Punjab
 
Region in the Northwest of the Indian subcontinent. Since 1947 it has been separated into an Indian state and a Pakistani province bearing the same name. Below is the general outline of dynasties with prominent rulers, ruling Punjab:
 
  • The Indus Valley civilization........................c. 2300 - 1700 BCE
  • A blank time, no knowlege of people living here remains...
  • Persia................................................c. 520 - late 400s
  • Unknown rulers
  • Local polities....................................late 400's - 329
  • Ambhi (Omphis) (in Taxila)....................................fl. 330's opposed by...
  • Puru (Porus, Poros) (in Katha and Lahore).....................fl. 330's and...
  • Numerous petty kingdoms and tribal republics, including Aspasia, Assakeonois, Siboi, Kushudrakas, Maliavas, and Ambashta and then all under...
  • Macedon..................................................329 - 316
    • Macedonian Satraps
    • Philippus...........................................329 - 325
    • Eudemenes...........................................325 - 316 ?
  • The Mauryan Empire.......................................316 - c. 250
  • Bactria...............................................c. 250 - c. 100
 
  • SCYTHIANS (INDO-GREEK)
  • The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was an Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern Pakistan and northwestern India), during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another.
    The kingdom was founded when the Graeco-Bactrian king Demetrius invaded the subcontinent early in the 2nd century BC. The Greeks in the Indian Subcontinent were eventually divided from the Graeco-Bactrians centered in Bactria (now the border between Afghanistan and Uzbekistan), and the Indo-Greeks in the present-day north-western Indian Subcontinent. The most famous Indo-Greek ruler was Menander (Milinda). He had his capital at Sakala in the Punjab (present-day Sialkot).

    The expression "Indo-Greek Kingdom" loosely describes a number of various dynastic polities, traditionally associated with a number of regional capitals like Taxila, (modern Punjab (Pakistan)), Pushkalavati and Sagala. Other potential centers are only hinted at; for instance, Ptolemy's Geographia and the nomenclature of later kings suggest that a certain Theophila in the south of the Indo-Greek sphere of influence may also have been a satrapal or royal seat at one time.
  • Apollodotus I Soter S/o Eucratides I.................c. 180 - 160
  • He ruled Paropamisade, Arachosia, Gandhara and Western Punjab.
  • Antimachus II Nikephoros.............................c. 160 - 155
  • He ruled Paropamisade, Arachosia, Gandhara and Western Punjab. The epithet Nikephoros means "the Victorious". He was an Indo-Greek king and ruled a vast territory from the Hindu-Kush to the Punjab around 170 BCE. He was almost certainly the eponymous son of Antimachus I, who is known from a unique preserved tax receipt. Bopearachchi dated Antimachus II to 160 - 155 BCE on numismatic grounds, but changed this to 174 - 165 BCE after the tax receipt was revealed to synchronize his reign with that of Antimachus I. R. C. Senior has not dated Antimachus II but thinks that his coins were possibly Indian issues of Antimachus I, despite their different epithets and coin types. In both of Boperachchi's reconstructions, Antimachus II was succeeded by Menander I who inherited three of his four monograms. Antimachus II probably fought against the Bactrian king Eucratides I, who had dethroned his father in Bactria.
  • Menander Soter.......................................c. 155 - 130
  • Menander was initially a king of Bactria. After conquering the Punjab he established an empire in the Indian Subcontinent stretching from the Kabul River valley in the west to the Ravi River in the east, and from the Swat River valley in the north to Arachosia (the Helmand Province). Ancient Indian writers indicate that he launched expeditions southward into Rajasthan and as far east down the Ganges River Valley as Pataliputra (Patna), and the Greek geographer Strabo wrote that he "conquered more tribes than Alexander the Great."
  • Thrason S/o Menander Soter.....................................c. 130
  • Menander was briefly succeeded by his son Thrason, of whom a single coin is known. Thrason, was an Indo-Greek king in Central and Western Punjab, unknown until the 1982 discovery of one of his coins by R. C. Senior in the Surana hoard. The coin is in a style similar to those of Menander I, has the same type of Athena, and shares one of Menander's mint marks. On the coin, the title of Thraso is Basileus Megas ("Great King"), a title which only Eucratides the Great had dared take before him and which is seemingly misplaced on the young boy Thraso, whose single preserved coin indicates a small and insignificant reign. Osmund Bopearachchi suggests a preliminary dating of 95–80 BC, but Senior himself concludes that Thraso was the son and heir of Menander (c. 155–130 BC), since his coin was not worn and was found in a hoard with only earlier coins. After Thrason was murdered, competing kings such as Zoilos I or Lysias may have taken over Menander's kingdom. Menander's dynasty was thus dethroned and did not return to power until later, though his relative Nicias may have ruled a small principality in the Kabul valley.
  • Zoilus I Dikaios......................................c. 130 - 120
  • He ruled areas of Paropamisade and Arachosia.
  • Agathocleia (regent for Strato I).....................c. 135 - 125
  • It seems that Menander's natural heir may have been Strato I, but, from what the coins indicate, he was a minor at the time and his mother Agathocleia served as Queen Regent until he attained maturity. According to Bopearachchi, it is likely that Zoilus I took control of the western part of Menander's kingdom (the Kabul valley) and Agathocleia/Strato the eastern part, including Gandhara and Punjab. Agathocleia (also spelled Agathokleia) may have been Menander's wife or daughter or daughter-in-law. She is one of the very few women (as opposed to female deities, of which there are an abundance) ever depicted on Indian coins. The drachms and bronze coins name her in the obverse Greek legend and Strato on the reverse; the tetradrachms depict and name them both on the obverse, and name them both in the reverse Kharoshthi legend.
  • Strato I.............................................c. 125 - 110 d. c. 75; with...
  • Lysias Anicetus......................................c. 120 - 110 and...
  • Bopearachchi suggests that Lysias' territory covered the areas of the Paropamisade and Arachosia, but his coins have been found in the Punjab and it is possible that Lysias ruled most of the Indo-Greek territory for a period, though perhaps in cooperation with Antialcidas, with whom he shared most of his monograms.
  • Antialcidas Nikephoros...............................c. 115 - 95
  • He ruled Paropamisade, Arachosia and Gandhara. Antialcidas (also spelled Antialkidas) was one of the few Indo-Greek kings for whom we have evidence other than his coins. A few miles from the ancient city of Sanchi, there is a stone pillar (known as the Heliodorus pillar) that mentions him as the Greek king who sent his ambassador Heliodorus to the court of the king Bhagabhadra.
  • Heliocles II.........................................c. 110 - 100
  • Coins of Heliocles II are known that are overstrikes on coins of Agathocleia, Strato I, and Antialcidas. Thus Heliocles II must have been a king who followed or was at least contemporary with these other kings. Heliocles I, on the other hand, had ruled in Bactria, only until c. 130 BCE. Since Heliocles II was about 30-40 years later, he may have been the son or grandson of Heliocles I. Since he uses all the monograms of Strato I, it is quite likely that he conquered all of Strato's territory.
  • Polyxenos Epiphanes Soter.....................................c. 100
  • Polyxenus (or Polyxenos) was a short-lived king who seems to have had a connection to Menander, as he adopted the latter's choice of the "thundering Athena" reverse on his silver coinage and the helmeted bust of Athena on his bronze coinage. He uses monograms used by Strato I and Heliocles II, so it is probable that he ruled in the same area of Gandhara and Punjab. All his coins are rare, so he probably had a very short reign.
  • Demetrius III.................................................c. 100
  • Demetrius (or Demetrios) III was another short-lived king His coins are all rare, and all carry the same monogram. Known types are a silver tetradrachm, a silver drachm and a bronze quadruple. The silver coins carry a diademed, bare-headed bust of the king right and a standing Zeus on the reverse, similar to the coins of Heliocles II. The bronze coins have a bust of the king wearing an elephant scalp head-dress and a very unusual reverse: a winged fulmen or thunderbolt.
  • Philoxenus (Philoxenos)..............................c. 100 - 95
  • Philoxenus (or Philoxenos) is another king about whom we know nothing other than what his coins tell us. He used many of the same monograms as Antialcidas and Heliocles II and issued several types, including some rare Attic weight tetradrachms from three different mints. The number of types, including some bronze types that have just been discovered in the last few years, indicates that he may have reigned for longer than the five years assigned to him by Osmund Bopearachchi.
  • Diomedes..............................................c. 95 - 90
  • Diomedes seems to have followed Philoxenus, as he used five of the six monograms used by the latter. However, Diomedes seems to have a connection with Eucratides, as he uses as his reverse type (and obverse type on his bronze coinage) the Dioscuri, who had also been featured by Eucratides. Whether this was because of a direct family connection between Diomedes and Eucratides, or because, like Eucratides, Diomedes wanted to highlight his royal ancestors, is not known.
    In addition to the Indian-standard bilingual coins illustrated below, Diomedes issued two Attic weight monolingual coins modelled on the coins of Eucratides. One was a bare-headed type and the other a helmeted type. The reverses looked just like those of Eucratides, with the riding Dioscuri and the legends arranged in the same way as on the coins of Eucratides.
  • Amyntas...............................................c. 95 - 90 and...
  • Amyntas was another king known only from his coins who used a key monogram used by several of his predecessors, including Heliocles II, Polyxenus, Philoxenus and Diomedes. Amyntas, however, has a great distinction: he produced the largest silver coins known in ancient times: double decadrachms of the Attic standard, whose notional weight would be around 85 grams. Not one, but TWO types of such coins were issued. One type shows Zeus enthroned three-quarters left, holding scepter and palm in left arm. The other had on the reverse an enthroned city goddess holding a cornucopia. The specimens indicated by Christie Osmund Flavian Bopearachchi have diameters ranging from 62 to 67 mm, which is absolutely massive for a coin. What the purpose of these remarkable objects was is unknown.
  • Epander Nikephoros....................................c. 95 - 90
  • He may have been a relative of Menander I and the find places of his coins seem to indicate that, he ruled in the area of Punjab. Epander must have had a very short reign as he issued only three coin types. Silver Drachm of 2.40 grams / 16 mm and two Bronze types. Bronze has Winged Nike standing right, holding wreath and palm on Obverse side and the reverse side have Humped bull standing right (Weight: 11.21 gm. Dimensions: 21 x 24 mm) while the other rare bronze type featured an elephant walking right.
  • Theophilus (Theophilos).......................................c. 90
  • The coins of Theophilus (or Theophilos) are extremely rare, so he must have had a short reign, but he used four different monograms and issued four different silver types (including an Attic weight tetradrachm) and two different bronze types. Thus the length of his reign and the extent of his kingdom remain somewhat mysterious.
  • Peucolaos (Peukolaos).........................................c. 90
  • Peucolaos (or Peukolaos) is another king about whom we know next to nothing. His coins are extremely rare, and all use just one set of monograms, so his reign must have been short and his kingdom very limited in size. 
  • Nicias (Nikias).......................................c. 90 - 85
  • Nicias (or Nikias) seems to have followed Theophilus as he uses the same monograms But his reign must also have been short, as suggested by the rarity of his coins.
  • Menander II Dikaios...................................c. 90 - 85
  • Early writers thought these coins were issues of Menander I or Menander Soter (that is, they did not realize that Menander II or Menander Dikaios was a different king). The distinction was first proposed by A.N. Lahiri. Menander II seems to have had a brief reign in Gandhara and Arachosia (southern Afghanistan).
  • Hermaios (Hermaues)...................................c. 90 - 70
  • Hermaios (also spelled Hermaues) was the last Greek king to rule in Gandhara and the Kabul valley. Apart from coins in his own name, Hermaios also issued coins with a queen (presumably his wife) Calliope. Why he did so is not clear. Perhaps Hermaios himself was not of royal parentage, while Calliope was. He may have then felt the need to feature her portrait on his early coins as a way to legitimize his rule. His kingdom must have been overrun by nomadic invaders from the north, the Yueh-Chih. These same nomadic tribes had swept through Bactria in the middle of the second century BCE, terminating Greek rule in that area, and now, in the early part of the first century BCE, they drove south over the Hindu Kush mountains and established their rule there also. The vast majority of coins in the name of Hermaios, which are available in large quantities, were imitations of that king's coins by these invading nomads. The earliest coins of the Kushan king Kujula Kadphises also name Hermaios and imitate his coins. The lifetime issues of Hermaios are in fact quite scarce, and some types are very rare.
  • Artemidoros...........................................c. 85 - 80 and...
  • Artemidoros must have been roughly contemporary with Hermaios, as an overstrike of an Artemidoros coin on one of Hermaios and Calliope is known. His coins were extremely rare until a few were found in Sarai Saleh (about 25 miles north of Islamabad) and then more in a hoard found in Ambala. If Artemidors ruled in both Sarai Saleh and Ambala, where his coins have been found, he must have had quite an extensive kingdom.
  • Archebios.............................................c. 90 - 85
  • According to Bopearachchi, Archebios (also spelled Archebius) was the last Indo-Greek king to rule in Taxila before it was conquered by Maues. Taxila monogram were on the first silver coin and on several of his bronze coins.
  • Telephos (Telephus)...................................c. 75 - 70
  • Telephos (or Telephus) was an ephemeral king in the Gandhara region who perhaps succeeded Maues there. His coins are all very rare and are most unusual in design; none of them bear his portrait. He may have belonged to an Indo-Scythian clan.
  • Apollodotus II........................................c. 80 - 65
  • It appears Apollodotus II (also spelled Apollodotos) recaptured at least parts of the Punjab from Maues, as there exists at least one coin of Apollodotus that overstrikes a coin of Maues. The coinage of Apollodotus is quite extensive, both in numbers of types and numbers of surviving coins, so it is likely he had a longer reign than many of the other kings in these waning days of the Indo-Greek kingdoms.
  • Hippostratos (Hippostratus)...........................c. 65 - 55 and...
  • Hippostratos (also spelled Hippostratus) must have ruled in the Punjab shortly after Maues, as he used some of the mongrams initiated by that king. He may have regained parts of Punjab from him. He was the last Indo-Greek king to issue tetradrachms.
  • Dionysios (Dionysius).................................c. 65 - 55
  • Dionysios (also spelled Dionysius) must have ruled in the Punjab for a short time in the middle of the first century BCE. He issued some silver drachms and three bronze types. All his coins are very rare. By this time, most of western Punjab had been taken over by the Scythians, perhaps Azes I.
  • Zoilus II (Zoilos II).................................c. 55 - 35
  • Zoilus II (also spelled Zoilos) did not rule in Taxila or most of western Punjab, which was in the hands of the Indo- Scythians. So his kingdom must have been confined to a small area in more eastern parts of Punjab and the Jammu area.
  • Apollophanes..........................................c. 35 - 25 and...
  • Bopearachchi's estimate of a 10-year reign for Apollophanes is probably an over-estimate. We know of only two different monogram Drachm silver coins issued by him. They are both extremely rare.
  • Strato II.............................................c. 25 - 10 and...
  • Bopearachchi classifies all of his issues as Strato II, Senior has argued that they should be divided into Strato II and his son or grandson Strato III. Strato II has two portrait types on his coins; the younger one and then the aged one. The portrait of the aged king, has longer legend mentioning another Strato and is agreed by both Bopearachchi and Senior to represent the last issues of Strato II, who was presumably ruling jointly with Strato III. The exact relationship between the two Stratos is not entirely clear because of the odd Kharoshthi legend on the reverse; it can be interpreted to indicate he was the son or the grandson of Strato II. Note the use of C instead of Σ. Therefore based on different legend, Senior later assigned such coins to Strato III. "maharajasa tratarasa / dhramikasa stratasa" and "maharajasa tratarasa / priyapita stratasa" legends are considered by Senior as Strato III issue. Senior states that Strato II coins do not have "dhramikasa" or "priyapita" written on them.
  • Strato III............................................c. 25 - 10
  • Bhadrayasha.......................................c. 10 BCE - 15 CE
  • Bhadrayasha is regarded as an Indo-Scythian ruler, although his coins name Zoilus II and are stylistically very similar to the coins of the last "Indo-Greeks." Indeed, it is quite clear now that the lines between Greeks and Scythians were quite blurred by this time. Although Bhadrayasha is listed last among the Indo-Greeks, the time of his reign is somewhat uncertain. Given that he names Zoilus II on his coins, he may well have reigned shortly after that king.
 
 
 
  • INDO-PARTHIAN
  • The Indo-Parthian Kingdom was ruled by the Gondopharid dynasty and other rulers who were a group of ancient kings from Central Asia that ruled parts of present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and northwestern India, during or slightly before the 1st century AD. For most of their history, the leading Gondopharid kings held Taxila (in the present Punjab province of Pakistan) as their residence, but during their last few years of existence the capital shifted between Kabul and Peshawar. These kings have traditionally been referred to as Indo-Parthians, as their coinage was often inspired by the Arsacid dynasty, but they probably belonged to a wider group of Iranian tribes who lived east of Parthia proper, and there is no evidence that all the kings who assumed the title Gondophares, which means ”Holder of Glory”, were even related. The Indo-Parthians are noted for the construction of the Buddhist monastery Takht-i-Bahi (UNESCO World Heritage Site).
  • Gondophares I.........................................c. 20 BC – first years CE
  • Gondophares I was the founder of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom and its most prominent king, ruling from 19 to 46. A member of the House of Suren, he belonged to a line of local princes who had governed the Parthian province of Drangiana since its disruption by the Indo-Scythians in c. 129 BC. During his reign, his kingdom became independent from Parthian authority and was transformed into an empire, which encompassed Drangiana, Arachosia, and Gandhara. He is generally known from the dubious Acts of Thomas, the Takht-i-Bahi inscription, and coin-mints in silver and copper. He was succeeded in Drangiana and Arachosia by Ortaghnes, and in Gandhara by his nephew Abdagases I.
  • Gondophares II Sarpedones.......................first years CE – c. 20 CE
  • Sarpedones was an Indo-Parthian king. He was one of the successors of Gondophares. He may have ruled from Arachosia to Eastern Punjab.
  • Abdagases I.....................................first years CE – mid-1st century CE
  • He was an Indo-Parthian king, a nephew of Gondophares evident from some of his coins, who ruled during the first decades of the 1st century AD. Though he never assumed the title of Gondophares, he was an important successor of his uncle, ruling his Indian conquests. His bilingual coin illustrated the kharoshti script where it can be read as "Gudaphara brathaputrasa maharajasa Abadagashasa." Brathaputra means nephew in Prakrit, the language in the coin. Zeus is also depicted in the same face.
  • Gondophares III Gudana (previously Orthagnes)............c. 20 – c. 30
  • Gondophares III Gudana, or Gadana, previously called Orthagnes, was an Indo-Parthian king. He may have ruled circa 20–30 CE (25-55 CE according to Mitchiner). He may have ruled from Arachosia to Eastern Punjab.
  • Gondophares IV Sases.............................................mid-1st century
  • He is known to flourished in Taxila during c. 50 CE. Sases, also known as Gondophares IV Sases, (ruled for at least 26 years during the mid-1st century CE), was an Indo-Parthian king who ruled in northwestern parts of India in modern Pakistan. He is only known from coins. Sases apparently succeeded Abdagases in Sindh and Gandhara, and at some point during his reign assumed the name/title Gondophares, which was held by the supreme Indo-Parthian rulers. His coins show the Greek deity Zeus, forming a benediction sign (possibly Vitarka mudra), and incorporate the Buddhist symbol of the triratana.
    With the modern datings supplied by Robert Senior, Gondophares IV is a likely candidate for several possible historical references to Indo-Parthian kings of the 1st century AD. Traditionally, these references have been thought to be about Gondophares I, as earlier scholars did not realise that "Gondophares" became a title after the death of this king, just as the name of the first emperor, Augustus, in the Roman Empire, was used by all later emperors as a title.
  • Sanabares................................................c. 50 - c. 65
  • Sanabares of Parthia was a rival king of the Parthian Empire from ca. 50 to 65. There is not much known about Sanabares, except from a few coins witnessing to his rule as a Parthian king, with his capital in the city of Merv for about fifteen years. This much we owe to the dates known from certain coins of Sanabares. He was rival to Gotarzes II of Parthia (reigned 40–51), Vonones II of Parthia (reigned 51), Vologases I of Parthia (reigned 51–78) and Vardanes II of Parthia (reigned 55–58).
  • Ubouzanes S/o Orthagnes..........................................late-1st century
  • Ubouzanes was a ruler of the remnants of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom in Arachosia in the first century CE. He was the son of Orthagnes. He was unknown until the late 20th century when a hoard of coins was found in Jammu. Joe Cribb first analyzed them in 1985, discovering some belonged to a new ruler. Cribb placed him between Orthagnes and Pacores.
  • Pacores................................................c. 100 - c. 130
  • Pacores or Pakores was a king who ruled the remnants of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom in Arachosia from 100 – 130 CE following Ubouzanes. He was an Indo-Parthian king. He is well-known from coins minted in Seistan and Qandahar, mostly silver drachms and tetradrachms. The time of his reign can be determined as many of his coins over strike those of Vima Takto. He is the last well attested ruler. After his coins there is a single surviving coin with the name Abdagases II and a set of poorly made Indo-Parthian coins with unnamed rulers before the Kushan Empire conquered it.
 
  • Suren (within Parthian hegemony).........................100 - 60
  • Surena or Suren (died 53 BCE) was a Parthian spahbed ("General" or "Commander") during the 1st century BC. He was a member of the House of Suren and was best known for defeating the Romans in the Battle of Carrhae. Under his command Parthians decisively defeated a numerically superior Roman invasion force under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus. It is commonly seen as one of the earliest and most important battles between the Roman and Parthian empires and one of the most crushing defeats in Roman history.
  • The Kushanids and the Kushanshahs..................c. 60 BCE - c. 300 CE
  • The Guptas...............................................300 - mid 400's
  • The HEPHTHALITES (400's - 565)
  • The names of the rulers of Hepthethalites (Ephthalites or Epthalites or Hephtal or Hunas or White Huns or Hayathelites or Ye-tai or He-ta or Cao) are mostly unknown. Their capital was at Bamiyan and later at Sakkala (Sialkot). Hepthethalites were large cone-headed and practiced polyandry. One of the clan of the Hepthethalites were Alchon. Alchon (Uarkhon) became the new name of the Chionites in 460 when Khingila I united the Uar with the Chionites under his Hephthal ruling élite. In India the Alchon were not distinguished from their immediate White Huns predecessors and both are known as Sveta-Hunas there. Perhaps complimenting this term, Procopius (527-565) wrote that they were white skinned, had an organized kingship, and that their life was not wild/nomadic but that they lived in cities.  The Alchon were called Varkhon or Varkunites (Ouar-Khonitai) by Menander Protector (538-582) literally referring to the Uar and Hunnoi. Around 630, Theophylact Simocatta wrote that the European "Avars" were initially composed of two nations, the Uar and the Hunnoi tribes. He wrote that: "...the Barsilt, the Unogurs and the Sabirs were struck with horror... and honoured the newcomers with brilliant gifts..." when the Avars first arrived in their lands in 555 CE. The Huns invaded the former Sasanian and Kushan territories in Afghanistan and north-west Pakistan, as far south as the Punjab, in the fifth century. They produced imitations of the local coinages in the lands they conquered. This coin imitates the designs of Sasanian coins and has a Bactrian inscription giving the name Alchon. This is thought by some scholars to be the tribe to which the Hun ruler Khingila (about 440-90) belonged. As to the exact nature of Hephthalite religious practice, once again, we do not know for certain. Sung Yun and Hui Shen record that "they have no belief in the Buddhist law and they serve a great number of divinities" (though as we have discovered, this is anti-Buddhist portrait is not entirely accurate). Other Wei-era documentation records that the Hephthalites worshiped Heaven and also fire, also mentioned by Procopius. This would point to the practice of Zoroastrianism, except for the fact that they did not leave their deceased exposed to the elements, a funerary tradition associated with this religion. Instead, the Hephthalites buried their dead either in graves or in stone tombs. Most likely, their religion was an amalgamation of a number of different faiths, as well as animistic beliefs. Although the power of the Alchon in Bactria was shattered in the 560's by a combination of Sassanid and proto-Turkic forces, the last Hephthal king Narana/Narendra managed to maintain some kind of rule between 570 and 600 CE over the 'nspk' or 'napki' or 'nezak' tribes that remained after most of the Alchon had fled to the west. Alchon Huns coinage refers to a tribe which minted coins in Bactria in the 5th & 6th centuries. The name Khigi on one of the coins and Narendra on another has led some scholars of the area to believe that the Hephthalite Khagans Khingila and Narana were of the AlChoNo tribe inscribed in Bactrian script on the coins in question. They imitated the earlier style of their Hephthalite predecessors, the Kidarite Hun (Red Huns) successors to the Kushans fron c.300 to 650 CE. In particular the Alchon style imitates the coins of Kidarite Varhran I (syn. Kushan Varhran IV). Legends in Bactrian, Pahlavi and Brahmi exists on their coins. Coin with "Sri YaShaaDiTya" silver obol are known. Below are some known rulers:
  • Kidarite Hun of Red Huns or Kidarite Principality of the Kota Kula in the Punjab
  • Kidara................................................c. 320 - 350
  • Varahran I (Varahan I)................................c. 350 - 360
  • Talathutha............................................c. 400 - 500
  • Varahran II Kushanshah.........................................4th century
  • Nike...........................................................4th century
  • Alchon (Uarkhon)
  • Khingila I............................................c. 430 - 490
  • Raja Lakhana Udayaditya........................................c. 500
  • Mepame.........................................................5th century
  • Kings ruling Afghanistan / Gandhara (Turko-Hepthalites in Gandhara)
  • Napki (Nezak) Malka...................................c. 475 - 576
  • Sri Shaho......................................................after c. 576
  • White Huns Khans
  • Toramana.................................................515 - 528
  • Mihirakula...............................................528 - 542
  • Hephthalite rule was overthrown in c. 570 and they escaped west.
  • Nezak Huns (at Kabul / Ghazni / Zabulistan and probably Seistan)
  • Narana (Narendra).....................................c. 570 - 600
  • Vasu Deva......................................................after c. 624
  • Mardan Shah....................................................after c. 624
  • Shahi Jaya.....................................................c. 700
  • Shahi Tigin...........................................c. 719 - 739
  • Sri Vajara Vakhu Deva..........................................c. 720

AE Drachm. Year: ca. 400-630 CE. Weight: 4.50g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: N/A. Obverse: Altar and attendants. Reverse: Bust facing right. Ruler: N/A [Alchon Hun; Trident Crown Type of Nezak tribe].
 
  • Local polities...........................................565 - 712
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................712 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................750 - c. 850
  • Largely to Multan........................................850 - 1008
  • The Ghaznavids, and Afghanistan.........................1008 - 1215
  • Khwarazm................................................1215 - 1221 and...
  • Delhi (in the south and east)...........................1215 - 1524 opposed by...
  • Mongols and Il-Khanate successors (in north)............1221 - 1398
  • The Mughal Empire.......................................1524 - 1740
  • Persia..................................................1740 - 1747
  • Afghanistan.............................................1747 - 1799
  • Largely to the Khalsa (Sikhs), and to Lahore............1799 - 1849
  • Local polities also included Patiala, Multan, Bikaner, and Bahawalpur.
  • Great Britain...........................................1849 - 1947
  • India (east)............................................1947 - date and...
  • Pakistan (west).........................................1947 - date
 
Below are some important Jagir, Kingdoms, Princely states and the Sikh gurus in Punjab shown alphabetically before 1947.
 
Punjab - Province of British India
 
     29 Mar 1849            Annexed by Britain.
     02 Apr 1849            Punjab province.
     01 Apr 1937            Self-rule granted.
     15 Aug 1947            divided between Pakistan (West Punjab) & India (East Punjab)
 
  • Chief commissioners
  • Board of Administration...........................01 Apr 1849 - 1853
    • John Laird Mair Lawrence
    • Henry Lawrence
    • Charles G. Mansel
  • Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence.............................1853 - 01 Jan 1859
  • Lieutenant Governors
  • Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence (continued)..........01 Jan 1859 - 25 Feb 1859
  • Sir Robert Montgomery.............................25 Feb 1859 - 10 Jan 1865
  • The city of Sahiwal, Pakistan, founded in 1865, was formerly named "Montgomery", after Sir Robert.
  • Donald Friell McLeod..............................10 Jan 1865 - 01 Jun 1870
  • Sir Henry Marion Durand...........................01 Jun 1870 - 01 Jan 1871
  • unknown (acting)..................................01 Jan 1871 - 20 Jan 1871  
  • Sir Robert Henry Davies...........................20 Jan 1871 - 02 Apr 1877
  • Sir Robert Eyles Egerton..........................02 Apr 1877 - 03 Apr 1882
  • Sir Charles Umpherston Aitchinston................03 Apr 1882 - 02 Apr 1887
  • Sir Charles James Lyall...........................02 Apr 1887 - 05 Mar 1892
  • Sir Dennis Fitzpatrick............................05 Mar 1892 - 06 Mar 1897
  • Sir William Mackworth Young.......................06 Mar 1897 - 06 Mar 1902
  • Sir Charles Montgomery Rivaz......................06 Mar 1902 - 06 Mar 1907
  • Sir Denzil Charles Jelf Ibbetson (1st time).......06 Mar 1907 - 26 May 1907
  • Sir Thomas Gordon Walker (1st time - acting)......26 May 1907 - 12 Aug 1907
  • Sir Denzil Charles Jelf Ibbetson (2nd time).......12 Aug 1907 - 22 Jan 1908
  • Sir Thomas Gordon Walker (2nd time - acting)......22 Jan 1908 - 25 May 1908
  • Sir Louis William Dane (1st time).................25 May 1908 - 28 Apr 1911
  • James MacCrone Douie (acting).....................28 Apr 1911 - 04 Aug 1911
  • Sir Louis William Dane (2nd time).................04 Aug 1911 - 26 May 1913
  • Sir Michael Francis O'Dwyer.......................26 May 1913 - 26 May 1919
  • Sir Edward Douglas Maclagan.......................26 May 1919 - 03 Jan 1921
  • Governors
  • Sir Edward Douglas Maclagan.......................03 Jan 1921 - 31 May 1924
  • Sir William McColm Hailey.........................31 May 1924 - 09 Aug 1928
  • Sir Geoffrey Fitzhervey de Montmorency (1st time).09 Aug 1928 - 19 Jul 1932
  • Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan (1st time - acting).......19 Jul 1932 - 19 Oct 1932
  • Sir Geoffrey Fitzhervey de Montmorency (2nd time).19 Oct 1932 - 12 Apr 1933
  • Sir Herbert William Emerson (1st time)............12 Apr 1933 - 01 Feb 1934
  • Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan (2nd time - acting).......15 Feb 1934 - 09 Jun 1934
  • Sir Herbert William Emerson (2nd time)............09 Jun 1934 - 04 Apr 1938
  • Sir Henry Duffield Craik..........................04 Apr 1938 - 07 Apr 1941
  • Sir Bertrand James Glancy.........................07 Apr 1941 - 08 Apr 1946
  • Sir Evan Meredith Jenkins.........................08 Apr 1946 - 15 Aug 1947
  • Prime Ministers
  • Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan...........................01 Apr 1937 - 26 Dec 1942
  • Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana (1st time)..................Dec 1942 - Feb 1945
  • Governor's Rule......................................Feb 1945 - Apr 1946 
  • Sir Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana (2nd time)..............Apr 1946 - 04 Mar 1947
 
 

Pakistan or refer to Pakistan's Punjab Governors and Chief Ministers.

Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins