Afghanistan
 
 
It has an ancient and has a complex history. The people of this region are fierce fighters and established an independent and self governing empires throughout their history. Kabul is the capital and largest city in Afghanistan, a place of great strategic import. Kabul is also one of the oldest cities in the region - there are references to the place in the Hindu Rig Veda scriptures (c. 1500 BCE), during Alexandrian times it was called Gandara, and Claudius Ptolemy identifies it (as "Kabura or Ortospana") in the Geographos, 2nd cent. CE.
 
  • Persia................................................c. 530 - 330 BCE
    • Dadarshish (Balkh)................................520's - 510's
    • Vivana (Qandahar).........................................fl. 520's
    • Megabazus (Kabul).........................................fl. 510's
    • Bakabadush (Qandahar).....................................fl. c. 500
    • Masistes............................................490 - 465
    • Spitamana...........................................340 - 329 d. 325
    • Spitamana's daughter Apama was married to Seleucus I Nicator during Alexander's campaign to marry his generals and men to Persian women and created a hybrid empire.
  • Bessus...................................................330 - 329 BCE
  • He was a Persian general who attempted, unsuccessfully, to stave off Alexander the Great's invasion of the eastern portion of the Persian Empire.
  • Macedon..................................................329 - 301 BCE
    • Artabazus (Balkh).........................................329
    • Clitus the Black (Balkh)..................................329
    • Amyntas Nikolaos (Balkh)............................328 - 325
    • Philip (Balkh, Satrap of Khurasan c. 320)...........325 - 321
    • Oxyartes (Kabul)..........................................fl. 320
    • Father of Alexander's wife Roxane, in Gandara (Kabul).
    • Sybirtios (Qandahar)......................................fl. 320
    • Stasanor the Solian (Balkh, Satrap of Khurasan 316).321 - 312
  • The Seleucid Empire......................................301 - 256 BCE
  • BACTRIA An Hellenic state whose rulers are known primarily from their coinage. It eventually fell under the vassalage of Scythian nomads from the north, the Tocharians.
  • Diodotus I...............................................256 - 235
  • Diodotus II....................................................235
  • Euthydemus I.............................................235 - 200
  • Demetrius I..............................................200 - 171
  • Antimachus I.............................................190 - 180
  • Pantaleon......................................................180
  • Euthydemus II
  • Demetrius II (Qandahar)........................................fl. c. 180
  • Agathocles............................................c. 180 - c. 165
  • Eucratides I..........................................c. 165 - c. 155
  • Menander Soter........................................c. 155 - 130
  • He is known to rule from Kabul to northern India till middle Ganges.
  • Zoilus I.................................................. ? - c. 125
  • Polyxenus................................................. ? - c. 130
  • Epander................................................... ? - c. 130

Tetradrachm. Mint: Balkh. Metal: .925Ag. Weight: 15.25 grams. Diameter: 28.3mm. Alignment: Medal. Ruler: Euthydemus I (235 - 200 BCE). Ruling areas: Bactria, Sogdiana, Ferghana and Arachosia.

Tetradrachm Metal: .925Ag. Weight: 14.67 grams. Diameter: 35mm. Alignment: Medal. Ruler: Demetrius I (200 - 171 BCE).

He is also known to conquer modern day areas of north India and Pakistan.

  • Scythians.............................................c. 130 - c. 30 BCE
    • Antimachus II....................................c. 130 - 125 and...
    • Strato I.........................................c. 130 - 95 d. c. 75; with...
    • Philoxenus.......................................c. 125 - 115 and...
    • Lysias...........................................c. 120 - 110 and...
    • Apollodotus......................................c. 115 - 95 and...
    • Artemidorus.......................................... ? - 95 and...
    • Peucolnus............................................ ? - 95
    • Nicias...............................................95 - 85 with ?
    • Theophilos........................................... ? - 85 and...
    • Zoilus II.........................................c. 95 - 80 and...
    • Dionysios.........................................c. 95 - 80 and...
    • Apollophanes......................................c. 95 - 80 and...
    • Hippostratus......................................c. 85 - 70 and...
    • Strato I (restored)...............................c. 80 - 75 and...
    • Strato II.........................................c. 80 - 75
    • Appolodotus...............................................fl. c. 50
    • Hippostratos..............................................fl. c. 30 BCE
  • The SAKAE The eastern branch of the Scythians, who constantly harassed the eastern provinces of the Persian empires and invaded Afghanistan and Northern India in the first century BCE.
  • Maues.....................................................97 - 58
  • Vonones........................................................fl. c. 30's
  • Spalyris
  • Spalagademes
  • Spalirises
  • Azes I.........................................................30 BCE
  • Azilises
  • Azes II

Tetradrachm Weight: 9.00g. (Indian Standard). Metal: .925Ag.  Ruler: Vonones [Basileos Basileon Megaloy Ononiu]. Reign recorded by some historian: c. 75 BCE - 65 BCE.

Sakae (Indo-Scythian) Capital were: Sigal, Taxila, Mathura and Minnagara.

Hexa-Chalkon. Weight: 12.70g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 28mm. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Taxila. Ruler: Azes I [Basileos Basileon Megalou Azou]. Reign: c. 57 BCE to 35 BCE.

The Sakae (Indo-Scythian) ruled modern day area of almost all Pakistan and Northwest part of India.

  • Suren (Parthia)...................................last half of 1st cent. BCE
  • The Kushanid Empire.................................c. 30 BCE - c. 230 CE
    • Tu-Mi a Kushan subkingdom centered on Qonduz. Qonduz, a northern Afghan state, about equidistant between Mazar-I-Sharif and Faizabad.
    • Arseiles (Qonduz)..........................................fl. c. 20 BCE
    • Sapadbizes (Qonduz)........................................fl. c. 1 BCE
  • The KUSHANSHAHS - A Persian state established as a buffer zone. They ruled from c. 230 to 410, but became a Persian dependency from c. 350.
  • Ardashir...............................................c. 230 - c. 245
  • Peroz I................................................c. 245 - c. 270
  • Hormazd I..............................................c. 270 - c. 295
  • Hormazd II.............................................c. 295 - c. 300
  • Peroz II...............................................c. 300 - c. 325
  • Varhran I..............................................c. 325 - c. 350
  • Persia.................................................c. 350 - 410
    • Varhran II........................................c. 350 - c. 400 with...
    • Peroz III.........................................c. 350 - c. 400
    • Varhran III.......................................c. 400 - c. 410
  • The White Huns (Hephthalites).............................410 - 565
  • KSHATRIYA - Hindu dynasty mainly as Kingdom of Zabulistan. Controlled Kabul at various times.
    • Napki......................................................fl. c. 550
    • Kanik
    • Rutbal.....................................................fl. c. 670
    • Bahr Tigin.................................................c. 698
    • Katorman...................................................c. 750
    • Unknown rulers
    • Zunbil (Phiruz)...................................c. 850 - c. 870
    • Lagutarman.................................................fl. c. 880's
  • Much to the Western Turks (Gök)...........................565 - 652
  • Much to The Prophet Muhammad's elected successors.........652 - 661
    • Hemar Beg (Badakhshan).....................................fl. 652
  • Umayyad Caliphate.........................................661 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate.........................................750 - 867
    • Ilyas ibn Asad (Khorasan Governor at Herat)................fl. 819
  • The NEZAK - The Nezak were a Hephtalite clan which seized control during the 600's and 700's in various places in Afghanistan, including Kapisa, Kabul, and Ghazni, as well as parts of Seistan.
    • Nezak Malka................................................early 600's
    • Sri Shaho (in northern India).....................c. 650 - 700
    • Shahi Tigin................................................fl. 690's
    • Nezak Shah
    • Vakhu Deva.................................................fl. c. 720
    • The Nezak were defeated and dispersed by the Caliphate in c. 730.
  • Persia...................................................867 - 900
  • SHAHI - A Hindu dynasty controlling much of northeastern Afghanistan, including Kabul.
    • Lalliya..........................................c. 890 - 895
    • Toramana Kamaluka (1st time)..............................895 d.921
    • Samanta.............................................895 - c. 900
    • Kashmir..........................................c. 900 - c. 902
    • Toramana Kamaluka (2nd time)........................902 - 921
    • Bhima...............................................921 - 960
    • Jayapala............................................960 - 1002
    • Anandapala.........................................1002 - 1021
    • Bhimapala..........................................1021 - 1026
    • This Hindu dynasty came to an end with the conquest of Ghaznavid Empire in 1026.
  • BALKH A small town in northern Afghanistan, before the 13th century one of the largest and most important centers of the region. The place is most likely the ancient city of Baktra, the capital of the Kingdom of Bactria. A center of Islamic culture in the Middle Ages, the city was pillaged by Ghenghis Khan and never recovered. It about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif. A minor dynasty was established in eastern Khorasan in the Panjsher valley and adjoining regions.
    • BANIJURID (ABU DAWUD)
    • Dawud................................................848 - 873
    • Abu Dawud Muhammad ibn Ahmad ........................874 - 899
    • Said ibn Shuayb (rebel)..............................883 - 887
    • He is known for producing coins from Andaraba exclusively.
    • Ahmad ibn Muhammad...................................899 - 910
    • Jafar ibn Ahmad (al-Khuttal).........................922 - 925
    • Banu FARIGHUN - An Arab Muslim dynasty in western Afghanistan at Guzgan and Balkh.
    • Ahmad ibn Farighun................................c. 908 - 949
    • Abu-Nasr Mohammed....................................949 - 979
    • Abu'l-Harith Ahmad...................................979 - 1011

SA#1435 Dirham. Year: circa AH 286-289 [c.900 - c.908 CE]. Weight: 3.34g. Metal: .825Ag. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Andaraba. Ruler: Ahmad ibn Muhammad (899 - 910 CE).

Banijurid (Abu Da'udid) ruled Balkh [Andaraba and Banjhir (Panjsher) areas]. Ahmad is sometimes cited as Abu Ibrahim. After AH 290, all coins cite the Samanid ruler as overload.

  • Central Afghanistan to Bokhara............................900 - c. 950
  • Abu Bakr Lawik (1st time)..............................c. 950 - 962
  • Ibrahim ibn Abd al-Ghaffar Yaminid (Ghazna)............c. 949 - c. 956
  • Bokhara................................................c. 962 - c. 964
    • Alptigin Yaminid (Ghazna, then under Bokhara's rule).954 - 963
    • (Abu-) Ishaq Yaminid (1st time)......................963 - ?
  • Abu Bakr Lawik (2nd time).......................................fl 960's
  • Bokhara................................................c. 965 - 999
    • Slave Commanders for the Samanids - Yaminid dynasty.
    • (Abu-) Ishaq Yaminid (2nd time)......................965 - 966
    • Balkatekin.......................................... 966 - 975
    • Mansur ibn Balkatekin (1st time at Ghazna).................969
    • Piri.................................................975 - 977
    • Nasir al-Dawla Sebüktigin............................977 - 997
    • Mansur ibn Balkatekin (2nd time at Ghazna)........c. 977 - 983
    • Ismail ibn Sebüktekin................................997 - 998
  • GHAZNAVID EMPIRE (YAMINID Dynasty) - The capital of this Empire was Ghazna, now called Ghazni, is a town in eastern Afghanistan, about 128 kilometers southwest of Kabul, on the road to Qandahar.
  • Yamin Al-Dawla Abu'l Qasim Mahmud ibn Sebüktekin..........998 - 1030
  • Samanid governor in western Khorasan under Nuh II from 994 to 997, then under Mansur II. Yaminid dynasty started in 999 CE. He is well known for his seventeen attacks on India.
  • Nasr ibn Sebuktekin (Sistan).............................1010 - 1022
  • Jalal al-Dawla Abu Ahmad Muhammad ibn Mahmud (1st time).........1030
  • Nasir Din Allah Abu Said Masud I ibn Mahmud..............1030 - 1041
  • Jalal al-Dawla Abu Ahmad Muhammad ibn Mahmud (2nd time).........1041
  • Shihab al-Dawla Abu'l-Fath Mawdud ibn Masud I............1041 - 1049
  • Masud II ibn Mawdud.............................................1049
  • Ali ibn Masud I..........................................1049 - 1050
  • Izz al-Dawla Abd al-Rashid ibn Mahmud....................1050 - 1052
  • Qiwan al-Dawla Abu Said Toghril (Usurper).......................1053
  • Jamal al-Dawla Abu Shuja Farrukhzad ibn Masud I..........1053 - 1060
  • Zahir (or Nasir) al-Dawla Ibrahim ibn Masud I............1060 - 1099
  • Ala al-Dawla Abu Said Masud III ibn Ibrahim..............1099 - 1115
  • Shirzad ibn Masud III...........................................1115
  • Sultan Baha al-Dawla Malik Arslan Shah ibn Masud III.....1115 - 1118
  • Yamin al-Dawla Bahram Shah ibn Masud III.................1118 - 1152
  • Muizz al-Dawla Khusrau Shah ibn Bahram Shah..............1152 - 1160
  • Taj al-Dawla Khusrau Malik ibn Khusrau Shah..............1160 - 1187
  • His silver Dirham, normally of Ghazna types have three laqabs progressively; first Taj al-Dawla, then Siraj al-Dawla then Abu'l-Muluk.

SA#1599. Dirham. Year: 977-997. Weight: 3.85g. Metal: .825Ag. Diameter: 17.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Farwan. Common type. Ruler: Nasir al-Dawla Sebuktekin [Sebüktigin].

Ruled Bust and Gardez. Also became as autonomous ruler in Ghazna from AH 373 (984 CE) but cited Samanid ruler Nuh II ibn Mansur as overlord on his coinage as indicated on this particular coin. Sebüktigin was the son-in-law of Alptigin.

SA#1608. Dirham. Year: AH 389 (999 CE). Weight: 3.40g. Metal: .825Ag. Mint: Andaraba. Common type. Ruler: Mahmud Ghaznavid [Sayf wa Yamin ad-Dawlah Abd al-Qasim Mahmud ibn Abu Mansur Sebük Tigin (Sebuktekin) Khan].

Note: Sword in obverse field.

SA#1610 (or SG#GZ4). Dirham. Year: AH 418 (1027 CE). Weight: 2.52g. Metal: .825Ag. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Mahmoodpur (Lahore). Bilingual script in Sanskrit and Arabic, al-qadir at right. Ruler: Mahmud Ghaznavid.

Similar bilingual coin were was struck in year AH 419, dated in words in Arabic and in ciphers in Sanskrit. Rare type.

SA#1607. Dinar. Year: AH 408 (1017 CE). Weight: 3.70g. Metal: .900Au.  Mint: Ghazna. Common type. Ruler: Mahmud Ghaznavid.

Gold Dinars coins were minted at Herat from AH 389 to 421 and at Ghazna from AH 406 to 421. The gold alloy is generally rather good until about AH 408 and becomes increasingly pale thereafter.

SA#1617. Dirham. Year: AH 421 (1030 CE). Weight: 3.25g. Metal: .825Ag. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Ghazna. Rare type. Ruler: Jalal al-Dawla Abu Ahmad Muhammad ibn Mahmud.

No coins were issued in his second reign in AH 432 (1041 CE).

SA#1621. Dirham. Year: 1030-1041. Weight: 2.70g. Metal: .825Ag. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Ruler: Nasir Din Allah (or Nizam al-Din) Abu Said Masud ibn Mahmud.

Date and Mint: off flan, but known to be struck at Ghazna. Abundant type. This coin has Masud's name without titles but also citing Caliph Al-Qaim.

SA#1632. Dirham. Year: 1053. Weight: 3.67g. Metal: .825Ag. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Ghazna. Very rare type. Ruler: Qiwan al-Dawla Abu Said Tughril [AH 443-444 (1053 CE)] citing Caliph as Abbasid Al-Hakim.

He is known as a usurper at Ghazna during Ghaznavid Empire.

SA#1663 (or SG#GZ61). Jital. Year: 1060-1087. Weight: 2.97g. Metal: Bronze. Diamater: 16 mm. Abundant type. Observe: geometric design on bull to the left without "Khair" written on bull. "sri sama" written above. Reverse:  al-sultan al-azam taj al-dawla khusru malik. Ruler: Taj al-Dawla Khusraw Malik.

SA#1664 (or SG#GZ64). Jital. Year: 1060-1087. Weight: 3.20g. Metal: Bronze. Diamater: 16 mm. Abundant type. Observe: crescent above Khusraw Malik. Reverse: al-sultan al-azam taj al-dawla khusru malik. Ruler: Taj al-Dawla Khusraw Malik.
  • SELJUQ at HERAT
  • Al Malik Al Adil Musa Bayghu [Yabghu](Herat & Sistan)....1043 - 1056
  • Alp Arslan Argun.........................................1058 - 1072
  • Local Governor of Herat from 1058 to 1063, later Sultan.
  • Toghanshah (Marw & Herat)................................1072 - c. 1082

SA#1669A. Billion Dirham Weight: 2.2g. Metal: 0.250Ag.  Diameter: 22.3 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Sistan. Extremely rare type. Ruler: Al Malik Al Adil Musa Bayghu [Yabghu] citing Caliph: Al-Qaim Bi'am'rallah / Nasr. Minted Years: 1043-1056.

This coin in my collection is frequently cutting into small pieces from the edge due to strong corrosion.

  • GHURID EMPIRE (SHANSABANI  Dynasty) Sultan Bahram tried to reorganize the control but that leaded to the sack of Ghazna by the Shansabani in 1150.
  • Nominaly to the Seljuqs...................................1090's - c. 1148
  • Malik Saif-ud-din Sām bin Hussain...........................1146 - 1149
  • Malik Baha-ud-din Sām bin Hussain..................................1149
  • Father of Ghiyath ud-Din and Shihab ud-Din (The famous Muhammad Ghuri). He was with his brother Saif ud-Din Suri in during the initial defeat of Bahram Shah and occupation of Ghazni during spring of 1148 AD, but he left for Ghor before the arrival of winter/snow.
  • Jahan-Suz [World burner] Ala-ud-din Hussain bin Hussain......1149 - 1161
  • Qandahar was apparently established c. 1160 by the Ghurid ruler Alauddin Jahan-Suz after the destruction of Bust, although the first unambiguous reference to the place dates from 1281. Alauddin Jahan-Suz struck upon Ghazni in 1149 AD, surprising the Ghaznavid forces. Occupied Ghazni and gave up the city to plunder after executing all those who could be captured including women folk. Even the tombs of the Ghaznavid Sultans except Mahmud, Masud and Ibrahim were desecrated and the remains of the Sultans put to fire. Bahram Shah escaped and also solicited the help of his maternal uncle the Seljuq Sultan Sanjar. In the meantime Alauddin occupied Balkh and Heart from Sanjar [1118-1157 AD (511-552 AH)], but was defeated, captured and later restored when Sanjar was himself taken prisoner by the Ghuzz Turks. He died in AH 551 and was succeeded by his only son Saif ud-Din, who died within a period of 1 ˝ years. The throne then passed on to the joint rule of Ghiyath ud-Din and Shihab ud-Din. (The famous Ghuri Brothers who annexed Punjab and defeated the kings of India).
  • Malik Saif-ud-din Muhammad bin Hussain.......................1161 - 1163
  • Sultan Abul-Fateh Muhammad Shams ad-din bin Sam (Firuzkuh)...1163 - 1203
  • He was also known as Ghiyath ud-Din Muhammad ibn Sam on his later coinage.
  • Muizz al-Din Muhammad ibn Sam (Ghazna).......................1173 - 1206
  • He took the title as Sultan Shahāb-ud-din Muhammad Ghori. Before 1160, the Ghaznavid Empire covered an area running from central Afghanistan to the Punjab, with capitals at Ghazni and Lahore. In 1160, the Ghorids conquered Ghazni from the Ghaznavids and in 1173 Muhammad Shahab ud-Din Ghori became governor of the province. In 1186-1187 he conquered Lahore, ending the Ghaznavid Empire and bringing the last of Ghaznavid territory under his control. Muhammad Shahab ud-Din Ghori was a loyal brother. He refrained from declaring his independence in South Asia, knowing that it would result in civil war between the two brothers. Till the death of Ghiyas-ud-din Muhammad in 1203, Ghori never considered himself anything but a general in his brother's army. After every victory he would send the best of the looted items to his elder brother in Firuzkuh. Ghiyas-ud-din reciprocated never interfering in the affairs of his younger brother. Thus they were each able to concentrate on their own responsibilities. As a result, Ghori managed to push permanent Muslim rule much further east than Mahmud Ghaznavi did.
    Muhammad Shahab ud-Din attacked the north-western regions of the Indian subcontinent many times. The first time he was defeated in the First Battle of Tarain in present-day Haryana, India by Prithviraj Chauhan. Though Ghori's main aim was the expansion of his empire, he also took an interest in the patronization of education and learning. Illustrious Muslim philosopher Fakh-ud-din Razi and the well know poet Nizami Aruzi were few of the big names of his era.
  • Break up of the Ghurid Empire under Turkic slaves: Qutb-ud-din Aibak becomes ruler of Delhi in 1206, establishing the Sultanate of Delhi; Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha became ruler of Multan in 1210; Tajuddin Yildiz became ruler of Ghazni; Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji became ruler of Bengal; the actual Ghurid dynasty divided into two groups, one under Mahmud bin Ghiyāṣ-ud-din Muhammad bin Sam who succeeded his uncle Muhammad of Ghor in possession of Ghor, Herat, Sistan and eastern Khorasan with his capital at Firuzkuh the other family group under Jalal-ud-din Ali bin Sam at Bamiyan with possession of Tukharistan, Badakhshan, Shughnan, Vakhsh and Chaghaniyan.
  • GHORID OF FIRUZKUH - Ghurid vassalage under the Khwārazm-Shah dynasty.
  • Malik Mahmud ibn Ghiyath ud-Din Muhammad ibn Sam............1206 - 1212
  • Taj ud-Din Yildiz Muizzi (General at Ghazna)................1206 - 1215
  • Malik Baha ud-Din Sam II ibn Mahmud.........................1212 - 1213
  • Malik Ala-ud-Daulah Ala-ud-din Atsiz bin Hussain............1213 - 1214
  • Khwarazm-Shah dynasty replaces the Ghurids in 1214.

SA#1764 (or Stan#D5). Dinar (or Unit). Weight: 4.25g. Metal: .900Au. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Kanauj in Northern India. Common type. Obverse: figure of Lakshmi. Reverse:  Nagari legends Devanagari sri maha / mira mahama / da samah. Ruler: Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad ibn Sam (1173-1206 CE).

SA#1798. Billon Jital. Weight: 3.07g. Metal: 0.250 silver. Mint: Ghazna. Common type. Ruler: Tajuddin ibn Yaldiz Al-Mu'izzi (1206-1215 CE).

He is known to be a military General at Ghanza.

  • GHORID OF BAMIYAN - Town in North-central Afghanistan's Hazarijat province. Bamiyan is an ancient caravan center on the route across the Hindu Kush between India and central Asia. It is approximately 240 kilometers north-west of Kabul. By the 7th cent. the town was a center of Buddhism; the Chinese pilgrims Fa Hsien and Hsüan-tsang traveled through the town. Bamiyan was invaded by the Saffarids in 871. A Muslim fortress town from the 9th to the 12th cent., Bamian was sacked by Ghenghis Khan in 1221 and never regained its former prominence. The Bamiyan valley is lined with cave dwellings cut out of the cliffs by Buddhist monks. Particularly interesting were two great figures (one 175 ft/53 m high, the other 120 ft/37 m) carved from rock c. 625 CE and finished in fine plaster. These were the statues destroyed in 2001 by the Taliban, who considered them idolatrous. The area also has grottoes decorated with wall paintings in Greco-Buddhist styles. A small dynasty was established parallel the Ghurid Empire from 1145 to 1215 as follow. The only conflict that was thrust upon it in 1215 by Alauddin Muhammad Shah of Khawarizm, brought the dynasty to an end. It was taken away by the Mongols short afterwards in the same year.
    • Autonomous city-state, subject to various nominal overlords..1000 BCE - 650 CE

    • The Caliphate.............................................650 - 871
      • SHANSABANI (Emirs of Ghuristan) - The Emirs of Ghuristan were of the Shansabani clan that eventually would establish the Ghurid Empire in the 1100's at Badakhshan and Bamiyan.
      • Shansab.....................................................fl. c. 650
      • Pervez
      • Darmansh
      • Darmash
      • Nehatan
      • Yahya.......................................................fl. c. 800
      • Muhammad I
    • Persia.....................................................871 - 999
      • Suri
    • The Ghaznavid Empire.......................................999 - 1090's
      • Malik Muhammad bin Shansabani...........................? - 1011
      • Malik Abu Ali bin Muhammad...........................1011 - 1030s?
      • Malik Abbas bin Shith...............................1030s - 1059?
      • Malik Muhammad bin Abbas............................1059? - ?
      • Malik Qutb-ud-din Hasan bin Muhammad
    • Nominally to the Seljuqs................................1090's - 1145
      • Abu'l-Muluk Izz-ud-din Hussain bin Hasan..........c. 1100 - 1146
    • Within the Ghurid Empire..................................1145 - 1215
      • Malik Fakhr ud-Din Masud ibn Hussain.................1145 - 1163
      • Malik Shams ud-Din Muhammad ibn Masud................1163 - 1192
      • Malik Abu'l Mu'ayyid Baha ud-Din Sam ibn Muhammad....1192 - 1206
      • Malik Jalal ud-Din Ali bin Sam.......................1206 - 1215

  

Dinar. Year: AH 581 (1185 CE). Weight: 2.92g. Metal: .900Au. Diameter: 24 mm. Mint: Bamiyan. Legends: Bamian Al Malik al Azam Shams-ud-duniya w'ad Din Abu'l Muzzafar Muhammad ibn Fakhuruddin Masud citing Caliph: al-Nasir b'Allah. Ruler: Shams-ud-Din Muhammad ibn Masud.

Only two pieces are known. Extremely Very Rare to find. For more information on Ghorid of Bamiyan click at: http://www.islamiccoinsgroup.50g.com/assikka22/ghorids.htm.

  • Khwarazm.................................................1213 - 1231
    • Lala Khatun (female at Bamiyan)...................1210's - 1221
    • The Mongols settled a garrison of a thousand warriors in the area around Bamiyan (the city itself had been destroyed by them). The Persian word for thousand being Hazara, this quickly became the name by which these soldiers were known. The Turco-Mongol Hazara, after intermarrying with local populations and adopting an Iranic language and Shi'ite Islam, became the dominant sect in the area of Ghuristan, which became known as the Hazarajat.
    • Aladdin Aziz........................................1213 - 1214
    • Aladdin Muhammad Shah...............................1214 - 1215
  • Mongols..................................................1231 - 1345
  • SHAHS OF BADAKHSHAN - Chaghatayid dynasty. The northeastern corner of Afghanistan, the velayet (province) which is today the core territory of the Northern Alliance of opposition to the Taliban. It's modern capital is Faizabad.
    • A local dynasty under Mongols
    • Ali Shah I...........................................fl. < 1291
    • Dawlat Shah ibn Ali Shah............................1291 - 1292
    • ?
    • Sultan Bakht........................................1303 - ?
    • Arghun Shah.........................................1307 - 1311
    • Azam Ali Shah II....................................1311 - 1318
    • ?
    • Probably another dynasty, but independent
    • Shah Baha' ud-Din...................................1344 - 1358
    • Muhammad Shah..............................................fl. 1358/1369
    • Bahramshah..........................................1359 - 1374/1375
    • Shaykh Ali.................................................fl. 1368/1369

SA#A2015. Dirham. Year: AH 718 (1318 CE). Weight: 2.3g. Metal: .825Ag. Diameter: 23 mm. Mint: Khost.  Extremely rare type. Ruler: Al Sultan Al Azam Ali Shah II.
  • HERAT (Eastern Khorasan) - Kurts (or Karts) dynasty
  • A wealthy city and fertile region in northwestern Afghanistan, comprising the plains on the watershed of the Harirud River, with the edge of the Hindu Kush Mountains bordering on the east. Kurts (or Karts) dynasty started in 1245 under Mongols to1332, then became the sole rulers of Afghanistan.
    • Shams ud-Din I Muhammad.............................1245 - 1277
    • Shams ud-Din II.....................................1278 - 1295
    • Fakhr ud-Din........................................1295 - 1308
    • Ghiyath ud-Din I....................................1308 - 1329
    • Shams ud-Din III....................................1329 - 1330
    • Hafiz...............................................1330 - 1332
  • Mu'izz ud-Din Pir Husain Muhammad........................1332 - 1370
  • He was ruling parts of Southern Afghanistan and areas comprising of modern day Balochistan on both sides of Iran-Pakistan border when the famous traveler Ibn Batuta passed from this area on his way to India. He (Sultan Muizzuddin Hussain) is mentioned by Ibn Batuta in his travelogue "Ajaib Al asfar" (The wonders of travels).
  • Ghiyath ud-Din II Pir Ali................................1370 - 1389

SA#2350A 1/4 Tanka. Year: AH 746-750 (1346-1349 CE). Weight: 2.73g. Metal: .825Ag. Diameter: 20.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Almost coin. Mint: Herat. Extremely rare type. Legends: Zarb Ba-Mir Dawla Al-Sultan Muizz Al-Haq wa Ud-din Khalid Malik. Ruler: Sultan Mu'izz ud-Din Pir Husain Muhammad.
  • The Timurid Empire.......................................1370 - 1506
  • This Empire was split into three different series of rules, First at Hissar and Badakhshan (1460 to somehow 1584; it's capital at Faizabad). Second at Herat (1405 to somehow 1506) and thirdly at Kabul (1419 to somehow 1530). Some of these rulers overlapped their reign between these three regions.
    • Pir Muhammad ibn Jahangir (Balkh)...................1405 - 1406
    • Qaidu ibn Pir muhammad ibn Jahangir (Balkh).........1406 - 1409
    • Shahrukh (Herat & Sabzawar).........................1405 - 1447
    • Minted coins also at Astarabad, Isfahan, Kashan, Khwarizm, Kirman, Nimruz, Samarqand, Shabankara, Sahaqq (Bamm), Sawah, Shaykh Abu Ishaq (Kazirun), Shiraz and Yazd. Posthumously minted at Tabriz.
    • Suurgatmish ibn Shahrukh (Kabul)....................1419 - 1427
    • Masud (Kabul).......................................1427 - 1439
    • Karuchar (Kabul)....................................1439 - 1451
    • Ala al-Dawla (Herat & Sabzawar)............................1447
    • Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad Juki (Balkh).........................1447
    • Ulugh Beg I (Herat, Sabzawar & Samarqand)...........1447 - 1449
    • Shah Sultan Muhammad (Badakhshan)................c. 1450 - 1467
    • Abu Said (Samarqand & Transoxiana)..................1451 - 1469
    • Minted coins after capturing Khorasan from 1459, Astarabad from 1460 and later Herat.
    • Abu'l-Qasim Babur (Herat & Kabul)...................1447 - 1457
    • He struck coins in 1447 to 1448 before the capturing Herat in AH 853 (1449 CE) and Kabul in 1451.
    • Shah Mahmud (Astarabad & Herat)............................1457
    • Sultan Ibrahim (Herat & Nishapur)...................1457 - 1459
    • Mirza Abu Bakr ibn Abu Said (Badakhshan)............1460 - 1480
    • Sultan Mirza Hussein Baiqara ibn Mansur (Herat).....1469 - 1470
    • It is also known that Sultan Hussein reign at Astarabad from AH 862-864 (1459-1460 CE), and again at Astarabad from AH 865-868 (1461-1464 CE).
    • Ulugh Beg II Kabuli (Kabul).........................1469 - 1501
    • Yadigar Muhammad (Herat)...................................1470
    • Sultan Mirza Hussein Baiqara (2nd time at Herat)....1470 - 04 Mar 1506
    • Ruled again 2nd time at Herat. Muhammad and Badi al-Zaman are known to rebel against their father's reign as indicated below.
    • Dhu’l-Nun Arghun (Timur Governor at Qandahar)....c. 1470 - 1507
    • Sultan Mahmud ibn Abu Said (Badakhshan).............1480 - 1495
    • Masud ibn Mahmud (Badakhshan).......................1495 - 1497
    • Baysuqur Mirza ibn Mahmud (Badakhshan)..............1497 - 1499
    • Muhammad ibn Hussein Baiqara (rebel at Astarabad)...1498 - 1501
    • Badi al-Zaman ibn Hussein Baiqara (rebel at Balkh)..1499 - 1502
    • Sultan Ali ibn Mahmud (Badakhshan)..................1499 - 1500
    • Badakhshan was occupied by Uzbek Khanate of Shaybanids from 1500 to 1505 CE.
    • Abd al-Razzak (Kabul)...............................1502 - 1503
    • Muzaffar Hussein ibn Hussein Baiqara (Herat)...............1506 with...
    • Badi al-Zaman ibn Hussein Baiqara (2nd time but in Herat)..1506
    • Muzaffar Hussein and his brother Badi al-Zaman ruled Herat briefly in 1506. Badi al-Zaman later ruled separately in various places, principally at Astarabad and Nimruz from 1506 to 1508 as an independent ruler. Herat was occupied by Shaybanids of Transoxania from 1506 to 1516. Later Herat was occupied by Iran from 1516 to 1709.
SA#2432.3. Tanka Year: AH 895-910 (1490-1506 CE). Weight: 4.78g. Metal: .800Ag. Mint: Astarabad. Abundant type. The type has "Bih bud" in knotted diamond on obverse, which means prosperity, and it was the name of Sultan Hussein's coinage. Kalma at reverse in square. Ruler: Sultan Hussein Baiqara [Mirza Husseyn Bayqarah] ibn Mansur.

Herat & Astarabad are by far the most common mints. Coinage of other 18 mints are also commonly available.

  • Independent Rulers in various areas of Afghanistan
  • Shah Sultan Muhammad (Badakhshan).....................c. 1450 - 1467
  • Shahab-ud-Din (Karlugh dynasty in Pakhli region)......c. 1472 - ?
  • Zu-n-Nun Beg Argun Mehrabanid (1st time at Kabul)........1501 - 1502
  • Zu-n-Nun Beg Argun Mehrabanid (2nd time at Kabul)........1503 - 1504
  • Shah Beg Arghun (Qandahar, in Sindh from 1522-1524)......1507 - 1522 d. 1524
  • Wais Mirza (Qonduz)......................................1508 - 1520
  • Abu Nasr Muhammad Hindal (Qonduz)........................1545 - 1550
  • He ruled Badakh in 1529 and then again from 1546 to 1547.
  • Ibrahim (Qonduz)................................................1550's
  • Wali Muhammad Astrakhanid (Balkh, Bokhara 1605-1608).....1599 - 1611
  • Nadir Muhammad Astrakhanid (Balkh, Bokhara 1640-1645)....1611 - 1651
  • Subhan Quli Astrakhanid (Balkh, Bokhara 1681-1702).......1651 - 1702
  • Mahmud Bey (Qonduz)......................................1698 - 1708
  • Hussain Khan (Karlugh dynasty in Pakhli region)...............fl. 2nd half 16th cent.
  • Mehmud Khurd (Karlugh dynasty in Pakhli region)............ ? - 1703
  • The Pakhli Sardar fragmented owing to increasing weakness on the part of the dynasty; most districts devolved to purely local control, and were absorbed later by Afghanistan.
  • Persia (but some regions to Mughal rule).................1506 - 1747
    • Timurid Dynasty - Below are the Timurid rulers at Kabul, Badakhshan and Qonduz from 1504:
    • Muhammad Zahir ad-din Babur Mirza ibn Umar Shaikh...1504 - 1530
    • Ruled Samarqand from 1497 to1498, then  again in 1500. Eastern Khorasan and Transoxian from 1500 to 1530. He defeated Ibrahim Shah Lodhi, the ruler of Delhi, at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 and became the founder and first Mughal Emperor of India from 1526 to 1530.
    • Muborek Shah Muzaffar (Badakhshan)..................1505 - 1507
    • Nasir Mirza Miran Shah (Badakhshan).................1507 - 1520
    • Sultan Uvays Mirza ibn Sultan Mahmud (Qonduz).......1507 - 1520
    • Humayun ibn Babar (Badakhshan & Qonduz).............1520 - 1529
    • He became the second Mughal Emperor of India from 1530 to 1539 and again from 1555 to 1556.
    • Abu Nasir Muhammad Hindal ibn Babur (Badakhshan)...........1529
    • Sulayman Shah Mirza ibn Sultan Uvays (Badakhshan)...1529 - 1546
    • Muhammad Kamran Mirza ibn Babur (Kabul).............1530 - 1555
    • He was the second surviving son of Babur and was half-brother to Babur's eldest son Humayun (who go on and inherit the Mughal throne). Kamran was a full brother to Babur’s third son, Askari. Humayun was able to enter Kabul in November 1545 in a bloodless takeover. Kamran then wound up in the Punjab, where a local ruler handed him over to Humayun in 1553. Although Humayun resisted the pressure to put his rebellious brother to death, he was persuaded that something needed to be done about him so he reluctantly had him blinded. Humayun then sent him off to perform the Hajj to Makkah, where he died in 1557.
    • Abu Nasir Muhammad Hindal ibn Babur (Qonduz)........1545 - 1550 and at
    • Abu Nasir Muhammad Hindal ibn Babur (Badakhshan)....1546 - 1547
    • Sulayman Shah Mirza ibn Sultan Uvays (Badakhshan)...1547 - 1575
    • Abu'l-Qasim Muhammad ibn Kamran (probably at Kabul)........1560
    • Hakim Mirza S/o Humayun (Mughal Governor of Kabul).1580? - 10 Aug 1581
    • In 1580, some prominent Muslim officers of Akbar, displeased with his liberal religious policies, started to conspire against him. Qazi Muhammad Yazdi declared it the duty of every Muslim to rebel against Akbar. In Bihar and Bengal they declared Mirza Hakim, Akbar's stepbrother and Governor of Kabul, to be the emperor. Akbar sent armies to Bihar and Bengal to crush this rebellion, while he himself started towards Kabul; Man Singh (Kacchwaha King of Amber, a state later known as Jaipur) with him. Akbar himself arrived at Kabul on August 10, 1581. Hakim was pardoned by Akbar, but his sister "Bakhtunissa Begum" was appointed Governor of Kabul. After Akbar returned to Fatehpur Sikri; Bakhtunissa remained as the nominal head of state, while Hakim acted as the Governor. Hakim died in July, 1582.
    • Shahrukh ibn Ibrahim ibn Sulayman Mirza (Badakhshan)1575 - 1584
    • (2nd time)
    • Badakhshan was occupied by Bokara from 1584 to 1657. At Badakhshan, someone named Akbar from Timurid dynasty has been known to mint his coins from 1556 to 1605.

SA#2462. Tanka (or Shahrukhi). Year: AH 933 (1527 CE). Weight: 4.20g. Metal: .825Ag. Mint: Qandahar. Very Rare type. Alignment: Rotated. Obverse: In eightfoil area: "Zarb Qandahar 933" and ruler's name and title around. Reverse: Kalima in centre, with first four caliph's names around. Ruler: Muhammad Zahir ad-din Babur Mirza ibn Umar Shaykh.

His Tankas (Shahrukis) were struck at Khorasanian and Transoxianan mints between AH 906 and AH 933.

SA#I2464. Shahrukhi  Years: AH 937-962 (1530-1555 CE). Weight: 3.72g. Metal: .825Ag. Diameter: approx. 25 mm. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Kabul. Rare type. Obverse: In twelvefoil area: "Muhammad Kamran Badshah Ghazi". In the area around: "al-sultan al-azam wa khaqan al-Mukarram te'ala khallad Allah mulkahu wa sultanahu zarb Kabul" and date. Reverse: Kalima in centre, with first four caliph's names around. Ruler: Muhammad Kamran Mirza ibn Zahir al-Din Babur [AH 937-962 (1530-1555)].

Ruler at Kabul and briefly at Lahore.

  • DURRANI at Herat - Saddozai segment
  • Abdullah Khan Abdali (Herat).............................1709 - Aug 1712
  • Served as Persian governor of Herat from 1695 to 1708. Later became Shah of Herat.
    • Persian Governors at Herat
    • Shahzada Assadullah Khan Abdali..............16 Oct 1712 - 04 Oct 1720
    • Shahzada Muhammad Khan Abdali................15 Jul 1722 - Aug 1724
    • Allah Yar Khan Abdali...........................Aug 1724 - 21 Apr 1730
    • Sardar Zulfikhar Khan Abdali.................21 Apr 1730 - 22 Aug 1731
    • Persia.......................................22 Aug 1731 - Jul 1747
  • GILZHAI (HOTAKI) dynasty - Chieftains at Qandahar. Qandahar is a major city, linked by highways with Herat to the west, Ghazni and Kabul to the east, Tarin Kowt to the north, and Quetta in Pakistan to the south. Qandahar was an independent Kingdom from 1709 to 1738. Under the leadership of Mahmud Shah, they launched a successful invasion of Iran in AH1134 (1721 CE). Their coins are readily distinguished by their Sunni legends. However Iran (Persia) under Nadir Shah Afsharid in 1738 took all these areas captured by Gilzhai (or Hotaki) dynasty.
    • Persian Governors at Qandahar
    • Gurgin Khan [Giorgi XI of Kartli]...............May 1704 - 21 Apr 1709
    • Ki-Khosrow [Kaikhosro of Kartli]................Nov 1709 - 26 Oct 1711
  • Mir Wais (rebel till 1711)........................21 Apr 1709 - 1715
  • He overthrew and killed Gurgin Khan, the Safavid governor of Kandahar. Mir Wais successfully defeated the Persians, who were attempting to convert the local population of Kandahar from Sunni to the Shia sect of Islam. Mir Wais held the region of Kandahar until his death in 1715 and was succeeded by his son Mir Mahmud Hotaki.
  • Mir Abdul Aziz (or, Abdullah) Khan Hotaki (six months)..........1715
  • Mir Mahmud Shah Hotaki (Shah of Persia 1722-1725)........1715 - 25 Apr 1725
  • In 1722, Mir Mahmud led an Afghan army to Isfahan (Iran), sacked the city and proclaimed himself King of Persia. He invited all leading Persians to a great festival and then butchered them all.
  •  However, the great majority still rejected the Afghan regime as usurping, and after the massacre of thousands of civilians in Isfahan by the Afghans – including more than three thousand religious scholars, nobles, and members of the Safavid family. Eventually the Hotaki dynasty was eventually removed from power by a new ruler, Nadir Shah of Persia came to power.
  • Ashraf Shah Hotaki (also Shah of Persia)..........26 Apr 1725 - 13 Nov 1729
  • Mir Husayn Sultan Khan Hotaki............................1730 - 12 Mar 1738

SA#2714. Rupi (10 Shahi). type A. Year: 1722-1725 CE. Weight: 11.14g. Metal: .900Ag. Diameter: 23 mm. Thickness: 3 mm. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Qandahar. Scarce type. Ruler: Mir Mahmud Shah.

He belonged to Hotaki (Gilzhai) dynasty at Qandahar and became Shah of Persia from 23 Oct 1722 to 25 Apr 1725.

SA#2721. Abbasi. type D. Year: AH 1137 (1725 CE). Weight: 4.16g. Metal: .900Ag. Diameter: 23 mm. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Isfahan. Ruler: Ashraf Shah ibn Mir Mahmud Shah.

He belonged to Hotaki (Gilzhai) dynasty at Qandahar and was Shah of Persia from 26 Apr 1725 to 13 Nov 1729. This coin has a hole, probably used as a part of jewelry in the past.

  • DURRANI at Safa -
  •  
    Safa, a tiny village in eastern Afghanistan, some 46 miles (74 km.) south of Kabul and about 38 miles (61 km.) west of the nearest point on the Pakistani frontier. Formerly, it was a base for the Durrani clan, the chiefs of the Alus Abdali, who eventually mastered all Afghanistan.
    • Governors within Mughal Empire to c. 1650 at Safa
    • Malik Saddu.........................................1598 - 1627
    • Amir-i-Afghan (Commander of the Afghan forces); Governor of Qandahar for the Mughals from 1622 to 1626.
    • Khwaja Khizr Khan....................................Mar - Sept 1627
    • Maudad Khan.........................................1627 - 1643
    • Shah Husain Khan....................................1643 - 1649 d. c. 1655/9
  • Sultan Khuda Dad Khan (1st sultan of Safa)...............1649 - 1665
  • Sultan Qalandar Khan......................................Aug - Nov 1665
  • Sultan Inayat Khan.......................................1665 - 1667
  • Sultan Hayat Khan Khudakka...............................1667 - 1680 d. 1729
  • Ja'afar Sultan...........................................1680 - 1695
  • Sultan Abdullah Khan (in Herat from 1712-1721)...........1695 - 1721
  • Safa became under Herat from 1712 to 1730 and then under Persia from 1730 to 1747. A protracted succession crisis in Persia permitted a number of outlying provinces to break away, and Afghanistan was no exception. Ahmad Shah, a scion of the Durranids, son of the governor of Herat and later governor of Mazandaram in his own right, united the afghan tribes and was crowned the first Afghan sovereign in 1747.
  • DURRANI - Dynasties of rulers at Maimana, Qonduz and Sar-I-Pul are unknown
  • Ahmad Shah "Dorr-e Dorran" Abdali....................Jul 1747 - 16 Oct 1772
  • Multan was annexed by Ahmad Shah in AH1165 (1752) and was held under Afghan rule, except for an interval of Maratha control in AH1173 (1759) and Sikh control from AH1185 to AH1194 (1771 to 1780). Ahmad Shah occupied Lahore briefly in 1750 and again in 1755. Shahjahanabad (Delhi), was twice seized by Ahmad Shah; few months in AH 1170/winter (1756-1757 CE) and again in AH 1173-1174 (1760-1761 CE) for thirteen months.
  • Hajji (Maimana)..........................................1747 - 1770
  • Maimana, a city-state in the northwest of Afghanistan, independent from the time when Persia retreated out of the region, to the era in which Afghanistan coalesced into a recognizable state.
  • Taimur Shah ibn Ahmad Shah........................16 Oct 1772 - 18 May 1793
  • Ruler of Herat under his father reign from 1751 to 1772. Minted coins on his name as Nizam (Governor) at Bhakhar (1759-1772 CE), Dera (1757-1758 CE), Lahore (1756-1760 CE) and Multan (1757-1772 CE). He is also known to mint coins at Mashhad (1784-1793 CE). Sind (Haidarabad) and Sirhind, both were feudatories of Taimur Shah.
  • Qubad Beg (Qonduz)..............................................fl. c. 1768
  • Sulayman Shah (Qandahar in AH1186)................16 Oct 1772 - 1772
  • Ghan (Maimana)..............................................? - 1790
  • Ahmad (Maimana)..........................................1790 - 1810
  • Humayun Shah (Qandahar)...........................18 May 1793 - 19 Jun 1793
  • Zaman Shah ibn Taimur Shah........................23 May 1793 - 1801
  • Mahmud Shah (Herat).............................................1797
  • Shoja al-Mulk Muhammad Shah (Peshawar)...............Aug 1801 - Sep 1801

KM#233. Rupee. Year: AH 1174 - RY19 (1764 CE). Weight: 11.21g. Metal: .925Ag. Diameter: 22.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Attock. Minted Years: AH 1169//9 - 1182//22 (1775 to 1768 CE). Ruler: Ahmad Shah Abdali [Durrani].

Other coins mints in his reign include: Ahmadshahi (Qandahar), Ahmadnagar-Farrukhabad, Anwala (Anola), Balkh, Bareli, Bhakhar, Dera (Dera Ghazi Khan), Derajat (Dera Ismail Khan), Herat, Kabul, Kashmir, Lahore, Multan, Muradabad, Najibabad, Peshawar, Sarhind, Shanjahanabad (Dehli) and Tatta.

KM#628 Rupee. Year: AH 1171 - Year Ahad (one) [1757 CE]. Weight: 11.34g. Metal: .925Ag. Diameter: 20.5 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Lahore Metal: Silver. Mintage Years: 1756-1760. Ruler: Taimur Shah

Taimur Shah Abdali [Durrani] was Nizam (Governor) at Lahore during his father Ahmad Shah Abdali's rule. Later Taimur became King of Afghanistan from 16 Oct 1772 to 18 May 1793.

KM#652.4 Rupee. Year: AH 1183 - Year 14 [1770 CE]. Weight: 11.50g. Metal: .925Ag. Diameter: 20.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Almost coin. Mint: Multan. Mintage Years: 1757-1772. Unlisted date in Krause and Mishler's book.

Taimur Shah Abdali [Durrani] was Nizam (Governor) at Multan during his father Ahmad Shah Abdali's rule. Later Taimur became King of Afghanistan from 16 Oct 1772 to 18 May 1793.

Obverse: Persian legend, couplet with the Ruler's name (The stamp of Taimur Shah gained rule in the world by command of God and of the Prophet of Mankind). The date (1183) is below the top line at right.

Reverse: Persian legend. Mint name with epithet and reignal year (From bottom to top: Dar-ul-Aman sanat 14 / zarb Multan = Struck at Multan, the Seat of Safety, (in the reignal) year 14). Mark: diamond or rhombus in frame in the N of Multan.

KM#353. Rupee. Year: AH 1194 - RY7 (1780 CE). Weight: 11.0g. Metal: .925Ag. Mint: Derajat (Dera Ismail Khan). Ruler: Taimur Shah ibn Ahmad Shah. Minted Years: AH 1187, 1192//6, 1192(sic)//8, 1194//7, 1196//10-1207//22 and 1208-1209 (1773 and 1778-1794 CE). Other coins mints in his reign include: Ahmadshahi (Qandahar), Attock, Balkh, Bhakhar, Dera (Dera Ghazi Khan), Herat, Kabul, Kashmir, Multan, Peshawar, Rakib 'Mubarak' (Camp Mint), Sind and Tatta. Posthumous issues has also been struck at various mints in AH 1208 - 1209 (1792-1794 CE).

KM#270 Falus with single sword. Year: AH 1202 (1787). Mint: Balkh. Weight: 7.68g. Metal: Copper. Alignment: Medal, slightly rotated. Diameter: 23 mm. Minted Years: AH1197 (1782), AH1202 (1787), AH1205 (1790) and AH1206 (1791).

Note: AH1202 coin is ordinary found written as AH1220.

KM#563. Rupee Year: AH 1199 - RY12 (1784 CE). Weight: 10.40g. Metal: .925Ag. Mint: Kashmir Ruler: Taimur Shah ibn Ahmad Shah.

Minted Years: AH 1187//1, 118x//3 and 1190//4-1208//20 (1773-1774 and 1776-1793 CE).

Rupee. Year: AH 1212 - RY6 (1798 CE). Weight: 10.8g. Metal: .925Ag. Mint: Derhojat (Dera Ismail Khan). Ruler: Zaman Shah [fifth son of Timur Shah].

"Derhojat" is unpublished spelling mint name mentioned in "Catalogue of Durrani coins Lahore Museum" by Whitehead and also under KM#358 in Krause publication (18th century, 3rd edition).

Otherwise Derajat minted years as KM#358: AH1207//1-AH1214//8 (1793-1800 CE). The reignal year 2 was retained for four years at Derajat mint, for reasons unknown till today, during AH 1209-1212. Other coins, mints during Zaman Shah's reign include: Ahmadshahi (Qandahar), Bhakhar, Dera (Dera Ghazi Khan), Herat, Kabul, Kashmir, Lahore, Multan, Peshawar and Qandahar.

  • BARAKZAI
  • Mahmud Shah (1st time)............................25 Jul 1801 - Jul 1803
  • Minted coins at Bahawalpur, Bhakhar (Bhakkar), Dera Ghazi Khan, Dera Ismail Khan, Herat, Qandahar, Kabul, Kashmir, Mashhad [it was seized by Fath Ali Shah and permanently annexed to Iran in AH1218 (1803)], Multan and Peshawar.
  • Qaisar Shah (rebel at Kabul & Qandahar).........................1803
  • also ruled Kashmir from 1807 to 1808.
  • DURRANI
  • Shoja al-Mulk Muhammad Shah (2nd time)............13 Jul 1803 - 1809
  • Son of Taimur and minted coins at Bahawalpur, Bhakhar (Bhakkar), Dera Ghazi Khan, Dera Ismail Khan, Herat, Qandahar, Kabul, Kashmir and Multan. In Peshawar he minted coins as a local ruler.
  • Kamran Shah (Qandahar)...................................1804 - 1805
  • Ata Muhammad Bamizai Khan (Rebel Governor of Kashmir)....1808 - 1813
  • used the name of Shah Nur al-Din; the patron Saint of Kashmir, on his coinage.
  •  
  • Mahmud Shah (2nd time and also in Kashmir)........03 May 1809 - 1818
  • Son of Taimur Shah and was King at Qandahar in 1808 and again from 1809 to 1818. Captured Kabul and ruled Herat from 03 May 1809 to 1818. Minted coins at Dera Ismail Khan, Multan and Peshawar from 1808 to 1817.
    • Muhammad Azim Khan (Kashmir Governor)...............1813 - 1819
    • Minted coins in the name of Mahmud Shah.
  • Allah Yar (Maimana)......................................1810 - 1826
  • Murad Beg (Qonduz).......................................1815 - 1842
  • Ayyub Shah ibn Taimur Shah (Peshawar & Qandahar).........1817 - 1829
  • He is also known as a puppet of Dost Muhammad from 1817 to 1823 and ruled Kashmir from 1818 to 1829. Peshawar from 1818 briefly then again from 1818 to 1829. Kabul from 1817 to 1826. A regent, Purdil Khan was also governing under his rule at Qandahar from 1826 to 1829. Sikhs captured Dera Ghazi Khan in AH 1235 (1819), Dera Ismail Khan in AH1236 (1820-1821) and Multan in AH1233 (1818) and later these areas were permanently incorporated into Punjab. Period of disorder started from about 1817 to around 1880, Afghanistan was usually divided mainly in four regions Herat, Kabul, Peshawar and Qandahar with extremely complex authority among themselves. During this period most of these regions were somehow united under Dost Mohammed's second reign (1842-1863). British Occupation of Peshawar incorporated into Punjab in 1823, officially in May 1834.
  • Shoja al-Mulk Muhammad Shah (2nd time at Peshawar)..............1818
  • Mahmud Shah (2nd time at Herat)..........................1818 - 1819
  • Sultan Ali Shah (only at Kabul)..........................1818 - 1819
  • Shirdil Khan Mohammadzai (regent at Qandahar)............1819 - 1826
  • son of Painda Khan. Briefly ruled Herat in 1819.
  • Mahmud Shah (3rd time at Herat)..........................1819 - 1826
  • Habibollah Shah Mohammadzai (only at Kabul).....................1823
  • Sultan Yar Mohammad Khan Mohammadzai (regent at Kabul)...1823 - 1826

KM#722. Rupee. Year: ND [AH 1218-1224 (1803-1808 CE)]. Weight: 11.0g. Metal: .925Ag. Mint: Peshawar. Ruler: Shuja al-Mulk Shah ibn Taimur Shah.

Shuja al-Mulk minted this coin as a local rule at Peshawar.

KM#157. Rupee. Year: AH 1224 (1808 CE). Weight: 11.48g. Metal: .925Ag. Mint: Ahmadshahi (also known as Ashraf al-Bilad, later from AH 1271 as Qandahar). Ruler: Mahmud Shah ibn Taimur Shah.

Minted Years: AH 1224-1230 and 1232 (1808-1814 and 1816 CE).

Rupee. Year: AH 1234 (1818 CE). Weight: 9.71g. Metal: .925Ag. Diameter: 21.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Ahmadshahi (Qandahar). Scarce type. Ruler: Ayyub Shah ibn Taimur Shah.

Unpublished style as mint Ahmadshahi is written within cartouche. KM#162 reverse indicates mint: Ahmadshahi in center with proper round circle for AH 1234-1235. Sunni Kalimah is circled around the mint name in both cases.

  • BARAKZAI
  • Dost Muhammad Khan Mohammadzai...........................1824 - 02 Aug 1839
  • regent at Kabul till 1836, then as Emir from 1836 to 1839. British Prisoner from 1840 to 1842.
  • Mizhrab (Maimana)........................................1826 - 1845
  • Purdil Khan Mohammadzai (regent at Qandahar).............1826 - 1829
  • son of Painda Khan
  • Kohandil Khan Mohammadzai (1st time regent at Qandahar)..1829 - 1839
  • son of Painda Khan
  • Kamran Shah ibn Mahmud Shah (Herat)......................1829 - Mar 1842
  • Sultan Muhammad Tilai Barakzai (Peshawar)................1831 - 1834
  • Dhu'l-Fiqar Khan (Sar-I-Pul).............................1831 - 1838

KM#403. Rupee. Year: AH 1254 (1838 CE). Weight: 10.26g. Metal: .925Ag. Mint: Herat. Ruler: Kamran Shah ibn Mahmud Shah. Minted Years: AH 1244-1246, 1248-1249, 1251-1252 and 1254-1255.

KM#739. Rupee. Year: AH 1247 (1831 CE). Weight: 9.31g. Metal: .925Ag. Diameter: 23.5 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Peshawar. Ruler: Sultan Muhammad Tilai Barakzai. Minted Years: AH 1247-1249.

Also note that a very similar design as anonymous coinage, KM#738 exists. Minted Years: AH 1246-1249, having date on both sides.

  • Great Britain........................................Apr 1839 - 06 Jan 1842
  • First Anglo-Afghan War: An army of British and Indian troops under the command of Sir John Keane (subsequently replaced by Sir Willoughby Cotten and then by the spectacularly incompetent Major-General William George Keith Elphinstone) set out from the Punjab in December 1838. With them was William Hay Macnaghten, the former chief secretary of the Calcutta government who had been selected as Britain's chief representative to Kabul. They reached Quetta by late March 1839 and a month later took Kandahar without a battle. In July, after a two-month delay in Kandahar, the British attacked the fortress of Ghazni, overlooking a plain leading to eastward into the North West Frontier Province, and achieved a decisive victory over Dost Mohammad's troops led by one of his sons. Dost Mohammad fled with his loyal followers across the passes to Bamian, and ultimately to Bukhara. In August 1839, after almost thirty years, Shuja was again enthroned in Kabul. Some British troops returned to India, but it soon became clear that Shuja's rule could only be maintained with the presence of British forces. The Afghans resented the British presence and Shah Shuja. As the occupation dragged on, MacNaghten allowed his soldiers to bring in their families to improve morale; this further infuriated the Afghans, as it appeared the British were settling into a permanent occupation. After he unsuccessfully attacked the British and their Afghan protégé, Dost Mohammad surrendered to them and was exiled in India in late 1840.
    By October 1841, however, disaffected Afghan tribes were flocking to support Dost Mohammad's son, Mohammad Akbar Khan, in Bamian. In November 1841 a senior British officer, Sir Alexander 'Sekundar' Burnes, and his aides were killed by a mob in Kabul. The substantial remaining British forces in their cantonment just outside Kabul did nothing immediately. In the following weeks the British commanders tried to negotiate with Mohammad Akbar. In a secret meeting, MacNaghten offered to make Akbar Afghanistan's vizier in exchange for allowing the British to stay. Rather than betray his countrymen, Akbar ordered MacNaghten thrown in prison. Along the way to prison, an angry mob killed MacNaghten and his dismembered corpse was paraded through Kabul. In this war known as the First Anglo-Afghan War, placed in command of the British garrison in Kabul, numbering around 4500 troops, of whom 690 were European and the rest Indian. As they struggled through the snowbound passes, the British were attacked by Ghilzai warriors. The evacuees were harassed down the 30 miles (48 km) of treacherous gorges and passes lying along the Kabul River between Kabul and Gandamak, and massacred at the Gandamak pass before reaching the besieged garrison at Jalalabad. The force had been reduced to fewer than forty men by a retreat from Kabul that had become, towards the end, a running battle through two feet of snow. The ground was frozen, the men had no shelter and had little food for weeks. Only a dozen of the men had working muskets, the officers their pistols and a few unbroken swords. The only Briton known to have escaped was Dr. William Brydon, who reached Jalalabad, though a few others were captured. Elphinstone died as a captive in Afghanistan some months later on 23 April 1842.
    • DURRANI
    • Kings - Saddozai segment
    • Shoja al-Mulk Muhammad Shah (4th time).......08 May 1839 - 05 Apr 1842
    • Ruler at Kabul. Qandahar from Apr 1839
    • .
    • Mahmud Khan (Sar-I-Pul).............................1838 - 1850
    • Mohammad Zaman Khan Mohammadzai.....................1841 - Apr 1842
    • rebel regent at Kabul
  • Rustam Beg (Qonduz).....................................1842 - late 1840s
  • DURRANI  Emirs - Saddozai segment
  • Safdar Jang Khan Saddozai (regent at Qandahar)......May 1842 - 1842
  • Fath Jang Khan (Kabul & Qandahar)................29 Jun 1842 - 12 Oct 1842
  • Shahpur Khan (Kabul).............................12 Oct 1842 - Dec 1842

KM#488.1 Rupee. Year: AH 1258 (1842 CE). Weight: 9.00g. Metal: .925Ag. Diameter: 21.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Kabul. Obverse: Couplet, name Fath Jang at top. Ruler: Fath Jang Khan. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#488.2 also exists as one year type, having the name "Fath Jang" in center. This type is more scarce than the displayed one.

  • BARAKZAI - Continued fragmentation as Emirs, 1842 to 1878
  • .
  • Yar Muhammad Khan Alikozai (Herat)...................Mar 1842 - 01 Jun 1851
  • Minister-regent at Herat. He served as Vizier of Herat from 1829 to 1842 and son of Painda Khan.
  • Kohandil Khan Mohammadzai (2nd time regent at Qandahar)..1842 - Aug 1855
  • son of Painda Khan. Qandahar was captured by Dost Muhammad in 1851.
  • Dost Muhammad Khan Mohammadzai (2nd time)............Dec 1842 - 09 Jun 1863
  • He ruled Kabul and Balkh from 1842, Sar-I-Pul from 1850, Qandahar from July 1858. Herat was ruled briefly under his reign from 26 May 1863. He was the son of Painda Khan. He also issued coins in the name of Amir Kabir and his late son Akbar Khan.
  • Hikmat (Maimana).........................................1845 - 1853
  • Mir Ataliq (Qonduz)......................................1850 - 1865
  • Sayyed Mohammad Khan Alikozai (Herat).............01 Jun 1851 - 15 Sep 1855
  • son of Yar Muhammad Khan and minister-regent at Herat. Herat was occupied by Iran from 1852 to 1853.
  • Muhammad Yusuf Khan Saddozai (regent at Herat)....15 Sep 1851 - Jun 1856
  • Husain Khan (1st time at Maimana)........................1853 - 1876
  • Rahamdil Khan (Qandahar).................................1855 - 1856
    • Mohammad Sadeq Khan Mohammadzai (regent)........Aug 1855 - Nov 1855
    • Gholam Haydar Khan Mohammadzai (regent).........Nov 1855 - Jul 1858
  • Isa Khan Bardorani (minister-regent at Herat)........Jun 1856 - Oct 1856
  • Herat was occupied by Iran from Oct 1856 to 27 Jul 1857 and coins were issued in the name of Nasir al-Din Shah [AH1272 to AH1280 (1856 to 1863)].
  • Sultan Ahmad Khan Mohammadzai (Herat)............27 Jul 1857 - 26 May 1863
  • Sher Ali Khan Mohammadzai (1st time)....................1863 - May 1866
  • Emir of Kabul and Qandahar. Continued ruling Herat from 09 Jun 1863 to 21 Feb 1879 and Qandahar from 1865 to Jan 1867.
  • Mohammad Amin Khan Mohammadzai (Qandahar)...............1863 - 1865
  • Faiz Muhammad Khan (Sar-I-Pul)..........................1863 - 1867
  • Sultan Murad (Qonduz)...................................1865 - 1887
  • Muhammad Afzal Khan Mohammadzai.................... May 1866 - 07 Oct 1867
  • Emir of Balkh, Herat, Kabul & Qandahar. Qandahar from Jan 1867.
  • Hakim Khan (Sar-I-Pul)..................................1867 - 1879
  • Muhammad Azam Khan Mohammadzai...................07 Oct 1867 - 08 Sep 1868
  • Emir of Balkh, Herat, Kabul and Qandahar. Qanadar till Apr 1868.
  • Sher Ali Khan Mohammadzai (2nd time).............08 Sep 1868 - 21 Sep 1879
  • Emir of Balkh, Herat, Kabul & Qandahar. Qandahar from Apr 1868. Maimana from 1876.

KM#405.1 Half Rupee. Year: AH 1263 (1847 CE). Weight: 5.24g. Metal: .925Ag. Diameter: 19.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: almost Medal. Mint: Herat. Obverse: Kalimah. Reverse: mint and date. Ruler: Yar Mohammad Khan (Alikozai) Saddozai [minister-regent at Herat]. Minted Years: AH 1260-1266.

KM#182.1 Half Rupee. Year: AH 1261 (1845 CE). Weight: 5.61g. Metal: .925Ag. Diameter: 19.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Ahmadshahi (Qandahar). Ruler: Kohandil Khan Mohammadzai (regent at Qandahar). Minted Years: AH 1260-1272.

Both obverse and reverse have legends differently arranged in different years.

KM#497.1 Rupee. Year: AH 1279 on both sides (1863 CE). Weight: 9.2g. Metal: .925Ag. Mint: Kabul. Ruler: Dost Muhammad Khan (2nd reign) ibn Payinda Khan Muhammadzai ibn Jamal Khan. Minted Years: AH 1259, 1262-1280.

Obverse: couplet ending "Khaliq-i-Akbar", many varieties. Mulings exist with different dates on obverse and reverse.

KM#407 Half Rupee. Year: AH 1271 (1855 CE). Weight: 5.20g. Metal: .925Ag. Diameter: 18.0 mm x 19.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint in square: Herat - Dar as-Sultanat. Scarce type. Ruler: Mohammad Yusuf Khan Saddozai (regent at Herat). Mint Years: One year type.

KM#507 Rupee. Year: AH 1283 (1866 CE). Weight: 9.09g. Metal: .925Ag. Diameter: 21.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Kabul - Dar as-Sultanat. Ruler: Muhammad Afzal Khan Barakzai [eldest son of Dost Muhammad Khan]. Minted Years: AH 1283-1284.

Two varieties are known, minted in AH 1283.

KM#508.1 Rupee. Year: AH 1284 (1867 CE). Weight: 9.11g. Metal: .925Ag. Diameter: 21.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Kabul - Dar as-Sultanat. Obverse: Azam above Amir. Ruler: Muhammad Azam Khan Barakzai. Minted Years: AH 1284-1285.

Obverse: Azam above Muhammad also exists as KM#508.2, dated AH 1284.

KM#521 Rupee. Year: AH 1294 (1877 CE). Weight: 9.13g. Metal: .925Ag. Mint: Kabul - Dar as-Sultanat. Coarse style. Ruler: Sher Ali Khan Barakzai (2nd time) [third son of Dost Mohammed Khan]. Minted Years: AH 1293-1295.
  • To Great Britain........................................1878 - 1880
  • Second Anglo-Afghan War: After tension between Russia and Britain in Europe ended with the June 1878 Congress of Berlin, Russia turned its attention to Central Asia. That same summer, Russia sent an uninvited diplomatic mission to Kabul. Sher Ali tried, but failed, to keep them out. Russian envoys arrived in Kabul on 22 July 1878 and on 14 August, the British demanded that Sher Ali accept a British mission too. The amir not only refused to receive a British mission but threatened to stop it if it were dispatched. Lord Lytton, the viceroy, ordered a diplomatic mission to set out for Kabul in September 1878 but the mission was turned back as it approached the eastern entrance of the Khyber Pass, triggering the Second Anglo-Afghan War. A British force of about 40,000 fighting men was distributed into military columns which penetrated Afghanistan at three different points. An alarmed Sher Ali attempted to appeal in person to the tsar for assistance, but unable to do so, he returned to Mazari Sharif, where he died on 21 February 1879.
    With British forces occupying much of the country, Sher Ali's son and successor, Mohammad Yaqub Khan, signed the Treaty of Gandamak in May 1879 to prevent a British invasion of the rest of the country. According to this agreement and in return for an annual subsidy and vague assurances of assistance in case of foreign aggression, Yaqub relinquished control of Afghan foreign affairs to the British. British representatives were installed in Kabul and other locations, British control was extended to the Khyber and Michni passes, and Afghanistan ceded various frontier areas and Quetta to Britain. The British army then withdrew. Soon afterwards, an uprising in Kabul led to the slaughter of Britain’s Resident in Kabul, Sir Pierre Cavagnari and his guards and staff on 3 September 1879, provoking the second phase of the Second Afghan War. Major General Sir Frederick Roberts led the Kabul Field Force over the Shutargardan Pass into central Afghanistan, defeated the Afghan Army at Char Asiab on 6 October 1879 and occupied Kabul. Ghazi Mohammad Jan Khan Wardak staged an uprising and attacked British forces near Kabul in the Siege of the Sherpur Cantonment in December 1879, but his defeat there resulted in the collapse of this rebellion.
    Yaqub Khan, suspected of complicity in the massacre of Cavagnari and his staff, was obliged to abdicate. The British considered a number of possible political settlements, including partitioning Afghanistan between multiple rulers or placing Yaqub's brother Ayyub Khan on the throne, but ultimately decided to install his cousin Abdur Rahman Khan as emir instead. Ayyub Khan, who had been serving as governor of Herat, rose in revolt, defeated a British detachment at the Battle of Maiwand in July 1880 and besieged Kandahar. Roberts then led the main British force from Kabul and decisively defeated Ayyub Khan in September at the Battle of Kandahar, bringing his rebellion to an end. Abdur Rahman had confirmed the Treaty of Gandamak, leaving the British in control of the territories ceded by Yaqub Khan and ensuring British control of Afghanistan's foreign policy in exchange for protection and a subsidy. Abandoning the provocative policy of maintaining a British resident in Kabul, but having achieved all their other objectives, the British withdrew.

     

  • Uzbek Khanate of Badakhshan - Capital in Fayzabad.
  • Mir Yari Beg............................................1657 - 1708
  • Sulaiman Beg............................................1708 - 1713
  • Yusuf Ali...............................................1713 - 1718
  • Diya' ad-Din............................................1718 - 1730
  • Mir Nabat...............................................1730 - ?
  • Mirza Kalan I............................................. ? - 1748
  • Mir Sultan Shah I.......................................1748 - 1765
  • Burhan ad-Din...........................................1765 - ?
  • Mirza Kalan II
  • Ahmad Shah Khan
  • Mirza Kalan III
  • Zaman ad-Din............................................. ? - 1792
  • Mir Mohammed Shah......................................1792 - 1822
  • Tributary to Qonduz....................................1822 - 1859
    • Mirza Kalan IV....................................1822 - 1828
    • Mirza Abd al-Ghaful...............................1828 - 1829
    • Murad Beg.........................................1829 - 1832
    • Mirza Sulaiman....................................1832 - 1838
    • Sultan Shah II....................................1838 - 1847 with...
  • Tributary to Afghanistan...............................1859 - 1873
    • Mir Shah Nizam ad-Din.............................1844 - ?
    • Jan Khan..........................................1847 - 1848
    • Shah Ghahan..............................................1848
    • Saman ad-Din......................................1848 - 1864
    • Ghahandar Shah (1st time).........................1864 - 1867 d. 1869
    • Mir Mohammed Shah.................................1867 - 1868
    • Mizrab Shah..............................................1868
    • Ghahandar Shah (2nd time).........................1868 - 1869
    • Mahmud Shah.......................................1869 - 1873
    • Shah Zade Hasan...................................1873 - 1880
    • Alim Khan.........................................1880 - 1881

Civic / Civil war / Anonymous Coins of Afghanistan

Central Asia "Bar" Fals with Arabic stamped inscription. Weight: 3.00g. Metal: Copper. Length: 2.4 cm.

These irregular copper coins emanating from Central Asia and normally procured in Afghanistan and have not yet been attributed to a particular issuing dynasty or locality.

This coin is numbered as 2014 in "Oriental Coins and their values - The World of Islam" by Michael Mitchiner, Hawkins publication 1977 at page# 287.

Anonymous Fulus. Weight: 5.26g. Metal: Copper.

Not listed in Krause publication.

Anonymous Fulus. Weight: 5.90g. Metal: Copper.

Not listed in Krause publication.

Anonymous Fulus. Weight: 4.16g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 1.5 x 1.5 cm. Alignment: Medal. Mint: probably Ghazni.

Not listed in Krause publication.

KM#39 Rupee. Year: ND (ca. 1860-1880). Mint: Ghazni. Weight: 4.56g. Metal: Copper. Alignment: Coin. Diameter: 16 mm. Minted Years: One year type.

     02 Oct 1881            State of Afghanistan
     09 Jun 1926            Kingdom of Afghanistan
     17 Jul 1973            Republic of Afghanistan
     30 Apr 1978            Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
     30 Nov 1987            Republic of Afghanistan
     28 Apr 1992            Islamic State of Afghanistan
     26 Oct 1997            Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
     13 Nov 2001            Islamic State of Afghanistan
     19 Jun 2002            Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan
     26 Jan 2004            Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

  • BARAKZAI Emirs - Mohammadzai segment
  • Muhammad Yaqub Khan Mohammadzai..................21 Feb 1879 - 12 Oct 1879
  • Known as unified Emir of Aghan (Balkh, Herat, Kabul & Qandahar). He also severed as the governor of Herat from 1871 to 1874 under his father, Sher Ali Khan's rule.
  • Mohammad Jan (minister-regent at Kabul).................1879 - 31 Mar 1880
  • Mir Muhammad (Sar-I-Pul)................................1879 - 1880's
  • Dilwar Khan (Maimana)...................................1879 - 1883
  • Musa Jan Khan Mohammadzai (Ghazni)...............24 Dec 1879 - 21 Apr 1880
  • Muhammad Ayyub Khan Mohammadzai.....................Mar 1880 - 02 Oct 1881
  • Ruled Herat & Qandahar. Qandahar briefly from 20 Jul 1881 to 22 Sep 1881.
  • Wali Sher Ali (Qandahar)................................1879 - 1880
  • Wali Muhammad (Kabul)..........................................1880
  • Sher Ali Khan Barakzai (minister-regent at Qandahar)....1880 - 21 Apr 1881
  • Abdur Rahman Khan Mohammadzai....................22 Jul 1880 - 03 Oct 1901
  • Ruled Qandahar briefly from 21 Apr 1881 to 20 Jul 1881 and then ruled Qandahar again from 22 Sep 1881.
  • Husain Khan (2nd time at Maimana)........................1883 - ?
  • Timur Shah (Herat).............................................1887
  • Muhammad Ishaq (rebel at Balkh & Kabul)........................1889
  • Kemal Khan (Maimana).............................early 1890s - c. 1900
  • Ali Bardi Khan (Qonduz)..........................early 1890s - c. 1900
  • Habibullah Khan ibn Abdur Rehman Khan............03 Oct 1901 - 20 Feb 1919
  • Nasrullah Khan ibn Abdur Rehman Khan.............21 Feb 1919 - 28 Feb 1919 d.1921
  • Amanullah Khan ibn Habibullah Khan...............28 Feb 1919 - 09 Jun 1926
  • Amanullah Khan was 3rd son of Habibullah Khan. He helped assassinate his father. As the governor of Kabul and was in control of the army and the treasury. He quickly seized power, imprisoned any relatives with competing claims to the Kingship, and gained the allegiance of most of the tribal leaders. Amanullah's ten years of reign initiated a period of dramatic change in Afghanistan in both foreign and domestic politics. He declared full independence and sparked the Third Anglo-Afghan War. Britain virtually dictated the terms of the 1919 Rawalpindi Agreement, a temporary armistice that provided, somewhat ambiguously, for Afghan self-determination in foreign affairs. Before final negotiations were concluded in 1921, however, Afghanistan had already begun to establish its own foreign policy, including diplomatic relations with the new government in the Soviet Union in 1919. During the 1920s, Afghanistan established diplomatic relations with most major countries.

KM#533 Rupee. Year: AH 1296 (1879 CE). Weight: 9.04g. Diameter: 18.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: almost Coin. Mint: Kabul - Dar as-Sultanat. Ruler: Muhammad Yaqub Khan Barakzai ibn Sher Ali Khan. Minted Years: AH 1296-1297.

AH1297 dated coins are reported, but not confirmed.

KM#544.1 Rupee. Year: AH 1307 (1890 CE). Weight: 8.98g. Metal: .800Ag. Diameter: 21 mm. Mint: Kabul. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal, but slightly rotated. Obverse: Name of the ruler with date below on the left side. Ruler: Emir Abdur Rahman Khan ibn Muhammad Afzal Khan ibn Dost Muhammad Khan. Minted Years: AH 1297-1308.

Note:  Date AH1297 has been observed struck over an British India 1876 1/4 Rupee, probably a mint sport. 

Monetary standard: [Kabuli] Rupee = 2 Qiran = 3 Abbasi = 6 Sanar = 12 Shahi = 60 Paise = 600 Dinar. (Tilla or Amani = 10 Kabuli Rupee; Habibi = 30 Rupees).

KM#804 Half Rupee. Year: AH 1308 (1891 CE). Weight: 4.60g [4.65g]. Metal: .500 Silver. Diameter: 18 mm. Mint: Kabul. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Star above mosque. "Kabul" written below Mosque gate and Date. Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan. Minted Years: AH 1308-1310.

KM#802 1 paisa. Year: AH 1309 (1892 CE). Weight: 3.83g. Metal: Bronze Or Brass. Diameter: 21 mm. Mint: Kabul. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Date below text denomination (one paisa). Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan. Minted Years: AH1309, AH1312-1314 and AH1316-1317.

Note: Date on the left side below the Value and above wreath.

KM#806 Rupee. Year: AH 1311 (1893 CE). Weight: 9.19g [9.20g]. Metal: .900 Silver. Diameter: 23 mm. Mint: Kabul. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Star above mosque. "Kabul" written below Mosque gate and Date. Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan. Minted Years: AH 1308-1313, AH1311/09, AH1312/1/9, AH1312/1 and AH1391 Error.

Note: Two varieties each are known for dates AH1311-1313.

KM#810 Abbasi. Year: AH 1313 (1895 CE). Weight: 3.07g [3.11g]. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 15.50 mm. Mint: Kabul. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Date above toughra. Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan. Minted Years: One year type.

Similar coin with date AH 1313 also exists as KM#811, having date below mosque on reverse side.

Note: Same as above coin but rotated as shown.

Weight: 3.01g [3.11g].

Note: Same as above coin but rotated as shown.

KM#824 Sanar. Year: AH 1315 (1897 CE). Weight: 1.53g [1.55g]. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 12.50 mm. Mint: Kabul. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Date below mosque gate. Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan. Minted Years: AH1315 and without date.

KM#819.1 Rupee. Year: AH 1315 (1897 CE). Weight: 9.10g. Metal: .500 Silver. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Kabul above toughra, undivided dates. Ruler: Emir Abdur Rahman Khan ibn Muhammad Afzal Khan ibn Dost Muhammad Khan. Minted Years: AH 1314-1315.

Divided dates; two digits on opposite sides of toughra exists as KM#819.2 in year AH 1315-1316.

KM#826 5 Kabuli Rupee. Year: AH 1316 - RY3 (1898 CE). Weight: 45.70g. Metal: .900 Silver. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#827 1 paisa. Year: AH 1317 (1899 CE). Weight: 4.64g. Metal: Bronze Or Brass. Diameter: 20.50 mm. Mint: Kabul. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal; slightly rotated. Obverse: Date at the bottom within inner circle. Reverse: Denomination (one paisa) below the Mosque gate. Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#830 Rupee. Year: AH 1318 (1900 CE). Weight: 9.10g. Metal: .500 Silver. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Date on right side of toughra. Reverse: Stylish Mosque. Ruler: Emir Abdur Rahman Khan ibn Muhammad Afzal Khan ibn Dost Muhammad Khan. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#960.1 Paisa (Local Dump Coinage). Year: AH 1322 (1903 CE). Weight: 6.29g. Metal: Copper. Mint: Qandahar. Ruler: Emir Habibullah Khan ibn Emir Abdur Rahman Khan. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#842.1 Rupee. Year: AH 1321 (1903 CE). Weight: 9.20g. Metal: .500 Silver. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Reverse: "Afghanistan" above mosque, crossed swords and cannons. Ruler: Emir Habibullah Khan ibn Emir Abdur Rahman Khan. Minted Years: AH 1321-1322.

Note: Two varieties exists for AH 1321 date.

KM#877 Rupee. Year: SH 1299 (1920 CE). Weight: 9.15g [9.00g]. Metal: 0.900 Silver. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Mint: Afghanistan. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Tughra surrounded by nine stars. Reverse: Mosque within 7-pointed star, all within circle. 10 stars surrounds. Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan. Minted Years: SH 1298 (1919) and SH 1299 (1920).

Note: Four varieties are known for date SH1298 and Two varieties are known for date SH1299.

KM#888 2 Amani (20 Rupees). Year: SH 1299 (1920 CE). Weight: 9.20g. Metal: .900 Gold. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Mint: Afghanistan. Edge: Reeded. Obverse: Numeral "2" at the top. Tughra above date within wreath. Reverse: "Amania" written at the top. Mosque within 7-pointed star, wreath surrounds. Alignment: Medal. Ruler: Amanullah Khan ibn Emir Habibullah Khan. Minted Years: SH 1299-1303 (1920-1924 CE).

KM#893 3 Shahi (15 paisa). Year: SH 1300 (1921 CE). Weight: 6.74g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 32.50 mm. Mint: Afghanistan. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal; slightly rotated. Obverse: Tughra surrounded by nine stars. Reverse: Mosque within 7-pointed star, all within circle. 10 stars surrounds. Ruler: Abdur Rahman Khan. Minted Years: SH1300 (1921), SH1301 (1922), SH130x (1923) error and SH1303 (1924).

Note: Two varieties of SH1301 exist.

  • BARAKZAI  Kings - Mohammadzai segment
  • Amanullah Shah (Continued as King)...............09 Jun 1926 - 14 Jan 1929 d.1960
  • Inayatullah Shah ibn Habibullah Khan.............14 Jan 1929 - 17 Jan 1929 d.1946

Monetary standard: Afghani = 100 Pul (Amani = 20 Afghani).

KM#913 2.5 Afghani. Year: SH 1306 - RY9 (1927 CE). Weight: 24.90g [25.00g]. Metal: .900 Silver. Diameter: 39.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal; slightly rotated. Ruler: Amanullah Shah ibn Emir Habibullah Khan. Minted Years: SH 1305//8-1306//9 (1926-1927 CE).

Note: Two varieties are known for each date.

  • Emir
  • Habibullah [Kalakani] Ghazi......................17 Jan 1929 - 13 Oct 1929
  • He named himself Habibullah 'Khadem e Deen e Rasulullah' (The servant of the religion of messenger of God). Habibullāh succeeded Inayatullah, who abdicated on January 17, 1929. As an ethnic Tajik, he was and is considered an usurper by the Pashtuns of Afghanistan, since he interrupted the Pashtun Barakzai Dynasty (which resumed upon his death). Among the Pashtuns, as a derogatory term he is commonly referred to as "Bacha-ye Saqqow" or "Bachchayi Saqqa" (in Persian "son of the water-carrier") because his father was at one point a water-carrier in the Afghan army. Among the Tajiks, however, he is still remembered and respected as a rightful king. Additionally, he is also celebrated by the famous poet Khalilollah Khalili in his masterpiece Hero of Khorasan.

Monetary standard: [Kabuli] Rupee = 2 Qiran = 3 Abbasi = 6 Sanar = 12 Shahi = 60 Paise = 600 Dinar. (Tilla or Amani = 10 Kabuli Rupee).

KM#901 10 paisa. Year: AH 1348 (1929). Weight: 4.09g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 21.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: "Les Paise" (10 paisa in Pashto) written on top. Clockwise in center written: "Khadem e Deen e Rasulullah" (The servant of the religion of messenger of Allah). "Emir Habibullah" written in extreme center with date. Wreath below. Reverse: Da paisa (10 paisa in Persian) on the top. Arms in the center. Wreath below. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Habibullah [Kalakani] Ghazi.

KM#895 20 paisa. Year: AH 1347 (1929). Weight: 6.17g. Metal: Bronze or Brass. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: "Shall Paise" (20 paisa in Pashto) written on top. Bottom to top in center written: "Khadem e Deen e Rasulullah Emir Habibullah" (The servant of the religion of messenger of Allah Emir Habibullah). Date above wreath. Reverse: Beseat paisa (20 paisa in Persian) on the top. Arms in the center. Wreath below. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Habibullah [Kalakani] Ghazi.

KM#896 Qiran (1/2 Rupee). Year: AH 1347 (1929). Weight: 4.70g. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Bottom to top in center written: "Khadem e Deen e Rasulullah Emir Habibullah" (The servant of the religion of messenger of Allah Emir Habibullah). Date above wreath. Reverse: Value (Qiran) above mosque within 8-pointed
star, wreath surrounds.
Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Habibullah [Kalakani] Ghazi.
  • BARAKZAI Emirs - Mohammadzai segment
  • Amanullah Shah (in rebellion, at Qandahar).......21 Jan 1929 - 23 May 1929
  • Sardar Ali Ahmad Khan............................28 Jan 1929 - 15 Jul 1929
  • in rebellion at Jalalabad till 29 Mar 1929, then continue rebellion at Qandahar
  • Mohammad Nadir Khan (in rebellion, at Khost)............1929 - 17 Oct 1929
  • BARAKZAI  Kings - Mohammadzai segment
  • Mohammad Nadir Shah (Continued as King)..........17 Oct 1929 - 08 Nov 1933
  • Mohammed Nadir Khan was born in Dehra Dun (north of Delhi), India, on April 9, 1883 to Sardar Mohammad Yusuf Khan and his first wife Sharaf Sultana. His paternal grandfather was Yahya Khan and his great grandfather was Sultan Muhammad Khan Telai, the brother of Dost Mohammed Khan, who sold Peshawar to the Sikhs.
  • Mohammad Nadir Shahs's  great grandfather Mohammad Yahya Khan was responsible for the mediation between Yaqub Khan and the British leading to the Gandamak Treaty. After the British invasion following the killing of Sir Louis Cavagnari in 1879, Yaqub Khan and Yahya Khan were seized by the British and transferred under custody to India, where they forcibly remained until invited back to Afghanistan by Emir Abdur Rahman Khan in the last year of his reign in 1901.
  • Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.....08 Nov 1933 - 17 Jul 1973 d.2007
  • He was ousted in a coup by his cousin Mohammed Daoud Khan while in Italy undergoing eye surgery.

Monetary standard: Afghani = 100 Pul (Amani = 20 Afghani).

KM#920 Half Afghani (50 pul). Year: AH 1350 - RY3 (1931 CE). Weight: 4.90g. Metal: 0.500Ag. Obverse: Date below mosque. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Ruler: Mohammad Nadir Shah ibn Sardar Mohammad Yusuf Khan. Minted Years: SH 1348//1, 1349//2 and 1350//3 (1929-1931 CE).

KM#936 2 Puls. Year: SH 1316 (1937). Weight: 2.00g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 15.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Numerical denomination within inner circle, wreath surrounds. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah. It has radiant background.

KM#938 5 Puls. Year: SH 1316 (1937). Weight: 3.03g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 17.10 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Numerical denomination within inner circle, wreath surrounds. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah. It has radiant background.

KM#939 10 Puls. Year: SH 1316 (1937). Weight: 2.50g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Numerical denomination within inner circle, wreath surrounds. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

KM#931 25 Puls. Year: SH 1316 (1937). Weight: 6.83g. Metal: Bronze or Brass. Diameter: 24.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Al-Mutawakil-illah Mohammad Zahir Shah written within beaded inner circle. Reverse: Numerical denomination within beaded inner circle, wreath surrounds. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: AH1312-1316 (1933-1937). Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

KM#940 25 Puls. Year: SH 1316 (1937). Weight: 2.90g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Denomination text within inner circle. Afghanistan written on the top and Al-Mutawakil-illah Mohammad Zahir Shah written below. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

KM#941 25 Puls. Year: SH 1331 (1952). Weight: 3.00g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Denomination text within inner circle. Afghanistan written on the top and Al-Mutawakil-illah Mohammad Zahir Shah written below. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: SH 1330-1333 (1951-1954). Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

KM#932.2 Half Afgani (50 puls). Year: SH 1316 (1937). Weight: 4.75g. Metal: 0.500 Silver. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath with Kabul wriiten on top. Reverse: Afghanistan written on the top and Al-Mutawakil-illah Mohammad Zahir Shah written within 40 dotted circle. Wreath below. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: SH 1313-1316 (1934-1937). Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

Note: No denomination mentioned on this coin.

KM#942.1 50 puls. Year: SH 1330 (1951). Weight: 4.80g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 22.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Afghanistan written on the top, numerical denomination written within circle and Al-Mutawakil-illah Mohammad Zahir Shah written below. Mintage: N/A. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

Same as above coin, but last digit missing in the date.

Year: SH 133x (1951). Weight: 5.16g [4.80g].

KM#947 50 puls. Year: SH 1331 (1952). Weight: 4.75g. Metal: Nickel clad Steel. Diameter: 22.30 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Afghanistan written on the top, Text denomination written within circle and Al-Mutawakil-illah Mohammad Zahir Shah written below. Mintage: N/A. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

Note: AH133x (1953) also exists.

KM#946 50 Puls. Year: SH 1332 (1953). Weight: 5.00g. Metal: Nickel clad Steel. Diameter: 22.30 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Arms within wreath. Reverse: Denomination within inner circle. Afghanistan written on the top and Al-Mutawakil-illah Mohammad Zahir Shah written below. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: SH 1331-1334 (1952-1955). Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

KM#953 Afghani (100 Puls). Year: SH 1340 (1961). Weight: 4.00g. Metal: Nickel clad Steel. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Three wheat sprigs. Reverse: Denomination with five stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

KM#949 2 Afghanis. Year: SH 1337 (1958). Weight: 2.50g. Metal: Aluminum. Diameter: 24.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Numerical denomination within dotted inner circle. Reverse: Arms within wreath, circle surrounds. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

Note: This issue was withdrawn and demonetized due to extensive counterfeiting.

KM#954.1 2 Afghanis. Year: SH 1340 (1961). Weight: 5.30g. Metal: Nickel clad Steel. Diameter: 25.10 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Radiant eagle
statue, with wings spread.
Reverse: Wheat sprig left of denomination with three stars on the right. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

Note: KM#954.2 with medal alignment also exists. Some evidence indicates that the medal alignment variety was the first Republican issue struck in 1973.

KM#950 5 Afghanis. Year: SH 1337 (1958). Weight: 3.00g. Metal: Aluminum. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Kabul written on the top. Tughra within beaded circle. Reverse: Arms within beaded circle, denomination below. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.

Note: This issue was withdrawn and demonetized due to extensive counterfeiting.

KM#955 5 Afghani. Year: SH 1340 - AH 1381 (1961). Weight: 8.04g. Metal: Nickel clad Steel. Diameter: 29.20 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Afghanistan. Obverse: Bust 3/4 right divides dates. Reverse: Wheat sprigs flank denomination. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Ruler: Mohammad Zahir Shah ibn Mohammad Nadir Shah.
  • Presidents - Republic
  • Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan .......................17 Jul 1973 - 27 Apr 1978
  • Daoud and most of his family were assassinated during a coup by the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan. The coup happened in the presidential palace on 28 April 1978. On June 28, 2008, the body of President Daoud and those of his family were found in two separate mass graves in the Pul-e-Charkhi area, District 12 of Kabul city.
  • Chairman of Military Council
  • Abdul Qadir Dagarwal..............................27 Apr 1978 - 30 Apr 1978
  • At 7:00 P.M. on April 27, Qadir made an announcement over Radio Afghanistan, in the Dari language, "For the first time in the history of Afghanistan, the last remnants of monarchy, tyranny, despotism ... has ended, and all powers of the state are in the hands of the people of Afghanistan.". He added that a Revolutionary Council of the Armed Forces had been established, with himself as its head.

Republic Issues:

KM#975 25 Puls. Year: SH 1352 (1973). Weight: 2.43g. Metal: Brass clad Steel. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination with six stars. Mintage: 45,950,000. Minted Years: One year type. Republic issue.

KM#976 50 Puls. Year: SH 1352 (1973). Weight: 3.45g. Metal: Copper clad Steel. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination with six stars. Mintage: 24,750,000. Minted Years: One year type. Republic issue.

KM#977 5 Afghani. Year: SH 1352 (1973). Weight: 7.02g. Metal: Nickel clad Steel. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within stylized grain sprig wreath. Mintage: 34,750,000. Minted Years: One year type. Republic issue.
  • Presidents of the Revolutionary Council - Democratic Republic
  • Nur Mohammad Taraki..............................30 Apr 1978 - 16 Sep 1979
  • Hafizullah Amin..................................16 Sep 1979 - 27 Dec 1979
  • He came to power by ordering the death of his predecessor Nur Muhammad Taraki. The revolt against communist rule which had begun under Taraki worsened under Amin, and was a problem that his government was unable to solve. The Soviet Union, which alleged that Amin was an agent of the CIA, intervened in Afghanistan on behalf of the Twenty-Year Treaty of Friendship between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union. Amin was assassinated by the Soviets in December 1979 as part of Operation Storm-333, having ruled for slightly longer than three months.
  • Babrak Karmal....................................27 Dec 1979 - 24 Nov 1986
  • also General secretary of the People's Democratic (Communist) party till 04 May 1986.
  • Haji Mohammad Chamkani...........................24 Nov 1986 - 30 Sep 1987
  • Mohammad Najibullah..............................30 Sep 1987 - 16 Apr 1992
  • General secretary of the People's Democratic (Communist) party from 04 May 1986 to 28 Jun 1990. President from 30 Nov 1987. The Hizb-e Wahdat (Hazara militia) rule at Bamiyan from 1990 to 1998.

Democratic Republic Issues:

KM#994 2 Afghanis. Year: SH 1357 (1978). Weight: 6.00g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within four stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: SH1357 and SH1358.

KM#995 5 Afghanis. Year: SH 1357 (1978). Weight: 7.50g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within four stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#996 25 Puls. Year: SH 1359 (1980). Weight: 2.30g. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within four stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#997 50 Puls. Year: SH 1359 (1980). Weight: 3.10g. Metal: Aluminum-Bronze. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within four stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#998 1 Afghani. Year: SH 1359 (1980). Weight: 4.25g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within four stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#999 2 Afghanis. Year: SH 1359 (1980). Weight: 6.20g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 25.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: Denomination within four stars on each side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#1001 5 Afghanis. Year: SH 1360 (1981). Weight: 7.00g. Metal: Brass. Diameter: 26.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: National arms. Reverse: FAO logo. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#1004 500 Afghanis. Year: ND (1986). Weight: 12.00g. Metal: 0.999Ag. Diameter: 29.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Ice Dancers (Skaters). Reverse: National arms. Mintage: 10,000. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: 15th Winter Olympics Games - Galgary 1988.

KM#1011 500 Afghanis. Year: 1989. Weight: 16.00g. Metal: 0.999Ag. Diameter: 39.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: 10,000. Obverse: Two players playing soccer. Reverse: National arms. Mintage: 10,000. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: World Soccer Championship - Italy 1990.

Note: Afghanistan became Republic on 30 Nov 1987, but still this coin have the legends of Democratic Republic.

KM#1022 500 Afghanis. Year: 1992. Weight: 20.00g. Metal: 0.999Ag. Diameter: 39.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: 10,000. Obverse: USA map behind soccer player. Reverse: National arms. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: 15th World Cup Soccer Games 1994 - U.S.A.

Note: Afghanistan became Republic on 30 Nov 1987, but still this coin have the legends of Democratic Republic.

  • Presidents
  • Abdul Rahim Hatef (acting).......................16 Apr 1992 - 28 Apr 1992
  • Sibghatullah Mojadedi (interim)..................28 Apr 1992 - 28 Jun 1992
  • Burhanuddin Rabbani (1st time)...................28 Jun 1992 - 27 Sep 1996
  • continues in rebellion after 27 Sep 1996, largely retaining international recognition.
  • Head of Supreme Council (Taliban Rule)
  • Mullah Mohammad Umar.............................27 Sep 1996 - 16 Apr 2001
  • Mawlawi Abdul Kabir (acting).....................16 Apr 2001 - 13 Nov 2001

Islamic State Issues:

KM#1027 500 Afghanis. Year: 1996. Weight: 30.95g. Metal: 0.999Ag. Diameter: 39.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Soccer player going for goal. Reverse: National arms. Mintage: 100 + N/A Proofs. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: 16th World Cup Soccer Games 1998 - France.

KM#1039 500 Afghanis. Year: 1997. Weight: 15.00g. Metal: 0.999Ag. Diameter: 35.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Soccer player superimposed on ball. Reverse: National arms. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: 16th World Cup Soccer Games 1998 - France.

KM#1037 50 Afghanis. Year: 1999. Weight: 26.00g. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 39.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Equestrian event. Reverse: National arms. Mintage: 10,000. Minted Years: One year type. Subject: 27th Summer Olympics 2000 - Sydney.
  • Presidents
  • Burhanuddin Rabbani (2nd time)...................13 Nov 2001 - 22 Dec 2001
  • return to Kabul on 17 Nov 2001.
  • Hamid Karzai.....................................22 Dec 2001 - date
  • Chairman of the Interim Administrator to 19 Jun 2002 and then for the transitional government to 26 Jan 2004.

Islamic Republic Issues:

Monetary standard: Afghani = 100 Pul = 1000 old Afghanis (Taliban) or 2000 old Afghanis (Northern Alliance).

KM#1044 Afghani. Year: SH 1383 (2004). Weight: 3.25g. Metal: Copper-plated Steel. Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#1045 2 Afghanis. Year: SH 1383 (2004). Weight: 4.25g. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 21.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.

KM#1046 5 Afghanis. Year: SH 1383 (2004). Weight: 5.26g. Metal: Brass. Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Value. Reverse: National arms. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type.
 
 
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins