Kashmir
 
Ranbir Singh's grandson Hari Singh, who had ascended the throne of Kashmir in 1925, was the reigning monarch in 1947 at the conclusion of British rule of the subcontinent and the subsequent partition of the British Indian Empire into the newly independent Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. As parties to the partition process, both countries had agreed that the rulers of princely states would be given the right to opt for either Pakistan or India or in very special cases to remain independent. In 1947, Kashmir's population was 77% Muslim and it shared a boundary with Pakistan. Hence, it was anticipated that the Maharaja would accede to Pakistan, when the British government was to end on 14-15 August 1947. When Hari Singh hesitated to do this, Pakistan launched a guerilla onslaught meant to frighten its ruler into submission. Instead the Maharaja appealed to Lord Mountbatten for assistance, and the Governor-General agreed on the condition that the ruler accede to India. Once the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession, Indian soldiers entered Kashmir and drove the Pakistani-sponsored irregulars from all but a small section of the state. The United Nations was then invited to mediate the quarrel. The UN mission insisted that the opinion of Kashmiris must be ascertained, while India insisted that no referendum could occur until all of the state had been cleared of irregulars. This is to date de-facto boundary of the two countries. Aksai Chin was one of the main causes of the Sino-Indian War of 1962, as India discovered a road, China had built through Aksai Chin, shown as Chinese on official Chinese maps. Beginning in 1954, India had shown on its official Survey of India maps a definite boundary line awarding Aksai Chin to itself, despite no military or other occupation of the area. Before 1954, Indian maps had shown undefined and indefinite boundary lines in this area. The China National Highway 219, connecting Tibet and Xinjiang, passes through no towns in Aksai Chin, only some military posts and truck stops, such as the very small Tianshuihai (el. 4,850 m (15,900 ft)) post. The road adds to the strategic importance of the area. Aksai Chin is now under Chinese administration since 1962.
 
The region is now divided among three countries in a territorial dispute: Pakistan controls the northwest portion (Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Kashmir), India controls the central and southern portion (Jammu and Kashmir) and Ladakh, and China controls the northeastern portion (Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract). India controls the majority of the Siachen Glacier area including the Saltoro Ridge passes, whereas Pakistan controls the lower territory just southwest of the Saltoro Ridge. India controls 141,338 km2 (54,571 sq mi) of the disputed territory, Pakistan 85,846 km2 (33,145 sq mi) and China, the remaining 37,555 km2 (14,500 sq mi). Jammu and Kashmir as an Indian state has capital at Srinagar in summer and Jammu in winter.
 
             ...           Kingdom of Kashmir established in remote (legendary) antiquity.
                           Early Middle Ages State of Jammu established.
     28 Jul 1589           Kashmir incorporated into (Mughal) Empire of Hind.
        May 1752           Kashmir conquered by the newly founded Afghan kingdom.
            1816           Jammu annexed to the Punjab.
     05 Jul 1819           Kashmir annexed to the Punjab.
            1820           Independence of Jammu restored.
     15 Mar 1846           U.K. government cedes Kashmir to the ruler of Jammu, thus
                           creating the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
     16 Mar 1846           Jammu and Kashmir a British protectorate till 15 Aug 1947.
     27 Oct 1947           The ruler of Jammu and Kashmir declares the accession of the
                           state to India in the face of tribal invasion from Pakistan
                           (Azad Kashmir annexed to Pakistan).
     26 Jan 1957           The incorporation of Jammu and Kashmir into India is
                           declared to be complete.
     21 Nov 1962           China occupies Aksai Chin region of Ladakh.
 
  • Harappa...............................................c. 2500 - c. 1750
  • Aryan invasions from 1600/1400 BCE.
  • GONANDIA Legendary kings
  • Gonanda I
  • Damodara I
  • Yashovaty (female)
  • Gonanda II
  • 34 kings names unknown
  • Lava
  • Kusha
  • Khagenda
  • Surenda
  • Godkhara
  • Suvarna
  • Djanaka
  • Shashinara
  • The Mauryan Empire.....................................c. 315 - c. 200
  • Djaluka
  • Damodara II
  • Bactria (ruler: Menander Soter)........................c. 150 - c. 130
  • Sakae (local rule by Bactrian vassals).................c. 130 - c. 80
  • Suren, as a Parthian client.............................c. 80 - c. 60
  • Suren, as a Kushanid client.........................c. 60 BCE - c. 125 CE >
    • Abhimanyu I
  • Gonandia (capital in Srinagar)
    • Gonanda III........................................c. 56 - c. 64
    • Vibhushana I.......................................c. 64 c. 76
    • Indradjid..........................................c. 76 c. 83
    • Ravana.....................................................c. 83
    • Vibhishana II.......................................c.83 c. 92
    • Nara I.............................................c. 92 - c. 102
    • Siddha............................................c. 102 - c. 117
    • Utpalaksha........................................c. 117 - c. 124
    • Hiranyaksha.......................................c. 124 - c. 134
    • Hiranyakula.......................................c. 134 - c. 149
    • Vasukula..........................................c. 149 - c. 166
    • Mihirakula........................................c. 166 - c. 181
    • Baka..............................................c. 181 - c. 190
    • Kshitinanda.......................................c. 190 - c. 198
  • Basunanda..............................................c. 198 - c. 211
  • Nara II................................................c. 211 - c. 226
  • Aksha..................................................c. 226 - c. 240
  • Gopaditya..............................................c. 240 - c. 256
  • Gokarna................................................c. 256 - c. 272
  • Khinkhila (Narendraditya)..............................c. 272 - c. 282
  • Udhishdhira I..........................................c. 282 - ?
  • PRADAPADITYA
  • Pratapaditya I.........................................c. 290 - c. 322
  • Djaluka................................................c. 322 - c. 354
  • Tundjina I.............................................c. 354 - c. 392
  • Vidjaya................................................c. 392 - c. 398
  • Djaendra...............................................c. 398 - c. 435
  • Sandhimati (Aryaradja).................................c. 435 - c. 481
  • GONANDIA
  • Meghavahana............................................c. 481 - c. 498
  • Tundjina II (Shresthasena Pravarasena I)...............c. 498 - c. 513
  • Hiranya Toramana.......................................c. 513 - ?
  • Matrgupta (usurper)................................. ? c. 530 - c. 535 ?
  • Pravarasena II.........................................c. 535 - c. 545
  • Udhishdhira II.........................................c. 545 - c. 555
  • Lahkhana Narendraditya.................................c. 555 - c. 558
  • Tundjina III Ranaditya.................................c. 558 - c. 604
  • Vikramaditya...........................................c. 604 - c. 615
  • Baladitya..............................................c. 615 - c. 627

Friedberg#235 or Mitch#3650. Later Kushan Gold Debased Kashmir Starter Electrum. Weight: 7.64g. Diameter: 21 mm. Alignment: Medal. Goddess Ardoksho.
  • KARKOTA
  • Duplabhavardhan Prajhaditya...............................627 - 632
  • Duplabhaka Pratapaditya II................................632 - 682
  • Chandrapida Vadjraditya...................................682 - 691
  • Tarapida Udayaditya.......................................691 - 695
  • Muktapida Lalitaditya.....................................695 - 732
  • Kovalayapida..............................................732 - 740
  • Prithivyapida I...........................................740 - 744
  • Sangramapida I............................................744 - 751
  • Jayapida..................................................751 - 782
  • Jajja.....................................................782 - 785
  • Lalitapida................................................785 - 797
  • Sangamapida II (Prithivyapida II).........................797 - 804
  • Chippatajayapida..........................................804 - 816
  • Ajitapida.................................................816 - ?
  • Anagapida
  • Utpalapida..................................................? - 857
  • UTPALA
  • Bronze Dinar coins of Avantivarman, Didda Rani and 1st Lohara rulers are known.
  • Avantivarman..............................................857 - 884
  • Shamkaravarman............................................884 - 903
  • Gopalavarman..............................................903 - 905
  • Samkatavarman...................................................905
  • Sugandha (female).........................................905 - 907
  • Nirjitavarman (1st time)........................................907 d. 924
  • Partha (1st time).........................................907 - 923 d. 936
  • Nirjitavarman (2nd time)..................................923 - 924
  • Chakravarman (1st time)...................................924 - 935 d. 938
  • Suravarman I..............................................935 - 936
  • Partha (2nd time)...............................................936
  • Chakravarman (2nd time)...................................936 - 938
  • Umattavanti...............................................938 - ?
  • Suravarman II...............................................? - 940
  • YADJASKARA
  • Yadjaskara................................................940 - 948
  • Vanata..........................................................948
  • Samgramadeva I............................................948 - 950
  • PARVAGUPTA
  • Parvagupta................................................950 - 951
  • Kshemagupta...............................................951 - 960
  • Abhimanyu.................................................960 - 973
  • Nandigupta................................................973 - 975
  • Tribhuvana................................................975 - 976
  • Bhimagupta................................................976 - 981
  • Didda Rani (female).......................................981 - 1004
  • 1st LOHARA
  • Samgramaraja [Samgramadeva I]...........................1004 - 1029
  • Hariraja.......................................................1029
  • Ananda..................................................1029 - 1064
  • Kaladja [Kalasa]........................................1064 - 1090
  • Utkardja.......................................................1090
  • Harsha..................................................1090 - 1102
  • 2nd LOHARA
  • Uchchala................................................1102 - 1113
  • Radda..........................................................1113
  • Salhana........................................................1113
  • Sussala (1st time)......................................1113 - 1120 d. 1127
  • Bhikshachara...................................................1120
  • Sussala (2nd time)......................................1120 - 1127
  • Jayasimha...............................................1127 - 1154
  • Pramanuka...............................................1154 - 1164
  • Varttideva..............................................1164 - 1171
  • VOPYADEVA
  • Vopyadeva...............................................1171 - 1180
  • Jassaka.................................................1180 - 1198
  • Jagadeva................................................1198 - 1213
  • Rajadeva................................................1213 - 1236
  • Samgramadeva II.........................................1236 - 1252
  • Nominal Mongol overlordship.............................1240 - c. 1340
    • Ramadeva...........................................1252 - 1273
    • Lakhshmanadeva.....................................1273 - 1286
    • SIMHADEVA
    • Simhadeva..........................................1286 - 1301
    • Sahadeva...........................................1301 - 1320
    • RINCHANA
    • Sadr ad-Din........................................1320 - 1323
    • Haidar Khan...............................................1323
    • Udayanadeva........................................1323 - 1338
    • Kota Rani (female).................................1338 - 1339
    • Shah Mir attacked her and forced her to marry him. He later threw her and her two sons in the prison and declared himself Sultan Shamsuddin. Her death in 1339 paved the way for the establishment of Muslim rule in Kashmir.
  • Sultanate of Kashmir
  • SWATI
  • Shams ad-Din I Shah Mirza Swati........................1339 - 1342
  • Shah Mirza was an adventurer from Swat. He became a minister to the above ruling Hindu ruler and eventually succeeded in usurping the throne, adopting the title Shams al-Din Shah. His reign lasted three years and he was followed in turn by each of his four sons mentioned below.
  • Jamshid S/o Shah Mirza.................................1342 - 1343
  • Ali Shah Aladdin S/o Shah Mirza........................1343 - 1354
  • Shirashamak Shihab ad-Din S/o Shah Mirza...............1354 - 1373
  • Qutb ad-Din Hindal S/o Shah Mirza......................1373 - 1389
  • Sikandar [Butshikan] the Iconoclast S/o Hindal.........1389 - 1413
  • After Hindal's death, his widow placed their young son Sikandar on the throne. No coins are known for any of these early Swati Sultans. Although there are no coins known struck in the name of this Sikandar, there are various anonymous copper coins dated to his reign. Therefore to his reign the first coins of the Kashmir Sultanate are attributed. He is known as Iconoclast and is reputed to have destroyed Hindu temples and images. Such bronze images my well have been converted into coinage. Sikandar died and was succeeded by his eldest son with the title Ali Shah.
  • Ali Shah I S/o Sikandar................................1413 - 1420
  • Zain al-Abidin S/o Sikandar............................1420 - 1470
  • Ali Shah was defeated in battle by his brother Shahi Khan and disappears from history. Shahi Khan ascended the throne under the title Zain al-Abidin and proceeded to rule wisely and with justice for the next fifty years. Unlike his predecessor, he was tolerant of the Hindu religion and permitted its observance. He under toll various public works, promoted learning and made Persian the language of his court. He reformed the coinage striking coins in gold, silver and bronze. With a couple of exceptions, his coins formed the pattern for the sultanate Delhi's coinage until its ending the Mughal emperor Akbar. Sasnu as silver square and Kaserah as copper round coins were introduced of weight around six gram each in his reign. Zain al-Abidin's health deteriorated and his realm fell prey to the intrigues of his three sons and their supporters. After his death his son, Haji Khan, ascended the throne with the title Haidar Shah.
  • Haidar Shah S/o Zain al-Abidin.........................1470 - 1472
  • Haidar turned out to be worthless drunkard, who allowed the country to be misgoverned by his ministers, thus undoing all the good work of his father. His reign lasted but a couple of years and he was succeeded by his son Hasan. 
  • Hasan Shah S/o Haidar Shah.............................1472 - 1484
  • He, too, though a scholar and benevolent by nature, was also addicted to strong drink. He appointed a Sayyid minister, which led Sayyids becoming all-powerful in the sultanate. Hasan wanted to be succeeded by his cousin, Fath Khan, rather than by his eldest son Muhammad, but when he died, his minister, the Sayyid Mirak Hasan Baihaqi, placed Muhammad Shah on the throne. The Sayyids were not popular in Kashmir and Muhammad Shah's accession was hotly contested. For the next fifty years, Muhammad Shah and Fath Shah became pawns of the factional leaders, the Sayyids and the Chaks.
  • Muhammad Shah S/o Hasan Shah (1st time).......................1484 d. 1537
  • Sayyid Mirak Hasan Baihaqi.............................1484 - 1485
  • Fath Shah (1st time)...................................1486 - 1493 d. 1516
  • Muhammad Shah S/o Hasan Shah (2nd time)................1493 - 1505 d. 1537
  • Fath Shah (2nd time)...................................1505 - 1514 d. 1516
  • Mohammad Shah S/o Hasan Shah (3rd time)................1514 - 1515 d. 1537
  • Fath Shah (3rd time)...................................1515 - 1516
  • Muhammed Shah S/o Hasan Shah (4th time)................1516 - 1528 d. 1537
  • Coins in all three metal exists in the name of Sikandar Shah. In the past these coins have been attributed to earlier Sikandar Shah. Die studies reveal, however that these coins must have been struck some time around 1516-1521 CE, either in the name of Fath Shah's son Sikandar Khan, who was proclaimed king in about 1521 by his father's erstwhile supporters, or in the name of Sikandar Lodhi of Delhi. Muhammad Shah had gone into exile to Delhi in 1516 and had appealed to the Lodhi ruler for assistance to regain his throne. Assistance was granted and Muhammad managed to oust his competitor. In return of this assistance Muhammad may have agreed to acknowledge the suzerainty of Delhi and to strike coins in the name of the Delhi ruler. In 1528, Kaji Chak became Prime Minister, removed Muhammad Shah from the throne and placed his own son Ibrahim on the throne.
  • Ibrahim Shah I S/o Kaji Chak...........................1528 - 1529
  • Nazuk (Nadir) Shah S/o Fath Shah (1st time)............1529 - 1530 d. 1552
  • Within a year of Ibrahim Shah's rule, Nazuk Shah got control and ruled for about a year as well.
  • Muhammad Shah S/o Hasan Shah (5th time)................1530 - 1537
  • Muhammad Shah was released from prison and enthroned for the fifth time, with Nazuk Shah being relegated to heir apparent. At around this time, Kashmir was invaded by a Mughal army on the orders of Kamran. After a short occupation, the Mughals were ousted but in 1553, the country was again invaded, this time by a Kashghari army under Mirza Haidar Dughlat. The Kashgharis were successful but did not stay long. They negotiated a treaty and withdrew, having first had the name of their Khan, Mir Said Khan of Kashghar, read out in the khutba and struck on the coins of Kashmir around AH 939/940 (1553 CE). Muhammad Shah eventually died and was succeeded by his son.
  • Shams Al-Din II S/o Muhammad Shah......................1537 - 1538
  • He ruled as a puppet of his maternal grandfather, Kaji Chak. He did not enjoy his position for very long as he died the following year to be followed on the throne by his brother.
  • Ismail Shah I S/o Muhammad Shah........................1538 - 1539
  • After a short reign Ismail Shah was replaced by his son.
  • Ibrahim Shah II S/o Ismail Shah I......................1539 - 1540
  • No silver coins have been found of Ibrahim II but copper coins have been struck in his name with fixed date, making it impossible to distinguish between his coins and those of Ibrahim I. Ibrahim Shah I was replaced by Nazuk Shah. The opponents of Kaji Chak has invited Mirza Haidar, who had led the Kashghari invasion of 1553, and who was serving the Mughal emperor, Humayun, in the Punjab, to take control of the country. This objected was achieved, Kaji Chak was defeated and Nazuk put on the throne. Strangely, on his coins he is called Nadir Shah and not Nazuk Shah.
  • Nazuk (Nadir) Shah S/o Fath Shah (2nd time)............1540 - 1546 opposed by...
  • Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat..........................1546 - 1550
  • Coins struck during Mirza Haidar's reign bear the name of the Mughal emperor Muhammad Humayun and Islam Shah Suri.
  • Nazuk (Nadir) Shah S/o Fath Shah (3rd time)............1550 - 1551
  • Nazuk Shah was again removed and replaced this time by Ibrahim II, for his second reign.
  • Ibrahim Shah II S/o Ismail Shah I......................1552 - 1555
  • There was dissent among the Chaks and Ghazi Chak managed to regain power, installing firstly Ismail Shah II and then his nephew, Habib Shah as ruler.
  • Ismail Shah II.........................................1555 - 1557
  • Habib (Mahmud) Shah....................................1557 - 1561
  • He used the name Mahmud Shah on his coins for unknown reason. Ghazi Chak decided to ascend the throne himself under the title of Muhammad Ghazi Shah.

SG#K104 Sasnu. Year: AH 953 (1546 CE). Weight: 6.16g. Metal: Silver. Size: 1.45 x 1.5 cm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal, retrograde reverse. Mint: Kashmir. Mintage: N/A. Ruler: Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat citing: Mughal Emperor: al-sultan al-azam Muhammad Humayun ghazi 1546-1550. Minted Years: One year, scarce type.

This coin has ghazi on the left side below Muhammad Humayun. SG#K105 also exists with the same year having ghazi written on right side below Muhammad Humayun.

SG#K116 Sasnu. Year: AH 962 (1555 CE) on obverse and AH 959 on reverse. Weight: 6.26g. Metal: Silver. Size: 1.45 x 1.5 cm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal, retrograde reverse. Mint: Kashmir. Mintage: N/A. Ruler: Habib (Mahmud) Shah [al-sultan al-azam mahmud shah]. Minted Years:  One year, very rare type.

Further reading on Kashmir coins recommended is Nicholas Rhodes: The Coinage of the Sultans of Kashmir, published in Numismatic Digest, vol. 17, 1993, Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies, Nasik. This survey includes a bibliography of numismatic and historical references.

  • CHAK
  • Muhammad Ghazi Shah....................................1561 - 1563
  • By this time, the Mughal has started to re-establish their powers in India, and the new ruler in Kashmir, perhaps wishing to keep on good terms with his powerful neighbour, issued coins not in his own name but also in the name of Akbar, who had succeeded Humayun in AH 963 (1556 CE). Muhammad Ghazi Shah was removed by his brother Husain Chak, who ascended the throne with the name of Husain Shah.
  • Husain Shah I..........................................1563 - 1570
  • Mughal emperor Akbar send an envoy to Kashmir in 1568, who was well received. When the envoy returned to Lahore, Husain sent his own daughter, with fine gifts, to be married to Akbar. Various coin during his reign were also struck in the name of Akbar attest to these events. Husain Shah abdicated in favour of his brother, Ali Chak in AH 948 (1570 CE).
  • Zahir al-Din Muhammad Ali Shah II......................1570 - 1579
  • He first attempted to assert his independence but it was not long before Akbar sent two powerful ambassadors to Kashmir to require him to acknowledge Mughal overlordship. Coins are known to be struck in Akbar's name during his reign, though not from the time of the ambassador's arrival. Muhammad Ali suddenly died from an accident in AH 987 (1579 CE) and this led to a period of confusion. He was succeeded initially by his son Muhammad Yusuf Shah. He was soon ousted as a result of a rebellion by the Sayyid faction that saw Mubarak Khan ascend the throne as Mubarak Shah.
  • Muhammad Yusuf Shah S/o Muhammad Ali Shah II (1st time).......1579 d. 1586
  • He is known to issue coins in this brief period as well as during his second reign from 1580 to 1586. He was soon ousted as a result of a rebellion by the Sayyid faction that saw Mubarak Khan ascend the throne as Mubarak Shah.
  • Sayyid Mubarrak Khan Baihaqi..................................1579
  • He is known to produce coins in his short reign in AH 987 (1579 CE). He, in turn, was displaced by a counter-rebellion, that saw not Yusuf but his cousin Lohar Chak seize the throne.
  • Lohar Shah.............................................1579 - 1580
  • He is known to produce coins in his short reign in AH 987 (1580 CE). Yusuf left Kashmir and sought Akbar's aid to regain his throne. A promise of aid was given but was not needed as Yusuf managed to defeat and capture Lohar Shah in a battle.
  • Muhammad Yusuf Shah S/o Muhammad Ali Shah II (2nd time)1580 - 1586
  • His reign lasted for some six years but he was always mindful of pressure from the Mughals. In 1584 he sent his eldest son Yaqub to Akbar with fine gifts as proof of his loyalty, but the mission was not well received as Akbar expected Yusuf to come in person.
  • Yaqub Shah S/o Muhammad Yusuf Shah (1st time).................1586
  • Oddly enough, coins are known in the name of Yaqub two years before he formally claimed the throne, i.e. in AH 992 (1584). Latter coins were struck on his name in AH 994 (1586). In 1586 (AH 994), Yusuf was forced to submit to Akbar. He was imprisoned for his pains. Yaqub was again declared king and continued to fight a rearguard action for two years before realising that further resistance was futile.
  • Husain Shah II................................................1586
  • Yaqub Shah S/o Muhammad Yusuf Shah (2nd time)..........1586 - 1588
  • He later submitted to Akbar and exiled to Bihar, where he died in 1592. From 1588 onwards, Kashmir became part of the Mughal Empire.
  • Mughal Empire (India)..................................1588 - 1747
    • Subidars (governors) of Kashmir appointed by the Mughal Emperors:
    • Mirza Kasim.......................................1588 - 1590
    • Mirza Yusuf Khan Rizvi............................1590 - 1601
    • Mirza 'Ali Akbar..................................1601 - 1609
    • Hasham Khan.......................................1609 - 1612
    • Sardar Khan.......................................1612 - 1615
    • Ahmad Beg.........................................1615 - 1618
    • Dilavar Khan......................................1618 - 1620
    • Iradat Khan.......................................1620 - 1622
    • Itkad Khan........................................1622 - 1634
    • Zaffar Khan.......................................1634 - 1640
    • Murad Mirza.......................................1640 - 1641
    • Ali Mardan Khan...................................1641 - 1646
    • Tarbiat Khan......................................1646 - 1657
    • Lashkar Khan......................................1657 - 1659
    • Itmad Khan........................................1659 - 1662
    • Ibrahim Khan (1st time)...........................1662 - 1664
    • Saif Khan (1st time)..............................1664 - 1667
    • ?
    • Saif Khan (2nd time)..............................1668 - 1671
    • Iftikar Khan......................................1671 - 1675
    • ?
    • Ibrahim Khan (2nd time)...........................1678 - 1686
    • Hafiz Allah Khan..................................1686 - 1690
    • Muzzaffar Khan....................................1690 - 1692
    • Abul Nassar Khan..................................1692 - 1698
    • Fazl Khan.........................................1698 - 1701
    • Ibrahim Khan (3rd time)...........................1701 - 1706
    • Djaffar Khan......................................1706 - 1709
    • Arif Khan.........................................1709 - 1710
    • Ibrahim Khan (4th time)..................................1710
    • Navazish Khan.....................................1710 - 1711
    • Inayatolla Khan (1st time)........................1711 - 1713
    • Saadat Khan.......................................1713 - 1715
    • Inayatolla Khan (2nd time)........................1715 - 1722
    • Nadjib Khan.......................................1722 - 1725
    • Agidat Khan.......................................1725 - 1726
    • Amir Khan.........................................1726 - 1728
    • Ahtram Khan.......................................1728 - 1735
    • Dil Dilir Khan....................................1735 - 1736
    • Djalal ad-Din Khan.......................................1736
    • Fahr ad-Daula.....................................1736 - 1738
    • Inayatolla Khan II................................1738 - c. 1741
    • Azad Yar Khan.....................................1741 - 1745
    • Abul Mansur Safdar Djang..........................1745 - 1748
    • Afrasiab Beg......................................1748 - 1752
    • Ahmad Ali Khan...........................................1752
  • Afghanistan............................................1747 - 1819
  • Afghan rulers Ahmad Shah Durrani (1747-1772), Taimur Shah (1772-1793), Zaman Shah (1793-1801), Mahmud Shah (1801-1803 and 1809-1819) and Shoja al-Mulk Muhammad Shah (1803-1809) are known to mint coins in Kashmir during their rule.
    • Afghan rulers in Kashmir
    • Abdalla Khan Ishk Agasi...........................1748 - 1749
    • Raja Sukh Jivan Mal...............................1749 - 1750
    • Abdulla Khan Kabuli...............................1750 - c. 1762
    • Nur ad-Din Khan Bamzai (1st time).................1762 - 1763
    • Buland Khan Bamzai................................1763 - 1764
    • Nur ad-Din Khan Bamzai (2nd time).................1764 - 1765
    • Jan Mohammed Khan........................................1765
    • Lal Khan Khattak (1st time).......................1765 - 1766
    • Khurram Khan (1st time)...........................1766 - 1767
    • Fakir Ulla Kanth.........................................1767
    • Nur ad-Din Khan Bamzai (3rd time).................1767 - 1770
    • Lal Khan Khattak (2nd time).......................1770 - 1771
    • Khurram Khan (2nd time)..................................1771
    • Amir Khan Jawansher...............................1771 - 1778
    • Haji Karim Dad Khan...............................1778 - 1781
    • Azad Khan.........................................1781 - 1785
    • Madad Khan........................................1785 - 1786
    • Mirdad Khan.......................................1786 - 1788
    • Mulla Ghafar Khan........................................1788
    • Juma Khan Alokzai.................................1788 - 1792
    • Mir Hazar Khan....................................1792 - 1794
    • Rahmatullah Khan.........................................1794
    • Kifayat Khan......................................1794 - 1795
    • Arslan Khan..............................................1795
    • Mohammad Khan Jawansher ?................................1795
    • Sher Muhammad Khan.........................29 Sep 1795 - Dec 1795
    • Abdullah Khan Alokzai.............................1795 - 1796
    • Vakil Khan........................................1796 - 1799
    • Atta Muhammad Bamizai Khan........................1799 - 1812
    • He is known as a rebel Governor of Kashmir from 1808 to 1813 and used the name of Shah Nur al-Din; the patron Saint of Kashmir, on his coinage.
    • Azim Khan.........................................1812 - 1819
    • He is also known to mint coins in the name of Mahmud Shah in Kashmir.
    • Jabbar Khan..............................................1819
  • Sikh Empire (Punjab)...................................1819 - 1846 opposed by...
  • Ayyub Shah ibn Taimur Shah (Peshawar & Qandahar).......1817 - 1829
  • He is also known as a puppet of Afghan ruler Dost Muhammad from 1817 to 1823 and ruled Kashmir from 1818 to 1829.
    • Sikh Subidars
    • Mir Divan Chand..........................................1819
    • Divan Moti Ram....................................1819 - 1821
    • Hari Singh Nalva..................................1821 - 1825
    • Divan Moti Ram....................................1825 - 1827
    • Divan Kripa Ram...................................1827 - 1831
    • Bhim Singh Ardali.................................1831 - 1832
    • Sher Singh........................................1832 - 1834
    • Mian Singh........................................1834 - c. 1841
    • Vazir Zoravar Singh...............................1841 - 1842
    • Sheyh Muhi ad-Din.................................1842 - 1845
    • Sheyh Imad ad-Din.................................1845 - 1846
  • DOGRA - Jamwal (Surajbansi) Dynasty
  • Gulab Singh (in Jammu 1822-1856)................15 Mar 1846 - 20 Feb 1856
  • Son of Mian Kishore Singh of Jammu. Gulab Singh delcared himself as Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir on 09 Nov 1846.
  • Dependency of Great Britain............................1857 - 1948
    • Ranbir Singh S/o Gulab Singh...............20 Feb 1857 - 12 Sep 1885
    • Pratap Singh S/o Ranbir Singh (1st time)...12 Sep 1885 - 18 Apr 1889 d. 1925
    • Great Britain directly............................1889 - 1898
      • Chirman Regency Council
      • Amar Singh S/o Ranbir Singh...........18 Apr 1889 - 1890
      • Pratap Singh S/o Ranbir Singh (2nd time).....1890 - Oct 1905
    • Pratap Singh S/o Ranbir Singh (continued).....Oct 1905 - 07 Sep 1925
    • Hari Singh S/o Amar Singh..................07 Sep 1925 - 1948
  • Partitioned between India and Pakistan in 1948 - most of the Vale of Kashmir was occupied by India. Hari Singh continued to rule Jammu and Jammu till 17 Nov 1952. He died in 26 Apr 1961. His son Karan Singh was regent under his father rule from 20 Jun 1948 to 17 Nov 1952. Later Karan Singh was elected as Sadr-e Riyasat (roughly, "head of state") from 17 Nov 1952 to 30 Mar 1965 and then Governor from 30 Mar 1965 to 15 May 1967.

Y#16b Rupee. Year: VS 1930 (1873 CE). Weight: 6.78g. Metal: Silver. Edge: Plain. Alignment: rotated. Mint: Srinagar, engraver's initial: JHS. Mintage: N/A. Ruler: Maharaja Ranbir Singh. Minage Years: VS 1929-1932 (1872-1875 CE).

Series: Third Silver, struck on dump planchets. Persian on obverse side and Takari on reverse side.

Y#21a Rupee. Year: VS 1952 (1895 CE). Weight: 6.65g. Metal: Silver. Edge: Plain. Alignment: rotated. Mint: Srinagar, engraver's initial: JHS. Mintage: N/A. Ruler: Maharaja Pratap Singh. Minage Years: VS 1934-1952 (1877-1895 CE).

Series: Fourth Silver (Chilki). Persian date in second line of obverse side and Davanagari date in second line of reverse side.

 
 
Ladakh
Capital: Leh. At the extreme northern terminus of India, adjacent to the Karakoram Range in the Himalayas. To the north is Xinjiang, to the east is Tibet; west and south is Kashmir. To this day, the area is a hinterland whose frontiers are in dispute between China, India, and Pakistan. Politically, the place has been a sizable Tibetan principality, almost to modern times.
 

           c.900           Mnga'-ris-skor-gsum (Ladakh) established by a
                           West-Tibetan branch of the Yar-lung dynasty.
  1200's - 1300's          Under Mongol suzerainty.
    1644 - 1685            Tributary of the (Mughal) Empire of Hind.
  1690's - 1700's          Vassal state of Kashmir.
    1783 - 17 Sep 1842     Tributary of Tibet (which itself is under suzerainty of China).
           17 Sep 1842     Ladakh incorporated into the Jammu state, succeeded
                           by Jammu and Kashmir (with some nominal autonomy).
           21 Nov 1962     China occupies Aksai Chin region.
           28 Aug 1995     Ladakh Hill Area Development Council created.
           29 Dec 2002     Autonomy increased.
 
  • Tibet until c. 900
  • First Dynasty
  • Skyidlde Nimamgon.............................................fl. c. 900
  • DpalGyimgon
  • Gromgon
  • Grags-palde
  • Byanchubsemsdpa
  • Lhachenrgyalpo
  • Utpala
  • Nag-lug
  • Dgebhe
  • Joldor
  • Bkrasismgon
  • Lhargyal
  • Under Mongol suzreinty mid 1200s-mid 1300s
    • Dnos-grub................................................fl. c. 1215
    • Rgyalbu Rinchen
    • ??
  • Shes-rab
  • Khri-gtsuglde
  • Grags-bumlde..................................................fl. c. 1430
  • Blo-grosmchogldan.........................................? - c. 1460
  • Second Dynasty - (titl:e Chos-rgyal-chen-po; from 1683 every ruler also used the name Aqibat Mahmud Khan).
  • Bhagan..............................................c. 1460 - c. 1485
  • name unknown........................................c. 1485 - c. 1510
  • Lata Jughdan........................................c. 1510 - c. 1535
  • Kundga'-rnamrgyal I.................................c. 1535 - c. 1555
  • Bkra-shisrnamrgyal..................................c. 1555 - 1575
  • Tshedbanrnamrgyal I.................................c. 1575 - c. 1595
  • Rnamrgyalmgonpo.....................................c. 1595 - 1600 with...
  • Jamdbyansrnamrgyal..................................c. 1595 - 1616
  • Senge Rnamrgyal........................................1616 - 1623 d. 1642
  • Norbu Rnamrgyal........................................1623 - 1624
  • Senge Rnamrgyal (restored).............................1624 - 1642
  • bDeldan Rnamrgyal......................................1642 - 1694 with...
  • bDelegs Rnamrgyal......................................1680 - 1691
  • Nyima Rnamrgyal........................................1694 - 1729
  • bDeskyonrnamrgyal......................................1729 - 20 Mar 1739
  • Bkrashisrnamrgyal......................................1739 - 1758 with...
  • Phun-tshogs Rnamrgyal..................................1739 - 1753 and then...
  • Tshedbanrnamrgyal II...................................1753 - 1782
  • Tshebrtanrnamrgyal.....................................1782 - 1802
  • Tshedpaldongrubrnamrgyal...............................1802 - 1837 with...
  • Tshedbanrabbrtanrnamrgyal (1st time)...................1830 - 1837
  • Kashmir................................................1837 - 1839
    • Dnosgrubbtsan'Dzin................................1837 - 1839
  • Tshedpaldongrubrnamrgyal (2nd time)....................1839 - 1840
  • Jigs-med rNam-rgyal (1st time).....................Jun 1840 - Jul 1840
  • Kundga'-rnamrgyal II...................................1840 - 1842
  • Jigs-med rNam-rgyal (2nd time).........................1842 - 17 Sep 1842
  • Kashmir.........................................17 Sep 1842 - 1948
  • Most within Indian control since 1948.
 
Early Indian coins:

British India coins:

Coins of Indian Princely States and other colonies:

Others:

 
 
 
India
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins