Multan
 
An exceedingly ancient city in the Punjab. In ancient times Multan was known as "The House of Gold" and was the main religious center for a popular Indian solar cult centered around the god Aditya. Alexander the Great's quest to conquer the world finished at Multan as he was defeated here and could not re-establish his forces to go further east.
 
  • Jibawin ?
  • Jibawin is listed in Arab sources as the builder of Multan's main temple. He is described as having ruled in "ancient times". Nothing else about him is recorded.
  • The Mauryan Empire........................................316 - c. 250
  • Bactria................................................c. 250 - c. 100
  • Suren (within Parthian hegemony)..........................100 - 60
  • The Kushanids and the Kushanshahs...................c. 60 BCE - c. 300 CE
  • The Guptas................................................300 - mid 400's
  • The Hephthalites........................................400's - 565
  • Sindh.....................................................550 - 712
  • Malik Bajhara.............................................641 - ?
  • In 641 AD, Multan was ruled over by Malik Bajhara, a relative of Rai Sehasi-II, as governor. Chach, who was the successor of Sehasi-II, defeated Malik Bajhara’s son and annexed Multan to Sindh, which remained a part of Sindh during Chach dynasty.
  • Korsiah S/o Chach (Chach Dynasty).......................... ? - 711
  • He was brother of Dahar. Korsiah was defeated by Muhammad bin Qasim and had to fled to Kashmir.
  • Umayyad Caliphate.........................................712 - 750
  • Abbasid Caliphate.........................................750 - 892
  • Banu SAMA
  • Asad al-Qurayshi.....................................892 - early 900's opposed by...
  • A Qarmatian army under Abdullah al-Qarmati......................c. 900
  • Unknown rulers
  • In 985 a coup led by an Ismai'ili agitator aligned with the Fatimids toppled the last Sama emir of Multan. The new dynasty was fanatically Shi'ite and allied with the Assasins of Alamut.
  • SUMRA / SHAIBANID (refer to Sind)
  • Jalam ibn Shaiban.........................................985 - ?
  • Hamid ibn Jalam.............................................? - 997
  • Nasr ibn Hamid............................................997 - ?
  • Abu'l Fath Daud ibn Nasr....................................? - Apr 1008
  • The Ghaznavids and then Ghurids of Afghanistan.......Apr 1008 - 1215
    • Sukhpal (governor)..............................Apr 1008 - ?
    • Fall of Multan, flight of Abul Fateh Daud, its Ismaili ruler with Mahmud Ghazni and Sukhpal was appointed governor of Multan.
    • Ai'i al-Karmani..............................late 1100's - early 1200's
  • Delhi....................................................1215 - 1397
    • Ainul Mulk Mahru (governor).........................1352 - 1365
  • The Timurids.............................................1397 - 1413
  • Dehli (restored).........................................1397 - 1438
  • LANGAH
  • Multan had for many years been a province of the Delhi sultanate but with the weakening of that kingdom, and the lack of a governor nominated by the ruler at Delhi, the inhabitants, in 1438, had chose as their ruler Shaikh Yusuf Quaraishi. He was a mild, but inexperienced ruler, and was soon deposed  by Sahra Langah, who founded a dynasty that lasted some 90 years. He reigned for sixteen years and was succeeded by his energetic son, Sultan Husain I who managed to extend his territories and fought off attempts to reinstate Shaikh Yusuf, who had taken refuge with the Delhi sultan. Eventually Husain signed a peace treaty with Sikandar Lodi of Delhi, and being old, abdicated in favour of his son Firuz. Firuz turned out to be a worthless ruler and was assassinated, whereupon, Husain resumed the reins of power and nominated his grandson Mahmud as his heir. Husain died in 1502. Mahmud's abilities as ruler were disappointing and it was not long before he fell out with his minister, and as a result of the ensuing conflict, lost territory. Nevertheless, he continue to rule until 1527 and was followed by his young son Husain II. By this time, the Arghuns were in power in lower Sind and captured Multan. Not long afterwards, Multan became part of the Mughal Empire.
  • Shaikh Yusuf al-Quaraishi................................1438 - 1440
  • Qutb ud-Din Shah Sahra Langah............................1440 - 1456
  • Husain Langah I S/o Sahra Langah.........................1456 - 1502
  • Mahmud Langah............................................1502 - 1527
  • Husain Langah II S/o Mahmud Langah.......................1527 - 1528
  • The Mughals..............................................1528 - 1730's
  • Various coins have been produced by Mughal Emperors at Multan. Two of such coins Falus by Akbar (1556-1605) and Rupee by Ahmad Shah Bahadur (1748-1752) can be viewed at above web link.
  • Abdul Samad Khan................................................fl. 1730's
  • The Mughals (restored).................................1730's - 1752
  • Kabul, but under constant attack by the Sikh Khalsa......1752 - 1816
  • Taimur Shah minted coins on his name as Nizam (Governor) at Multan (1757-1772 CE).
    • Ali Muhammad Khakwani
  • Muzzafar Khan Saddozai...................................1779 - 1818
  • Sikh Empire..............................................1818 - 1848
  • Diwan Mul Raj Singh.............................................1840's
  • Great Britain...................................................1848
  • Sardar Khan Singh...............................................1848 opposed by...
  • Diwan Mul Raj Singh (restored), in rebellion against Britain....1848 to 1849
  • Great Britain............................................1849 - 1947
  • To Pakistan..............................................1947 - date
 
 
Pakistan's province of Punjab.
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins