Punjab
 
Region in the Northwest of the Indian subcontinent. Since 1947 it has been separated into an Indian state and a Pakistani province bearing the same name. Below is the general outline of dynasties with prominent rulers, ruling Punjab:
 
  • The Indus Valley civilization........................c. 2300 - 1700 BCE
  • A blank time, no knowlege of people living here remains...
  • Persia................................................c. 520 - late 400s
  • Unknown rulers
  • Local polities....................................late 400's - 329
  • Ambhi (Omphis) (in Taxila)....................................fl. 330's opposed by...
  • Puru (Porus, Poros) (in Katha and Lahore).....................fl. 330's and...
  • Numerous petty kingdoms and tribal republics, including Aspasia, Assakeonois, Siboi, Kushudrakas, Maliavas, and Ambashta and then all under...
  • Macedon..................................................329 - 316
    • Macedonian Satraps
    • Philippus...........................................329 - 325
    • Eudemenes...........................................325 - 316 ?
  • The Mauryan Empire.......................................316 - c. 250
  • Bactria...............................................c. 250 - c. 100
  • Suren (within Parthian hegemony).........................100 - 60
  • The Kushanids and the Kushanshahs..................c. 60 BCE - c. 300 CE
    • Gondopharnes (in Taxila)..................................fl. c. 50 CE
  • The Guptas...............................................300 - mid 400's
  • The Hephthalites (400's - 565)
  • The names of the rulers of Hepthethalites (Ephthalites or Epthalites or Hephtal or Hunas or White Huns or Hayathelites or Ye-tai or He-ta or Cao) are mostly unknown. Their capital was at Bamiyan and later at Sakkala (Sialkot). Hepthethalites were large cone-headed and practiced polyandry. One of the clan of the Hepthethalites were Alchon. Alchon (Uarkhon) became the new name of the Chionites in 460 when Khingila I united the Uar with the Chionites under his Hephthal ruling Úlite. In India the Alchon were not distinguished from their immediate White Huns predecessors and both are known as Sveta-Hunas there. Perhaps complimenting this term, Procopius (527-565) wrote that they were white skinned, had an organized kingship, and that their life was not wild/nomadic but that they lived in cities.  The Alchon were called Varkhon or Varkunites (Ouar-Khonitai) by Menander Protector (538-582) literally referring to the Uar and Hunnoi. Around 630, Theophylact Simocatta wrote that the European "Avars" were initially composed of two nations, the Uar and the Hunnoi tribes. He wrote that: "...the Barsilt, the Unogurs and the Sabirs were struck with horror... and honoured the newcomers with brilliant gifts..." when the Avars first arrived in their lands in 555 CE. The Huns invaded the former Sasanian and Kushan territories in Afghanistan and north-west Pakistan, as far south as the Punjab, in the fifth century. They produced imitations of the local coinages in the lands they conquered. This coin imitates the designs of Sasanian coins and has a Bactrian inscription giving the name Alchon. This is thought by some scholars to be the tribe to which the Hun ruler Khingila (about 440-90) belonged. As to the exact nature of Hephthalite religious practice, once again, we do not know for certain. Sung Yun and Hui Shen record that "they have no belief in the Buddhist law and they serve a great number of divinities" (though as we have discovered, this is anti-Buddhist portrait is not entirely accurate). Other Wei-era documentation records that the Hephthalites worshiped Heaven and also fire, also mentioned by Procopius. This would point to the practice of Zoroastrianism, except for the fact that they did not leave their deceased exposed to the elements, a funerary tradition associated with this religion. Instead, the Hephthalites buried their dead either in graves or in stone tombs. Most likely, their religion was an amalgamation of a number of different faiths, as well as animistic beliefs. Although the power of the Alchon in Bactria was shattered in the 560's by a combination of Sassanid and proto-Turkic forces, the last Hephthal king Narana/Narendra managed to maintain some kind of rule between 570 and 600 CE over the 'nspk' or 'napki' or 'nezak' tribes that remained after most of the Alchon had fled to the west. Alchon Huns coinage refers to a tribe which minted coins in Bactria in the 5th & 6th centuries. The name Khigi on one of the coins and Narendra on another has led some scholars of the area to believe that the Hephthalite Khagans Khingila and Narana were of the AlChoNo tribe inscribed in Bactrian script on the coins in question. They imitated the earlier style of their Hephthalite predecessors, the Kidarite Hun (Red Huns) successors to the Kushans fron c.300 to 650 CE. In particular the Alchon style imitates the coins of Kidarite Varhran I (syn. Kushan Varhran IV). Legends in Bactrian, Pahlavi and Brahmi exists on their coins. Coin with "Sri YaShaaDiTya" silver obol are known. Below are some known rulers:
  • Kidarite Hun of Red Huns or Kidarite Principality of the Kota Kula in the Punjab
  • Kidara................................................c. 320 - 350
  • Varahran I (Varahan I)................................c. 350 - 360
  • Talathutha............................................c. 400 - 500
  • Varahran II Kushanshah.........................................4th century
  • Nike...........................................................4th century
  • Alchon (Uarkhon)
  • Khingila I............................................c. 430 - 490
  • Raja Lakhana Udayaditya........................................c. 500
  • Mepame.........................................................5th century
  • Kings ruling Afghanistan / Gandhara (Turko-Hepthalites in Gandhara)
  • Napki (Nezak) Malka...................................c. 475 - 576
  • Sri Shaho......................................................after c. 576
  • White Huns Khans
  • Toramana.................................................515 - 528
  • Mihirakula...............................................528 - 542
  • Hephthalite rule was overthrown in c. 570 and they escaped west.
  • Nezak Huns (at Kabul / Ghazni / Zabulistan and probably Seistan)
  • Narana (Narendra).....................................c. 570 - 600
  • Vasu Deva......................................................after c. 624
  • Mardan Shah....................................................after c. 624
  • Shahi Jaya.....................................................c. 700
  • Shahi Tigin...........................................c. 719 - 739
  • Sri Vajara Vakhu Deva..........................................c. 720

AE Drachm. Year: ca. 400-630 CE. Weight: 4.50g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Altar and attendants. Reverse: Bust facing right. Ruler: N/A [Alchon Hun; Trident Crown Type of Nezak tribe].

Images of various Hepthethalite coinage on an external website can be seen at : http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/huns/huns.html.

 
  • Local polities...........................................565 - 712
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................712 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................750 - c. 850
  • Largely to Multan........................................850 - 1008
  • The Ghaznavids, and Afghanistan.........................1008 - 1215
  • Khwarazm................................................1215 - 1221 and...
  • Delhi (in the south and east)...........................1215 - 1524 opposed by...
  • Mongols and Il-Khanate successors (in north)............1221 - 1398
  • The Mughal Empire.......................................1524 - 1740
  • Persia..................................................1740 - 1747
  • Afghanistan.............................................1747 - 1799
  • Largely to the Khalsa (Sikhs), and to Lahore............1799 - 1849
  • Local polities also included Patiala, Multan, Bikaner, and Bahawalpur.
  • Great Britain...........................................1849 - 1947
  • India (east)............................................1947 - date and...
  • Pakistan (west).........................................1947 - date
 
Below are some important Jagir, Kingdoms, Princely states and the Sikh gurus in Punjab shown alphabetically before 1947.
 
Punjab - Province of British India
 
     29 Mar 1849            Annexed by Britain.
     02 Apr 1849            Punjab province.
     01 Apr 1937            Self-rule granted.
     15 Aug 1947            divided between Pakistan (West Punjab) & India (East Punjab)
 
  • Chief commissioners
  • Board of Administration...........................01 Apr 1849 - 1853
    • John Laird Mair Lawrence
    • Henry Lawrence
    • Charles G. Mansel
  • Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence.............................1853 - 01 Jan 1859
  • Lieutenant Governors
  • Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence (continued)..........01 Jan 1859 - 25 Feb 1859
  • Sir Robert Montgomery.............................25 Feb 1859 - 10 Jan 1865
  • The city of Sahiwal, Pakistan, founded in 1865, was formerly named "Montgomery", after Sir Robert.
  • Donald Friell McLeod..............................10 Jan 1865 - 01 Jun 1870
  • Sir Henry Marion Durand...........................01 Jun 1870 - 01 Jan 1871
  • unknown (acting)..................................01 Jan 1871 - 20 Jan 1871  
  • Sir Robert Henry Davies...........................20 Jan 1871 - 02 Apr 1877
  • Sir Robert Eyles Egerton..........................02 Apr 1877 - 03 Apr 1882
  • Sir Charles Umpherston Aitchinston................03 Apr 1882 - 02 Apr 1887
  • Sir Charles James Lyall...........................02 Apr 1887 - 05 Mar 1892
  • Sir Dennis Fitzpatrick............................05 Mar 1892 - 06 Mar 1897
  • Sir William Mackworth Young.......................06 Mar 1897 - 06 Mar 1902
  • Sir Charles Montgomery Rivaz......................06 Mar 1902 - 06 Mar 1907
  • Sir Denzil Charles Jelf Ibbetson (1st time).......06 Mar 1907 - 26 May 1907
  • Sir Thomas Gordon Walker (1st time - acting)......26 May 1907 - 12 Aug 1907
  • Sir Denzil Charles Jelf Ibbetson (2nd time).......12 Aug 1907 - 22 Jan 1908
  • Sir Thomas Gordon Walker (2nd time - acting)......22 Jan 1908 - 25 May 1908
  • Sir Louis William Dane (1st time).................25 May 1908 - 28 Apr 1911
  • James MacCrone Douie (acting).....................28 Apr 1911 - 04 Aug 1911
  • Sir Louis William Dane (2nd time).................04 Aug 1911 - 26 May 1913
  • Sir Michael Francis O'Dwyer.......................26 May 1913 - 26 May 1919
  • Sir Edward Douglas Maclagan.......................26 May 1919 - 03 Jan 1921
  • Governors
  • Sir Edward Douglas Maclagan.......................03 Jan 1921 - 31 May 1924
  • Sir William McColm Hailey.........................31 May 1924 - 09 Aug 1928
  • Sir Geoffrey Fitzhervey de Montmorency (1st time).09 Aug 1928 - 19 Jul 1932
  • Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan (1st time - acting).......19 Jul 1932 - 19 Oct 1932
  • Sir Geoffrey Fitzhervey de Montmorency (2nd time).19 Oct 1932 - 12 Apr 1933
  • Sir Herbert William Emerson (1st time)............12 Apr 1933 - 01 Feb 1934
  • Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan (2nd time - acting).......15 Feb 1934 - 09 Jun 1934
  • Sir Herbert William Emerson (2nd time)............09 Jun 1934 - 04 Apr 1938
  • Sir Henry Duffield Craik..........................04 Apr 1938 - 07 Apr 1941
  • Sir Bertrand James Glancy.........................07 Apr 1941 - 08 Apr 1946
  • Sir Evan Meredith Jenkins.........................08 Apr 1946 - 15 Aug 1947
  • Prime Ministers
  • Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan...........................01 Apr 1937 - 26 Dec 1942
  • Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana (1st time)..................Dec 1942 - Feb 1945
  • Governor's Rule......................................Feb 1945 - Apr 1946 
  • Sir Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana (2nd time)..............Apr 1946 - 04 Mar 1947
 
 

Pakistan or refer to Pakistan's Punjab Governors and Chief Ministers.

Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins