972).
Countries / Territories
Chiefa Coins