Region in the Northwest of the Indian
subcontinent. Since 1947 it has been separated into an Indian state
and a Pakistani province bearing the same name. Below is the general
outline of dynasties with prominent rulers, ruling Punjab:
Valley civilization........................c. 2300 - 1700 BCE
A blank time,
no knowlege of people living here remains...
Persia................................................c. 520 -
polities....................................late 400's - 329
330's opposed by...
Katha and Lahore).....................fl.
kingdoms and tribal republics, including Aspasia, Assakeonois,
Siboi, Kushudrakas, Maliavas, and Ambashta and then all under...
The names of the rulers of
Hepthethalites (Ephthalites or Epthalites or Hephtal or Hunas or
White Huns or Hayathelites or Ye-tai or He-ta or Cao) are
mostly unknown. Their capital was at Bamiyan and later at Sakkala (Sialkot). Hepthethalites were large cone-headed and practiced
polyandry. One of the clan of the Hepthethalites were Alchon.
Alchon (Uarkhon) became the new name of the Chionites in 460
when Khingila I united the Uar with the Chionites under his
Hephthal ruling Úlite. In India the Alchon were not
distinguished from their immediate White Huns predecessors and
both are known as Sveta-Hunas there. Perhaps complimenting this
term, Procopius (527-565) wrote that they were white skinned,
had an organized kingship, and that their life was not
wild/nomadic but that they lived in cities. The Alchon
were called Varkhon or Varkunites (Ouar-Khonitai) by Menander
Protector (538-582) literally referring to the Uar and Hunnoi.
Around 630, Theophylact Simocatta wrote that the European "Avars"
were initially composed of two nations, the Uar and the Hunnoi
tribes. He wrote that: "...the Barsilt, the Unogurs and the
Sabirs were struck with horror... and honoured the newcomers
with brilliant gifts..." when the Avars first arrived in their
lands in 555 CE. The Huns invaded the former Sasanian and Kushan
territories in Afghanistan and north-west Pakistan, as far south
as the Punjab, in the fifth century. They produced imitations of
the local coinages in the lands they conquered. This coin
imitates the designs of Sasanian coins and has a Bactrian
inscription giving the name Alchon. This is thought by some
scholars to be the tribe to which the Hun ruler Khingila (about
440-90) belonged. As to the exact nature of Hephthalite
religious practice, once again, we do not know for certain. Sung
Yun and Hui Shen record that "they have no belief in the
Buddhist law and they serve a great number of divinities"
(though as we have discovered, this is anti-Buddhist portrait is
not entirely accurate). Other Wei-era documentation records that
the Hephthalites worshiped Heaven and also fire, also mentioned
by Procopius. This would point to the practice of
Zoroastrianism, except for the fact that they did not leave
their deceased exposed to the elements, a funerary tradition
associated with this religion. Instead, the Hephthalites buried
their dead either in graves or in stone tombs. Most likely,
their religion was an amalgamation of a number of different
faiths, as well as animistic beliefs. Although the power of the
Alchon in Bactria was shattered in the 560's by a combination of
Sassanid and proto-Turkic forces, the last Hephthal king Narana/Narendra
managed to maintain some kind of rule between 570 and 600 CE
over the 'nspk' or 'napki' or 'nezak' tribes that remained after
most of the Alchon had fled to the west. Alchon Huns coinage
refers to a tribe which minted coins in Bactria in the 5th & 6th
centuries. The name Khigi on one of the coins and Narendra on
another has led some scholars of the area to believe that the
Hephthalite Khagans Khingila and Narana were of the AlChoNo
tribe inscribed in Bactrian script on the coins in question.
They imitated the earlier style of their Hephthalite
predecessors, the Kidarite Hun (Red Huns) successors to the Kushans
fron c.300 to 650 CE. In
particular the Alchon style imitates the coins of Kidarite
Varhran I (syn. Kushan Varhran IV). Legends in Bactrian, Pahlavi
and Brahmi exists on their coins. Coin with "Sri YaShaaDiTya"
silver obol are known. Below are some known rulers:
Kidarite Hun of Red Huns or Kidarite Principality of
the Kota Kula in the Punjab