Sindh
 
This is the land adjacent to the Indus River and the Thar Desert. It is, in fact, one of the oldest inhabited regions on earth, and hosted one of the worlds great pre-classical civilizations. Alexander the Great (326 BCE), Chandragupta Maurya (ca. 305 BCE), Asoka (274-232 BCE) and many others ruled this place until the first Muslim inroads into Sind in 712 CE. For almost the next three hundred years, Sind was subject to Arab caliphs, after which it was conquered by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, who conducted annual raids into India after 1000 CE. Even then it remained semi-independent under local dynasties until Akbar (who himself born at Umerkot in Sind), Sind became part of the Mughal Empire.
 
  • The Indus Valley civilization. Not much is known about this people, who developed an urbanized culture in the late 3rd millennium BCE. Primary known sites include Mohenjo-daro, Amri, and Kot Diji. This culture, which was an important commercial partner to Dilmun and early Mesopotamia, seems to have been active c. 2300 - c. 1700 BCE.
  • A blank time, no knowledge of people living here remains...
  • Persia................................................c. 520 - 326 BCE
  • Macedon..................................................326 - 310
  • The Seleucid Empire......................................310 - 306
  • The Mauryan Empire.......................................306 - c. 250
  • Bactria...............................................c. 250 - c. 100
  • The Bactrian Sakae....................................c. 100 - c. 20
  • The Kushanid Empire................................c. 20 BCE - c. 230 CE
  • The Kushanshahs.......................................c. 230 - c. 410
  • The White Huns (Hephthalites)............................410 - 565
  • Gold dinar coins of the Varhran V type and Ranaditya Satya are known of the White Huns.
  • Sahasi I ?
  • Unknown rulers ?
  • Siharu.........................................................early 600's
  • Sahasi II..................................................? - 632
  • He extended his kingdom to Panjgur and Kech (Makran division).

This coin is of 0.3g in silver is known to be of Later Gupta Dynasty in Sind and Multan around c. 570 to c.600 CE.
 
  • CHACH
  • Chach.................................................c. 643 - c. 671
  • Chandar...............................................c. 671 - c. 679
  • Dahir S/o Chach.......................................c. 679 - 711
  • He is known as the last Hindu Sindhi ruler situated in Sindh and parts of Punjab, born in 679. He was a a Brahmin king and son of Chach of Alor, who ascended the throne upon the death of his uncle Chandar.
  • Hullishah................................................712 - c. 724
  • Sisah..........................................................fl. c. 724
  • Umayyad Caliphate........................................724 - 750
    • Amirs of Sindh under the Umayyad Caliphate
    • Muhammad bin Qasim..................................712 - 715
    • al-Hadjadj ibn Yusuf (Governor of Iraq at Basra 694 to 714 CE during Ummayad Caliph Al-Walid I ) send his 17 years old nephew [Imad-uddin Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi bin Yusuf Sakifi (born on 31 Dec 695), a Syrian general], to Sind to help some poor and innocent people of Serendib (modern Sri Lanka) as well as the female pilgrims from the hands Raja Dahir. Qasim landed on the shores of Debal to rescue the innocent people and also to take revenge of the defeat, which was led by Badil bin Tuhfa and by the governor of Makran: Abdullah bin Nahban, landed at Nerun Kot (modern Hyderabad) against Raja Dahir. On the other hand Ummayad was looking for an opportunity to have a firm foot in Sindh. The army which departed from Shiraz in 710 CE. When Muhammad bin Qasim passed through Makran while raising forces, he had to re-subdue the restive Umayyad towns of Fannazbur and Arman Belah (Lasbela). In 711, the first town assaulted was Debal and upon the orders of Al-Hajjaj, he exacted a bloody retribution on Debal by giving no quarter to its residents or priests and destroying its great temple in the process of freeing the kidnapped women. From Debal the Arab army then marched north taking towns such as Nerun and Sadusan (Sehwan) peacefully. A mosque was built to replace the main temples. At Raor (Nawabshah) he was met by Dahir's forces and the eastern Jats in battle. Muhammad bin Qasim defeated Dahir and captured his eastern territories for the Umayyad Caliphate. Raja Dahir then attempted to prevent Qasim from crossing the Indus river and so moved his forces to its eastern banks in an attempt prevent Qasim from furthering the campaign. Eventually however, Qasim successfully completed the crossing and defeated an attempt to repel them at Jitor led by Jaisiah, the son of Dahir. Qasim was triumphant in this battle and Dahir died in 712 in this battle leaving Muhammad bin Qasim in control of Sind. In the wake of the battle enemy soldiers were put to death - but not artisans, merchants or farmers - and Dahir and his chiefs, the "daughters of princes" and the usual fifth of the booty and slaves was sent on to Hajjaj and the Caliph. Soon the capitals of the other provinces, Brahmanabad, Alor (Aror) and Multan, were captured alongside other in-between towns with only light Muslim casualties. Muhammad bin Qasim had begun preparations for further expansions when Hajjaj died, as did Caliph Al-Walid I, who was succeeded by Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik. After Hajjaj's death, the new governor took revenge against all who were close to Hajjaj and Muhammad bin Qasim was torture to death on 18 July 715. People were impressed by his bravely and justice, started to accept Islam in the region. Later Islam was spread throughout the South Asia (Indian sub-continent). Therefore Sindh province of Pakistan is also named Bab-e-Islam (The Gateway of Islam).
    • Habib ibn Muhalab...................................715 - ?
    • Amr ibn Muslim al-Bahili
    • Bilal ibn Ahwaz
    • Junaid ibn Abd ar-Rahman
    • Tamim ibn Zaid al-Atbi
    • Hakam ibn Awanah al-Qalbi.................................fl. c. 732
    • Amr ibn Muhammad ibn Qasim................................fl. c. 737
    • Yazid ibn Arrar
    • al-Mansur ibn Jamhur al-Qalbi.............................fl. c. 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate........................................750 - 855
    • Amirs of Sindh under the Abbasid Caliphate
    • Unknown ruler
    • Musa al-Barmakhi
    • Umar ibn Musa
    • Daud ibn Yazid.......................................? - 821
    • Bashar ibn Daud..........................................fl. 830's
  • HIBARI (or HABBARID, AMIRS OF SIND)
  • Sindh became semi-independent under the Arab ruler Aziz al-Habbari in 841 CE, though nominally remaining part of Abbasid Caliphate. The Habbari ruled Sindh, Makran, Turan, Khuzdar and Multan from their capital city of Mansura. The Hibari clan ruled most of Sindh until its conquest by the Ghaznavids in 1005, but the names of below subsequent rulers are not in sequence.
  • Daud
  • Abd al-Rahman
  • Ali
  • Muhammad
  • Aziz al-Hibari
  • Caliphate governer of Sindh under Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil in c. 854.
  • Umar al-Hibari I ibn Aziz
  • Abdallah ibn Umar
  • Umar al-Hibari II
  • He was ruling when the famous Arab historian Al-Masudi visited Sindh.
  • Hatim
  • Isa
  • Yahya
  • Ahmad (at Multan).............................................fl. c. 1030

SA# 1495. Damma. Year: 865-893 CE. Weight: 0.46 g. Metal: silver. Diameter: 9.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin.  Ruler: Abdullah.
 
The sequence of rulers and their dates have not yet been reconstructed. The coinage consists of tiny fractional dirhams, (called damma, which were identified by Robert Tye) and poorly struck coppers, struck at either Multan or Mansura (the mint is not indicated on the coins). Damma is equal in weight of 0.5g, traditional used by the Gurjuras, Pratiharas and other medieval Hindu kingdoms. Note that the damma seems to correspond to one sixth of a traditional Islamic dirham. Some numismatics believe that the Habbarid dynasty lasted from 257 to 400 AH (871 to 1010 CE).
 
  • The Ghaznavid Empire..................................1005 - 1058
  • Fateh Daud was the Ismaili Shi'a ruler of Multan, deposed by Mahmud Ghazni, who also massacared the Ismailis of Multan in the course of his conquest.
  • SUMRA or SOOMRA
  • Historically, Soomras are the first to wrest Sindh from the Arab rule. They substituted the Arab Habari government of al-Mansurah (875-1025) after the episode of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi's sack of al-Mansurah and unsuccessful hold over Sindh. The Soomras originally were a local Hindu tribe. Some influential members of it had accepted Islam soon after the Arab conquest of Sindh. Even after conversion they retained their old Hindu names and customs. The most prominent historical tradition of Soomras was their ability to unite all Sindhi tribes to create a power of resistance against any foreign occupation and rule. There were many devoted Islamic missionaries in Sindh during the Soomra rule, who were patronized and provided security. Thus Islam spread by leaps and bounds during this period, to make Sindh a Muslim majority land.   
    • Sardar Khafif I..................................1011 - c. 1026
    • Founder of the Soomra Dynasty who ruled for 15 years (1011-1026 AD) from his new capital at Tharri in Matli Taluka (presently in Badin district).
    • Sardar Sumra (Soomar).........................c. 1026 - c. 1053
  • Bhungar I (Bhoongar I) S/o Soomar..................c. 1053 - c. 1068
  • In 1053, state of as-Sind secedes from Ghaznavid Empire. Despite the hostilities of the Ghaznavids and their successors , Ismailism survived in Sindh and later received the protection of the Sumras, who ruled independently from Thatta, for almost three centuries. Soomar, Bhoongar and Dodo I, established their rule from the shores of the Arabian Sea to Multan, Bahawalpur, Sadiqabad and Uch in the north and in the east to Rajistan and in the west to Balochistan.
  • Asamuddin Daula Dodo I (Duda I) S/o Bhungar I......c. 1068 - 1092
  • Zenab Tari (female) D/o Dodo I........................1092 - 1098
  • She ruled on behalf of her minor brother Sanghar. Reforms were made in promoting Sindhi language for good governance. Fast progress was made in Arts and Crafts, Architecture, Agriculture and music, both instrumental and vocal.
  • Shahabuddin Sanghar...................................1098 - c. 1107
  • He died without any child.
  • Hamun (female)...............................................fl. c. 1107 with...
  • Sanghar's wife Hamun occupied the throne but the Soomra nobles crushed the conspiracy.
  • Khafif II..........................................c. 1107 - c. 1142
  • Brother-in-law of Sanghar. He annexed a part of Kutch territory with Sindh.
  • Umar I.............................................c. 1142 - c. 1181
  • Brother of Khafif II. During and after his rule Ghorid invasion of Sindh occurred. Pahtu Soomro, the ruler of Nagarparkar got the opportunity to occupied the entire Kutch territory in 1178. But his occupation was short lived as it was retrieved by the Samas of Kutch.
  • Pahtu (at Nagarparkar).......................................c. 1178
  • Dodo II............................................c. 1181 - c. 1195
  • He contended with Ghorid occupation of Debal and also attached the Samas of Kutch. The Ghorid rule was made impossible. Jam Lakho Samo submitted and was pardoned for his attacks on Thatta.
  • Bhungar II.........................................c. 1195 - 1222
  • A descendent of Dodo I and not from Dodo II. During his rule Sultan Jalaluddin Khwarizm Shah wrought destruction in Sindh. He occupied Debal where Chanesar I Soomro was ruling. Chanesar fled and later returned to re-occupy Debal.
  • Chanesar I (1st time)................................1222 - 1228
  • Gunero I [Ganhwar I] (1st time)......................1228 - c. 1236
  • Chanesar I (2nd time).............................c. 1236 - ?
  • Gunero I [Ganhwar I] (2nd time)........................ ? - c. 1241
  • Muhammad (Mahatam) Tur S/o Gunero I...............c. 1242 - 1256
  • Gunero II [Ganhwar II]...............................1256 - 1259
  • Dodo III S/o Gunero II...............................1259 - c. 1273
  • Tai S/o Dodo III..................................c. 1274 - c. 1283
  • Chanesar II.......................................c. 1284 - c. 1300
  • The great historical dramatic romances that took place in the reign of the last few Soomra kings were Lila Chanesar, Umar Marvi and Momal Rano. Earlier than this, the love tales of Sassi Punnun, Sohni Mahiwal and Sorath-Raidiach were narrated in melodious poetry by minstrels and bards in public musical evenings patronized by the Soomra Kings.
  • Bhungar III.......................................c. 1301 - 1315
  • Khafif III...........................................1315 - c. 1333
  • Dodo IV S/o Khafif III............................c. 1333 - 1350 with...
  • The Khaljis not only wanted to replace Dodo by Chanesar; they also wanted Bhagi, Bhungar Rao's daughter by a third (regular) wife, for Alauddin. However, the Soomras would not agree to either demand. Rejecting the idea of a matrimonial alliance, they said: "Tu Turk asee Soomra, ahri jor na jugai" (You are a Turk and we are Soomras; such a union will not be right). In the fight that ensued, both sides suffered heavily. Dodo's son Bhungar Jr. and even Chanesar's son Nangar Nehro, fought heroically for Dodo and fell. Sabar Abro, a Samma chief on the Soomra side, killed Alauddin's son Syed Ghazi Salar. When Dodo was speared and raised high, he told Chanesar standing by: "Even now I am above you!" Meanwhile the Khalji attack on his own land and people had induced second thoughts in Chanesar. Chanesar now began to hate Alauddin for his excesses against Sindh. He is believed to have died fighting Alauddin. The most important aspect of this episode is that in Sindh it became a people's war. Even peasants, shepherds, cowherds, bards, faqirs, fishermen, potters and weavers joined the fray. They all said: "The sword is our plough. About the same period, Dodo at the castle of Dahkah, considering the opportunity very favorable, collected his kinsmen and caste-fellows, invaded the country of Hímu’s brothers, and defeated and killed them. But soon afterwards, Dadu Phattu, of the descendants of Dodo collected a large number of men and made himself the master of his fore­father’s country. After a quiet reign of some years he died and was succeeded by a chief named Khaira. After Khaira, Armel became the ruler of the place. Some people revolted against him and killed him in conspiracy with his ministers. The head of Armel was hung on the top of the gate of the fort and Unar was proclaimed their ruler. This occurred in 752 A.H (1351 A.D.). Thus the Government of Sind passed away from the hands of Sumras to those of Sammas.
  • Umar II Sumra.....................................c. 1332 - 1350 and ...
  • Bhungar IV........................................c. 1332 - 1350 and ...
  • Dadu Phathu
  • Khaira
  • Armel
  • Hamir S/o Dodo IV....................................1332 - c. 1352
  • Hamir fled to Dragul hills in Punjab in 1352. He continued to rule in Thar. He was later killed by Sammas between 1360-1365. His son Umar ruled at Umerkot from 1355 to 1390. His descendants in Layyah, Punjab became big zamindars (agricultural land owners). Some of the descendants of this dynasty also settled in Gujarat. Hammu is known to found Fatah mosque in Parentej, Gujarat in 1382.
"Soomra National Council - Pakistan" was founded by Umer Soomro at Karachi on 14th July 1999. He has done a painstaking study on his own dynasty and highlighted the hidden facts and information from various books and resources. This council also provides a social welfare to the poor people as well. All his research on Soomra dynasty can be seen at:  http://www.snc-pk.webs.com.
 
The following rulers, according to numismatics, are considered Sultans of Sind and Punjab. They were most probably ruling in the Southern parts of Punjab and Northern upper parts of Sind.
  • SULTANS OF SIND AND PUNJAB
  • Nasir al-Din Qubacha (Sind and Multan)...............1206 – 1228 and...
  • He had been appointed governor of Uch in 1205 by the Ghurid ruler: Muhammad bin Sam and had married the daughter of Qutb al-Din Aibak who was shortly to succeed Muhammad in India as Sultan of Delhi. Qubacha kept on good terms with Aibak, the latter helping him to flight off an invasion by the army of Taj al-Din Yildiz, Governor of Kirman, who had design on the Ghaznavid succession and territories. When Aibak died in 1210, Qubacha threw off his allegiance to Delhi and declared his independence. He captured Multan, proceeded into Sind where he took all the cities and fortresses and incorporated those lands into his domains. He also made several attemps to capture Lahore from Yildiz's governor there but was not successful for any length of time, until Yildiz, himself, was defeated by Iltutmish of Delhi. In 1217 Qubacha was expelled from Lahore by Iltutmish. Nonetheless, it is reported that Qubacha's court was  adorned by the presence of various nobles and great men, who had fled the Mongol invasions. Multan was an important center of Muslim learning and eminent scholars ere to be found there. A couple of years later Iltutmish decided that it was time to extend his territories in the west and do deal with Qubacha. In 1228 he besieged and captured Uch and send an army after Qubacha himself. Qubacha fled southwards and in due course ensconced himself in the island-fortress of Bhakkar in the River Indus. The fortress was besieged and Qubacha drowned in the river either seeking to flee or by committing suicide. His domains were then incorporated into those of the Delhi Sultanate.
  • Jalal al-Din Mangubarni .............................1221 - 1224
  • Ruler of Khwarizm (Northern Iran, Uzbekistan and Turkestan) from 1221 to 1231. He was the last ruler of Anushtiginid dynasty before Mongol came. He ruled only in the Southern part of his realm. In 1221, the Mongol invasions began to make themselves felt in India. The powerful Khwarizm Shah, Ala al-Din Muhammad had been driven from his throne and his son Jalal al-Din Mangubarni took refuge in Lahore. From there he sent an envoy to Iltutmish in Delhi requesting asylum, but Iltutmish was not willing to have such a guest in his frontier city and offered him a place near Delhi. This, Mangubarni refused. He then withdrew from Lahore and made his way towards the Salt Range where he first attached and defeated the Khokars and then found it better to enter into an alliance with them against Qubacha. Multan, Uch, Bakhar, Sehwan and Debal saw major upheaval between 1222 to 1228 when Jalaluddin Khawarizm Shah looted and burnt many towns, exhorted heavy tribute from Qabacha weakening his power. This was followed by the invasion of Torbae Toqshin, the Mongol, who laid a siege on Multan and Uktae, devastated the whole Sindh and finally by Altatmash who eliminated Qabacha and took Chanesar with him to Delhi in 1228 AD. Since 1228, Uch and Multan were annexed to Delhi Sultanate and Sindh of Soomras became a tributary, but Bakhar was included in Soomras' Sindh, as, due to Mongol raids, Delhi Sultanate had no control over the southern Punjab. Qubacha was attacked and forced to pay a heavy tribute. Enriched with this, and with other booty obtained in Sind, Mangubarni fled Persia in 1224.
  • Khalif Beg..................................................1224
  • It is believed that he was one of Mangubarni's general or officer, who stayed behind after Mangubarni fled to Persia, and who ruled over a small, ephemeral principality. His personage is known only from a rare issue of billion jitals similar in style to those of Mangubarni. (Reference: SA# 1812 as ruler: Shalif Beg or SG# SS8).
  • QARLUKHID
  • Saif al-Din al-Hasan Qarlugh (in Ghazna from 1224)...1239 - 1249
  • He ruled over Ghazna and the surrounding area of the first part of his reign from 1224 (621 AH) and then moved into Sind for the last decade of his reign. His silver Tankas were made on the same standard as the contemporary Sultans of Delhi and billion jitals. Some of the Tankas might have been struck in Ghazna, like the one in the name of the Caliph, al-Zahir (1225-1226; 622-623 AH), while the others, in the name of the Caliph al-Mustansir, are of Sind style. Some of these coins are dated 633 AH, Probably these coins were issued on the death of the powerful Delhi sultan, Iltutmish and were struck to celebrate the fact.
  • Nasir al-Din Muhammad Qarlugh S/o Hasan Qarlugh......1249 – 1259

SA# 1811 or SG# SS1 AE Jital. Rajput horseman to the right; star below horse. 3.4g. Dated: ND (1203-1228). Ruler: Nasiruddin Qubacha (600-626 AH) [nasir al-dunya wa'l din qubachah al-sultani]. Mint: probably Multan.

SA# 1750 or SG# SS7 or Tye# 318. AE Jital Rajput bull & horseman type. 3.4g. Obverse: Bull to left: sa jalaladina in cursive Nagari around. Reverse: horseman to the right: sri hamirah above. Dated: ND (1221-1224). Mint: Nandana (Sind Issue). Ruler: Jalal al-dunya wa'l din Mangubarni al-sultan (Jelal ad-Din Mingburnu) [617-621 AH].

SA# 1815 or SG# SS12 or Tye# 345 AE Jital 3.4g.. Dated: ND (1239-1249). Arabic Obverse: saif al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar al-hasan qarlugh. Reverse: horseman to right. Ruler: Saif al-Din al-Hasan Qarlugh.

SA# 1813.2 or SG# SS10. Tanka [citing caliph: al-Mustansir 623-640 AH]. Metal: Silver. 10.8g. 26mm. Dated: 633AH (1236). Obverse legends: Saif al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar al-Hasan Qarlugh. Reverse legends: Shahada and al-mustansir billah amir al-mu'minin. Ruler: Saif al-Din al-Hasan Qarlugh.

SA# 1819 or SG# SS14 or Tye# 347 AE Jital. Horseman type. Dated: ND (1249-1259). Metal: Copper. Arabic obverse: Nasir al-dunya wa'l din. Nagari reverse inscription: sri maha / mada ka / raluka. Ruler: Nasir al-dunya wa'l din al-malik al-muazzam Muhammad bin Hassan Qarlugh [Nasir al-Din Muhammad Qarlugh].

Same as below, but corrode with large characters.

 
  • SAMMA (Jams of Sind)
  • Little is known about the history of Sind for the next century, though, nominally at least, it seems to have been a part of Delhi Sultanate. During the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq, Multan was seized and temporarity occupied by Malik Shahu Lodi, an Afghan noble. From around 1236, Sind, or at least lower Sind, was in the hands of the Sammas, a Rajput tribe, who had adopted Islam, and whose rulers used the title Jam. Their chronology is very uncertain, but the first three princes of this dynasty paid tribute to Muhammad bin Tuqhluq and thus acknowledged the supremacy of the Delhi Sultanate. But then in 1350, the Jam gave shelter to the rebel Taghi, which caused Muhammad to lead his army into Sind. Before he could reach Tattah, the capital, he died and his army withdrew with difficulty. To avenge this humiliating retreat, Muhammad's successor Firuz Tughluq invaded Sind in 1362 and reached Tattah, where the ruler the Jam resolutely defended his city. A serious disease braking out in the Delhi army, Firuz again had to retreat, losing a large number of soldiers in the process. A year or two later, however, Firuz made another expedition into Sind, this time catching the inhabitants unprepared. The Jam was besieged and had to sue foe peace. His submission was accepted and not only had he to pay an annual tribute to Delhi but also accompany the army to Delhi under mild restraint. The weakening of the Delhi Sultanate after the death of Firuz Tughluq and the invasion of Timur, enabled the Jams to throw off their allegiance to Delhi and to rule as independent sovereigns until the reign of Jam Nizam al-Din, also known as Nanda. During his lengthy reign the Arghun clan began to make their influence felt in lower Sind and the Jams attempted to strengthen their position by making marriage alliances with the Sultans of Gujarat. In 1521, however, Shah Beg Arghun, conquered Sind and expelled the last Jam, Firuz. Their capital was at Thatta before being replaced by the Arghun Dynasty. The Samma dynasty has left its mark in Sindh with magnificent structures including the necropolis of kings and royalties in Thatta and many more ruins.
  • Saman Sultanan Jo Shajro Babinho I
  • Firuz al-Din Shah Unar I S/o Babinho I...............1336 - 1340
  • Jam Unar was the founder of Samma Dynasty mentioned by Ibn Battuta, the famous traveller from North Africa, Ibn Battuta visited Sindh in 1333 AD, and saw Samma’s rebellion against Delhi government.
  • Ala al-Din Junan (Juto) I S/o Babinho I..............1340 - 1353
  • Sadr al-Din Shah Babinho II (Banhatiya) S/o Unar I...1353 - 1376
  • Rukn al-Din Shah Timaji S/o Unar I...................1376 - 1379
  • Sultan Salah al-Din Shah Unar II S/o Tamachi.........1379 - 1391
  • He put down revolts in some parts of the country, by sending forces in those directions and punished the ringleaders.
  • Nizam al-Din I S/o Salah al-Din......................1391 - 1393
  • After Jam Salah al-din’s death, the nobles of the state put his son Jam Nizam al-din I on the throne. Jam Nizam al-din ruled for a few months. His first act of kindness was the release of his cousins Sikandar, Karn and Bahauddín and Amar, who had been placed in captivity by the advice of the ministers. He appointed every one of them as an officer to discharge administrative duties in different places, while he himself remained in the capital, superintending the work done by them and other officials in different quarters of the country. Before long, however, his cousins, very ungratefully made a conspiracy among themselves and stealthily coming to the capital attempted to seize him. Learning their intention in time, Nizam al-Din left the place at the dead of night with a handful of men and made his escape to Gujrat. In the morning, men were sent after him, but got no information. The people therefore summoned Ali Sher, son of Jam Tamachí, who was living in obscurity, raised him to the throne. Meanwhile Nizam al-Dín also died in his flight and his cousins too being disappointed in every thing, lived roving lives.
  • Ali Sher S/o Tamachi.................................1393 - 1408
  • He was a wise man and a brave soldier. He ruled the country very discreetly and in his time the people were all at ease in their minds. He was killed by the planning of some member of his dynasty including Karan S/o Tugaji, Sadr al-Din Sikandar S/o Tugaji and Fateh Khan S/o Sadr al-Din Sikandar.
  • Karan S/o Khair al-Din Tugaji S/o Junan (Juto) I............1408
  • Fateh Khan S/o Sadr al-Din Sikandar I S/o Tugaji.....1408 - 1422
  • About this time, Mirza Pir Muhammad one of Amir Timur’s grandsons came to Multan and conquered that town and Uch. As he made a long stay there, his presence was felt. Mirza Pír Muhammad soon went to Delhi and was crowned as king. Multan remained in the hands of Langahs, and Sind in those of the Sammah rulers as before.
  • Tughluq Shah Juto II S/o Sikandar I S/o Tugaji.......1423 - 1449
  • Jam Tughluq [Taghlak] was fond of hunting and left his brothers to administer the affairs of state at Sehwán and Bakhar. In his reign some Baloch raised the standard of revolt in the outskirts of Bakhar, but Jam Taghlak marched in the direction and punished their ring-leaders and appointed an outpost in each parganah to prevent any future rebellion of the kind.
  • Mubarak [Tughluq Jo Aziz-a-Darbar] (usurper)................1449
  • At Nasarpur, a man by the name Mubarak, who during the last Jam’s reign had made himself celebrated for acts of bravery, proclaimed himself king under the name of Jam Mubarak. But as the people were not in league with him, he was driven away.
  • Sikandar Shah II Muhammad (Unar) S/o Fateh Khan......1449 - 1452
  • Sadr al-Din Shah Sanjar (Raidhan)....................1452 - 1460
  • Jam Sanjar ruled the country very wisely. Under no ruler before this had the people of Sind enjoyed such ease of mind. He was very fond of the company of the learned and the pious.
  • Sultan Nizam al-Din II Nando.........................1460 - 1492
  • He was the most famous Sultan of the Samma or Jamot dynasty. The Samma Sultanate reached the height of its power during the reign of Jam Nizam al-Din II, who is still recalled as a hero, and his rule as a golden age. During his last period, a Mughul army under Shah Beg Arghun came from Kandahar and fell upon many villages of Chundooha and Sideejuh, invading the town of Agrí, Ohandukah, Sibi Sindichah and Kot Machián. Jam Nando sent a large army under his Vazier Darya Khan and defeated the Mughuls in a pitched battle. Shah Beg Arghun’s brother Abu Muhammad Mirza was killed in the battle. Mughuls fled back to Kandahar, never to return during the reign of Jam Nizam al-Dín. Jam Nizam al-Din's death was followed by a war of succession between the two cousins Jam Feroz and Jam Salahuddin (a grandson of Jam Sanjar).
  • Nasir al-Din Abu Al-Fateh Sultan Firuz S/o Nando.....1492 - 1521 and again in 1528
  • Shahbeg Arghun was induced to invade and conquer Sind in 926 AH (1519 AD) at the Battle of Fatehpur (1519), which resulted in the displacement of the Sammah dynasty of rulers by that of Arghun. The Battle of Fatehpur was a key episode in the dissolution of the Samma Dynasty of Sindh and its replacement by the Arghun Dynasty. Some Mughals had come to Sind in the reign of Jam Feroz and settled there with the authorization of the Jam. Among them were Ka­bak Arghun who had left Shahhbeg`s party due to a murder. It was at the information and invitation of Mír Kasim Kíbakí, that Shahbeg marched against Tatta with a large army about the close of 914 AH (1508 AD). It was on the 15th of Muharram 926 AH (1519 AD) that Shahbeg rode into the river and led his whole force across, having left a party of soldiers to protect the camp at the river. Darya Khan, the adopted son of Jam Nando, left his master Jam Feroz at the capital city and himself advanced with a large army and gave battle to the Mughuls. A severe battle was fought, which ended in the victory of Shahbeg. Jam Feroz hearing of the defeat of his army, fled across the river. Darya Khan was killed in the battle. Up to the 20th of the same month the Mughuls plundered the city. Several women and children of respectable families were captured. Even those of Jam Feroz remained in the city. It was at the intercession of Kazí Kazan, the most learned man of the time at Tatta, whose family members also had been taken prisoners, that Shahbeg stopped the plunder by giving an arrow to the Kazí to show it round to the plundering Mughuls. A proclamation was also issued to that effect, and once more there was order and quiet in the city. Jam Feroz was obliged to send messengers to Sháhbeg recognizing him as his superior and asking for mercy. In the next month, Saffar, Shahbeg encamped outside the city, where Jam Feroz came to pay homage to him in person. Shahbeg received him well and gave him the rich robe of honour that his own father Amír Zunnún had received from king Muzaffar Husain. Shahbeg was kind enough to give the governorship of Tattá to the Jam. But after some consultation with the chief men of the place it was resolved that as Sind was a spacious country, half of it might be given to Jam Feroz and the other half retained and left in charge of agents appointed by the Mughul prince. At Taltí Shahbeg received the homage of certain Sahtah and Sodha chiefs. He then came to Sehwan. He left Mír Alíkah Arghún, Sultan Mukímbeg Lar, Kíbak Arghun and Ahmad Tarkhan in charge of the place, and sent Sultan Mahmud Khan Kokaltash to take charge of Bakhar and himself proceeded to Shal to bring his family. At the same time he deputed Kazí Kazan to bring Mahmud son of Darya Khan to his senses and advise him to surrender, but the Kazí did not succeed in his mission. Shahbeg, was therefore obliged to come to Taltí, where Darya Khan’s sons Mahmud and Motan Khan, and Jam Sarang and Rinmal Sodho had mustered their forces and prepared to defend the place at the instigation of Makhdum Bilal, a learned man of the place, as the latter had been ill-treated by the Mughuls after Shahbeg’s victory in Sind and compelled to give certain taxes. Within three days, Shahbeg secured some boats and crossed the river, with Mír Fazil Kokaltash and the Arghun and Tarkhan forces. As Rinmal with his brother Jodho advanced to meet them Mír Fazil attacked them and defeated them. The fort of Taltí was taken. Most of the Sammah troops were cut down, some drowned themselves in the river and a few fled to Sehwan. Rinmal Sodho’s brother Jodho was also among the slain. After spending three days at Taltí, Shahbeg returned to Shal and Siwí, and Jam Feroz began to rule quietly at Tatta as before. But it was not long before Jam Salahuddín, who had some time ago revolted against Jam Feroz and driven him away from his capital, and had subsequently been himself driven away by Darya Khan to Gujrat, once more invaded Tatta with an army of 10,000 men, consisting chiefly of Jarejas and Sodha Khangars. Jam Feroz, without losing time, hastened to Shahbeg’s agents at Sehwan and through them sent some fleet messengers to Shahbeg for help. Shahbeg dispatched his son Mírza Shah Hasan with a column of Mughuls for the purpose, and sent some more forces after him, by successive installments. On the 14th of Muharram 927 AH (1520 AD) Mirza Shah Hasan left Shal for Sind, and after 20 days journey arrived in the vicinity of Tatta. Salahuddín hearing of the Mughul’s approach left Tatta, recrossed the river and betook himself to the village of Jun. Jam Feroz received Mírza Shah Hasan gratefully and in return received marks of distinction and friendship from him. Salahuddín was soon pursued and overtaken. A fight ensued between the advance columns of the two parties, one led by Haibat Alí Khan, Salahuddín’s son, who was son-in-law to Sultan Muzaffar of Gujrat, and another by Mírza Isa Tarkhán, Sultan-kulíbeg and Mír Alíkah. Salahuddín’s son was killed and his army routed. Mad with rage at his son’s death, Salahuddín precipitated himself upon the Mughuls. But soon he too was slain and his army fled to Gujrat. After spending three days at the scene of the battle Jam Feroz went back to Tatta to settle affairs there and Mírza Shah Hasan returned to Baghban to pay his respects to his father, who had come to that place. Here during their stay, the Machhí tribes, who had become rather turbulent and refractory, were punished, their cattle and property plundered and their villages razed to the grounds. Later Feroz was exiled to Sultanate of Gujarat during Sultan Qutb ud-Din Bahadur reign. When the Mughal Empire and Sultanate of Gujarat collide under Emperor Humayun, Feroz was killed at Khambhat in a misunderstanding.

AE Falus. Year: ND (1492-1521). Weight: 14.91g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 22.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Ruler: Jam Firuz Salah al-Din Shah Bin Jam Nizam al-Din II Nando.

AE Falus. Dated: ND (probably in 1528). Weight: 8.49g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 21.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Ruler: Jam Firuz Salah al-Din Shah Bin Jam Nizam al-Din II Nando.

This is a unique coin discovered recently in Sindh. Jam of Sind - countermarked "Zarb-i-Jam" upon a Timurid host copper (Dangi) coin.

As per Tareekh Ferishta by Abul Qasim Muhammad Ferishta, Mirza Shah Beg Arghun of Qandhar was a contemporary of (Sitamgan dynasty) Jam Nanda of Sindh and Sultan Hussain Shah Langah of Multan. He (Shah Beg) had made inroads into Sindh and occcupied the fort of "Sulee" from the Jams and appointed his own brother Sultan Muhammad as governor or custodian of that fort. Once Shah Beg had retuned to Qandhar, Jam Nanda re-took that fort and executed Sultan Muhammad. Most of the time Mirza Shah Beg Arghun had defeated Sindh's local chieftains including Jams, the aforementioned defeat of Timurid being an only instance of Jam's victory. Ultimately the Arghuns assimilated Sindh into an Arghun state with its capital at Thatta. The overstrike is indicative of the fact that this coin pertains to the era of short-lived victory over Arghuns because the Jam rulers otherwise mostly on the run were unlikely to have countermarked Arghun's coins.
 
  • ARGHUNS
  • Dynasty suppressed by Mughal emperor Akbar after conquest of Thatta. Hussain Shah Arghun was an independent sultan of Thatta. He was not a feudatory to any other ruler. He was of Timurid descent and was the son of Shuja’a Beg alias Shah Beg Arghun son of Amir Zu’alnun. (Amir Zu’alnun was a commander of Hussain Shah Timurid (Ruled 862 to 911 AH) and a tutor to his son Badi’uzzaman (Ruled 905 to 908 and 911 to 914 AH). He was made the administrator of Dawar, Sagar, Tobuk and Karah in 884 AH}. During the turmoil period Amir Zu’alnun became quasi-independent and appointed his son Shah Beg as ruler of Qandhar (please see entries number K2467 and L2467 of Mr. Album’s ‘A Checklist of Islamic coins’ [second edition]). After the death in 930 AH of Shah Beg Arghun, who had occupied parts of Sindh, his son Hussain Shah Arghun was ousted from Qandhar by the Mughals under Babar. Hussain Shah established a Timurid sultanate in upper and central Sindh extending into the present day Rajasthan on the east and Baluchistan on the West. His capital was at Thatta. According to one account he was induced by Babar to attack Multan as the Langah rulers of Multan were feudatories to the Lodhi Sultanate and Babar did not wish to encounter any significant opposition before meeting the Delhi forces. Hussain Shah Arghun attacked Multan in 1526 CE [932-33 AH] and after a prolonged siege Hussain Shah-II Langah capitulated and Multan was annexed to the kingdom of Thatta. The early Mughals, Babar and Humayun did not bother the Arghun Sultanate but when Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun in 945 AH [1538 CE], Humayun fled westwards and sought refuge in the sultanate of Thatta. Except for initial superficial goodwill, Hussain Shah Arghun withheld all material help from Humayun, and made all possible efforts to prevent the westwards escape of Humayun by denying him boats (to cross the Indus) and provisions and transport for the royal entourage. He attempted to create rift between the fugitive emperor and his uncle Mirza Yadgar Nasir Beg by minting coins at Bhakkar in the name of latter {No such coin has been reported in any numismatic reference so far but we might stumble upon one of those coins some day}. Reverting to our subject, we find that Humayun managed to escape to Iran in a most wretched condition. Mirza Yadgar Nasir too was subsequently expelled in an unceremonious manner. In the meantime Hussain Shah Arghun had married his daughter Mahe-Chuchak to Mirza Kamran, the younger brother of Humayun and ruler (after the death of Babar) of Kabul, Qandhar and the Punjab. (Kamran at a later stage sought refuge with Arghun after Humayun returned with Persian assistance but was ultimately captured & blinded by Humayun). Hussain Shah Arghun died in 964 AH [1556 CE] and was succeeded by his son Sultan Mahmood at Bhakkar (Northern Sind), whereas Mirza Isa Beg Tarkhan, a former commander of Shah Beg Arghun, occupied Thatta (South). Both the Sultanates lasted for a while, the former for another 18 years before its annexation by Akbar and the latter for 36 years up to 1000 AH when it was conquered by Khan-e-Khanan. Both of these small Sultanates minted coins albeit only of copper. A reference to Tarkhan coins is available in ONS Newsletter number 129 (June-July 1991). The coins indicate mint of Thatta and the year as 983 AH [1585 CE] and some as 984 AH [1586 CE]. The obverse side depicts a crudely designed bird, probably peacock. Isa Beg was succeeded by his son Baqi Beg in 983 AH [1587 CE].
  • Mirza Shah Beg Arghun (in Qandahar 1507-1522)........1522 - 1524
  • Mirza Shah Husain S/o Shah Beg Arghun................1524 - 1556
  • Shah Husain was suffering from ill health and was deposed by his nobles in favor of Mirza Muhammad Isa Tarkhan after some internal conflicts.
  • ARGHUN TARKHANS
  • Mirza Mohammed Isa Tarkhan...........................1556 - 1567
  • He was a member of the elder branch of the Arghun clan. During the civil war between Shah Husain and Muhammad Isa Tarkhan, Muhammad Isa Tarkhan sent a request for the help to the Portuguese at Bassein. A 700 man force under the command of Pedro Barreto Rolim sailed up to Thatta in 1555, only to find that Muhammad Isa Tarkhan had already won the conflict and there was no need for their assistance. Furious at the governor of Thatta's refusal to pay them, the Portuguese sacked the defenseless city and killed several thousand people.
    Muhammad Isa Tarkhan was soon forced to deal with a rival claimant, Sultan Mahmud Gokaldash. He was eventually compelled to make peace with Sultan Mahmud; the two agreed that Muhammad Isa Tarkhan would keep lower Sindh, with his capital at Thatta, while Sultan Mahmud would rule upper Sindh from Bakhar. In 1567 Muhammad Isa Tarkhan died and was succeeded by his son Muhammad Baqi.
  • Mirza Mohammed Baqi Tarkhan S/o Mohammad Isa.........1567 - 1585
  • During his reign upper Sindh was annexed by the Mughal Emperor Akbar in 1573. Muhammad Baqi committed suicide in 1585, and was succeeded by his son Jani Beg.
  • Mirza Jani Beg Tarkhan...............................1585 - 1591
  • Sind was invaded by Mughals. In 1591 Akbar sent an army to conquer lower Sindh. Jani Beg put up a resistance but was defeated by the Mughal forces and his principality was annexed. In 1599 he died of delirium tremens.

SG# ST1. Falus. Dated: 984 AH (1576). 2.4g. Mint: Thatta. Metal: Bronze. Obverse: Cursive floral ornaments, bird (or peacock?) right. Reverse darb falus balda tattah. Ruler: Mirza Muhammad Baqi Beg ibn Mirza Muhammad Isa Khan Tarkhan (975-993 AH).
 
  • Mughal Empire........................................1591 - 1718
  • KALHORA
    • Yar Mohammed Khan...............................1701 - 1719
  • Nur Mohammed.........................................1719 - 1752 d. 1754
  • During his reign, Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai (1689–1752) was a Sufi scholar and saint, and is considered one of the greatest poets of the Sindhi language. Bhittai settled in the town of Bhit Shah in Matiari, Pakistan where his shrine is located. Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai's most famous written work is the Shah Jo Risalo, which is a masterpiece of Sindhi literature as well.
  • Afghanistan (Ahmad Shah Durrani).....................1752 - c. 1760
  • Ahmad Shah ruled Afghanistan from 1747 until 1773 and captured Sind for approximately eight years.
  • KALHORA (restored)
  • Mohammed Murad Yar Khan...........................c. 1760 - c. 1765
  • Ghulam Shah.......................................c. 1765 - 1770's
  • Haiderabad city in Sind was founded by Ghulam Shah Kalhora in 1768 and it became the capital of Talpur Mirs in 1786, both being feudatories of Taimur Shah Durrani.
  • 3 unknown rulers
  • Sarfaraz
  • Mahmud......................................................10 months in the 1770's
  • Ghulam Nabi
  • Abdul Nabi (1st time)
  • Sadiq Ali
  • Abdul Nabi (2nd time)...................................? - 1783
  • Kalhora forces under Abdul Nabi Kalhora were defeated by the Talpurs in the battle of Halani in 1783 under the command of Mir Fateh Ali Khan bin Sobhdar. Later Mir Fateh Ali made Hyderabad the seat of rule.
  • TALPUR
  • The Talpur clan displaces the Kalhora clan as rulers of Sind. The Talpur arranged a dispersed system of local co-Princes, with the Hyderabad succession as senior and chief among them. Talpur clan of Sohrabani lineage founds the state of Khayrpur in 1775 with ruler title as Mir. Mirpur state was also founded by branch of the Talpur clan of Manikani lineage in 1801 with ruler title known as Mir. All had a certain measure of influence over the polity as a whole. Title of rulers at Hyderabad were Khan. Sindh was repetitively attacked by Balochistan, Afghanistan, Rajputs and finally the Sikhs as well. The Sikhs snatched the area north of Kashmore till Mithankot from Khairpur and the southern part of the Sikh empire faced constant Baloch insurrection and battle. However, their is a real possibility that had Talpurs were united under Mir Ali Murad of Khairpur, the strongest of them all whom the the British Governor general had termed a "mortal" threat to the British army, they would have fared better. It became a British protectorate on 29 Nov 1834, while Khairpur on 25 Dec 1838. Abdul Majeed Jokhia, an eminent historian of that period says that Sindh was divided into seven districts, three were under Mir Fateh Ali and his brothers, (sons of Mir Sobhdar), two were under Mir Sohrab, one under Mir Thara of Mirpur and one under Mir Mahmood, (their uncle) and sons of Mir Abdullah.
  • Sohrab Khan (Khairpur)...............................1775 - 1811 and...
  • Fath Ali Khan bin Sobhdar (Hyderabad: Chief).........1783 - 1801 with...
  • Mir Fateh Ali Khan and his three brothers ruled at Hyderabad. This was known as "The Chauyari," the rule of four friends. Fateh Ali was the Principal Amir and held the most important position. The other brothers also had some responsibilities.
  • Thara Khan (Keti Mir Tharo)..........................1784 - 1801
  • Mir Thara Khan, Sitara-i-Jang, was the founder of Mankani Talpurs state in southeastern Sindh. Talpurs defeated Kalhora rulers and founded their rule over Sindh. Mir Thara Khan Talpur participated in the Battle of Halani against Kalhoras. However, when Mir Fateh Ali Talpur started rule from Hyderabad (Sindh), Mir Thara Khan Talpur went to southeastern Sindh and founded his own state at Keti Mir Tharo in 1784.
  • Ghulam Ali Khan bin Sobhdar (Hyderabad: Chief).......1801 - 1811 and...
  • Karim Ali Khan bin Sobhdar (Hyderabad: Chief 1811-28)1801 - 1828 and...
  • British were eyeing Sindh for its wealth and strategic position and were making inroads with new agreements aimed at increasing their influence. When Mir Murad Ali the youngest of all brothers fell gravely ill, Mir Karim Ali requested the Governor in Bombay to send an able doctor. Dr. James Burnes came and cured him of the disease. Dr Burnes book "A Visit to the Court of Sinde" tells a lot about the state of the Court in 1827. The book dispels a lot of misconceptions regarding the Talpurs and their rule.
  • Murad Ali bin Sobhdar (Hyderabad: Chief 1828-32).....1801 - 1832 and...
  • Rustam Ali Khan bin Sohrab Khan (Khairpur)...........1811 - 20 Dec 1842 and...
  • Ali Murad bin Thara Khan (Mirpur Khas)...............1801 - 1829 and...
  • Mir Ali Murad Talpur, known as the Aadil-i-Jang, was the second ruler of the Mankani Talpurs state of Mirpurkhas. He founded Mirpurkhas town in 1806 and made it the capital of his state which was founded by his father, Mir Thara Khan Talpur at Keti Mir Tharo. His state included territories of the present day southeastern Sindh. His son was Mir Sher Muhammad Talpur.
  • Sher Muhammad bin Ali Murad (Mirpur Khas)............1829 - 12 Feb 1843 and...
  • Mir Sher Muhammad Talpur, popularly known as “The Lion of Sindh” (Sher-i-Sindh) belonged to the Mirpurkhas House of Royal Talpurs. He was born in 1810 and was the last ruler of Talpurs who fought British General Charles Napier on 24 March 1843 at the battleground of Dubbo to liberate Sindh from British domination. He died on 24 August 1874.
  • Mubarak Ali Khan (Khairpur)..........................1829 - 1839 and...
  • Sahib (Hyderabad: Chief).............................1832 - 1833 and...
  • Nur Muhammad Khan bin Murad Ali (Hyderabad: Chief)...1833 - 1841 and...
  • Muhammed Naseer Khan bin Murad Ali (Hyder.: Chief 1841-1843).1833 - 12 Feb 1843 and
  • Sobhdar Khan (Hyderabad).............................1833 - 12 Feb 1843 and..
  • Mohammad Khan (Hyderabad)............................1833 - 12 Feb 1843 and...
  • Sobhdar Khan and Mohmmad Khan were cousins of Nur Muhmmad Khan.
  • Nasir Muhammad Khan (Khairpur).......................1839 - 1842 and...
  • Shahdad bin Nur Muhammad Khan (Hyderabad)............1841 - 12 Feb 1843 and...
  • Husain Ali bin Nur Muhammad Khan (Hyderabad).........1841 - 12 Feb 1843
  • The rule was passed to Mir Mohammad Naseer Khan in 1841 as mentioned above. In the same year Sir Charles Napier was sent to Sindh to achieve the ultimate goal of annexation of Sindh to the British Empire. Differences between the Talpurs began to crop up anew and the old grievances came to fore. There were differences between the sons of Mir Nur Mohammad. Mir Sobhdar Khan in Hyderabad and Mir Ali Murad in Khairpur failed to realize that the English would eventually not be their friends either. The British presented new terms for a treaty and Mir Naser Khan was an unwilling signatory as there were many unjust demands. The British wanted Karachi, Thatta and Bakhaar permanently. They wanted the Mint to be closed and no taxation for their traders. They wanted to replace Mir Rustam with his brother Mir Ali Murad and kept making unjust demands on him. Eastwick says that at one point Mir Rustam was so fed up with their demands that he said he couldn't accept them. After all, he was a Baluch. "A Glance at Sindh Before Napier " by Eastwick presents the true picture of those times. Napier forced Mir Rustam to go to Hyderabad. Mirsahib was old and ailing at that time. The Talpurs and other Baluchs were infuriated at this. To make the matters worse, Napier started his incursion towards Hyderabad to provoke the Baluchs. He confiscated Mir Rustam's possessions on flimsy pretexts in December 1842. Napier continued his provocations by words and deeds. The Baluchs knew for certain that Napier would use the logic of the wolf that is bent upon devouring the sheep and not relent even if all his demands were met. They decided to meet force with force. On the 05th of February Major Outram's post near Kotri was attacked but he embarked on the steamer and escaped. Napier had camped near Miani and the Baluchs assembled there to fight it out. On 17 February the opposing forces met. The Baluchs surpassed all in valor and bravery. Mir Jan Mohammad Talpur charged into the English camp and attacked Outram who narrowly escaped his chance by jumping off his horse. Mir Jan Mohammad's grave is in Miani. One Baluch, bayoneted by a British soldier and unable to reach the opponent with his sword, pushed the bayonet and the rifle through his own body and killed the opponent. The British say their casualties were 62 killed and 194 wounded. The casualties on the Baluch side are estimated to be six times higher. The Baluchs were defeated and had to retreat. Valor alone has never been and can never on its own be the determining factor in the outcome of any battle. Discipline and planning played a much more important role and on February 17th 1843, won the day for the British. Had the outcome of the Battle at Miani been different it would have changed the history of the sub-continent. It could have been different if only the Talpurs had realized that the British would never abide by the agreements they were making. The next day Mir Naseer Khan Talpur surrendered to Charles Napier. He and others were then arrested and sent in exile to Calcutta and other places in India. The houses were looted even the ladies were not spared. Finally, the English had gotten Sindh. Mir Sher Mohammad of Mirpur Khas, popularly known as “The Lion of Sindh” (Sher-i-Sindh) tried to rally his forces. He fought against the English at Dabbo near Hyderabad on March 24, 1843 but his forces too were defeated and no change could be brought to the state of things. The British had wormed their way into Sindh through deceit and intrigues but conquered it through force of arms and that was the only recourse for them in sustaining their illegal rule here. Thus British extinguishes the state on 12 Feb 1843 and makes Sindh as a part of Bombay Presidency, British India. A comment here is irresistible: Sir Charles James Napier, was a British general and Commander-in-Chief of India, who conquered Sindh in 1843, sent to London on the completion of his mission what is perhaps the most succinct dispatch in the annals of military history, and one which also provides an extremely rare multi-lingual triple pun: he scrawled the single word "Peccavi", which is Latin for "I have sinned".
  • Great Britain........................................1843 - 1948
    • British Resident in Lower Sind and later Upper Sind
    • James Outram....................................1839 - 1843
    • TALPUR Further Emirs of Khairpur under British authority. Capital: Khayrpur (Khairpur). It was a princely state on the Indus River. The state was originally founded as the kingdom of Upper Sindh 1783 by Sohrab Khan who was a member of the junior branch of the ruling Talpur clan of the state of Sindh. The capital city was developed in 1786. When the British took over responsibility for foreign affairs in 1838, the status was reduced to that of a Princely State. The gun salute was reduced from 19 to 17 and then to 15, as the area of the state diminished to 15,670  km². Khairpur closed its mint and currency in 1903 and gave legal tender to the British imperial currency in order to utilize the benefit of the economic market of the empire. After almost two centuries of varying degrees of independence, the state became part of Pakistan in 1947. Sindhi or Saraiki are spoken in this area.
    • [Khairpur c.1860/70][Khairpur to 1955]
    • Ali Murad Khan...........................20 Dec 1842 - 02 Apr 1894
    • Faiz Mohammad Khan I.....................02 Apr 1894 - 06 Mar 1909
    • Imam Bakhsh Khan.........................06 Mar 1909 - 08 Feb 1921
    • Ali Nawaz Khan...........................25 Jun 1921 - 25 Dec 1935
    • Faiz Mohammad Khan II....................26 Dec 1935 - 19 Jul 1947
  • Pakistan.............................................1948 - date
    • George Ali Murad Khan....................19 Jul 1947 - 14 Oct 1955
    • He was born in 1933 and ruled under a unknown regent from 19 Jul 1957 to 16 Sep 1951.
 

KM#10.1 Rupee. Year: xxx5 AH (1255 AH) [1839]. Weight: 9.78g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 20.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Obverse: Star. Reverse: Branch. Mint: Bhakhar. Ruler: Amirs of Khairpur citing: Mahmud Shah Durrani.

According to Krause and Mishler, this coin is considered to be of Amir of Khairpur of Talpur Dynasty, Nasir al-Din Muhammad [1239-1260AH (1823-1842)]. Khairpur was officially recognized as an independent state from 1248AH (1832).

KM#11 Rupee. Year: AH 1861 (1845). Weight: 9.91g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 20.0 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Obverse: Hare. Reverse: British Lion. Mint: Bhakhar.

British Occupation of Sind citing: Mahmud Shah Durrani.

 
 
Below is a Hindus Jagir in Sind, known as
 
Sind - Province of British India
 
     21 Feb 1843            Sind occupied by Britain.
        Jun 1843            Annexed by Britain; subordinated to Bombay.
     01 Apr 1936            Sind a separate province.
     14 Aug 1947            Part of Pakistan.
 
  • Chief commissioners
  • Charles James Napier.....................................1843 - 1847
  • Richard Keith Pringle....................................1847 - 1851
  • Henry Edward Bartle Frere................................1851 - 1859
  • Jonathan Duncan Inverarity...............................1859 - 1862
  • Samuel Mansfield.........................................1862 - 1867
  • William Henry Havelock...................................1867 - 1868
  • William Lockyer Merewether...............................1868 - 1877
  • Francis Dawes Melville...................................1877 - 1879
  • Henry Napier Bruce Erskine...............................1879 - 1887
  • Charles  Bradley Pritchard...............................1887 - 1889
  • Arthur Charles Trevor....................................1889 - 1891
  • Henry Evan Murchison James...............................1891 - 1900
  • Robert Giles.............................................1900 - 1902            
  • Alexander Cumie..........................................1902 - 1903
  • Horace Charles Mules.....................................1903 - 1904
  • John Williams Pitt Muir-Mackenzie........................1904 - 1905
  • Arthur Delaval Youngshound...............................1905 - 1912
  • William Henry Lucas......................................1912 - 1916
  • Henry Staveley Lawrence..................................1916 - 1920
  • Jean Louis Rieu..........................................1920 - 1925
  • Patrick Robert Cadell....................................1925 - 1926
  • Walter Frank Hudson......................................1926 - 1929
  • George Arthur Thomas.....................................1929 - 1931
  • Raymond Evelyn Gibson....................................1931 - 1935
  • Godfrey Ferdinando Stratford Collins.....................1935 - 1936
  • Governors
  • Sir Lancelot Graham (1st time)....................01 Apr 1936 - 01 Aug 1938
  • Joseph Garret (acting)............................01 Aug 1938 - 01 Dec 1938
  • Sir Lancelot Graham (2nd time)....................01 Dec 1938 - 01 Apr 1941
  • Sir Hugh Dow......................................01 Apr 1941 - 15 Jan 1946
  • Sir Robert Francis Mudie..........................15 Jan 1946 - 14 Aug 1947
  • Prime Ministers
  • Sir Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah Khan Bahadur Shaykh (1st)..24 Apr 1937 - 23 Mar 1938
  • Khan Bahadur Shaheed Allah Bakhsh Soomro (1st time)........23 Mar 1938 - 18 Mar 1940
  • Mir Bandeh Ali Khan Talpur.................................18 Mar 1940 - 07 Mar 1941
  • Khan Bahadur Shaheed Allah Bakhsh Soomro (2nd time)........07 Mar 1938 - 14 Feb 1942
  • Sir Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah Khan Bahadur Shaykh (2nd)..14 Oct 1942 - 14 Aug 1947
  • Continued as Governor of Sind for Independent Pakistan.
 
 
Pakistan or refer to Pakistan's Sindh Governors and Chief Ministers.
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins