Chahamana (Chauhan)
The Chauhans were historically a powerful group in the region now known as Rajasthan. For around 400 years from the 7th century CE their strength in Sambhar was a threat to the power-base of the Guhilots in the south-west of the area, as also was the strength of their fellow Agnivanshi clans. They suffered a set-back in 1192 when their leader, Prithviraj Chauhan, was defeated at the Second Battle of Tarain but this did not signify their demise. The kingdom broke into the Satyapura and Devda branches after the invasion of Qutbu l-Din Aibak in 1197. The earliest Chauhan inscription is a copper-plate inscription found at Hansot.
Chahamanas of Shakambhari
The Chahamanas of Shakambhari, colloquially known as the Chauhans of Sambhar, were an Indian dynasty that ruled parts of the present-day Rajasthan and its neighbouring areas between 7th to 12th centuries. The territory ruled by them was known as Sapadalaksha. They were the most prominent ruling family of the Chahamana (Chauhan) clan, and were categorized among Agnivanshi Rajputs in the later medieval legends.
The Chahamanas originally had their capital at Shakambhari (present-day Sambhar). Until the 10th century, they ruled as Pratihara vassals. When the Pratihara power declined after the Tripartite Struggle, the Chahamana ruler Simharaja assumed the title Maharajadhiraja. In the early 12th century, Ajayaraja II moved the kingdom's
capital to Ajayameru (modern Ajmer). For this reason, the Chahamana rulers are also known as the Chauhans of Ajmer.
The Chahamanas fought several wars with their neighbours, including the Chaulukyas of Gujarat, the Tomaras of Delhi, and the Paramaras of Malwa. From 11th century onwards, they started facing Muslim invasions, first by the Ghaznavids, and then by the Ghurids. The Chahamana kingdom reached its zenith under Vigraharaja IV in the mid-12th century. The dynasty's power effectively ended in 1192 CE, when the Ghurids defeated his nephew Prithviraja III.
  • Following is a list of Chahamana rulers of Shakambhari and Ajmer, with approximate period of reign, as estimated by R. B. Singh:
  • Chahamana (possibly mythical)
  • Vasu-deva........................................................c. 6th century CE
  • Ignoring Chahamana, the mythical founder of the dynasty, Vasudeva is the earliest known ruler of the dynasty. He ruled the Sapadalaksha country in present-day Rajasthan. The next known Chahamana king is Samantaraja, whose relationship to Vasudeva is not clear from the available historical records.
  • Samanta-raja............................................c. 684 - 709
  • He is identified as the legendary Manik Rai by R. B. Singh. According to the bardic tradition, Manik Rai was the brother of Dula Rai, the Chauhan king of Ajmer. In 684 CE, he fled from Ajmer after Dula Rai was killed by their enemies. He managed to gain control of the area around Sambhar Lake with the blessings of the goddess Shakambhari.
  • Nara-deva...............................................c. 709 - 721
  • Ajaya-raja I (alias Jayaraja or Ajayapala)..............c. 721 - 734
  • According to the 12th century chronicle Prithviraja Vijaya, he was a great warrior who defeated several enemies. According to historian R. B. Singh, Ajayaraja I is more likely to be the founder of Ajmer, considering the fact that inscriptions dated to 8th century CE have been found at Ajmer. Singh theorizes that Ajayaraja II later significantly developed the town and moved the kingdom's capital from Shakambhari to Ajmer. Others, such as Shyam Singh Ratnawat and Krishna Gopal Sharma, believe that it was Ajayaraja II who founded Ajmer.
  • Vigraha-raja I S/o Ajaya-raja I.........................c. 734 - 759
  • The Prithviraja Vijaya praises him using conventional eulogies, which indicates that he achieved military successes. According to Prithviraja Vijaya, Vigraharaja had two sons: Chandraraja and Gopendraraja. He was succeeded by Chandraraja, who in turn was succeeded by Gopendraraja. The later Hammira Mahakavya mentions Chandraraja ("Shri Chandra") as the son of Vigraharaja's ancestor Naradeva.
  • Chandra-raja I S/o Vigraha-raja I.......................c. 759 - 771
  • Gopendra-raja S/o Vigraha-raja I........................c. 771 - 784
  • Gopendra was succeeded by his nephew Durlabharaja I, who was the son of Chandraraja I.
  • Durlabha-raja I S/o Chandra-raja I......................c. 784 - 809
  • He ruled parts of present-day Rajasthan in north-western India as a vassal of the Gurjara-Pratihara king Vatsaraja. The Prithviraja Vijaya states that Durlabha's sword bathed in Ganga-sagara (presumably the confluence of the Ganga river and the ocean), and tasted the sweet juice of Gauda. His son Guvaka is known to have been a vassal of the Gurjara-Pratihara king Nagabhata II. This suggests that Durlabha was also a feudatory of the Pratiharas, most probably that of Nagabhata's father Vatsaraja. He appears to have achieved his victories in Gauda during Vatsaraja's campaign against the Pala king Dharmapala. R. C. Majumdar theorized that "Gauda" here refers to the Ganga-Yamuna Doab in present-day Uttar Pradesh. Dasharatha Sharma, on the other hand, identifies it with the Gauda region in Bengal, which was the core Pala territory. Both Vatsaraja and Dharmapala were later subdued by the Rashtrakuta king Dhruva. As Dhruva died in 793 CE, Durlabha military successes in Gauda can be dated before this year.
  • Govinda-raja I (alias Guvaka I) S/o Durlabha-raja I.....c. 809 - 836
  • The Harsha stone inscription suggests that Govinda was a vassal the king Nagavaloka, identified with the Pratihara emperor Nagabhata II. It states that he achieved fame as a warrior, but does not name any specific battles. The construction of the Harshanatha temple dedicated to the dynasty's family deity was probably started by Govinda, although it achieved its complete form only during the reign of his successors.
  • Chandra-raja II S/o Govinda-raja I......................c. 836 - 863
  • The Bijolia inscription names Guvaka's successor as Shashi-nripa, which appears to be another name of Chandraraja II. Both the names - "Chandra-raja" and "Shashi-nripa" - literally mean "moon-king".
    Govinda-raja II (alias Guvaka II) S/o Chandra-raja II...c. 863 - 890
    He ruled parts of present-day Rajasthan in north-western India as a Gurjara-Pratihara vassal. The Harsha stone inscription describes Govinda II as a warrior as great as his grandfather Govinda I. The Prithviraja Vijaya states that 12 kings wanted to marry Govinda's sister Kalavati, but he defeated them, and gave his sister in marriage to the emperor of Kanyakubja. This ruler of Kannauj is identified with the Pratihara emperor Bhoja I. The Pratapgarh inscription from the reign of Bhoja's descendant Mahendrapala II states that the Chahamanas were a "great source of pleasure" to Bhoja. This may be a reference to the matrimonial alliance.
  • Chandana-raja S/o Govinda-raja II.......................c. 890 - 917
  • According to the Harsha stone inscription, Chandana defeated a Tomara ruler named Rudra (or Rudrena). Dasharatha Sharma identifies this ruler with a king of Delhi's Tomara dynasty. Historian R. B. Singh theorizes that Rudra was another name of the Tomara ruler Chandrapala or Bibasapala. The Prithviraja Vijaya states that Chandana's queen Rudrani was also known as "Atma-Prabha" because of her yogic powers. She is said to have set up 1,000 lamp-like lingams on the banks of the Pushkar lake.
  • (title: Maharaja)
  • Vakpati-raja S/o Govinda-raja II........................c. 917 - 944
  • Vakpati was the son and successor of the Chahamana king Govindaraja II (alias Guvaka II) and queen Rudrani. His aliases include Vappayaraja and Manika Rai. He ruled the Sapadalaksha country, which included parts of present-day Rajasthan in north-western India. Vakpati's predecessors were feudatories of the Gurjara-Pratiharas, who had been weakened by Rashtrakuta invasions from the south. The Prithviraja Vijaya claims that Vakpati achieved 188 military victories. This may be an exaggeration, but it is possible that Vakpati participated in a large number of battles in the chaotic conditions resulting from Pratihara-Rashtrakuta conflict. He appears to have made an attempt to throw off the Gurjara-Pratihara overlordship, and was the first Chahamana king to assume the title Maharaja. The Rashtrakuta invasion probably weakened the Pratiharas' hold on vassals like Vakpati. According to the Harsha stone inscription, he assumed the title Maharaja. He was the first Chahamana king to do so, and this probably indicates that he tried to gain independence from the Pratiharas. After the Rashtrakutas left, the Pratiharas probably tried to re-assert their authority. The Harsha inscription states that a tantrapala (provincial governor) attacked the Ananta region in the Chahamana territory. The tantrapala was very haughty because of the authority he held from his overlord, but his elephant force was defeated by Vakpati's cavalry. He might have been a general sent by the Pratihara emperor Mahipala I to subdue Vakpati. According to Dasharatha Sharma, his name was Kshamapala. R. B. Singh identifies him with Madhava, a Tomara feudatory of Mahipala. Vakpati had at least three sons including Simharaja, Lakshmana and Vatsaraja. He was succeeded by Simharaja on the Shakambhari throne, while Lakshmana established another branch of the dynasty at Naddula (Nadol). Vatsaraja is known as the donor of Kardamakakhata village to the Harshanatha temple. Vakpati appears to have been a Shaivite. The Prithviraja Vijaya states that he built a temple dedicated to Vomkesha (Shiva) at Pushkar.
  • Simha-raja S/o Vakpati-raja.............................c. 944 - 971
  • According to the Harsha inscription, Simharaja killed the Tomara chief Salavana (or Lavana), whose soldiers either fled the battlefield or were imprisoned. The prisoners were released only when the common overloard of these two rulers came to Simharaja and secured their release. The overlord, who is called Raghukule Bhuchakravarti ("Emperor from Raghu's family") in the inscription, was probably a weak Gurjara-Pratihara emperor. Although the identity of this emperor is not clear; he might have been Devapala or one of his successors, such as Vijayapala or Rajyapala. Salavana probably belonged to the Tomara dynasty of Delhi; historian R. B. Singh identifies him with Tejapala, who has been mentioned as the contemporary Tomara king in a Kumaon-Garhwal manuscript. He probably belonged to same family as Rudra, who had been killed by Simharaja's grandfather Chandana. Simharaja is also said to have defeated a Muslim general. The Prabandha Kosha names the defeated general as Heji-ud-Din, and states that the battle took place at Jethan (possibly modern Jethana). The Hammira Mahakavya calls him Hetim, and states that Simharaja captured four of his elephants after killing him. The identity of the defeated general is uncertain, but he might have been a subordinate of the Amir of Multan.
    The Hammira Mahakavya further claims that Simharata defeated the kings of Gujrata, Lata, Karnataka, Chola and Anga. This is obviously a hyperbole, although Simharaja may have achieved some military successes against his neighbours. The Prithviraja Vijaya suggests that like his father, Simharaja was a devout Shaivite, and commissioned a large temple dedicated to Shiva at Pushkara. He also extended the Harshadeva temple, and granted four villages for its maintenance: Simhagoshtha, Trailkalakaka, Ishanakupa, and Kansapallika. The Kinsariya inscription describes him as naya-sutra-yuktah, which probably indicates that he was knowledgeable about logic. Simharaja was succeeded by his sons Vigraharaja II and Durlabharaja II in that order. He had two other sons, Chandraraja and Govindaraja (not to be confused with the earlier Chahamana kings bearing same names). The Harsha inscription states that Vigraharaja revived the fortunes of his distressed family. This indicates that Simharaja suffered a tragic defeat at the end of his life. His enemies might have included the Pratiharas.
  • Vigraha-raja II S/o Vakpati-raja........................c. 971 - 998
  • He had three brothers Durlabharaja II (his successor), Chandraraja and Govindaraja. The 973 CE Harsha inscription issued by Vigraharaja states that he revived the fortunes of his distressed family. It indicates that he achieved several military successes and acquired vassals.
    According to the eulogists of Vigraharaja's successors, he defeated Mularaja, the Chaulukya king of Gujarat. As this achievement is not mentioned in the Harsha inscription, Vigraharaja must have defeated Mularaja after 973 CE. The Chahamana chronicle Prithviraja Vijaya, which describes the Chaulukyas of Gujarat as "Gurjaras", states that Mularaja fled to Kantha-durga (modern Kanthkot) during Vigraharaja's invasion. The 15th century Hammira Mahakavya claims that Mularaja was killed in this battle, and Vigraharaja sacked his territory. Another Chahamana chronicle Surjana-Charita also mentions the victory of the Chahamanas over the Gurjaras.
    According to Prithviraja Vijaya, Vigraharaja marched to the region around the Narmada river, and subjugated a king of the lunar dynasty. After his victory, he built a temple dedicated to the goddess Ashapuri at Bhrigukachchha (modern Bharuch), on the banks of Narmada. At that time, Bhrigukachchha was ruled by the Lata Chalukyas, who were originally feudatories of the Kalyani Chalukyas. So, it appears that Vigraharaja defeated the Lata Chalukya ruler Barapa (or Varappa), who once served as the Kalyani Chalukya general.

    A stone inscription dated to Vigraharaja's reign has been found at Harsha temple. This inscription records the grant of two villages by the king for maintaining the temple dedicated to the deity Harsha-deva. The villages were named Chhatrachara and Shankaranka. Vigraharaja was succeeded by his brother Durlabharaja II. The Harsha inscription compares them to Rama-Lakshmana and Krishna-Balarama.
  • Durlabha-raja II S/o Vakpati-raja.......................c. 998 - 1012
  • Two 999 CE inscriptions from Durlabha's reigns have been discovered at Kinsariya and Sakrai in Rajasthan. According to the Sakrai inscription, he assumed the title Maharajadhiraja ("king of kings"). The Kinsariya inscription states that he was known as Durllanghya-Meru, which implies that his enemies obeyed his orders. The inscription also states that he conquered the Asosittana or Rasoshittana mandala. Historian R. B. Singh speculates that this might be present-day Rohtak district, which Durlabha probably captured from a Tomara king.
    Durlabha also finds a mention in a 996 CE inscription of Dhavala, a chief of the Hastikundi Rashtrakuta branch. According to this inscription, Dhavala came to aid of a king named Mahendra, who had been overpowered by Durlabha. This Mahendra can be identified with the contemporary Naddula Chahamana king, who was a feudatory of Durlabha's rivals, the Chaulukyas. The inscription states that Dhavala used both diplomacy and force to relieve Mahendra. According to D. R. Bhandarkar, the Durlabharaja mentioned in Dhavala's inscription was a different king: the Durlabharaja Chaulukya.
    The early medieval Muslim historians state that the ruler of Ajmer joined a confederacy of Hindu kings to support Anandapala against Mahmud of Ghazni in 1008 CE. R. B. Singh identifies this ruler as Durlabharaja. The confederacy failed to stop Mahmud from repeatedly plundering the Hindu territories.
    Among Durlabha's subordinates, a minister named Madhava and a feudatory named Dadhichika Chachcha are known. He was succeeded by his brother Govindaraja II.
  • Govinda-raja III S/o Vakpati-raja......................c. 1012 - 1026
  • He was also known as Gandu. According to Prithviraja Vijaya, his title was Vairi-Gharatta ("grinder of enemies"). It might be possible that Mahmud of Ghazni chose to avoid a confrontation with a Hindu confederacy, of which Govinda was a part. According to the 16th-century Muslim historian Firishta, Mahmud reached Multan in December 1024 CE. From there, he marched to Ajmer, which was a part of the Chahamana territory. The residents of the city had abandoned it by the time he reached there. Mahmud initially wanted to sack the city, but gave up the plan realizing that besieging the fort would waste his time. He then marched away to Gujarat. After sacking Gujarat, he marched back to Multan via Sindh, because a confederacy of Hindu rulers had organized an army to counter him.
  • Vakpati-raja II S/o Govinda-raja III...................c. 1026 - 1040
  • Vakpati was succeeded by his son Viryarama, who was killed by Paramara King of Bhoja and occupied Shakambhari for a brief period. Subsequently, Chamundaraja ascended the Chahamana throne. According to historian R. B. Singh, Virayarama and Chamundaraja were sons of Vakpati. Dasharatha Sharma however, considers all three as sons of Govindaraja III.
  • Viryarama S/o Vakpati-raja II....................................c. 1040
  • Chamunda-raja S/o Vakpati-raja II......................c. 1040 - 1065
  • Chamundaraja appears to have defeated a Muslim army, as suggested by multiple texts including Prabandha Kosha, Hammira Mahakavya and Surjana Charita. The Prabandha Kosha describes him as "the slayer of the Sultan", while the Hammira Mahakavya states that he defeated one "Hejim-ud-Din". The Chahamana kingdom bordered the Ghaznavid Empire, and it is possible that Chamundaraja foiled a Ghaznavid invasion. No Ghaznavid Sultan after Mawdud of Ghazni is known to have personally led an army to India; it is possible that the "Sultan" slayed by Chamundaraja was a Ghaznavid general. According to Prithviraja Vijaya, Chamundaraja commissioned a Vishnu temple at Narapura (modern Narwar in Ajmer district).
  • Durlabha-raja III (alias Dusala) S/o Chamunda-raja.....c. 1065 - 1070
  • Durlabha seems to have faced Muslim invasions, most probably from the Ghaznavids, whose king was Ibrahim. The Prithviraja Vijaya states that he was killed in a battle with the Matangas. According to Jonaraja's commentary on the text, the word "Matanga" refers to mlechchhas, that is, Muslims.
  • Vigraha-raja III (alias Visala) S/o Chamunda-raja......c. 1070 - 1090
  • Prithvi-raja I (alias Amaraja) S/o Vigraha-raja III....c. 1070 - 1090
  • The 1105 CE Jinamata inscription gives his title as Parama-bhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Parameshvara, which indicates that he was a powerful king. The Prithviraja Vijaya claims that a band of 700 Chaulukyas came to Pushkara Tirtha to rob the Brahmins during the reign of Prithviraja I. The Chahamana king defeated and killed them. This legend may be a reference to Prithviraja's conflict with either Karna or Jayasimha Siddharaja, the Chaulukya kings of Gujarat. However, because the text does not provide any additional information, this cannot be said with certainty.
    The Prabandha Kosha states that Prithviraja "pulled away the arms" of one Baguli Shah. This probably refers to his repulsion of a Ghaznavid invasion. Minhaj-i-Siraj, in his Tabaqat-i Nasiri, mentions that during the reign of Mas'ud III, the Ghaznavid general Hajib Taghatigin raided India, going beyond the Ganga river. It is possible that Baguli Shah was a subordinate of Hajib Taghatigin.
    Prithviraja appears to have been a Shaivite. According to the Prithviraja Vijaya, he built a food distribution centre (anna-satra) on the road to Somnath temple for pilgrims. He also patronized Jainism. Vijayasimha Suri's Upadesamalavritti (1134 CE) and Chandra Suri's Munisuvrata-Charita (1136 CE) state that he donated golden kalashas (cupolas) for the Jain temples at Ranthambore.
  • Ajaya-raja II S/o Prithvi-raja I.......................c. 1110 - 1135
  • He defeated the Paramaras of Malwa, and also repulsed the Ghaznavid invasions after losing some part of his territory to them. The establishment of the Ajayameru (Ajmer) city is attributed to him. He was also known as Salhana. The Prabandha Kosha and Hammira Mahakavya call him Alhana, which appears to be a variant of Salhana. He married Somalladevi, who is also known as Somaladevi, Somalekha or Somelekha.
    The Paramara dynasty of Malwa had been weakened because of invasions from the Gujarat Chaulukya king Jayasimha Siddharaja. Taking advantage of this, Ajayaraja seems to have expanded the Chahamana kingdom by capturing the Paramara territory. Ajayaraja defeated Sulhana (or Sollana), who was probably a commander of the Paramara king Naravarman According to the Bijolia rock inscription, Sulhana was a dandanayaka or general (the Prithviraja Vijaya names Sulhana as the king of Malwa, but there was no Paramara king by that name). The inscription states that Sulhana was captured in the battle, tied up to the back of a camel, and brought to the Chahamana capital Ajmer. An inscription found at Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra in Ajmer boasts that Ajayaraja conquered the territory up to Ujjain after defeating the ruler of Malwa.
    The Bijolia rock inscription states that Ajayaraja killed three heroes named Chachchiga, Simdhala and Yashoraja, who were from Shrimarga-durdda. The identity of these rulers and localities are not certain, but these people were probably local chiefs who owed allegiance to a neighbouring king.
    The Prithviraja-Vijaya states that Ajayaraja defeated the Garjana Matangas ("Ghazna Muslims"). The Prabandha Kosha also claims that Ajayaraja defeated "Sahavadina" (Sanskritized form of Shahab-ud-Din). This probably refers to his repulsion of invasions by Ghaznavid generals. The 13th century Muslim historian Minhaj-i-Siraj states that the Ghaznavid ruler Bahram Shah made several expeditions to India during this time.
    According to Mihaj-i-Siraj's Tabaqat-i Nasiri and Firishta's Tarikh-i-Firishta, Muhammad Bahlim (Bahram Shah's governor in India) had captured the Nagaur fort. Nagaur was under Ajayaraja's control at least until 1121 CE, as attested by Prabhavaka Charita (the text calls him Alhadana, which appears to be a Sanskritized form of his alias Alhana). This suggests that Ajayaraja lost some of his territory to the Ghaznavids. After Bahlim died, Salar Hussain succeeded him as the governor of Ghaznavid territories in India. Ajayraja's victory over the Garjana Matangas was probably the repulsion of a raid by either Bahlim or Salar Hussain.
    The prashasti found at the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra states that Ajayaraja appointed his son Arnoraja as his successor. He then retired to the forest beside the Pushkar lake. According to Prithviraja Vijaya, Ajayaraja was a devotee of Shiva. The Devasuri-Charita (in Prabhavaka Charita) suggests that he was also tolerant towards Vaishnavites and Jains. The Kharatara-Gachchha-Pattavali, a Sanskrit text containing biographies of the Kharatara Jain monks, indicates that he allowed Jains to build temples in his new capital Ajayameru (Ajmer). He also donated a golden kalasha to a Parshvanatha temple. Raviprabha Suri's Dharmaghosha-Stuti mentions that he was the judge of a debate between the Shvetambara monk Dharmaghosha Suri and the Digambara monk Gunachandra.
    Prithviraja Vijaya states that Ajayaraja "filled the earth" with so many silver coins (rupakas), that he took away the fame of other kings. An inscription at the Ruthi Rani temple at Dhod suggests that these coins were in use at least until the reign of his grandson Someshvara. Ajayaraja's silver coins have been found at many places, including Rajasthan and Mathura. These coins feature a seated goddess on one side, and the legend "Shri Ajayadeva" on the other side. The Prithviraja Vijaya also mentions that his consort Somelekha had new silver coins every day. Somelekha or Somalekha appears to be a variant of Somalladevi, which was the name of Ajayaraja's queen according to the Bijolia rock inscription. Some rare silver coins featuring a king's head and the legend "Shri Somaladevi" (or "Shri Somalladevi") in Nagari script have been discovered. Copper coins featuring the same legend with the image of a horseman have also been found. These are among the few coins issued by Indian queens.
  • Arno-raja S/o Ajaya-raja II............................c. 1135 - 1150
  • He is known by various names, including Analadeva, Analadeva, Ana, Anna, and Anaka. Two 1139 CE Revasa inscriptions mention his title as Maharajadhiraja-Parameshvara. An 1141 CE manuscript of Avashyaka-Niryukti mentions his title as Paramabhattaraka-Maharajadhiraja-Shrimad. Arnoraja repulsed a Ghaznavid invasion from the west, and also defeated several neighbouring Hindu kings including the Paramaras and the Tomaras. He had to face defeats against the Chaulukyas, and was ultimately killed by his own son, Jagaddeva.
    The Bijolia rock inscription boasts that Arnoraja humiliated Nirvvana-Naryana, which was an epithet of the Paramara ruler Naravarman. Arnoraja's father Ajayaraja II had defeated Naravarman, so this incident may have taken place when Arnoraja was a prince.
    The Ajmer prashasti inscription also states that Arnoraja's soldiers marched to Haritanaka (modern Haryana). Their invasion rendered the waters of the Kalindi river muddy, and caused the women of that country to shed tears. This appears to be a reference to Arnoraja's invasion of the Tomara kingdom. Arnoraja seems to have defeated the Tomaras, but this victory was not decisive, as his son Vigraharaja IV also had to fight against the Tomaras.
    According to the Ajmer prashasti inscription Arnoraja adorned Ajmer with the blood of Turushkas (Turkic people). The Prithviraja Vijaya also states that Arnoraja repulsed a Muslim invasion. According to the text, these invaders came through the desert, and had to drink the blood of their horses in absence of water. After defeating these invaders, Arnoraja purified the place of their death by commissioning a lake, which is identified with the modern Ana Sagar. The lake was filled with the water of the Chandra river, identified with the modern Bandi River.
    Historian H. C. Ray theorized that the Muslim invaders defeated by Arnoraja were the Yamini (Ghaznavid) generals of Lahore. However, R. B. Singh identifies the invader as the Ghaznavid king Bahram Shah himself. The 13th century Muslim chronicle Tabaqat-i Nasiri states that a chief named Muhammad Bahalim once revolted against Bahram Shah. Bahalim is said to have built the Nagaur fort. Bahram Shah marched towards India to defeat Bahalim, who also set out from Nagaur with his army. The two armies met at Multan, where Bahalim was defeated and killed. Bahram Shah then left for Ghazna to fight the Ghurids. R. B. Singh speculates that after revolting against Bahram Shah, Bahalim sought asylum with the Chahamanas. Arnoraja granted him the fief of Nagaur. After defeating Bahalim, Bahram Shah may have attempted to subdue Arnoraja, but was defeated. The Muslim chronicles probably omitted this event to avoid recording Bahram Shah's defeat.
    Arnoraja's reign saw a revival of the Chahamana-Chaulukya conflict, probably as a result of their attempts to control the weakening Paramara kingdom of Malwa. This conflict appears to have ended with an advantage to the Gujarat Chaulukya king Jayasimha Siddharaja. According to the Gujarat scholar Hemachandra's Dvyashraya, Ānā of Sapadalaksha (that is, Arnoraja), bent his head before Jayasimha. A Sambhar (Shakambhari) inscription provides a genealogy of the Chaulukya kings, from Mularaja to Jayasimha. It mentions Sambhar, which indicates that Jayasimha may have even occupied the Chahamana capital for a brief period. Kirti Kaumidi also states that Jayasimha defeated Arnoraja, but adds that Jayasimha gave his daughter Kanchana in marriage to Arnoraja. Someshvara, the son of Arnoraja and Kanchana, was brought up at the Chaulukya court in Gujarat. The matrimonial alliance probably ended the conflict for a short period, but the Chaulukya-Chahamana conflict resumed after Jayasimha's death.
    After Jayasimha's death, a war of succession took place between his nominee and adopted son Chahada (also Bahada or Charudatta), and his relative Kumarapala. Chahada formed an alliance with Arnoraja and other princes, and instigated them to fight Kumarapala, as attested by several sources, including Dvyashraya, Kumarapala Charita, and Prabandha-Chintamani. According to Merutunga, the author of Prabandha Chintamani, Arnoraja attacked Gujarat because he thought of Kumarapala as a weaker ruler than Jayasimha. Historian A. K. Majumdar speculates that Arnoraja may have planned to replace Kumarapala with his son Someshvara.
    Arnoraja had at least four sons. Of these, Someshvara was born of Kanchana, the Chaulukya princess of Gujarat. The other three were born of Sudhava, the princess of Marwar: Jagaddeva, Vigraharaja IV and Devadatta. Jagaddeva killed Arnoraja and occupied the Chahamana throne for a brief period, before Vigraharaja became the next king.
  • Jagad-deva S/o Arno-raja.........................................c. 1150
  • Before Jagaddeva could consolidate his position, his younger brother Vigraharaja dethroned him and became the new Chahamana king. The Prithviraja Vijaya describes Jagaddeva as the only Chahamana ruler who did not attain heaven.
  • Vigraha-raja IV (alias Visaladeva) S/o Arno-raja.......c. 1150 - 1164
  • He was also known as Visaladeva. He turned the Chahamana kingdom into an empire by subduing nearly all the neighbouring kings. His kingdom included the present-day Rajasthan, Haryana, and Delhi. It probably also included a part of Punjab (to the south-east of Sutlej river) and a portion of the northern Gangetic plain (to the west of Yamuna) in Uttar Pradesh.
    Vigraharaja commissioned several buildings in his capital Ajayameru (modern Ajmer), most of which were destroyed or converted to Muslim structures after the Muslim conquest of Ajmer. These include a Sanskrit centre of learning that was later converted into the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque. Harakeli Nataka, a Sanskrit-language drama written by him, is inscribed on inscriptions discovered at the mosque site.
    Vigraharaja's father Arnoraja had suffered a humiliating at the hands of Kumarapala, the Chaulukya king of Gujarat. Vigraharaja launched several expeditions against the Chaulukyas to avenge his father's defeat. Vigraharaja also defeated one Kuntapala, who can be identified with a Naddula Chahamana subordinate of Kumarapala.
    The Chahamanas had been involved in conflicts with the Tomaras of Delhi since the time of his ancestor Chandanaraja. Vigraharaja put an end to this long conflict by decisively defeating the Tomaras, who had grown weak under attacks from the Chahamanas, the Gahadavalas and the Muslims. The Tomaras continued to rule for a few more decades, but as vassals of the Chahamanas. An old bahi (manuscript) states that Visaladeva i.e. Vigraharaja captured Delhi from Tamvars (Tomaras) in the year 1152 CE (1209 VS). According to historian R. B. Singh, Hansi might have been under Muslim control by this time. On the other hand, Dasharatha Sharma theorizes that the Tomaras had recaptured Hansi from Ghaznavids by this time, and Vigraharaja captured it from the Tomaras.
    According to the Bijolia inscription, Vigraharaja also defeated the Bhadanakas. The Prithviraja Vijaya claims that he conquered several hill forts.
    Like his predecessors, Vigraharaja was a devout Shaivite, as indicated by his Harakeli-Nataka. He also patronzed Jain scholars, and participated in their religious ceremonies. At the request of the Jain religious teacher Dharmaghosha-Suri, he banned animal slaughter on the Ekadashi day. The Bijolia rock inscription describes Vigraharaja as "a protector of the needy and the distressed".
  • Apara Gangeya S/o Vigraha-raja IV......................c. 1164 - 1165
  • Amaragangeya (Aparagangeya) was a son of the Chahamana king Vigraharaja IV. He appears to have ascended the throne as a minor, and ruled for a very short period. He was succeeded by his paternal cousin Prithviraja II, who was a son of Vigraharaja's brother Jagaddeva.
    According to an inscription found at the Ruthi Rani temple at Dhod, Prithviraja defeated the king of Shakambhari. This indicates that Prithviraja de-throned Amaragangeya, and became the Chahamana king. According to the 15th century Kashmiri historian Jonaraja, Amaragangeya died unmarried.
  • Prithvi-raja II S/o Jagad-deva.........................c. 1165 - 1169
  • He is also known by other names, including Prithvi-bhatta, Prithvi-deva and Pethad-deva. Prithviraja appears to have faced Muslim invasions from the west. According to the 1168 CE Hansi stone inscription, he assigned his maternal uncle Kilhana as the in-charge of the Ashika Fort (modern Hansi), anxious to save it from Hammira (Emir). The "Hammira" can be identified with Ghaznavid king Khusrau Malik, who controlled Lahore at the time. The Hansi inscription also states that Kilhana burnt a town called Panchapura. Dasharatha Sharma identifies Panchapura with modern Panjaur. The ruler of Panchapura accepted Prithviraja's suzerainty, and surrendered to him an expensive pearl necklace.
    The Bijolia rock inscription states that Prithviraja secured an elephant named Manahsiddhikari from a ruler named Vasantapala. Dasharatha Sharma identifies this Vasantapala with a king mentioned in the play Lalita-Vigraharaja-Nataka. According to this play, Vasantapala was the father of Vigraharaja's lover Desaladevi. Sharma theorizes that Aparagangeya was Desaladevi's son. Thus, Vasantapala was probably an enemy of Prithviraja, and was subdued by him. Prithviraja probably died heirless, because of which he was succeeded by his uncle Someshvara.
    Prithviraja's queen was Suhavadevi or Sudhava. Both were devout Shaivites. Prithviraja gifted villages and precious metals (including gold) to Brahmins. He also granted the Morajhari village to the Parshvanatha Jain temple at Bijolia.
  • Someshvara (Somadeva) S/o Arno-raja....................c. 1169 - 1178
  • He was brought up at the Chaulukya court in Gujarat by his maternal relatives. After death of Prithviraja II, the Chahamana ministers brought him to the capital Ajmer and appointed him as the new king. He is said to have commissioned several Shiva temples in Ajmer, and is best known as the father of Prithviraja III (Prithviraj Chauhan).
    According to the legendary chronicle Prithviraja Vijaya, some astrologers told Jayasimha that Someshvara's son would be an incarnation of Rama. Because of this, Jayasimha took Someshvara to Gujarat, where he was brought up. Jayasimha's successor Kumarapala was also very affectionate towards Someshvara, although he was not on good terms with Arnoraja. During the reign of Kumarapala, Someshvara married Karpura-devi, the daughter of king Achala or Tejala of Tripuri. The Tripuri king is identified as the Kalachuri ruler Narasimha-deva. Prithviraja III and Hariraja, the two sons of Someshvara and Karpura, were born in Gujarat.
    The Prithviraja-Vijaya states that Someshvara beheaded the king of Kunkuna (Konkana) during Kumarapala's campaign in that region. This king is identified with Mallikarjuna, the Shilahara ruler of Konkan. This event can be dated to sometime between 1160 and 1162 CE.
    Kumarapala-Charita gives the credit for killing the Konkana ruler to Amrabhata (alias Ambada), a son of the Chaulukya prime minister Udayana. Historians Dasharatha Sharma and R. B. Singh theorize that Amrabhata was the chief commander of the campaign, while Someshvara was the subordinate general who actually killed Mallikarjuna.
  • Prithviraja III S/o Someshvara.........................c. 1178 - 1192
  • He was better known as Prithviraj Chauhan or Rai Pithora in the folk legends, was a king from the Chahamana (Chauhan) dynasty. He ruled Sapadalaksha, the traditional Chahamana territory, in present-day north-western India. He controlled much of the present-day Rajasthan, Haryana, and Delhi; and some parts of Punjab, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. His capital was located at Ajayameru (modern Ajmer), although the medieval folk legends describe him as the king of India's political centre Delhi to portray him as a representative of the pre-Islamic Indian power.
    Early in his career, Prithviraj achieved military successes against several neighbouring Hindu kingdoms, most notably against the Chandela king Paramardi. He also repulsed the early invasions by Muhammad of Ghor (bin Sam), a ruler of the Muslim Ghurid in 1191. However, in 1192, the Ghurids defeated Prithviraj at the Second battle of Tarain. His defeat at Tarain is seen as a landmark event in the Islamic conquest of India, and has been described in several semi-legendary accounts. The most popular of these accounts is Prithviraj Raso, which presents him as a "Rajput", although the Rajput identity did not exist during his time. Prithviraj's fame as the warrior hero of the Rajputs lives on in the epic poem Prithviraj Raso composed by Chand Bardai.
  • Govinda-raja IV S/o Prithviraja III..............................c. 1192
  • The Ghurid invaders defeated and killed his father Prithviraja III, while he was still a minor, and appointed him as a vassal ruler of the Chahamana kingdom. His uncle Hari-raja banished and dethroned him for accepting the Ghurid (Muslim) suzerainty. Subsequently, Govindaraja established a new branch of the Chahamana dynasty at Ranastambhapura (present-day Ranthambore).
  • Hari-raja S/o Someshvara...............................c. 1193 - 1194
  • He ruled a part of his ancestral kingdom (in present-day Rajasthan) for a brief period, before being defeated by the Ghurids till 1194 CE. Hariraja revolted against the Ghurid rule in the Chahamana capital Ajmer, forcing Govindaraja to take shelter in the Ranthambore Fort. When the Ghurid governor Qutb al-Din Aibak heard about this, he rushed from Delhi to Ranthambore. Hariraja made a retreat, knowing that he would not be able to defeat the Ghurid army.
    While the Ghurids were busy fighting other Hindu dynasties such as the Gahadavalas, Hariraja once again invaded Ajmer in 1193 CE. This time, he managed to recapture Ajmer, and became the new Chahamana king, with support from Prithviraja's former general Skanda. Subsequently, Hariraja sent a force led by Jatira (called Jihtar or Jhitar in Muslim accounts) to capture Delhi. However, this force had to retreat in fear of a larger Ghurid army. As Jatira's force was returning to Delhi, Hariraja set out from Ajmer with another army in its support. The Ghurids decisively defeated the Chahamana forces in the ensuing battle. Hariraja's queen was Pratapadevi, as attested by an 1194 CE Tantoti inscription.
  • The Ghurid Empire.........................................1192 - 1206
  • Delhi Sultanate...........................................1206 - 1526
  • The Mughal Empire.........................................1526 - 1540
  • Suri......................................................1540 - 1555
  • Mughal Empire (restored), British and then India thereafter. The princely states ruled by families claiming Chauhan descent include: Bundi State, Changbhakar State, Korea State, Kota State, Sirohi State, Sonepur State and Ambliara State.

Tye# 51 / Deyell# 220 Jital. Year: c. 1172-1191 CE. Weight 3.37 grams. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 15.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated (9 o' clock). Mint: Delhi.
Obverse: "श्री चाहद देब" (Sri Chahada Deva) written in Devanagari at the top and right side. Horseman bearing lance on caparisoned horse moving towards right. Three dots of harness on horse's rump.

Reverse: "असावरी श्री सामंत देवा" (Asavari Sri Samanta Deva) written in Devanagari around Zebu. Recumbent bull facing left, wearing jhula, (saddle-cloth) in the center. Trisula (trident) symbol on the rump. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: N/A. Ruler: Chahada Deva of Narwar (c. 1172-1191).

Chahada Deva is not listed under the rulers of Chahamanas but below history details might clarify his earlier role. He might also be involved in successful repulsing, the early invasions by Muhammad of Ghor (bin Sam), a ruler of the Muslim Ghurid in 1191, but died in the same year.

Note: Arnoraja, the Shakambhari Chahamana king, ruled the Sapadalaksha country to the north of Kumarapala's kingdom. His wife was a daughter of Jayasimha Siddharaja, and their son Someshvara had been brought up at the Chaulukya court. There appear to have been two wars between Arnoraja and Kumarapala.

The first war appears to have been caused by Arnoraja's opposition to Kumarapala's ascension to the Gujarat throne. According to historian A. K. Majumdar, Arnoraja may have planned to replace Kumarapala with his son Someshvara. Jayasimha's nominee and adopted son Chahada (also called Bahada or Charubhatta) formed an alliance with Arnoraja, and instigated him to fight Kumarapala. This is attested by several sources, including Dvyashraya (Kumarapala Charita), and Prabandha Chintamani. Merutunga's Prabandha Chintamani states that Chahada felt insulted by Kumarapala, and went to Sapdalaksha, where he instigated the king and his feudatories to attack Kumarapala by bribing them. Chahada also managed to win over a large part of Kumarapala's army. As a result, Kumarapala was betrayed by several of his own soldiers on the battlefield. Despite this, he won the battle. Chahada was captured, after he fell to ground while trying to jump on Kumarapala's elephant. Kumarapala also wounded Arnoraja with an iron dart, and captured the horses of the Chahamana generals. The accounts of Prabhachandra, Jayasimha Suri, Rajashekhara and Jina-Mandana are similar to that of Merutunga. According to Kumarapala Charita, Arnoraja suffered from an arrow shot in his face during the war. Prabachandra states that Kumarapala's army unsuccessfully besieged Arnoraja's capital Ajayameru 11 times. Before launching the 12th campaign, Kumarapala prayed Ajitanatha on his minister's advice. This time, he defeated Arnoraja, whose ally included Jayasimha's adopted son Charubhata.
Hemachandra's Dvyashraya states that after being defeated, Arnoraja concluded a peace treaty by arranging the marriage of his daughter Jahlana to Kumarapala. According to Kumarapala Charita, Kumarapala's sister also married Arnoraja. Despite the conflict, Kumarapala treated Arnoraja's son Someshvara well. According to the Chahamana chronicle Prithviraja Vijaya, Kumarapala (literally "Boy Protector") became worthy of his name through his treatment of Someshvara.

Sometime around 1150 CE, there was a second war between Arnoraja and Kumarapala. According to the Jain chroniclers of Gujarat (such as Jayasimha Suri, Rajashekhara and Jina-Mandana), Arnoraja once insulted Jains while playing chess with his wife Devalladevi. Devalladevi, a devout Jain and a sister of Kumarapala, asked her brother to avenge this insult. Historian A. K. Majumdar points out that Kumarapala converted to Jainism at a later date, so the legend about his sister getting offended by Arnoraja appears to be historically inaccurate. According to Dasharatha Sharma, Devalladevi is a fictional character created by either Rajashekhara or another Jain writer, as none of the chronicles written before 14th century mention her. According to Majumdar, Arnoraja invaded the Chaulukya kingdom taking advantage of Kumarapala's involvement in other conflicts.
This second war also ended with Arnoraja's defeat. Kumarapala's victory over Arnoraja is corroborated by the Vadnagar prashasti inscription. His 1150 CE Chittorgarh inscription also states that he defeated the king of Shakambhari, devastated the Sapadalaksha country and then set up a camp at Shalipura. The Veraval prashasti also states that Kumarapala defeated the king of Jangala (another name for the Chahamana territory).

Chahamanas of Naddula
The Chahamanas of Naddula, also known as the Chauhans of Nadol, were an Indian dynasty. They ruled the Marwar area around their capital Naddula (present-day Nadol in Rajasthan) between 10th and 12th centuries. They belonged to the Chahamana (Chauhan) clan of the Rajputs.
The Chahamanas of Naddula were an offshoot of the Chahamanas of Shakambhari. Their founder was Lakshmana (alias Rao Lakha) was the son of the 10th century Shakambari ruler Vakpatiraja I. His brother Simharaja succeeded their father as the Shakambhari ruler. The subsequent rulers fought against the neighbouring kingdoms of the Paramaras of Malwa, the Chaulukyas, the Ghaznavids, as well as the Chahamanas of Shakambhari. The last ruler Jayata-simha was probably defeated by Qutb al-Din Aibak in 1197 CE.
Following is a list of Chahmana rulers of Naddula, with approximate period of reign, as estimated by R. B. Singh:
  • Lakshmana (Rao Lakha or Lakhana) S/o Vakpatiraja I,.....c. 950 - 982
  • The Lakhana Raula Prabandha claims that Lakshmana single-handedly fought against the freebooters called the Medas, who had been raiding the Naddula area. This impressed the local Brahmanas, who hired him to guard the town. Gradually, Lakshmana built a small troop, and forced Medas to stay away from Naddula. One day, he ventured too far into Medapata (the Meda territory), while pursuing the Medas. He was seriously wounded in a fight against Medas, and felt helpless. But his family deity Ashapuri appeared before him, and told him that a large number of horses belonging to the Malwa king would come to him. She instructed him to sprinkle saffron water on the horses. The next day, a convoy of 12,000 horses passed by Lakshmana. When he sprinkled the saffron water on them, their colour changed so drastically that the men accompanying the horses failed to recognize them. Thus, Lakshmana became the owner of these 12,000 horses. With help of these horses, Lakshmana was able to carve out a kingdom for himself. Nainsi's Khyat contains a similar account, but states the number of horses as 13,000. These legends suggest that Lakshmana had a strong cavalry.
    According to the Chahamana records, Lakshmana collected taxes from the gates of Patana, and levied tribute on Chittor. Historians such as G. H. Ojha and Dasharatha Sharma consider this to be an empty boast, as these two cities were ruled by independent rulers at the time. Patana was the capital of the Chaulukya king Mularaja, while Chittor was under the control of Guhila rulers Shaktikumara and Ambaprasada.
    The construction of the Nadol Fort is attributed to Lakshmana. He is also said to have commissioned a Vishnu temple named after him at Nadol (possibly the Lakshmana-svamin temple mentioned in later 12th century inscriptions).
    Lakshmana is said to have married a Vaishya woman in Naddula. He was succeeded by his son Shobhita alias Sohiya.
  • Shobhita (Sohiya) S/o Lakshmana.........................c. 982 - 986
  • According to the Sundha Hill inscription, Shobhita "took away the glory of" the lord of Arbuda (Mount Abu). Historian R. B. Singh theorizes that this lord of Arbuda was probably Aranyaraja, a ruler of the Paramara branch of Abu. Dasharatha Sharma identifies him with another Paramara ruler named Dharanivaraha, who had been attacked and defeated by the Chaulukya king Mularaja. Sharma theorizes that Shobhita sided with Mularaja in this conflict.
    Shobhita has been described as the lord of Dhara in the Sewari inscription of his descendant Ratnapala. Dhara was the capital of the imperial Paramara dynasty of Malwa. Historian D. C. Ganguly speculated that "Dhara" was a mistake for "Thara", which was a city in the 12th century Mewar region. However, according to Dasharatha Sharma, Shobhita fought against the Paramaras of Malwa, and occupied their capital Dhara. R. B. Singh notes that Shobhita's successor Baliraja is said to have defeated an army of the Paramara monarch Munja. Singh theorizes that Shobhita might have captured Dhara for a brief period, while Munja was busy in his southern campaigns against the Chalukyas of Kalyani.
    Shobhita was succeeded by his son Baliraja. A Mount Abu inscription wrongly names Baliraja as the predecessor of Shobhita: this is directly contradicted by other inscriptions of the family.
  • Baliraja S/o Shobhita...................................c. 986 - 990
  • He was involved in a conflict with the Paramara king Munja, with both sides claiming victory. The Chahamana-Paramara conflict that had started during his father's reign continued during his rule. According to the Sundha Hill inscription of his descendant, he defeated the Paramara king Munja. On the other hand, the Paramara court poet Parimala suggests that Munja was successful in this campaign. According to Parimala, Munja also defeated the Gurjara ruler, who had to take shelter with the ruler of Maru. Here, the Gurjara ruler can be identified with the Chaulukya king Mularaja. The identity of the ruler of Maru (Marwar) is not certain, but he was most probably Baliraja. Baliraja seems to have died heirless, as he was succeeded by his paternal uncle Vigrahapala.
  • Vigrahapala S/o Lakshmana...............................c. 990 - 994
  • Vigraharaja's short reign appears to have passed without any significant event. The Sundha Hill inscription omits his name among the list of Chahamana kings. However, he is attested as a ruler by other inscriptions, including the Mandore inscription of Sahajapala, the Nadol inscription of Kirtipala, and the Nadol inscription of Alhanadeva. He was succeeded by his son Mahindu.
  • Mahindra (Mahindu or Mahendra)..........................c. 994 - 1015
  • Dvyashrya-Kavya, a legendary text by the Chaulukya court scholar Hemachandra, states that Mahendra-raja organized a swayamvara (husband-choosing ceremony) for his sister Durlabha-devi. Besides Durlabharaja, he invited the rulers of Anga, Andhra, Kashi, Kuru, Mathura and Ujjayini to this ceremony. Durlabha-devi chose Durlabharaja as her husband. Out of jealousy, the other invitees formed a confederacy and attacked his contingent, while he was returning to his capital. Durlabharaja defeated their combined army. Mahindu's younger daughter Lakshmi-devi married Nagaraja, the younger brother of Durlabharaja.
    On basis of this legend, historian R. B. Singh theorizes that the Chahamana-Chaulukya rivalry concluded with a matrimonial alliance. He also concludes that Mahindu was a powerful ruler, because of which several distant kings responded to the swayamvara invitation. Mahindu had two sons: Ashvapala and Anahilla.
  • Ashvapala S/o Mahindra.................................c. 1015 - 1019
  • Ashvapala's reign seems to have been peaceful. He was succeeded by his son Ahila, who appears to have died heirless. Ashvapala's brother Anahilla then ascended the throne of Naddula. The Nadol inscriptions of Alhana and prince Kirtipala omit Ashvapala's name from the genealogy of the Naddula Chahamana kings, presumably because they were not his descendants.
  • Ahila S/o Ashvapala....................................c. 1019 - 1024
  • According to the Chahamana records, he defeated the Chaulukya king Bhima I. The Chaulukya records do not mention this defeat. Historian Dasharatha Sharma theorizes that Bhima invaded the Naddula kingdom to expand his territory, but was forced to retreat.
  • Anahilla S/o Mahindra..................................c. 1024 - 1055
  • He defeated the Chaulukya king Bhima I, defeated a general of the Paramara king Bhoja, and also defended his territory against the Ghaznavids.
  • Balaprasada S/o Anahilla...............................c. 1055 - 1070
  • Balaprasada was the eldest son of his predecessor Anahilla. According to an inscription, he defeated other rulers even as a child. This suggests that he ascended the throne at a young age.
    According to the Chahamana records, the Chaulukya king Bhima I had imprisoned another ruler named Krishnadeva; Balaprasada forced Bhima to release Krishnadeva. Historian D. C. Ganguly identified Krishnadeva with Krishnaraja, a ruler of the Paramara branch of Bhinmal. According to historian Dasharatha Sharma, Balaprasada requested (not forced) Bhima release Krishnaraja, which indicates that he accepted Bhima's suzerainty.
    Balaprasada appears to have died without issue, as he was succeeded by his younger brother Jendraraja.
  • Jendraraja S/o Anahilla................................c. 1070 - 1080
  • Jendraraja was also known as Jenduraja, Jindraraja, Jendrapala, Jesaladeva and Jayasaladeva. According to the Sundha Hill inscription, Jendraraja defeated several of his enemies at Sandera, which can be identified with modern Sanderao. Historian Dasharatha Sharma believes that the leader of the defeated army was the Chaulukya king Bhima I. R. B. Singh believes him to be Bhima's successor Karna. Jendraraja is said to have been a proficient in polity (neeti). An inscription of his descendant Rajyapala mentions a temple named Jendrarajeshvara in Nadol. This temple was probably commissioned by Jendraraja.
    Jendraraja had three sons: Prithvipala, Jojalladeva, and Ashvaraja. These three sons succeeded him one after another.
  • Prithvipala S/o Jendraraja.............................c. 1080 - 1090
  • According to the Sundha Hill inscription, Prithvipala defeated the Gurjara (Chaulukya) king Karna. The Shakambhari Chahamana king Vigraharaja III also claimed to have helped the Paramara king Udayaditya defeat Karna. Historian R. B. Singh theorizes that these three neighbouring kings (Prithvipala, Vigraharaja and Udayaditya) formed an alliance against Karna in order to curb his growing power.
    Another Chahamana inscription states that Prithvipala defeated a ruler named Mandalika at Rohadavapika. This ruler can be identified with a ruler of the Paramara branch of Vagada.
    The same inscription also states that Prithvipala was once surrounded by a Turushka (Turkic) enemy, and rescued by his younger brother Asharaja. The Turushka enemy can be identified as a Ghaznavid raider, who must have been a subordinate of the Ibrahim of Ghazna.
    Prithvipala waived some taxes on the farmers, and may have commissioned an image of a deity known as Prithvipaleshvara.
    Prithvipala had a son named Ratnapala, but he was succeeded by his younger brother Jojalladeva. It is possible that Ratnapala was born after Prithvipala's death, or that he was a minor at the time of his father's death. Prithvipala was thus succeeded by his brothers Jojalladeva and Asharaja. Ratnapala gained control of the throne during Asharaja's reign.
  • Jojalladeva S/o Jendraraja.............................c. 1090 - 1110
  • He is also known as Jojaladeva, Jojaka and Yojaka. The Chahamana records claim that he invaded the Chaulukya kingdom, and occupied their capital Anahilapataka.
    According to the Sundha Hill inscription, Jojalladeva occupied the Chaulukya capital Anahillapura by force. The veracity of this claim is doubtful, because the Chaulukya king Karna was a powerful ruler. According to the epic poem Hammira Mahakavya, the neighbouring Shakambhari Chahamana king Dushala (Durlabharaja III) also defeated Karna. Historian R. B. Singh theorizes that the two Chahamana branches formed an alliance against Karna and occupied the Chaulukya capital for a short time. According to historian A. K. Majumdar, Jojalladeva may have raided the Chaulukya capital while Karna was engaged in a conflict at another place. According to Dasharatha Sharma, there is another possibility: Jojalladeva invaded the Chaulukya kingdom during the early reign of Karna's son Jayasimha Siddharaja, who was a minor at the time.
    An inscription records Jojalladeva's order to allow courtesans to attend festivals and processions of deities. Some Brahmins, as well as the Jains of Vidhichaitya movement, were opposed to dancing of courtesans in their temples. Jojalladeva's issued an order to punish any "ascetic, old or learned person" who opposed the presence of courtesans. The courtesans were entitled to attend the religious ceremonies with their managers, artists and musicians.
    Jojalladeva probably died heirless, because of which he was succeeded by his younger brother Asharaja.
  • Asharaja (Ashvaraja) S/o Jendraraja....................c. 1110 - 1119
  • He was being dethroned by his nephew Ratnapala. He then accepted the suzerainty of his family's rival, the Chaulukya king Jayasimha Siddharaja. He participated in Jayasimha's successful war against the Paramara king Naravarman. His son Katukaraja seized the Naddula throne after his death.
    According to his 1110 CE Sewari inscription, Asharaja bore the title Maharajadhiraja ("king of great kings"). He was in control of the Naddula throne at least until 1115 CE, when his son Katukaraja was styled as the heir apparent (yuvaraja). However, by 1119 CE, his nephew (Prithvipala's son) Ratnapala had become the Chahamana king, as attested by a Sewari inscription. Ratnapala probably forcibly dislodged Asharaja, because of which Asharaja chose to become a vassal of the rival Chaulukya king Jayasimha Siddharaja. Beginning with Asharaja's reign, the Naddula kingdom started declining because of family feuds.
    Asharaja's 1143 CE Bali inscription states that he subsisted on the feet (that is, was a vassal) of Jayasimha. As a Chaulukya subordinate, Asharaja participated in Jayasimha's war against the Paramara king Naravarman. The Nanana inscription of Asharaja's descendant Alhana boasts that when Asharaja arrived at the Paramara capital Dhara, Naravarman hid himself in the fort. The Sundha Hill inscription also states that Jayasimha was pleased with the Asharaja's assistance in the Paramara territory of Malava.

    Asharaja commissioned the Chandaleshvara temple as well as other temples dedicated to Shiva. He granted the Pinchchhavalli village to the Tripurusha temple. He also built several gardens, free kitchens, prapas (water fountains or cisterns), tanks, wells and stepwells. During his reign, prince Katukaraja made a donation to a Jain shrine at Sewari.
    Asharaja had at least two queens: Delhana-devi and Chandala-devi. Delhana was the daughter of one Rudrapala, and the mother of Alhanadeva. Asharaja's son Katukaraja appears to have grabbed power in Naddula by dislodging Ratnapala's son Rayapala, with support from the Chaulukya ruler Kumarapala. He is styled as a Maharajadhiraja in his 1144-45 Sewari inscription. Katukaraja's younger brother Alhanadeva succeeded his the Chahamana king, and ruled as Kumarapala's vassal. Jayatasimha, another son of Asharaja, is named as the heir apparent (yuvaraja) of the Samipati bhukti (province) in the 1144-45 CE inscription.
  • Ratnapala S/o Prithvipala..............................c. 1119 - 1132
  • An inscription states that one of his relatives captured Mandore, and Asharaja recaptured it. This relative was probably Ratnapala, who was trying to wrest control of the kingdom. By 1119 CE, Ratnapala had become the Chahamana king (Maharajadhiraja), as attested by a Sewari inscription. Ratnapala probably forcibly dislodged Asharaja, because of which Asharaja joined the rival Chaulukya king Jayasimha Siddharaja.
    Ratnapala's 1119 CE Sewari inscription, issued from his camp at Nahura, records the grant of the Gumda Kurchcha (modern Gondoch in Pali district) to Brahmins. Another inscription records his grant of the Riyasakudapa village to the Tripurushadeva temple.
    Ratnapala was succeeded by his son Rayapala.
  • Rayapala S/o Ratnapala.................................c. 1132 - 1145
  • He assumed the title Maharajadhiraja Parameshvara, which indicates his sovereign status. Rayapala had two queens: Padmala-devi and Manala-devi. Padmala was the mother of princes Sahajapala and Sahanapala. The deities Padmaleshvara, Sahajapaleshvara and Sahanapaleshvara were named after these three persons. Manala was the mother of princes Rudrapala and Amritapala. According to historian Dasharatha Sharma, Rayapala's immediate successor was his son Sahajapala, who probably lost the control of his kingdom during a war between his two powerful neighbours: Arnoraja and Kumarapala.
  • Katukaraja S/o Asharaja................................c. 1145 - 1148
  • Katukaraja was a son of the Chahamana monarch Asharaja, who was dislodged by his brother Ratnapala. After losing the throne of Naddula, Asharaja became a vassal of the Chaulukya emperor Jayasimha Siddharaja. Meanwhile, Ratnapala was succeeded by his son Rayapala. Around 1145 CE, Katukaraja seized the throne of Naddula. This is apparent from Katukaraja's 1144-1145 Sewari inscription, in which he assumes the title Maharajadhiraja.
    The inscriptions of Katukaraja are dated in the Simha calendar era, which was used in the present-day Gujarat region. His successors were vassals of the Chaulukya kings of Gujarat. Based on this, historian R. B. Singh believes that he captured Naddula with help of the Chaulukya emperor Kumarapala. Singh further theorizes that following Jayasimha's death, Katukaraja may have helped Kumarapala in a war of success against a rival claimant to the Chaulukya throne. According to a Sewari inscription, as a prince, Katukaraja made a donation to Jains for the worship of Shantinatha, on the occasion of Shivaratri.
    Katukaraja's successor was his younger brother Alhanadeva, who served as a vassal of Kumarapala. Another of his brothers, Purnapaksha, also accepted Kumarapala's suzerainty. Purnapaksha controlled the principality of Ratanpur, and is mentioned as a subordinate of Kumarapala in the Ratanpur inscription of his queen Girija-devi.
  • Alhanadeva S/o Asharaja................................c. 1148 - 1163
  • He ruled as a vassal of the Chaulukya king Kumarapala. During his reign, the Chahamanas of Shakambhari invaded Naddula, and Kumarapala replaced him with his own governors. Later, Kumarapala restored his rule in Naddula, as a result of his service in Chaulukya military campaigns. Another of his brothers, Purnapaksha, ruled the Ratanpur principality as Kumarapala's vassal.
    Alhanadeva commissioned a Shiva temple at Naddula, and also made donations to the Chandaleshvara and Tripurusha temples. His queen Shankaradevi installed an idol of the goddess Gauri with his benefaction. He also gave a monthly grant to the Mahavira Jain temple at Naddula.
    The Sundha Hill inscription mentions that the Gurjara king (that is, Kumarapala) sought Alhanadeva's assistance in curbing disturbances in the hilly part of Saurashtra. The Nadol inscription of his descendant Kirtipala also states that Alhanadeva defeated the Saurashtrikas. The Kumarapala Charita chronicle suggests that this event happened in 1149 CE. According to Prabandha-Chintamani, Alhana killed the Abhira leader Sauṃsara (also called Saṃvara).
    Alhanadeva had two queens: Analla-devi and Shankara-devi. Alhanadeva had a queen named Analla-devi, who was the daughter of one Sahula. The couple had three sons: Kelhanadeva, Gajasimha, and Kirtipala. Kelhanadeva assisted him in administration, and succeeded him on the throne of Naddula as a vassal of Kumarapala. Gajasimha administered the province of Mandavyapura (modern Mandore). Kirtipala was given a fief of 12 villages and established a new kingdom at Javalipura (modern Jalore). His descendants the Chahamanas of Javalipura ruled until the 14th century.
  • Kelhanadeva S/o Alhanadeva.............................c. 1163 - 1193
  • The most notable event of Mularaja II's (ruler of Chaulukya dynasty at Gujarat) short reign was the Battle of Kasahrada, which took place in 1178 CE at modern Kyara (in Sirohi district; also called Kayadara or Kayadram in some records). In this battle, the Chaulukya forces defeated the Muslim Ghurid invaders led by Muhammad of Ghor. The Chaulukya forces included the armies of their feudatories such as the Naddula Chahamana ruler Kelhanadeva, the Jalor Chahamana ruler Kirtipala, and the Arbuda Paramara ruler Dharavarsha.
    Kelhanadeva seems to have made an attempt to assert his sovereignty, as indicated by his titles Maharajadhiraja Parameshvara ("King of Great Kings, Supreme Lord"). However, the Chaulukya monarch Kumarapala forced him to acknowledge the Chaulukya suzerainty. After Kumarapala's death, he again attempted to assert independence.
    According to the Sundha Hill inscription, Kelhanadeva and his brother Kirtipala defeated the Turushkas (Turkic people, that is, the Ghurids). The legendary chronicle Prithviraja Vijaya states that the Ghurid king Muhammad of Ghor took possession of Naddula during his invasion of India. He was challenged by a Chaulukya force during the reign of Bhima II. This force included the troops of the three Chaulukya feudatories: the Naddula Chahamana ruler Kelhanadeva, the Javalipura Chahamana ruler Kirtipala, and the Abu Paramara ruler Dharavarsha. The joint force defeated the Ghurid army at the Battle of Kasahrada in 1178 CE. As a result, Kelhana managed to regain control of Naddula. To celebrate this victory, he is said to have commissioned a golden torana (gateway) at a shrine dedicated to the deity Somesha.
    During Kelhanadeva's reign, the southern Yadava ruler Bhillama V raided Gujarat and Malwa regions, which were located to the south of Naddula. Kelhanadeva checked Bhillama's advance, and forced him to retreat. He probably fought this battle as a Chaulukya feudatory.
  • Jayatasimha S/o Kelhanadeva............................c. 1193 - 1197
  • Jayatasimha was the son of his predecessor Kelhanadeva. As a prince, he assisted his father in administration. After Kelhanadeva's death, Jayatasimha ascended the throne of Naddula, while his brother Sodhaladeva ruled the province of Mandavyapura. An 1194 CE Sadri inscription shows that he assumed the title Maharajadhiraja. He was probably defeated by the Ghurid general Qutb al-Din Aibak, and the Naddula kingdom disintegrated after his death.
    After Jayatasimha, the Naddula kingdom disintegrated into several principalities. According to an Achaleshvara inscription, the Guhila ruler Jaitrasimha destroyed Naddula and defeated the Turushkas. According to historian R. B. Singh, this suggests that the Ghurids had captured Naddula, and Jaitrasimha defeated their local governor. Later, the Jalor Chahamana king Udayasimha (a relative of Jayatasimha), gained control of Naddula. However, historian D. C. Ganguly believes that Jaitrasimha may have plundered Naddula after Udayasimha's conquest of Jalore. G. H. Ojha and Dasharatha Sharma theorize that Jayatasimha was succeeded by Maharaja Samantasimha, who is attested by five inscriptions dated 1199-1201 CE.
Chahamanas of Jalor (King of Javalipura)
The Chahamanas of Jalor (King of Javalipura), also known as the Chauhans of Jalor in vernacular legends, were an Indian dynasty that ruled the area around Jalore in present-day Rajasthan between 1160 and 1311. They branched off from the Chahamanas of Naddula, and then ruled as feudatories of the Chaulukyas of Gujarat. For a brief period, they became independent, but ultimately succumbed to the Delhi Sultanate at the Siege of Jalore. Capital: Jalor.
The Chahamana rulers of the Jalor branch, with their estimated periods of reign, are as follows:
  • (title: Maharaja)
  • Kirti-pala Deva S/o Alhanadeva.........................c. 1160 - 1182
  • He ruled parts of southern Rajasthan as a feudatory of the Chaulukyas, and participated in their successful battle against Muhammad of Ghor in 1178 CE. He also fought with other Chaulukya feudatories, including Asala of Kiratakupa (modern Kiradu) and the Guhila chief Samantasimha. Kirtipala was the youngest of the three sons of the Naddula Chahamana king Alhana and queen Annalla-devi. Kirtipala's elder brother Kelhana became the king of Naddula, while Kirtipala himself became the governor of a fief of 12 villages. According to Kirtipala's 1161 CE Nadol copper-plate inscription, the 12 villages given to him by Alhana and prince Kelhana were: Darjit, Devasuri, Harvandam, Kanasuvam, Kavilada, Madada, Mauvadi, Morekera, Nadada, Naddula-grama, Sonanama and Sujera.
  • Samara-simha Deva S/o Kirti-pala.......................c. 1182 - 1204
  • He ruled the area around Jalore as a Chaulukya feudatory. He had two brothers named Lakhanapala and Abhayapala, and a sister named Rudala-devi. In his inscriptions, he is styled as "Maharaja Samarasimha-deva".
  • Udaya-simha S/o Samara-simha...........................c. 1204 - 1257
  • Like his ancestors, Udayasimha served as a feudatory of the Chaulukya rulers of Gujarat in the early part of his reign. During the reign of the Chaulukya ruler Bhima II, the Chaulukyas faced a Yadava invasion from south. Taking advantage of this, three northern Chaulukya feudatories in the Marwar region formed an alliance and rebelled against the imperial rule. These included Udayasimha, Somasimha and Dharavarsha (the Paramara chief of Abu). In the ensuing battle, Udayasimha was wounded by the Chaulukya general Lavanaprasada, but the conflict appears to have ended with an advantage for Udayasimha. The Jalor dynasty reached its zenith under Udayasimha. He captured Naddula (Nadol), probably from the Delhi Sultan Aram Shah, who had earlier defeated the Chahamanas of Naddula. He also captured Mandavyapura (Mandor), but the Delhi Sultanate conquered it in 1226, under Iltumish. In addition, he conquered Vagbhatameru (Barmer), which was probably a principality ruled by a Paramara branch. He also conquered several other territories that were previously controlled by the Chaulukyas of Gujarat (Solankis). The Chaulukyas were fighting the Yadavas of Devagiri on their southern frontier. Taking advantage of this, Udayasimha formed a confederacy with the Guhilas of Mewar, the Paramaras of Chandravati and other rulers of Marwar. The confederacy attacked the Chaulukyas from north, following which the Chaulukya general Lavana-prasada was forced to sign a treaty with them. Udayasimha also formed a confederacy against Iltumish, forcing the Delhi Sultan to retreat from Marwar. He had a brother named Manavasimha. His sister Lila-devi married the Chaulukya monarch Bhima II. Multiple inscriptions issued by Udayasimha have been found at Bhinmal: 1205 CE (Jagaswami temple), 1217 CE (Baraji resthouse), 1248 CE (Baraji resthouse) and 1249 CE (Nilkanth Mahadev temple). These all mention his title as Maharajadhiraja.
  • Chachiga-deva S/o Udaya-simha..........................c. 1257 - 1282
  • Chachigadeva was the eldest son of his predecessor Udayasimha and queen Prahaladava-devi. He maintained the borders of his ancestral kingdom intact and achieved military successes against some neighbouring princes. He is most notable for issuing the Sundha Hill prashasti inscription, which provides historically valuable information about his ancestors. Chachiga's son Samantasimha faced attack from the Delhi Sultanate, but was saved by his neighbour, the Vaghela king Saranagadeva. Chachigadeva's successor was Samantasimha, who was probably his son, although the relationship between these two persons is not certain. According to the 1284 CE inscription, Chachigadeva's wife was Lakshmi-devi. The couple had a daughter named Rupa-devi, who married the king Teja-simha (possibly a Guhila ruler, according to G. H. Ojha).
  • Samanta-simha S/o Chachiga-deva........................c. 1282 - 1305
  • He is also known as Samvantasimha and Samyantasimha. The inscriptions issued during his reign give his title as Maharajakula. According to the 17th century chronicler Munhot Nainsi, Samantasimha had at least two sons: Kanhadadeva and Maladeva. As the heir apparent, Kanhadadeva assisted his father in administration from at least 1296 CE onwards. The 1299 CE Chohtan inscription refers to their joint reign.
  • Kanhada-deva S/o Samanta-simha.........................c. 1292 - 1311
  • Kanhadadeva, practically the last king of the dynasty, was defeated and killed by the forces of Alauddin Khalji. He ruled the area around Javalipura (present-day Jalore in Rajasthan). Initially, he ran the administration jointly with his father Samantasimha, and helped ward off invasions from the Delhi Sultanate. After the Delhi ruler Alauddin Khalji conquered the neighbouring fort of Siwana, Kanhadadeva's armies fought several skirmishes with him. In 1311, Kanhadadeva was defeated and killed in an attack led by Alauddin's general Malik Kamaluddin. He is celebrated as a hero in Kanhadade Prabandha, a 1455 poem by Padmanabha (was a court poet employed by the later rulers Jalore. The text is written in Prakrit language with Old Rajasthani and some Gujarati influences).
  • Virama-deva S/o Kanhada-deva......................................1311
  • After the initial setbacks faced by the Delhi forces, Alauddin sent an army to launch a direct attack on Jalore (Siege of Jalore). According to the Kanhadade Prabandha, the Delhi forces made several attempts to breach the fort during the first seven days of the ensuing siege. However, these attacks were foiled by sorties led by Kanhadadeva's brother Maladeva and his son Viramadeva. On the eighth day a severe thunderstorm forced the besiegers to retreat. Alauddin dispatched a stronger army led by Malik Kamaluddin. The Jalore forces launched an eight-pronged attack on one of the retreating detachments at Moklana. The Jalore contingents led by Maladeva and Viramadeva attacked the invading army on alternate days. Although they managed to slow down Kamaluddin's march, they were unable to stop his gradual advance towards Jalore. Ultimately, Viramadeva, who was stationed at Bhadrajun, was recalled to Jalore to help his father prepared for the impending siege. Maladeva was also recalled, but was re-sent to fight Kamaluddin once the invaders reached near Jalore. Sometime after besieging the fort, Kamaluddin managed to breach it with the help of a traitor named Bika. Facing a certain defeat, the defenders prepared for a last stand, and Viramadeva was crowned King. The women of the fort committed suicide by jauhar (mass self-immolation), while the men died fighting. Viramadeva is said to have died two-and-a-half days after the coronation. The eight Jalore generals who led this attack were Maladeva, Viramadeva, Ananta Sisodia, Jaita Vaghela, Jaita Devada, Lunakarna Malhana, Jayamala and Sahajapala. The detachment's commander Shams Khan was captured along with his harem, while the rest of his soldiers fled. The Kanhadade Prabandha states that Viramadeva's head was brought to Alauddin. It miraculously turned away when the Sultan turned towards it. Piroja immolated herself while holding his head.
Chahamanas of Ranastambhapura
The Chahamanas of Ranastambhapura were a 13th-century Indian dynasty. They ruled the area around their capital Ranastambhapura (Ranthambore) in present-day Rajasthan, initially as vassals of the Delhi Sultanate, and later as sovereigns. They belonged to the Chahamana (Chauhan) clan of the Rajputs, and are also known as Chauhans of Ranthambore in vernacular Rajasthani bardic literature.
The Chahamana line of Ranastambhapura was established by Govindaraja, who agreed to rule as a vassal of the Ghurids in 1192, after they defeated his father, the Shakambhari Chahamana king Prithviraja III. Govindaraja's descendants gained and lost their independence to the Delhi Sultanate multiple times during the 13th century. Hammira, the last king of the dynasty, adopted an expansionist policy, and raided several neighbouring kingdoms. The dynasty ended with his defeat against the Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khalji at the Siege of Ranthambore in 1301.
  • Govinda-raja S/o Prithviraja III...........................1192 - ?
  • Govinda was the son of Prithviraja III, who was defeated and killed in a battle with the Ghurids, in 1192 CE. The Delhi Sultan Muhammad of Ghor appointed Govinda as his vassal at Ajmer. However, Prithviraja's brother Hari-raja de-throned him, and himself became the ruler of Ajmer. Govinda then established a new kingdom with its capital at Ranastambhapura (modern Ranthambor). After the Muslim conquest of Ajmer, he granted asylum to Hari.
  • Balhana-deva (Balhan) S/o Govinda
  • Balhana, the son of Govindaraja, is recorded as a vassal of the Delhi Sultan Iltumish in 1215 CE, but declared independence in the later years.
  • Prahlada (Prahlad) S/o Balhana
  • Balhana's elder son Prahlada succeeded him, and died in a lion-hunt.
  • Viranarayana (Vir Narayan) S/o Prahlada
  • Prahlada's son Viranarayana was invited to Delhi by Iltumish, but was poisoned to death there. Iltumish captured the fort in 1226 CE.
  • Vagabhata S/o Balhana
  • Balhana's younger son Vagabhata then ascended the throne. He recaptured Ranthambore during the reign of the Delhi ruler Razia (ruled: 1236-1240). He successfully defended the fort against the Delhi Sultanate's invasions in 1248 and 1253 CE. He was also known as Bahar Deo in bardic chronicles.
  • Jaitra-simha (Jaitra Singh) S/o Vagabhata
  • Vagbhata's son Jaitrasimha achieved military successes against Paramaras of Malwa and other Rajput chiefs. He however lost his sovereignty to Nasir-ud-din, and ended up paying tribute to the Delhi Sultanate.
  • Hammira-deva (Hammir Dev) S/o Jaitra-simha..............c. 1283 - 10 Jul 1301
  • Hammira was a son of the Chahamana king Jaitrasimha (Jaitra Singh) and queen Hira Devi. The name "Hammira" is a Sanskritized form of the Arabic title Amir. He ascended the throne sometime between 1283 and 1289 CE. The Balvan inscription of 1288 CE mentions that Hammira captured the elephant force of Arjuna II, the Paramara king of Malwa. The Hammira-Mahakavya suggests that he also defeated Arjuna's successor Bhoja II. He also subjugated the Paramara branch of Abu. He is said to have marched to Chitrakuta (Chittor). He raided several neighbouring Rajput territories, including Medapata (Mewar) and Vardhamanpura (modern Wadhwan). In the 1290s, he successfully defended his kingdom against Jalaluddin Khalji of the Delhi Sultanate. In 1299, he gave asylum to some Mongol rebels from Delhi, which prompted Jalaluddin's successor Alauddin Khalji to invade his kingdom. Hammira's wars with fellow Hindu Rajputs ultimately left him without any allies against the Delhi Sultanate. He successfully resisted invasions by Jalal-ud-din and Ala-ud-din's general Ulugh Khan. But he was killed on 10 July 1301, invasion led by Ala-ud-din Khalji.
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