Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
 
Since ancient times the region has been invaded and ruled by numerous groups and created Empires: Afghans, Persians, Greeks, Maurya, Scythians,  Kushans, Huns, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, Mughals, Sikhs, and the British. Between 2000 and 1500 BC, the Aryans split off into an Iranian branch, represented by the Pakhtuns who came to dominate most of the region, and various Dardic peoples who came to populate much of the north. Earlier pre-Aryan inhabitants include the Burusho. Following the Mauryan conquest of the region, Buddhism became a major faith, at least in urban centers, as attested by recent archaeological and hermeneutic evidence. Kanishka, a prominent Kushan ruler was one of the prominent Buddhist kings.

Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa was formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province. Capital: Peshawar, was home to the Kingdom of Gandhara from around the 6th century BC and later became the capital of the Kushan Empire by Kanisha I. The region was visited by such notable historical figures as Darius II, Alexander the Great, Hiuen Tsang, Fa Hien, Marco Polo, Mountstuart Elphinstone, and Winston Churchill, among others. Peshawar's Qissah Kahani (Street of the Stroytellers) has been a market and meeting place for foreign merchants and trades for more than 1000 years.
 
  • Macedon..................................................329 - 312 BCE
  • The Mauryan Empire (India)...............................312 - 171
  • EUCRATID BACTRIA
  • A small Hellenic state known as Indo-Greek formed when Bactria was sundered by the Sakae. A Hindu-Kush territory of Paropamisadae [Bactria and Sogdiana]. Capital: Alexandria of the Caucasus, now Chârikâr capital of Parvan, 45km east of Kabul. Begram is also known to be the capital of this state. The reigns of these rulers are very complex and even historians have conflicts among themselves. According to these historians there is no evidence of these rulers, ruling together, except Plato.
  • Eucratides I.............................................170 - 145 with...
  • Eucratides I (or Eukratides I) was one of the most important Greco-Bactrian kings. He uprooted the Euthydemid dynasty of Greco-Bactrian kings and replaced it with his own lineage. He fought against the Indo-Greek kings, the easternmost Hellenistic rulers in northwestern India, temporarily holding territory as far as the Indus, until he was finally defeated and pushed back to Bactria. He was known to rule Bactria, Paropamisadae, Arachosia and Gandhara.
  • Plato (co-regent)........................................170 - 165 ?
  • Eucratides II............................................145 - 140
  • Heliocles I..............................................145 - 130
  • Heliocles, the last Greek king of Bactria, was invaded by the nomadic tribes of the Yuezhi from the North. Descendants of Eucratides may have ruled on in the Indo-Greek kingdom.
  • Antialcidas Nikephoros...................................130 - 120
  • He was an Indo-Greek king, who reigned from his capital at Taxila. Antialcidas may have been a relative of the Bactrian king Heliocles I, but ruled after the fall of the Bactrian kingdom. Several later kings may have been related to Antialcidas: Heliokles II, Amyntas, Diomedes and Hermaeus all struck coins with similar features.
  • Heliocles II Dikaios......................................95 - 80
  • Amyntas Nikator...........................................95 - 90
  • His coins have been found both in eastern Punjab and Afghanistan, indicating that he ruled a considerable territory.
  • Diomedes..................................................95 - 85
  • Telephos..................................................95 - 80
  • Archebios [Archebius Dikaios Nikephoros]..................90 - 80
  • He was probably one of the last Indo-Greek kings before the Saka king Maues conquered Taxila, and a contemporary of Hermaeus in the west. He may have been a relative of Heliokles II.
  • Hermaios [Hermaeus Soter].................................90 - 70
  • He was one of the later Western Indo-Greek kings, who ruled in the Hindu-Kush territory of the Paropamisadae, with his capital in Alexandria of the Caucasus, near today's Kabul in Afghanistan. Hermaeus seems to have been successor of Philoxenus or Diomedes. Judging from his coins, Hermaeus' rule was long and prosperous, but came to an end when the Yue-Zhi, coming from neighboring Bactria overtook most of his Greek kingdom in the Paropamisadae around 70 BCE. Historians have not yet connected Philoxenus Aniketos [100 - 95 BCE, also has issued coins] with any dynasty, but he could have been the father of the princess Kalliope, who was married to the King Hermaeus.

AE Tetradrachm. Dated: 90 - 70 BCE. Weight: 9.31g. Metal: Copper. Alignment: Medal. Ruler: Hermaios (or Hermaeus).
 
  • YUE-ZHI or ROUZHI
  • The rulers of this dynasty are unknown but below are presumed two Yuezhi rulers, known through their very rare coins. They were an ancient Central Asian people from around 176 BCE to 30 CE. They had invaded the Greco-Bactrian kingdom in the region of Bactria (modern-day northern Afghanistan) from around 125 BC. They were originally settled in the arid grasslands of the eastern Tarim Basin area, in what is today Xinjiang and western Gansu, in China, before they migrated to Transoxiana, Bactria and then northern South Asia, where they may have had a part in forming the Kushan Empire. They were known by the Chinese as the Daxia or Yueh-chi, by the Greeks as Tocharoi, and by the Turks as Twghry. Distinct Tocharian groups survived until the end of the first millenium CE, when they were absorbed by Turkic groups such as the Uighurs.
  • Sapadbizes (Sapalbizes)...............................20 BCE - 1 BCE with...
  • Two clues provide an approximate date for this ruler. He is believed to have overstruck the coins of Phraates IV of Parthia, secondly his coins are of good silver. This places him after Phraates (40 BCE) and before the debasement of coinage in Northwest India (20 CE). He is not the only ruler of his dynasty known. Several other coins imply that Sapadbizes was proceeded by at least one, and possibly two other rulers. It is likely that Sapadbizes and these other rulers were descendants of tribes who had invade Bactria and imitated the coins of the last Greco-Bactrian kings. Though it is clear from the coins and the evidence of Chinese chroniclers that at this time Sapadbizes was an ally or dependent of Parthia. Nothing is known of the succession after Sapadbizes, but scholars surmise that his kingdom was conquered by Kujula Kadphises, during the latter's war with Parthia, and absorbed into the Kushan Empire.
  • Agesiles (Arseiles)...................................20 BCE - 1 BCE
  • Once again, the conventional name assigned to this ruler needs to be corrected. Mitchiner, for example, refers to this ruler as Agesiles. However, Senior has correctly pointed out that the name should read Arseiles. What Mitchiner and earlier writers have been reading as a G is really a R with a dot replacing the circle at the top of the letter. This form was used during this period.
  • KUSHANID EMPIRE
  • Kushan evolved from one of the five major clans of the Yue-Zhi who occupied the region in the 1st century BCE. In its time it was considered a major state, along with China, Parthia, and Rome, and contributed much to the establishment of Buddhism in the region. Information on its rulers is fragmentary, and the dates given are especially susceptible to interpretation. The state that at its cultural zenith, circa 105–250 CE, extended from what is now Tajikistan to Afghanistan, Pakistan and down into the Ganges river valley in northern India. Main capital was at Balkh (Bactra) in northern Afghanistan.
  • Heraios............................................... c. 01 - c. 30 CE
  • Kujula Kadphises.......................................c. 30 - c. 80
  • Wemla Taktu [or Vima Takto]............................c. 80 - c. 103
  • Wemla Kadphises [or Vima Kadphises]...................c. 103 - c. 127
  • Vima Kadphises added to the Kushan territory by his conquests in Afghanistan and north-west India.
  • Kanishka I............................................c. 127 - C. 147
  • His territory was administered from two capitals: Purushapura (now Peshawar in northern Pakistan) and Mathura, in northern India. Regional capitals were Balkh and Taxila in Pakistan, Begram in Afghanistan, Mathura and Saketa in India.
  • Vasishka..............................................c. 151 - c. 155
  • Huvishka I............................................c. 155 - c. 187
  • Vasudeva I............................................c. 191 - c. 225
  • After Vasudeva, Kushan empire was divided into western and eastern halves. Around 224–240, the Sassanids invaded Bactria and Northern India, where they are known as the Indo-Sassanids. Around 270, the Kushans lost their territories on the Gangetic plain, where the Gupta Empire was established around 320 and to the Sassanids during Shapur II's reign, notably the area that comprises Afghanistan.
  • Kanishka II...........................................c. 226 - c. 240
  • Vasishka II...........................................c. 240 - c. 250
  • Kanishka III..........................................c. 255 - c. 275
  • Vasudeva II...........................................c. 290 - c. 310
  • Vasudeva III
  • reported son of Vasudeva II as a King but uncertain.
  • Chhu..................................................c. 310 - C. 325
  • Shaka.................................................c. 325 - c. 345
  • Kipanada..............................................c. 350 - c. 375
 

AE Tetradrachm. Dated: 30 - 80 CE. Weight: 8.92g. Metal: Copper. Alignment: Medal. Ruler: Kujula Kadphises [(Κοζουλου Καδφιζου, also Κοζολα Καδαφες) Kozola Kadaphes Koshanou Zaoou].

AE Tetradrachm. Dated: 80 - 103 CE. Mint: Taxila. Weight: 8.29g. Metal: Copper. Alignment: Medal. Ruler: Wemla Taktu [Basileos Basileon Soter Megas (King of Kings Great Suviour)].

Gold starter Weight: 7.92g. [Goddess Miiro (MIIPO) - Indo-Iranian solar deity]. Dated: 103-127 CE. Alignment: Medal. Ruler: Kanishka I [Shaonanoshao Kanishki Koshano].

 

  • The Kushanshahs.....................................c. 300 ? - c. 410
  • The Hephthalites......................................c. 410 - c. 550
  • The Pratiharas........................................c. 550 - 988
  • Bokhara..................................................988 - 999
  • The Ghaznavid Empire.....................................999 - 1148
  • The Ghurid Empire.......................................1148 - 1213
  • Khwarazm................................................1213 - 1220
  • The Mongols.............................................1220 - 1332
  • Herat...................................................1332 - 1389
  • The Timurid Empire......................................1389 - 1506
  • The Mughal Empire.......................................1506 - 1740
  • Persia..................................................1740 - 1747
  • Afghanistan.............................................1747 - 1817
  • BARAKZAI
  • Ayyub (in Kashmir and at Peshawar)......................1817 - 1829
  • Kabul...................................................1829 - 1831
  • Under Aghan ruler Dost Muhammad Khan Mohammadzai.
  • Sultan Muhammad (at Peshawar)...........................1831 - 1833
  • Sikh Empire.............................................1833 - 1849
  • Great Britain...........................................1849 - 1948
  • Pakistan................................................1948 - date
 

North-West Frontier Province (now Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa) during the British India period contained five princely states and an important Jagir. Below are their details shown alphabetically:

 
 
North-West Frontier Province of British India
 
            1849            British capture area from Punjab.
            1901            North-West Frontier Province created. 
     15 Aug 1947            Became province of Pakistan.
     15 Apr 2010            Renamed as Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
 
  • Chief commissioners
  • Lieutenant-Colonel Harold Arthur Deane............09 Nov 1901 - 07 Jul 1908
  • He was an administrator in British India. Served as the first Political Agent of the Malakand in 1895.
  • Sir George Olof Roos-Keppel (1st time)............07 Jul 1908 - 16 Nov 1909
  • William Rudolph Henry Merck (acting)..............16 Nov 1909 - 01 Nov 1910
  • Sir George Olof Roos-Keppel (2nd time)............01 Nov 1910 - 28 Aug 1913
  • Sir John Stuart Donald (acting)...................28 Aug 1913 - 28 Jan 1915
  • Sir George Olof Roos-Keppel (3rd time)............28 Jan 1915 - 10 Sep 1919
  • Sir Alfred Hamilton Grant.........................10 Sep 1919 - 08 Mar 1921
  • Sir John Loader Maffey............................08 Mar 1921 - Jul 1923
  • Horatio Norman Bolton (1st time).....................Jul 1923 - 03 Dec 1925
  • William John Keen (acting)........................03 Dec 1925 - Aug 1926
  • Horatio Norman Bolton (2nd time).....................Aug 1926 - 10 May 1930
  • Sir Stuart Edmond Pearks..........................10 May 1930 - 09 Sep 1931
  • Sir Ralph Edwin Hotchkin Griffith.................10 Sep 1931 - 18 Apr 1932
  • Governors
  • Sir Ralph Edwin Hotchkin Griffith (continued).....18 Sep 1932 - 02 Mar 1937
  • Sir George Cunningham (1st time)..................02 Mar 1937 - 11 Aug 1939
  • Sir Arthur Edward Broadbent Parsons...............11 Aug 1939 - 10 Dec 1939
  • Sir George Cunningham (2nd time)..................10 Dec 1939 - 03 Mar 1946
  • Sir Olaf Kirkpatrick Kruuse Caroe.................03 Mar 1946 - 26 Jun 1947
  • Sir General Robert McGregor MacDonald Lockhart....26 Jun 1947 - 13 Aug 1947
  • Acting Chief commissioner of NWFP. He also served as Commander in Chief of the Indian Army in 1947 after Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck.
 
  • Chief Ministers
  • Sir Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum Khan...................01 Apr 1937 - 07 Sep 1937
  • Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan [Khan Sahib] (1st time)....07 Sep 1937 - 10 Nov 1939
  • Governor's rule...................................10 Nov 1939 - 25 May 1943
  • Sardar Aurangzeb Khan.............................25 May 1943 - 16 Mar 1945
  • Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan [Khan Sahib] (2nd time)....16 Mar 1945 - 22 Aug 1947
  • Governor Cunningham of NWFP dismissed the Chief Minister Dr. Khan Sahib and his cabinet as they refused to salute the Pakistan flag. Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan (born 1882 - 09 May 1958) popularly known as Dr. Khan Sahib was a pioneer in the Indian Independence Movement and a Pakistan politician. He was born in the village of Utmanzai, near Charsadda in the North-West Frontier Province. His father, Bahram Khan was the chief of the Mohammedzais ("sons of Mohamed") tribe of the Pashtun (Pathan) people in the Hashtnagar area. He joined the Central Cabinet of Muhammad Ali Bogra as Minister for Communications in 1954. In October 1955, he became the first Chief Minister of West Pakistan following the amalgamation of the provinces and princely states under the One Unit scheme. After differences with the ruling Muslim League over the issue of Joint versus Separate Electorates, he created the Republican Party.
    He was jailed by Abdul Qayyum Khan's government. After Qayyum Khan's appointment to the Central government and the personal efforts of the Chief Minister of NWFP at the time Sardar Bahadur Khan he along with his brother and many other activists were released.
    He resigned in March 1957 after the provincial budget was rejected by the assembly. He was assassinated by a former revenue official in Lahore on May 12, 1958. After his death, Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti was elected to fill the vacancy arising in the National Assembly. He was the 1st Chief Minister of West Pakistan from 14 Oct 1955 to 16 Jul 1957.
    It is important to note that Dr. Khan Sahib's eight years old younger brother, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Badshah Khan) and his Red Shirt movement stayed away from the electoral politics. Ghaffar Khan actively opposed the One Unit and Dr. Khan Sahib's government. No major Red Shirt leader or worker ever joined the Republican Party, founded by Dr. Khan Sahib. The Red Shirts or Khudai Khidmatgar (servants of God) joined hands with nationalist and progressive workers and leaders from both the then East Pakistan and West Pakistan to form the National Awami Party (national Peoples Party) in 1957.
 
 
Pakistan or refer to Pakistan's Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province Governors and Chief Ministers.
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins