|The Chauhans were
historically a powerful group in the region now known as Rajasthan. For
around 400 years from the 7th century CE their strength in Sambhar was a
threat to the power-base of the Guhilots in the south-west of the area, as
also was the strength of their fellow Agnivanshi clans. They suffered a
set-back in 1192 when their leader, Prithviraj Chauhan, was defeated at the
Second Battle of Tarain but this did not signify their demise. The kingdom
broke into the Satyapura and Devda branches after the invasion of Qutbu
l-Din Aibak in 1197. The earliest Chauhan inscription is a copper-plate
inscription found at Hansot.
|The Chahamanas of
Shakambhari, colloquially known as the Chauhans of Sambhar, were an Indian
dynasty that ruled parts of the present-day Rajasthan and its neighbouring
areas between 7th to 12th centuries. The territory ruled by them was known
as Sapadalaksha. They were the most prominent ruling family of the Chahamana
(Chauhan) clan, and were categorized among Agnivanshi Rajputs in the later
The Chahamanas originally had their capital at Shakambhari (present-day
Sambhar). Until the 10th century, they ruled as Pratihara vassals. When the
Pratihara power declined after the Tripartite Struggle, the Chahamana ruler
Simharaja assumed the title Maharajadhiraja. In the early 12th century,
Ajayaraja II moved the kingdom's capital
to Ajayameru (modern Ajmer).
For this reason, the Chahamana rulers are also known as the Chauhans of
The Chahamanas fought several wars with their neighbours, including the
Chaulukyas of Gujarat, the Tomaras of Delhi, and the Paramaras of Malwa.
From 11th century onwards, they started facing Muslim invasions, first by
the Ghaznavids, and then by the Ghurids. The Chahamana kingdom reached its
zenith under Vigraharaja IV in the mid-12th century. The dynasty's power
effectively ended in 1192 CE, when the Ghurids defeated his nephew
- Following is a list of Chahamana rulers of
Shakambhari and Ajmer, with approximate period of reign, as estimated by
R. B. Singh:
6th century CE
- Ignoring Chahamana, the mythical founder of
the dynasty, Vasudeva is the earliest known ruler of the dynasty. He
ruled the Sapadalaksha country in present-day Rajasthan. The next known
Chahamana king is Samantaraja, whose relationship to Vasudeva is not
clear from the available historical records.
684 - 709
- He is identified as the legendary Manik Rai by
R. B. Singh. According to the bardic tradition, Manik Rai was the
brother of Dula Rai, the Chauhan king of Ajmer. In 684 CE, he fled from
Ajmer after Dula Rai was killed by their enemies. He managed to gain
control of the area around Sambhar Lake with the blessings of the
Nara-deva...............................................c. 709 - 721
- Ajaya-raja I
(alias Jayaraja or Ajayapala)..............c. 721 - 734
- According to the 12th century chronicle
Prithviraja Vijaya, he was a great warrior who defeated several enemies.
According to historian R. B. Singh, Ajayaraja I is more likely to be the
founder of Ajmer, considering the fact that inscriptions dated to 8th
century CE have been found at Ajmer. Singh theorizes that Ajayaraja II
later significantly developed the town and moved the kingdom's capital
from Shakambhari to Ajmer. Others, such as Shyam Singh Ratnawat and
Krishna Gopal Sharma, believe that it was Ajayaraja II who founded
- Vigraha-raja I S/o
Ajaya-raja I.........................c. 734 - 759
- The Prithviraja Vijaya praises him using
conventional eulogies, which indicates that he achieved military
successes. According to Prithviraja Vijaya, Vigraharaja had two sons:
Chandraraja and Gopendraraja. He was succeeded by Chandraraja, who in
turn was succeeded by Gopendraraja. The later Hammira Mahakavya mentions
Chandraraja ("Shri Chandra") as the son of Vigraharaja's ancestor
- Chandra-raja I S/o
Vigraha-raja I.......................c. 759 - 771
- Gopendra-raja S/o
Vigraha-raja I........................c. 771 - 784
- Gopendra was succeeded by his nephew
Durlabharaja I, who was the son of Chandraraja I.
- Durlabha-raja I
S/o Chandra-raja I......................c. 784 - 809
- He ruled parts of present-day Rajasthan in
north-western India as a vassal of the Gurjara-Pratihara king Vatsaraja.
The Prithviraja Vijaya states that Durlabha's sword bathed in
Ganga-sagara (presumably the confluence of the Ganga river and the
ocean), and tasted the sweet juice of Gauda. His son Guvaka is known to
have been a vassal of the Gurjara-Pratihara king Nagabhata II. This
suggests that Durlabha was also a feudatory of the Pratiharas, most
probably that of Nagabhata's father Vatsaraja. He appears to have
achieved his victories in Gauda during Vatsaraja's campaign against the
Pala king Dharmapala. R. C. Majumdar theorized that "Gauda" here refers
to the Ganga-Yamuna Doab in present-day Uttar Pradesh. Dasharatha
Sharma, on the other hand, identifies it with the Gauda region in
Bengal, which was the core Pala territory. Both Vatsaraja and Dharmapala
were later subdued by the Rashtrakuta king Dhruva. As Dhruva died in 793
CE, Durlabha military successes in Gauda can be dated before this year.
- Govinda-raja I
(alias Guvaka I) S/o Durlabha-raja I.....c. 809 - 836
- The Harsha stone inscription suggests that
Govinda was a vassal the king Nagavaloka, identified with the Pratihara
emperor Nagabhata II. It states that he achieved fame as a warrior, but
does not name any specific battles. The construction of the Harshanatha
temple dedicated to the dynasty's family deity was probably started by
Govinda, although it achieved its complete form only during the reign of
- Chandra-raja II
S/o Govinda-raja I......................c. 836 - 863
- The Bijolia inscription names Guvaka's
successor as Shashi-nripa, which appears to be another name of
Chandraraja II. Both the names - "Chandra-raja" and "Shashi-nripa" -
literally mean "moon-king".
Govinda-raja II (alias Guvaka II) S/o Chandra-raja II...c. 863 - 890
He ruled parts of present-day Rajasthan in north-western India as a
Gurjara-Pratihara vassal. The Harsha stone inscription describes Govinda
II as a warrior as great as his grandfather Govinda I. The Prithviraja
Vijaya states that 12 kings wanted to marry Govinda's sister Kalavati,
but he defeated them, and gave his sister in marriage to the emperor of
Kanyakubja. This ruler of Kannauj is identified with the Pratihara
emperor Bhoja I. The Pratapgarh inscription from the reign of Bhoja's
descendant Mahendrapala II states that the Chahamanas were a "great
source of pleasure" to Bhoja. This may be a reference to the matrimonial
- Chandana-raja S/o
Govinda-raja II.......................c. 890 - 917
- According to the Harsha stone inscription,
Chandana defeated a Tomara ruler named Rudra (or Rudrena). Dasharatha
Sharma identifies this ruler with a king of Delhi's Tomara dynasty.
Historian R. B. Singh theorizes that Rudra was another name of the
Tomara ruler Chandrapala or Bibasapala. The Prithviraja Vijaya states
that Chandana's queen Rudrani was also known as "Atma-Prabha" because of
her yogic powers. She is said to have set up 1,000 lamp-like lingams on
the banks of the Pushkar lake.
- (title: Maharaja)
- Vakpati-raja S/o
Govinda-raja II........................c. 917 - 944
- Vakpati was the son and successor of the
Chahamana king Govindaraja II (alias Guvaka II) and queen Rudrani. His
aliases include Vappayaraja and Manika Rai. He ruled the Sapadalaksha
country, which included parts of present-day Rajasthan in north-western
India. Vakpati's predecessors were feudatories of the Gurjara-Pratiharas,
who had been weakened by Rashtrakuta invasions from the south. The
Prithviraja Vijaya claims that Vakpati achieved 188 military victories.
This may be an exaggeration, but it is possible that Vakpati
participated in a large number of battles in the chaotic conditions
resulting from Pratihara-Rashtrakuta conflict. He appears to have made
an attempt to throw off the Gurjara-Pratihara overlordship, and was the
first Chahamana king to assume the title Maharaja. The Rashtrakuta
invasion probably weakened the Pratiharas' hold on vassals like Vakpati.
According to the Harsha stone inscription, he assumed the title
Maharaja. He was the first Chahamana king to do so, and this probably
indicates that he tried to gain independence from the Pratiharas. After
the Rashtrakutas left, the Pratiharas probably tried to re-assert their
authority. The Harsha inscription states that a tantrapala (provincial
governor) attacked the Ananta region in the Chahamana territory. The
tantrapala was very haughty because of the authority he held from his
overlord, but his elephant force was defeated by Vakpati's cavalry. He
might have been a general sent by the Pratihara emperor Mahipala I to
subdue Vakpati. According to Dasharatha Sharma, his name was Kshamapala.
R. B. Singh identifies him with Madhava, a Tomara feudatory of Mahipala.
Vakpati had at least three sons including Simharaja, Lakshmana and
Vatsaraja. He was succeeded by Simharaja on the Shakambhari throne,
while Lakshmana established another branch of the dynasty at Naddula (Nadol).
Vatsaraja is known as the donor of Kardamakakhata village to the
Harshanatha temple. Vakpati appears to have been a Shaivite. The
Prithviraja Vijaya states that he built a temple dedicated to Vomkesha
(Shiva) at Pushkar.
- Simha-raja S/o
Vakpati-raja.............................c. 944 - 971
- According to the Harsha inscription, Simharaja
killed the Tomara chief Salavana (or Lavana), whose soldiers either fled
the battlefield or were imprisoned. The prisoners were released only
when the common overloard of these two rulers came to Simharaja and
secured their release. The overlord, who is called Raghukule
Bhuchakravarti ("Emperor from Raghu's family") in the inscription, was
probably a weak Gurjara-Pratihara emperor. Although the identity of this
emperor is not clear; he might have been Devapala or one of his
successors, such as Vijayapala or Rajyapala. Salavana probably belonged
to the Tomara dynasty of Delhi; historian R. B. Singh identifies him
with Tejapala, who has been mentioned as the contemporary Tomara king in
a Kumaon-Garhwal manuscript. He probably belonged to same family as
Rudra, who had been killed by Simharaja's grandfather Chandana.
Simharaja is also said to have defeated a Muslim general. The Prabandha
Kosha names the defeated general as Heji-ud-Din, and states that the
battle took place at Jethan (possibly modern Jethana). The Hammira
Mahakavya calls him Hetim, and states that Simharaja captured four of
his elephants after killing him. The identity of the defeated general is
uncertain, but he might have been a subordinate of the Amir of Multan.
The Hammira Mahakavya further claims that Simharata defeated the kings
of Gujrata, Lata, Karnataka, Chola and Anga. This is obviously a
hyperbole, although Simharaja may have achieved some military successes
against his neighbours. The Prithviraja Vijaya suggests that like his
father, Simharaja was a devout Shaivite, and commissioned a large temple
dedicated to Shiva at Pushkara. He also extended the Harshadeva temple,
and granted four villages for its maintenance: Simhagoshtha,
Trailkalakaka, Ishanakupa, and Kansapallika. The Kinsariya inscription
describes him as naya-sutra-yuktah, which probably indicates that he was
knowledgeable about logic. Simharaja was succeeded by his sons
Vigraharaja II and Durlabharaja II in that order. He had two other sons,
Chandraraja and Govindaraja (not to be confused with the earlier
Chahamana kings bearing same names). The Harsha inscription states that
Vigraharaja revived the fortunes of his distressed family. This
indicates that Simharaja suffered a tragic defeat at the end of his
life. His enemies might have included the Pratiharas.
- Vigraha-raja II
S/o Vakpati-raja........................c. 971 - 998
- He had three brothers Durlabharaja II (his
successor), Chandraraja and Govindaraja. The 973 CE Harsha inscription
issued by Vigraharaja states that he revived the fortunes of his
distressed family. It indicates that he achieved several military
successes and acquired vassals.
According to the eulogists of Vigraharaja's successors, he defeated
Mularaja, the Chaulukya king of Gujarat. As this achievement is not
mentioned in the Harsha inscription, Vigraharaja must have defeated
Mularaja after 973 CE. The Chahamana chronicle Prithviraja Vijaya, which
describes the Chaulukyas of Gujarat as "Gurjaras", states that Mularaja
fled to Kantha-durga (modern Kanthkot) during Vigraharaja's invasion.
The 15th century Hammira Mahakavya claims that Mularaja was killed in
this battle, and Vigraharaja sacked his territory. Another Chahamana
chronicle Surjana-Charita also mentions the victory of the Chahamanas
over the Gurjaras.
According to Prithviraja Vijaya, Vigraharaja marched to the region
around the Narmada river, and subjugated a king of the lunar dynasty.
After his victory, he built a temple dedicated to the goddess Ashapuri
at Bhrigukachchha (modern Bharuch), on the banks of Narmada. At that
time, Bhrigukachchha was ruled by the Lata Chalukyas, who were
originally feudatories of the Kalyani Chalukyas. So, it appears that
Vigraharaja defeated the Lata Chalukya ruler Barapa (or Varappa), who
once served as the Kalyani Chalukya general.
A stone inscription dated to Vigraharaja's reign
has been found at Harsha temple. This inscription records the grant of
two villages by the king for maintaining the temple dedicated to the
deity Harsha-deva. The villages were named Chhatrachara and Shankaranka.
Vigraharaja was succeeded by his brother Durlabharaja II. The Harsha
inscription compares them to Rama-Lakshmana and Krishna-Balarama.
- Durlabha-raja II
S/o Vakpati-raja.......................c. 998 - 1012
- Two 999 CE inscriptions from Durlabha's reigns
have been discovered at Kinsariya and Sakrai in Rajasthan. According to
the Sakrai inscription, he assumed the title Maharajadhiraja ("king of
kings"). The Kinsariya inscription states that he was known as
Durllanghya-Meru, which implies that his enemies obeyed his orders. The
inscription also states that he conquered the Asosittana or Rasoshittana
mandala. Historian R. B. Singh speculates that this might be present-day
Rohtak district, which Durlabha probably captured from a Tomara king.
Durlabha also finds a mention in a 996 CE inscription of Dhavala, a
chief of the Hastikundi Rashtrakuta branch. According to this
inscription, Dhavala came to aid of a king named Mahendra, who had been
overpowered by Durlabha. This Mahendra can be identified with the
contemporary Naddula Chahamana king, who was a feudatory of Durlabha's
rivals, the Chaulukyas. The inscription states that Dhavala used both
diplomacy and force to relieve Mahendra. According to D. R. Bhandarkar,
the Durlabharaja mentioned in Dhavala's inscription was a different
king: the Durlabharaja Chaulukya.
The early medieval Muslim historians state that the ruler of Ajmer
joined a confederacy of Hindu kings to support Anandapala against Mahmud
of Ghazni in 1008 CE. R. B. Singh identifies this ruler as Durlabharaja.
The confederacy failed to stop Mahmud from repeatedly plundering the
Among Durlabha's subordinates, a minister named Madhava and a feudatory
named Dadhichika Chachcha are known. He was succeeded by his brother
- Govinda-raja III
S/o Vakpati-raja......................c. 1012 - 1026
- He was also known as Gandu. According to
Prithviraja Vijaya, his title was Vairi-Gharatta ("grinder of enemies").
It might be possible that Mahmud of Ghazni chose to avoid a
confrontation with a Hindu confederacy, of which Govinda was a part.
According to the 16th-century Muslim historian Firishta, Mahmud reached
Multan in December 1024 CE. From there, he marched to Ajmer, which was a
part of the Chahamana territory. The residents of the city had abandoned
it by the time he reached there. Mahmud initially wanted to sack the
city, but gave up the plan realizing that besieging the fort would waste
his time. He then marched away to Gujarat. After sacking Gujarat, he
marched back to Multan via Sindh, because a confederacy of Hindu rulers
had organized an army to counter him.
- Vakpati-raja II
S/o Govinda-raja III...................c. 1026 - 1040
- Vakpati was succeeded by his son Viryarama,
who was killed by Paramara King of Bhoja and occupied Shakambhari for a
brief period. Subsequently, Chamundaraja ascended the Chahamana throne.
According to historian R. B. Singh, Virayarama and Chamundaraja were
sons of Vakpati. Dasharatha Sharma however, considers all three as sons
of Govindaraja III.
- Viryarama S/o
Vakpati-raja II....................................c. 1040
- Chamunda-raja S/o
Vakpati-raja II......................c. 1040 - 1065
- Chamundaraja appears to have defeated a Muslim
army, as suggested by multiple texts including Prabandha Kosha, Hammira
Mahakavya and Surjana Charita. The Prabandha Kosha describes him as "the
slayer of the Sultan", while the Hammira Mahakavya states that he
defeated one "Hejim-ud-Din". The Chahamana kingdom bordered the
Ghaznavid Empire, and it is possible that Chamundaraja foiled a
Ghaznavid invasion. No Ghaznavid Sultan after Mawdud of Ghazni is known
to have personally led an army to India; it is possible that the
"Sultan" slayed by Chamundaraja was a Ghaznavid general. According to
Prithviraja Vijaya, Chamundaraja commissioned a Vishnu temple at
Narapura (modern Narwar in Ajmer district).
- Durlabha-raja III
(alias Dusala) S/o Chamunda-raja.....c. 1065 - 1070
- Durlabha seems to have faced Muslim invasions,
most probably from the Ghaznavids, whose king was Ibrahim. The
Prithviraja Vijaya states that he was killed in a battle with the
Matangas. According to Jonaraja's commentary on the text, the word "Matanga"
refers to mlechchhas, that is, Muslims.
- Vigraha-raja III
(alias Visala) S/o Chamunda-raja......c. 1070 - 1090
- Prithvi-raja I
(alias Amaraja) S/o Vigraha-raja III....c. 1070 - 1090
- The 1105 CE Jinamata inscription gives his
title as Parama-bhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Parameshvara, which indicates
that he was a powerful king. The Prithviraja Vijaya claims that a band
of 700 Chaulukyas came to Pushkara Tirtha to rob the Brahmins during the
reign of Prithviraja I. The Chahamana king defeated and killed them.
This legend may be a reference to Prithviraja's conflict with either
Karna or Jayasimha Siddharaja, the Chaulukya kings of Gujarat. However,
because the text does not provide any additional information, this
cannot be said with certainty.
The Prabandha Kosha states that Prithviraja "pulled away the arms" of
one Baguli Shah. This probably refers to his repulsion of a Ghaznavid
invasion. Minhaj-i-Siraj, in his Tabaqat-i Nasiri, mentions that during
the reign of Mas'ud III, the Ghaznavid general Hajib Taghatigin raided
India, going beyond the Ganga river. It is possible that Baguli Shah was
a subordinate of Hajib Taghatigin.
Prithviraja appears to have been a Shaivite. According to the
Prithviraja Vijaya, he built a food distribution centre (anna-satra) on
the road to Somnath temple for pilgrims. He also patronized Jainism.
Vijayasimha Suri's Upadesamalavritti (1134 CE) and Chandra Suri's
Munisuvrata-Charita (1136 CE) state that he donated golden kalashas
(cupolas) for the Jain temples at Ranthambore.
- Ajaya-raja II S/o
Prithvi-raja I.......................c. 1110 - 1135
- He defeated the Paramaras of Malwa, and also
repulsed the Ghaznavid invasions after losing some part of his territory
to them. The establishment of the Ajayameru (Ajmer) city is attributed
to him. He was also known as Salhana. The Prabandha Kosha and Hammira
Mahakavya call him Alhana, which appears to be a variant of Salhana. He
married Somalladevi, who is also known as Somaladevi, Somalekha or
The Paramara dynasty of Malwa had been weakened because of invasions
from the Gujarat Chaulukya king Jayasimha Siddharaja. Taking advantage
of this, Ajayaraja seems to have expanded the Chahamana kingdom by
capturing the Paramara territory. Ajayaraja defeated Sulhana (or Sollana),
who was probably a commander of the Paramara king Naravarman According
to the Bijolia rock inscription, Sulhana was a dandanayaka or general
(the Prithviraja Vijaya names Sulhana as the king of Malwa, but there
was no Paramara king by that name). The inscription states that Sulhana
was captured in the battle, tied up to the back of a camel, and brought
to the Chahamana capital Ajmer. An inscription found at Adhai Din Ka
Jhonpra in Ajmer boasts that Ajayaraja conquered the territory up to
Ujjain after defeating the ruler of Malwa.
The Bijolia rock inscription states that Ajayaraja killed three heroes
named Chachchiga, Simdhala and Yashoraja, who were from Shrimarga-durdda.
The identity of these rulers and localities are not certain, but these
people were probably local chiefs who owed allegiance to a neighbouring
The Prithviraja-Vijaya states that Ajayaraja defeated the Garjana
Matangas ("Ghazna Muslims"). The Prabandha Kosha also claims that
Ajayaraja defeated "Sahavadina" (Sanskritized form of Shahab-ud-Din).
This probably refers to his repulsion of invasions by Ghaznavid
generals. The 13th century Muslim historian Minhaj-i-Siraj states that
the Ghaznavid ruler Bahram Shah made several expeditions to India during
According to Mihaj-i-Siraj's Tabaqat-i Nasiri and Firishta's
Tarikh-i-Firishta, Muhammad Bahlim (Bahram Shah's governor in India) had
captured the Nagaur fort. Nagaur was under Ajayaraja's control at least
until 1121 CE, as attested by Prabhavaka Charita (the text calls him
Alhadana, which appears to be a Sanskritized form of his alias Alhana).
This suggests that Ajayaraja lost some of his territory to the
Ghaznavids. After Bahlim died, Salar Hussain succeeded him as the
governor of Ghaznavid territories in India. Ajayraja's victory over the
Garjana Matangas was probably the repulsion of a raid by either Bahlim
or Salar Hussain.
The prashasti found at the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra states that Ajayaraja
appointed his son Arnoraja as his successor. He then retired to the
forest beside the Pushkar lake. According to Prithviraja Vijaya,
Ajayaraja was a devotee of Shiva. The Devasuri-Charita (in Prabhavaka
Charita) suggests that he was also tolerant towards Vaishnavites and
Jains. The Kharatara-Gachchha-Pattavali, a Sanskrit text containing
biographies of the Kharatara Jain monks, indicates that he allowed Jains
to build temples in his new capital Ajayameru (Ajmer). He also donated a
golden kalasha to a Parshvanatha temple. Raviprabha Suri's
Dharmaghosha-Stuti mentions that he was the judge of a debate between
the Shvetambara monk Dharmaghosha Suri and the Digambara monk
Prithviraja Vijaya states that Ajayaraja "filled the earth" with so many
silver coins (rupakas), that he took away the fame of other kings. An
inscription at the Ruthi Rani temple at Dhod suggests that these coins
were in use at least until the reign of his grandson Someshvara.
Ajayaraja's silver coins have been found at many places, including
Rajasthan and Mathura. These coins feature a seated goddess on one side,
and the legend "Shri Ajayadeva" on the other side. The Prithviraja
Vijaya also mentions that his consort Somelekha had new silver coins
every day. Somelekha or Somalekha appears to be a variant of Somalladevi,
which was the name of Ajayaraja's queen according to the Bijolia rock
inscription. Some rare silver coins featuring a king's head and the
legend "Shri Somaladevi" (or "Shri Somalladevi") in Nagari script have
been discovered. Copper coins featuring the same legend with the image
of a horseman have also been found. These are among the few coins issued
by Indian queens.
- Arno-raja S/o
Ajaya-raja II............................c. 1135 - 1150
- He is known by various names, including
Analadeva, Analadeva, Ana, Anna, and Anaka. Two 1139 CE Revasa
inscriptions mention his title as Maharajadhiraja-Parameshvara. An 1141
CE manuscript of Avashyaka-Niryukti mentions his title as
Paramabhattaraka-Maharajadhiraja-Shrimad. Arnoraja repulsed a Ghaznavid
invasion from the west, and also defeated several neighbouring Hindu
kings including the Paramaras and the Tomaras. He had to face defeats
against the Chaulukyas, and was ultimately killed by his own son,
The Bijolia rock inscription boasts that Arnoraja humiliated
Nirvvana-Naryana, which was an epithet of the Paramara ruler Naravarman.
Arnoraja's father Ajayaraja II had defeated Naravarman, so this incident
may have taken place when Arnoraja was a prince.
The Ajmer prashasti inscription also states that Arnoraja's soldiers
marched to Haritanaka (modern Haryana). Their invasion rendered the
waters of the Kalindi river muddy, and caused the women of that country
to shed tears. This appears to be a reference to Arnoraja's invasion of
the Tomara kingdom. Arnoraja seems to have defeated the Tomaras, but
this victory was not decisive, as his son Vigraharaja IV also had to
fight against the Tomaras.
According to the Ajmer prashasti inscription Arnoraja adorned Ajmer with
the blood of Turushkas (Turkic people). The Prithviraja Vijaya also
states that Arnoraja repulsed a Muslim invasion. According to the text,
these invaders came through the desert, and had to drink the blood of
their horses in absence of water. After defeating these invaders,
Arnoraja purified the place of their death by commissioning a lake,
which is identified with the modern Ana Sagar. The lake was filled with
the water of the Chandra river, identified with the modern Bandi River.
Historian H. C. Ray theorized that the Muslim invaders defeated by
Arnoraja were the Yamini (Ghaznavid) generals of Lahore. However, R. B.
Singh identifies the invader as the Ghaznavid king Bahram Shah himself.
The 13th century Muslim chronicle Tabaqat-i Nasiri states that a chief
named Muhammad Bahalim once revolted against Bahram Shah. Bahalim is
said to have built the Nagaur fort. Bahram Shah marched towards India to
defeat Bahalim, who also set out from Nagaur with his army. The two
armies met at Multan, where Bahalim was defeated and killed. Bahram Shah
then left for Ghazna to fight the Ghurids. R. B. Singh speculates that
after revolting against Bahram Shah, Bahalim sought asylum with the
Chahamanas. Arnoraja granted him the fief of Nagaur. After defeating
Bahalim, Bahram Shah may have attempted to subdue Arnoraja, but was
defeated. The Muslim chronicles probably omitted this event to avoid
recording Bahram Shah's defeat.
Arnoraja's reign saw a revival of the Chahamana-Chaulukya conflict,
probably as a result of their attempts to control the weakening Paramara
kingdom of Malwa. This conflict appears to have ended with an advantage
to the Gujarat Chaulukya king Jayasimha Siddharaja. According to the
Gujarat scholar Hemachandra's Dvyashraya, Ānā of Sapadalaksha (that is,
Arnoraja), bent his head before Jayasimha. A Sambhar (Shakambhari)
inscription provides a genealogy of the Chaulukya kings, from Mularaja
to Jayasimha. It mentions Sambhar, which indicates that Jayasimha may
have even occupied the Chahamana capital for a brief period. Kirti
Kaumidi also states that Jayasimha defeated Arnoraja, but adds that
Jayasimha gave his daughter Kanchana in marriage to Arnoraja. Someshvara,
the son of Arnoraja and Kanchana, was brought up at the Chaulukya court
in Gujarat. The matrimonial alliance probably ended the conflict for a
short period, but the Chaulukya-Chahamana conflict resumed after
After Jayasimha's death, a war of succession took place between his
nominee and adopted son Chahada (also Bahada or Charudatta), and his
relative Kumarapala. Chahada formed an alliance with Arnoraja and other
princes, and instigated them to fight Kumarapala, as attested by several
sources, including Dvyashraya, Kumarapala Charita, and
Prabandha-Chintamani. According to Merutunga, the author of Prabandha
Chintamani, Arnoraja attacked Gujarat because he thought of Kumarapala
as a weaker ruler than Jayasimha. Historian A. K. Majumdar speculates
that Arnoraja may have planned to replace Kumarapala with his son
Arnoraja had at least four sons. Of these, Someshvara was born of
Kanchana, the Chaulukya princess of Gujarat. The other three were born
of Sudhava, the princess of Marwar: Jagaddeva, Vigraharaja IV and
Devadatta. Jagaddeva killed Arnoraja and occupied the Chahamana throne
for a brief period, before Vigraharaja became the next king.
- Jagad-deva S/o
- Before Jagaddeva could consolidate his
position, his younger brother Vigraharaja dethroned him and became the
new Chahamana king. The Prithviraja Vijaya describes Jagaddeva as the
only Chahamana ruler who did not attain heaven.
- Vigraha-raja IV
(alias Visaladeva) S/o Arno-raja.......c. 1150 - 1164
- He was also known as Visaladeva. He turned the
Chahamana kingdom into an empire by subduing nearly all the neighbouring
kings. His kingdom included the present-day Rajasthan, Haryana, and
Delhi. It probably also included a part of Punjab (to the south-east of
Sutlej river) and a portion of the northern Gangetic plain (to the west
of Yamuna) in Uttar Pradesh.
Vigraharaja commissioned several buildings in his capital Ajayameru
(modern Ajmer), most of which were destroyed or converted to Muslim
structures after the Muslim conquest of Ajmer. These include a Sanskrit
centre of learning that was later converted into the Adhai Din Ka
Jhonpra mosque. Harakeli Nataka, a Sanskrit-language drama written by
him, is inscribed on inscriptions discovered at the mosque site.
Vigraharaja's father Arnoraja had suffered a humiliating at the hands of
Kumarapala, the Chaulukya king of Gujarat. Vigraharaja launched several
expeditions against the Chaulukyas to avenge his father's defeat.
Vigraharaja also defeated one Kuntapala, who can be identified with a
Naddula Chahamana subordinate of Kumarapala.
The Chahamanas had been involved in conflicts with the Tomaras of Delhi
since the time of his ancestor Chandanaraja. Vigraharaja put an end to
this long conflict by decisively defeating the Tomaras, who had grown
weak under attacks from the Chahamanas, the Gahadavalas and the Muslims.
The Tomaras continued to rule for a few more decades, but as vassals of
the Chahamanas. An old bahi (manuscript) states that Visaladeva i.e.
Vigraharaja captured Delhi from Tamvars (Tomaras) in the year 1152 CE
(1209 VS). According to historian R. B. Singh, Hansi might have been
under Muslim control by this time. On the other hand, Dasharatha Sharma
theorizes that the Tomaras had recaptured Hansi from Ghaznavids by this
time, and Vigraharaja captured it from the Tomaras.
According to the Bijolia inscription, Vigraharaja also defeated the
Bhadanakas. The Prithviraja Vijaya claims that he conquered several hill
Like his predecessors, Vigraharaja was a devout Shaivite, as indicated
by his Harakeli-Nataka. He also patronzed Jain scholars, and
participated in their religious ceremonies. At the request of the Jain
religious teacher Dharmaghosha-Suri, he banned animal slaughter on the
Ekadashi day. The Bijolia rock inscription describes Vigraharaja as "a
protector of the needy and the distressed".
- Apara Gangeya S/o
Vigraha-raja IV......................c. 1164 - 1165
- Amaragangeya (Aparagangeya) was a son of the
Chahamana king Vigraharaja IV. He appears to have ascended the throne as
a minor, and ruled for a very short period. He was succeeded by his
paternal cousin Prithviraja II, who was a son of Vigraharaja's brother
According to an inscription found at the Ruthi Rani temple at Dhod,
Prithviraja defeated the king of Shakambhari. This indicates that
Prithviraja de-throned Amaragangeya, and became the Chahamana king.
According to the 15th century Kashmiri historian Jonaraja, Amaragangeya
- Prithvi-raja II
S/o Jagad-deva.........................c. 1165 - 1169
- He is also known by other names, including
Prithvi-bhatta, Prithvi-deva and Pethad-deva. Prithviraja appears to
have faced Muslim invasions from the west. According to the 1168 CE
Hansi stone inscription, he assigned his maternal uncle Kilhana as the
in-charge of the Ashika Fort (modern Hansi), anxious to save it from
Hammira (Emir). The "Hammira" can be identified with Ghaznavid king
Khusrau Malik, who controlled Lahore at the time. The Hansi inscription
also states that Kilhana burnt a town called Panchapura. Dasharatha
Sharma identifies Panchapura with modern Panjaur. The ruler of
Panchapura accepted Prithviraja's suzerainty, and surrendered to him an
expensive pearl necklace.
The Bijolia rock inscription states that Prithviraja secured an elephant
named Manahsiddhikari from a ruler named Vasantapala. Dasharatha Sharma
identifies this Vasantapala with a king mentioned in the play
Lalita-Vigraharaja-Nataka. According to this play, Vasantapala was the
father of Vigraharaja's lover Desaladevi. Sharma theorizes that
Aparagangeya was Desaladevi's son. Thus, Vasantapala was probably an
enemy of Prithviraja, and was subdued by him. Prithviraja probably died
heirless, because of which he was succeeded by his uncle Someshvara.
Prithviraja's queen was Suhavadevi or Sudhava. Both were devout
Shaivites. Prithviraja gifted villages and precious metals (including
gold) to Brahmins. He also granted the Morajhari village to the
Parshvanatha Jain temple at Bijolia.
- Someshvara (Somadeva)
S/o Arno-raja....................c. 1169 - 1178
- He was brought up at the Chaulukya court in
Gujarat by his maternal relatives. After death of Prithviraja II, the
Chahamana ministers brought him to the capital Ajmer and appointed him
as the new king. He is said to have commissioned several Shiva temples
in Ajmer, and is best known as the father of Prithviraja III (Prithviraj
According to the legendary chronicle Prithviraja Vijaya, some
astrologers told Jayasimha that Someshvara's son would be an incarnation
of Rama. Because of this, Jayasimha took Someshvara to Gujarat, where he
was brought up. Jayasimha's successor Kumarapala was also very
affectionate towards Someshvara, although he was not on good terms with
Arnoraja. During the reign of Kumarapala, Someshvara married
Karpura-devi, the daughter of king Achala or Tejala of Tripuri. The
Tripuri king is identified as the Kalachuri ruler Narasimha-deva.
Prithviraja III and Hariraja, the two sons of Someshvara and Karpura,
were born in Gujarat.
The Prithviraja-Vijaya states that Someshvara beheaded the king of
Kunkuna (Konkana) during Kumarapala's campaign in that region. This king
is identified with Mallikarjuna, the Shilahara ruler of Konkan. This
event can be dated to sometime between 1160 and 1162 CE.
Kumarapala-Charita gives the credit for killing
the Konkana ruler to Amrabhata (alias Ambada), a son of the Chaulukya
prime minister Udayana. Historians Dasharatha Sharma and R. B. Singh
theorize that Amrabhata was the chief commander of the campaign, while
Someshvara was the subordinate general who actually killed Mallikarjuna.
- Prithviraja III
S/o Someshvara.........................c. 1178 - 1192
- He was better known as Prithviraj Chauhan or
Rai Pithora in the folk legends, was a king from the Chahamana (Chauhan)
dynasty. He ruled Sapadalaksha, the traditional Chahamana territory, in
present-day north-western India. He controlled much of the present-day
Rajasthan, Haryana, and Delhi; and some parts of Punjab, Madhya Pradesh
and Uttar Pradesh. His capital was located at Ajayameru (modern Ajmer),
although the medieval folk legends describe him as the king of India's
political centre Delhi to portray him as a representative of the
pre-Islamic Indian power.
Early in his career, Prithviraj achieved military successes against
several neighbouring Hindu kingdoms, most notably against the Chandela
king Paramardi. He also repulsed the early invasions by Muhammad of Ghor
a ruler of the Muslim Ghurid in 1191. However, in 1192, the Ghurids
defeated Prithviraj at the Second battle of Tarain. His defeat at Tarain
is seen as a landmark event in the Islamic conquest of India, and has
been described in several semi-legendary accounts. The most popular of
these accounts is Prithviraj Raso, which presents him as a "Rajput",
although the Rajput identity did not exist during his time. Prithviraj's
fame as the warrior hero of the Rajputs lives on in the epic poem
Prithviraj Raso composed by Chand Bardai.
- Govinda-raja IV
S/o Prithviraja III..............................c. 1192
- The Ghurid invaders defeated and killed his
father Prithviraja III, while he was still a minor, and appointed him as
a vassal ruler of the Chahamana kingdom. His uncle Hari-raja banished
and dethroned him for accepting the Ghurid (Muslim) suzerainty.
Subsequently, Govindaraja established a new branch of the Chahamana
dynasty at Ranastambhapura (present-day Ranthambore).
- Hari-raja S/o
Someshvara...............................c. 1193 - 1194
- He ruled a part of his ancestral kingdom (in
present-day Rajasthan) for a brief period, before being defeated by the
Ghurids till 1194 CE. Hariraja revolted against the Ghurid rule in the
Chahamana capital Ajmer, forcing Govindaraja to take shelter in the
Ranthambore Fort. When the Ghurid governor Qutb al-Din Aibak heard about
this, he rushed from Delhi to Ranthambore. Hariraja made a retreat,
knowing that he would not be able to defeat the Ghurid army.
While the Ghurids were busy fighting other Hindu dynasties such as the
Gahadavalas, Hariraja once again invaded Ajmer in 1193 CE. This time, he
managed to recapture Ajmer, and became the new Chahamana king, with
support from Prithviraja's former general Skanda. Subsequently, Hariraja
sent a force led by Jatira (called Jihtar or Jhitar in Muslim accounts)
to capture Delhi. However, this force had to retreat in fear of a larger
Ghurid army. As Jatira's force was returning to Delhi, Hariraja set out
from Ajmer with another army in its support. The Ghurids decisively
defeated the Chahamana forces in the ensuing battle. Hariraja's queen
was Pratapadevi, as attested by an 1194 CE Tantoti inscription.
Empire.........................................1192 - 1206
Sultanate...........................................1206 - 1526
Empire.........................................1526 - 1540
- Mughal Empire (restored),
British and then
India thereafter. The princely states ruled by families claiming Chauhan
descent include: Bundi State, Changbhakar State, Korea State, Kota
State, Sirohi State, Sonepur State and
|Tye# 51 / Deyell# 220 Jital.
c. 1172-1191 CE. Weight
Diameter: 15.00 mm. Edge:
Rotated (9 o' clock). Mint:
"श्री चाहद देब" (Sri Chahada Deva)
written in Devanagari
at the top and right
bearing lance on caparisoned horse moving towards right. Three dots of harness on horse's rump.
Reverse: "असावरी श्री सामंत
(Asavari Sri Samanta Deva) written
Recumbent bull facing left,
(saddle-cloth) in the center.
(trident) symbol on the rump.
Chahada Deva of Narwar (c. 1172-1191).
Chahada Deva is not listed under the
rulers of Chahamanas but below history details might clarify
his earlier role. He might also
be involved in successful repulsing, the early invasions by
Muhammad of Ghor
a ruler of the Muslim Ghurid in 1191, but died in the same year.
the Shakambhari Chahamana king, ruled the Sapadalaksha country to
the north of Kumarapala's kingdom. His wife was a daughter of
Jayasimha Siddharaja, and their son Someshvara had been brought up
at the Chaulukya court. There appear to have been two wars between
Arnoraja and Kumarapala.
The first war appears to have been caused
by Arnoraja's opposition to Kumarapala's ascension to the Gujarat
throne. According to historian A. K. Majumdar, Arnoraja may have
planned to replace Kumarapala with his son Someshvara.
Jayasimha's nominee and adopted son Chahada
(also called Bahada or Charubhatta) formed an alliance with Arnoraja,
and instigated him to fight Kumarapala. This is attested by
several sources, including Dvyashraya (Kumarapala Charita), and
Prabandha Chintamani. Merutunga's Prabandha Chintamani states that
Chahada felt insulted by Kumarapala, and went
to Sapdalaksha, where he instigated the king and his feudatories to
attack Kumarapala by bribing them. Chahada also managed to win over
a large part of Kumarapala's army. As a result, Kumarapala was
betrayed by several of his own soldiers on the battlefield. Despite
this, he won the battle. Chahada was captured, after he fell to
ground while trying to jump on Kumarapala's elephant.
Kumarapala also wounded Arnoraja with an iron dart, and captured the
horses of the Chahamana generals. The accounts of Prabhachandra,
Jayasimha Suri, Rajashekhara and Jina-Mandana are similar to that of
Merutunga. According to Kumarapala Charita, Arnoraja suffered from
an arrow shot in his face during the war. Prabachandra states that
Kumarapala's army unsuccessfully besieged Arnoraja's capital
Ajayameru 11 times. Before launching the 12th campaign, Kumarapala
prayed Ajitanatha on his minister's advice. This time, he defeated
Arnoraja, whose ally included Jayasimha's adopted son Charubhata.
Hemachandra's Dvyashraya states that after being defeated, Arnoraja
concluded a peace treaty by arranging the marriage of his daughter
Jahlana to Kumarapala. According to Kumarapala Charita, Kumarapala's
sister also married Arnoraja. Despite the conflict, Kumarapala
treated Arnoraja's son Someshvara well. According to the Chahamana
chronicle Prithviraja Vijaya, Kumarapala (literally "Boy Protector")
became worthy of his name through his treatment of Someshvara.
Sometime around 1150 CE, there was a second war between Arnoraja
and Kumarapala. According to the Jain chroniclers of Gujarat (such
as Jayasimha Suri, Rajashekhara and Jina-Mandana), Arnoraja once
insulted Jains while playing chess with his wife Devalladevi.
Devalladevi, a devout Jain and a sister of Kumarapala, asked her
brother to avenge this insult. Historian A. K. Majumdar points out
that Kumarapala converted to Jainism at a later date, so the legend
about his sister getting offended by Arnoraja appears to be
historically inaccurate. According to Dasharatha Sharma, Devalladevi
is a fictional character created by either Rajashekhara or another
Jain writer, as none of the chronicles written before 14th century
mention her. According to Majumdar, Arnoraja invaded the Chaulukya
kingdom taking advantage of Kumarapala's involvement in other
This second war also ended with Arnoraja's defeat. Kumarapala's
victory over Arnoraja is corroborated by the Vadnagar prashasti
inscription. His 1150 CE Chittorgarh inscription also states that he
defeated the king of Shakambhari, devastated the Sapadalaksha
country and then set up a camp at Shalipura. The Veraval prashasti
also states that Kumarapala defeated the king of Jangala (another
name for the Chahamana territory).
|The Chahamanas of Naddula,
also known as the Chauhans of Nadol, were an Indian dynasty. They ruled the
Marwar area around their capital
Naddula (present-day Nadol in Rajasthan)
between 10th and 12th centuries. They belonged to the Chahamana (Chauhan)
clan of the Rajputs.
The Chahamanas of Naddula were an offshoot of the Chahamanas of Shakambhari.
Their founder was Lakshmana (alias Rao Lakha) was the son of the 10th
century Shakambari ruler Vakpatiraja I. His brother Simharaja succeeded
their father as the Shakambhari ruler. The subsequent rulers fought against
the neighbouring kingdoms of the Paramaras of Malwa, the Chaulukyas, the
Ghaznavids, as well as the Chahamanas of Shakambhari. The last ruler
Jayata-simha was probably defeated by Qutb al-Din Aibak in 1197 CE.
Following is a list of Chahmana rulers of Naddula, with approximate period
of reign, as estimated by R. B. Singh:
- Lakshmana (Rao Lakha or Lakhana) S/o Vakpatiraja I,.....c. 950 - 982
- The Lakhana Raula Prabandha claims that
Lakshmana single-handedly fought against the freebooters called the
Medas, who had been raiding the Naddula area. This impressed the local
Brahmanas, who hired him to guard the town. Gradually, Lakshmana built a
small troop, and forced Medas to stay away from Naddula. One day, he
ventured too far into Medapata (the Meda territory), while pursuing the
Medas. He was seriously wounded in a fight against Medas, and felt
helpless. But his family deity Ashapuri appeared before him, and told
him that a large number of horses belonging to the Malwa king would come
to him. She instructed him to sprinkle saffron water on the horses. The
next day, a convoy of 12,000 horses passed by Lakshmana. When he
sprinkled the saffron water on them, their colour changed so drastically
that the men accompanying the horses failed to recognize them. Thus,
Lakshmana became the owner of these 12,000 horses. With help of these
horses, Lakshmana was able to carve out a kingdom for himself. Nainsi's
Khyat contains a similar account, but states the number of horses as
13,000. These legends suggest that Lakshmana had a strong cavalry.
According to the Chahamana records, Lakshmana collected taxes from the
gates of Patana, and levied tribute on Chittor. Historians such as G. H.
Ojha and Dasharatha Sharma consider this to be an empty boast, as these
two cities were ruled by independent rulers at the time. Patana was the
capital of the Chaulukya king Mularaja, while Chittor was under the
control of Guhila rulers Shaktikumara and Ambaprasada.
The construction of the Nadol Fort is attributed to Lakshmana. He is
also said to have commissioned a Vishnu temple named after him at Nadol
(possibly the Lakshmana-svamin temple mentioned in later 12th century
Lakshmana is said to have married a Vaishya woman in Naddula. He was
succeeded by his son Shobhita alias Sohiya.
- Shobhita (Sohiya) S/o Lakshmana.........................c. 982 - 986
- According to the Sundha Hill inscription,
Shobhita "took away the glory of" the lord of Arbuda (Mount Abu).
Historian R. B. Singh theorizes that this lord of Arbuda was probably
Aranyaraja, a ruler of the Paramara branch of Abu. Dasharatha Sharma
identifies him with another Paramara ruler named Dharanivaraha, who had
been attacked and defeated by the Chaulukya king Mularaja. Sharma
theorizes that Shobhita sided with Mularaja in this conflict.
Shobhita has been described as the lord of Dhara in the Sewari
inscription of his descendant Ratnapala. Dhara was the capital of the
imperial Paramara dynasty of Malwa. Historian D. C. Ganguly speculated
that "Dhara" was a mistake for "Thara", which was a city in the 12th
century Mewar region. However, according to Dasharatha Sharma, Shobhita
fought against the Paramaras of Malwa, and occupied their capital Dhara.
R. B. Singh notes that Shobhita's successor Baliraja is said to have
defeated an army of the Paramara monarch Munja. Singh theorizes that
Shobhita might have captured Dhara for a brief period, while Munja was
busy in his southern campaigns against the Chalukyas of Kalyani.
Shobhita was succeeded by his son Baliraja. A Mount Abu inscription
wrongly names Baliraja as the predecessor of Shobhita: this is directly
contradicted by other inscriptions of the family.
- Baliraja S/o Shobhita...................................c. 986 - 990
- He was involved in a conflict with the
Paramara king Munja, with both sides claiming victory. The
Chahamana-Paramara conflict that had started during his father's reign
continued during his rule. According to the Sundha Hill inscription of
his descendant, he defeated the Paramara king Munja. On the other hand,
the Paramara court poet Parimala suggests that Munja was successful in
this campaign. According to Parimala, Munja also defeated the Gurjara
ruler, who had to take shelter with the ruler of Maru. Here, the Gurjara
ruler can be identified with the Chaulukya king Mularaja. The identity
of the ruler of Maru (Marwar) is not certain, but he was most probably
Baliraja. Baliraja seems to have died heirless, as he was succeeded by
his paternal uncle Vigrahapala.
- Vigrahapala S/o Lakshmana...............................c. 990 - 994
- Vigraharaja's short reign appears to have
passed without any significant event. The Sundha Hill inscription omits
his name among the list of Chahamana kings. However, he is attested as a
ruler by other inscriptions, including the Mandore inscription of
Sahajapala, the Nadol inscription of Kirtipala, and the Nadol
inscription of Alhanadeva. He was succeeded by his son Mahindu.
- Mahindra (Mahindu or Mahendra)..........................c. 994 -
- Dvyashrya-Kavya, a legendary text by the
Chaulukya court scholar Hemachandra, states that Mahendra-raja organized
a swayamvara (husband-choosing ceremony) for his sister Durlabha-devi.
Besides Durlabharaja, he invited the rulers of Anga, Andhra, Kashi, Kuru,
Mathura and Ujjayini to this ceremony. Durlabha-devi chose Durlabharaja
as her husband. Out of jealousy, the other invitees formed a confederacy
and attacked his contingent, while he was returning to his capital.
Durlabharaja defeated their combined army. Mahindu's younger daughter
Lakshmi-devi married Nagaraja, the younger brother of Durlabharaja.
On basis of this legend, historian R. B. Singh theorizes that the
Chahamana-Chaulukya rivalry concluded with a matrimonial alliance. He
also concludes that Mahindu was a powerful ruler, because of which
several distant kings responded to the swayamvara invitation. Mahindu
had two sons: Ashvapala and Anahilla.
- Ashvapala S/o Mahindra.................................c. 1015 -
- Ashvapala's reign seems to have been peaceful.
He was succeeded by his son Ahila, who appears to have died heirless.
Ashvapala's brother Anahilla then ascended the throne of Naddula. The
Nadol inscriptions of Alhana and prince Kirtipala omit Ashvapala's name
from the genealogy of the Naddula Chahamana kings, presumably because
they were not his descendants.
- Ahila S/o Ashvapala....................................c. 1019 -
- According to the Chahamana records, he
defeated the Chaulukya king Bhima I. The Chaulukya records do not
mention this defeat. Historian Dasharatha Sharma theorizes that Bhima
invaded the Naddula kingdom to expand his territory, but was forced to
- Anahilla S/o Mahindra..................................c. 1024 -
- He defeated the Chaulukya king Bhima I,
defeated a general of the Paramara king Bhoja, and also defended his
territory against the Ghaznavids.
- Balaprasada S/o Anahilla...............................c. 1055 -
- Balaprasada was the eldest son of his
predecessor Anahilla. According to an inscription, he defeated other
rulers even as a child. This suggests that he ascended the throne at a
According to the Chahamana records, the Chaulukya king Bhima I had
imprisoned another ruler named Krishnadeva; Balaprasada forced Bhima to
release Krishnadeva. Historian D. C. Ganguly identified Krishnadeva with
Krishnaraja, a ruler of the Paramara branch of Bhinmal. According to
historian Dasharatha Sharma, Balaprasada requested (not forced) Bhima
release Krishnaraja, which indicates that he accepted Bhima's
Balaprasada appears to have died without issue, as he was succeeded by
his younger brother Jendraraja.
- Jendraraja S/o Anahilla................................c. 1070 -
- Jendraraja was also known as Jenduraja,
Jindraraja, Jendrapala, Jesaladeva and Jayasaladeva. According to the
Sundha Hill inscription, Jendraraja defeated several of his enemies at
Sandera, which can be identified with modern Sanderao. Historian
Dasharatha Sharma believes that the leader of the defeated army was the
Chaulukya king Bhima I. R. B. Singh believes him to be Bhima's successor
Karna. Jendraraja is said to have been a proficient in polity (neeti).
An inscription of his descendant Rajyapala mentions a temple named
Jendrarajeshvara in Nadol. This temple was probably commissioned by
Jendraraja had three sons: Prithvipala, Jojalladeva, and Ashvaraja.
These three sons succeeded him one after another.
- Prithvipala S/o Jendraraja.............................c. 1080 -
- According to the Sundha Hill inscription,
Prithvipala defeated the Gurjara (Chaulukya) king Karna. The Shakambhari
Chahamana king Vigraharaja III also claimed to have helped the Paramara
king Udayaditya defeat Karna. Historian R. B. Singh theorizes that these
three neighbouring kings (Prithvipala, Vigraharaja and Udayaditya)
formed an alliance against Karna in order to curb his growing power.
Another Chahamana inscription states that Prithvipala defeated a ruler
named Mandalika at Rohadavapika. This ruler can be identified with a
ruler of the Paramara branch of Vagada.
The same inscription also states that Prithvipala was once surrounded by
a Turushka (Turkic) enemy, and rescued by his younger brother Asharaja.
The Turushka enemy can be identified as a Ghaznavid raider, who must
have been a subordinate of the Ibrahim of Ghazna.
Prithvipala waived some taxes on the farmers, and may have commissioned
an image of a deity known as Prithvipaleshvara.
Prithvipala had a son named Ratnapala, but he was succeeded by his
younger brother Jojalladeva. It is possible that Ratnapala was born
after Prithvipala's death, or that he was a minor at the time of his
father's death. Prithvipala was thus succeeded by his brothers
Jojalladeva and Asharaja. Ratnapala gained control of the throne during
- Jojalladeva S/o Jendraraja.............................c. 1090 -
- He is also known as Jojaladeva, Jojaka and
Yojaka. The Chahamana records claim that he invaded the Chaulukya
kingdom, and occupied their capital Anahilapataka.
According to the Sundha Hill inscription, Jojalladeva occupied the
Chaulukya capital Anahillapura by force. The veracity of this claim is
doubtful, because the Chaulukya king Karna was a powerful ruler.
According to the epic poem Hammira Mahakavya, the neighbouring
Shakambhari Chahamana king Dushala (Durlabharaja III) also defeated
Karna. Historian R. B. Singh theorizes that the two Chahamana branches
formed an alliance against Karna and occupied the Chaulukya capital for
a short time. According to historian A. K. Majumdar, Jojalladeva may
have raided the Chaulukya capital while Karna was engaged in a conflict
at another place. According to Dasharatha Sharma, there is another
possibility: Jojalladeva invaded the Chaulukya kingdom during the early
reign of Karna's son Jayasimha Siddharaja, who was a minor at the time.
An inscription records Jojalladeva's order to allow courtesans to attend
festivals and processions of deities. Some Brahmins, as well as the
Jains of Vidhichaitya movement, were opposed to dancing of courtesans in
their temples. Jojalladeva's issued an order to punish any "ascetic, old
or learned person" who opposed the presence of courtesans. The
courtesans were entitled to attend the religious ceremonies with their
managers, artists and musicians.
Jojalladeva probably died heirless, because of which he was succeeded by
his younger brother Asharaja.
- Asharaja (Ashvaraja) S/o Jendraraja....................c. 1110 -
- He was being dethroned by his nephew Ratnapala.
He then accepted the suzerainty of his family's rival, the Chaulukya
king Jayasimha Siddharaja. He participated in Jayasimha's successful war
against the Paramara king Naravarman. His son Katukaraja seized the
Naddula throne after his death.
According to his 1110 CE Sewari inscription, Asharaja bore the title
Maharajadhiraja ("king of great kings"). He was in control of the
Naddula throne at least until 1115 CE, when his son Katukaraja was
styled as the heir apparent (yuvaraja). However, by 1119 CE, his nephew
(Prithvipala's son) Ratnapala had become the Chahamana king, as attested
by a Sewari inscription. Ratnapala probably forcibly dislodged Asharaja,
because of which Asharaja chose to become a vassal of the rival
Chaulukya king Jayasimha Siddharaja. Beginning with Asharaja's reign,
the Naddula kingdom started declining because of family feuds.
Asharaja's 1143 CE Bali inscription states that he subsisted on the feet
(that is, was a vassal) of Jayasimha. As a Chaulukya subordinate,
Asharaja participated in Jayasimha's war against the Paramara king
Naravarman. The Nanana inscription of Asharaja's descendant Alhana
boasts that when Asharaja arrived at the Paramara capital Dhara,
Naravarman hid himself in the fort. The Sundha Hill inscription also
states that Jayasimha was pleased with the Asharaja's assistance in the
Paramara territory of Malava.
Asharaja commissioned the Chandaleshvara temple as
well as other temples dedicated to Shiva. He granted the Pinchchhavalli
village to the Tripurusha temple. He also built several gardens, free
kitchens, prapas (water fountains or cisterns), tanks, wells and
stepwells. During his reign, prince Katukaraja made a donation to a Jain
shrine at Sewari.
Asharaja had at least two queens: Delhana-devi and Chandala-devi.
Delhana was the daughter of one Rudrapala, and the mother of Alhanadeva.
Asharaja's son Katukaraja appears to have grabbed power in Naddula by
dislodging Ratnapala's son Rayapala, with support from the Chaulukya
ruler Kumarapala. He is styled as a Maharajadhiraja in his 1144-45
Sewari inscription. Katukaraja's younger brother Alhanadeva succeeded
his the Chahamana king, and ruled as Kumarapala's vassal. Jayatasimha,
another son of Asharaja, is named as the heir apparent (yuvaraja) of the
Samipati bhukti (province) in the 1144-45 CE inscription.
- Ratnapala S/o Prithvipala..............................c. 1119 -
- An inscription states that one of his
relatives captured Mandore, and Asharaja recaptured it. This relative
was probably Ratnapala, who was trying to wrest control of the kingdom.
By 1119 CE, Ratnapala had become the Chahamana king (Maharajadhiraja),
as attested by a Sewari inscription. Ratnapala probably forcibly
dislodged Asharaja, because of which Asharaja joined the rival Chaulukya
king Jayasimha Siddharaja.
Ratnapala's 1119 CE Sewari inscription, issued from his camp at Nahura,
records the grant of the Gumda Kurchcha (modern Gondoch in Pali
district) to Brahmins. Another inscription records his grant of the
Riyasakudapa village to the Tripurushadeva temple.
Ratnapala was succeeded by his son Rayapala.
- Rayapala S/o Ratnapala.................................c. 1132 -
- He assumed the title Maharajadhiraja
Parameshvara, which indicates his sovereign status. Rayapala had two
queens: Padmala-devi and Manala-devi. Padmala was the mother of princes
Sahajapala and Sahanapala. The deities Padmaleshvara, Sahajapaleshvara
and Sahanapaleshvara were named after these three persons. Manala was
the mother of princes Rudrapala and Amritapala. According to historian
Dasharatha Sharma, Rayapala's immediate successor was his son Sahajapala,
who probably lost the control of his kingdom during a war between his
two powerful neighbours: Arnoraja and Kumarapala.
- Katukaraja S/o Asharaja................................c. 1145 -
- Katukaraja was a son of the Chahamana monarch
Asharaja, who was dislodged by his brother Ratnapala. After losing the
throne of Naddula, Asharaja became a vassal of the Chaulukya emperor
Jayasimha Siddharaja. Meanwhile, Ratnapala was succeeded by his son
Rayapala. Around 1145 CE, Katukaraja seized the throne of Naddula. This
is apparent from Katukaraja's 1144-1145 Sewari inscription, in which he
assumes the title Maharajadhiraja.
The inscriptions of Katukaraja are dated in the Simha calendar era,
which was used in the present-day Gujarat region. His successors were
vassals of the Chaulukya kings of Gujarat. Based on this, historian R.
B. Singh believes that he captured Naddula with help of the Chaulukya
emperor Kumarapala. Singh further theorizes that following Jayasimha's
death, Katukaraja may have helped Kumarapala in a war of success against
a rival claimant to the Chaulukya throne. According to a Sewari
inscription, as a prince, Katukaraja made a donation to Jains for the
worship of Shantinatha, on the occasion of Shivaratri.
Katukaraja's successor was his younger brother Alhanadeva, who served as
a vassal of Kumarapala. Another of his brothers, Purnapaksha, also
accepted Kumarapala's suzerainty. Purnapaksha controlled the
principality of Ratanpur, and is mentioned as a subordinate of
Kumarapala in the Ratanpur inscription of his queen Girija-devi.
- Alhanadeva S/o Asharaja................................c. 1148 -
- He ruled as a vassal of the Chaulukya king
Kumarapala. During his reign, the Chahamanas of Shakambhari invaded
Naddula, and Kumarapala replaced him with his own governors. Later,
Kumarapala restored his rule in Naddula, as a result of his service in
Chaulukya military campaigns. Another of his brothers, Purnapaksha,
ruled the Ratanpur principality as Kumarapala's vassal.
Alhanadeva commissioned a Shiva temple at Naddula, and also made
donations to the Chandaleshvara and Tripurusha temples. His queen
Shankaradevi installed an idol of the goddess Gauri with his
benefaction. He also gave a monthly grant to the Mahavira Jain temple at
The Sundha Hill inscription mentions that the Gurjara king (that is,
Kumarapala) sought Alhanadeva's assistance in curbing disturbances in
the hilly part of Saurashtra. The Nadol inscription of his descendant
Kirtipala also states that Alhanadeva defeated the Saurashtrikas. The
Kumarapala Charita chronicle suggests that this event happened in 1149
CE. According to Prabandha-Chintamani, Alhana killed the Abhira leader
Sauṃsara (also called Saṃvara).
Alhanadeva had two queens: Analla-devi and Shankara-devi. Alhanadeva had
a queen named Analla-devi, who was the daughter of one Sahula. The
couple had three sons: Kelhanadeva, Gajasimha, and Kirtipala.
Kelhanadeva assisted him in administration, and succeeded him on the
throne of Naddula as a vassal of Kumarapala. Gajasimha administered the
province of Mandavyapura (modern Mandore). Kirtipala was given a fief of
12 villages and established a new kingdom at Javalipura (modern Jalore).
His descendants — the Chahamanas of Javalipura — ruled until the 14th
- Kelhanadeva S/o Alhanadeva.............................c. 1163 -
- The most notable event of Mularaja II's (ruler
of Chaulukya dynasty at Gujarat) short reign was the Battle of Kasahrada,
which took place in 1178 CE at modern Kyara (in Sirohi district; also
called Kayadara or Kayadram in some records). In this battle, the
Chaulukya forces defeated the Muslim Ghurid invaders led by Muhammad of
Ghor. The Chaulukya forces included the armies of their feudatories such
as the Naddula Chahamana ruler Kelhanadeva, the Jalor Chahamana ruler
Kirtipala, and the Arbuda Paramara ruler Dharavarsha.
Kelhanadeva seems to have made an attempt to assert his sovereignty, as
indicated by his titles Maharajadhiraja Parameshvara ("King of Great
Kings, Supreme Lord"). However, the Chaulukya monarch Kumarapala forced
him to acknowledge the Chaulukya suzerainty. After Kumarapala's death,
he again attempted to assert independence.
According to the Sundha Hill inscription, Kelhanadeva and his brother
Kirtipala defeated the Turushkas (Turkic people, that is, the Ghurids).
The legendary chronicle Prithviraja Vijaya states that the Ghurid king
Muhammad of Ghor took possession of Naddula during his invasion of
India. He was challenged by a Chaulukya force during the reign of Bhima
II. This force included the troops of the three Chaulukya feudatories:
the Naddula Chahamana ruler Kelhanadeva, the Javalipura Chahamana ruler
Kirtipala, and the Abu Paramara ruler Dharavarsha. The joint force
defeated the Ghurid army at the Battle of Kasahrada in 1178 CE. As a
result, Kelhana managed to regain control of Naddula. To celebrate this
victory, he is said to have commissioned a golden torana (gateway) at a
shrine dedicated to the deity Somesha.
During Kelhanadeva's reign, the southern Yadava ruler Bhillama V raided
Gujarat and Malwa regions, which were located to the south of Naddula.
Kelhanadeva checked Bhillama's advance, and forced him to retreat. He
probably fought this battle as a Chaulukya feudatory.
- Jayatasimha S/o Kelhanadeva............................c. 1193 -
- Jayatasimha was the son of his predecessor
Kelhanadeva. As a prince, he assisted his father in administration.
After Kelhanadeva's death, Jayatasimha ascended the throne of Naddula,
while his brother Sodhaladeva ruled the province of Mandavyapura. An
1194 CE Sadri inscription shows that he assumed the title
Maharajadhiraja. He was probably defeated by the Ghurid general Qutb
al-Din Aibak, and the Naddula kingdom disintegrated after his death.
After Jayatasimha, the Naddula kingdom disintegrated into several
principalities. According to an Achaleshvara inscription, the Guhila
ruler Jaitrasimha destroyed Naddula and defeated the Turushkas.
According to historian R. B. Singh, this suggests that the Ghurids had
captured Naddula, and Jaitrasimha defeated their local governor. Later,
the Jalor Chahamana king Udayasimha (a relative of Jayatasimha), gained
control of Naddula. However, historian D. C. Ganguly believes that
Jaitrasimha may have plundered Naddula after Udayasimha's conquest of
Jalore. G. H. Ojha and Dasharatha Sharma theorize that Jayatasimha was
succeeded by Maharaja Samantasimha, who is attested by five inscriptions
dated 1199-1201 CE.
Chahamanas of Jalor (King of Javalipura)
|The Chahamanas of Jalor
(King of Javalipura), also known as the Chauhans of Jalor in vernacular
legends, were an Indian dynasty that ruled the area around Jalore in
present-day Rajasthan between 1160 and 1311. They branched off from the
Chahamanas of Naddula, and then ruled as feudatories of the Chaulukyas of
Gujarat. For a brief period, they became independent, but ultimately
succumbed to the Delhi Sultanate at the Siege of Jalore.
The Chahamana rulers of the Jalor branch, with their estimated periods of
reign, are as follows:
- (title: Maharaja)
- Kirti-pala Deva
S/o Alhanadeva.........................c. 1160 - 1182
- He ruled parts of southern Rajasthan as a
feudatory of the Chaulukyas, and participated in their successful battle
against Muhammad of Ghor in 1178 CE. He also fought with other Chaulukya
feudatories, including Asala of Kiratakupa (modern Kiradu) and the
Guhila chief Samantasimha. Kirtipala was the youngest of the three sons
of the Naddula Chahamana king Alhana and queen Annalla-devi. Kirtipala's
elder brother Kelhana became the king of Naddula, while Kirtipala
himself became the governor of a fief of 12 villages. According to
Kirtipala's 1161 CE Nadol copper-plate inscription, the 12 villages
given to him by Alhana and prince Kelhana were: Darjit, Devasuri,
Harvandam, Kanasuvam, Kavilada, Madada, Mauvadi, Morekera, Nadada,
Naddula-grama, Sonanama and Sujera.
- Samara-simha Deva
S/o Kirti-pala.......................c. 1182 - 1204
- He ruled the area around Jalore as a Chaulukya
feudatory. He had two brothers named Lakhanapala and Abhayapala, and a
sister named Rudala-devi. In his inscriptions, he is styled as "Maharaja
- Udaya-simha S/o
Samara-simha...........................c. 1204 - 1257
- Like his ancestors, Udayasimha served as a
feudatory of the Chaulukya rulers of Gujarat in the early part of his
reign. During the reign of the Chaulukya ruler Bhima II, the Chaulukyas
faced a Yadava invasion from south. Taking advantage of this, three
northern Chaulukya feudatories in the Marwar region formed an alliance
and rebelled against the imperial rule. These included Udayasimha,
Somasimha and Dharavarsha (the Paramara chief of Abu). In the ensuing
battle, Udayasimha was wounded by the Chaulukya general Lavanaprasada,
but the conflict appears to have ended with an advantage for Udayasimha.
The Jalor dynasty reached its zenith under Udayasimha. He captured
Naddula (Nadol), probably from the Delhi Sultan Aram Shah, who had
earlier defeated the Chahamanas of Naddula. He also captured
Mandavyapura (Mandor), but the Delhi Sultanate conquered it in 1226,
under Iltumish. In addition, he conquered Vagbhatameru (Barmer), which
was probably a principality ruled by a Paramara branch. He also
conquered several other territories that were previously controlled by
the Chaulukyas of Gujarat (Solankis). The Chaulukyas were fighting the
Yadavas of Devagiri on their southern frontier. Taking advantage of
this, Udayasimha formed a confederacy with the Guhilas of Mewar, the
Paramaras of Chandravati and other rulers of Marwar. The confederacy
attacked the Chaulukyas from north, following which the Chaulukya
general Lavana-prasada was forced to sign a treaty with them. Udayasimha
also formed a confederacy against Iltumish, forcing the Delhi Sultan to
retreat from Marwar. He had a brother named Manavasimha. His sister
Lila-devi married the Chaulukya monarch Bhima II. Multiple inscriptions
issued by Udayasimha have been found at Bhinmal: 1205 CE (Jagaswami
temple), 1217 CE (Baraji resthouse), 1248 CE (Baraji resthouse) and 1249
CE (Nilkanth Mahadev temple). These all mention his title as
- Chachiga-deva S/o
Udaya-simha..........................c. 1257 - 1282
- Chachigadeva was the eldest son of his
predecessor Udayasimha and queen Prahaladava-devi. He maintained the
borders of his ancestral kingdom intact and achieved military successes
against some neighbouring princes. He is most notable for issuing the
Sundha Hill prashasti inscription, which provides historically valuable
information about his ancestors. Chachiga's son Samantasimha faced
attack from the Delhi Sultanate, but was saved by his neighbour, the
Vaghela king Saranagadeva. Chachigadeva's successor was Samantasimha,
who was probably his son, although the relationship between these two
persons is not certain. According to the 1284 CE inscription,
Chachigadeva's wife was Lakshmi-devi. The couple had a daughter named
Rupa-devi, who married the king Teja-simha (possibly a Guhila ruler,
according to G. H. Ojha).
Chachiga-deva........................c. 1282 - 1305
- He is also known as Samvantasimha and
Samyantasimha. The inscriptions issued during his reign give his title
as Maharajakula. According to the 17th century chronicler Munhot Nainsi,
Samantasimha had at least two sons: Kanhadadeva and Maladeva. As the
heir apparent, Kanhadadeva assisted his father in administration from at
least 1296 CE onwards. The 1299 CE Chohtan inscription refers to their
- Kanhada-deva S/o
Samanta-simha.........................c. 1292 - 1311
- Kanhadadeva, practically the last king of the
dynasty, was defeated and killed by the forces of Alauddin Khalji. He
ruled the area around Javalipura (present-day Jalore in Rajasthan).
Initially, he ran the administration jointly with his father
Samantasimha, and helped ward off invasions from the Delhi Sultanate.
After the Delhi ruler Alauddin Khalji conquered the neighbouring fort of
Siwana, Kanhadadeva's armies fought several skirmishes with him. In
1311, Kanhadadeva was defeated and killed in an attack led by Alauddin's
general Malik Kamaluddin. He is celebrated as a hero in Kanhadade
Prabandha, a 1455 poem by Padmanabha (was a court poet employed by the
later rulers Jalore. The text is written in Prakrit language with Old
Rajasthani and some Gujarati influences).
- Virama-deva S/o
- After the initial setbacks faced by the Delhi
forces, Alauddin sent an army to launch a direct attack on Jalore (Siege
of Jalore). According to the Kanhadade Prabandha, the Delhi forces made
several attempts to breach the fort during the first seven days of the
ensuing siege. However, these attacks were foiled by sorties led by
Kanhadadeva's brother Maladeva and his son Viramadeva. On the eighth day
a severe thunderstorm forced the besiegers to retreat. Alauddin
dispatched a stronger army led by Malik Kamaluddin. The Jalore forces
launched an eight-pronged attack on one of the retreating detachments at
Moklana. The Jalore contingents led by Maladeva and Viramadeva attacked
the invading army on alternate days. Although they managed to slow down
Kamaluddin's march, they were unable to stop his gradual advance towards
Jalore. Ultimately, Viramadeva, who was stationed at Bhadrajun, was
recalled to Jalore to help his father prepared for the impending siege.
Maladeva was also recalled, but was re-sent to fight Kamaluddin once the
invaders reached near Jalore. Sometime after besieging the fort,
Kamaluddin managed to breach it with the help of a traitor named Bika.
Facing a certain defeat, the defenders prepared for a last stand, and
Viramadeva was crowned King. The women of the fort committed suicide by
jauhar (mass self-immolation), while the men died fighting. Viramadeva
is said to have died two-and-a-half days after the coronation. The eight
Jalore generals who led this attack were Maladeva, Viramadeva, Ananta
Sisodia, Jaita Vaghela, Jaita Devada, Lunakarna Malhana, Jayamala and
Sahajapala. The detachment's commander Shams Khan was captured along
with his harem, while the rest of his soldiers fled. The Kanhadade
Prabandha states that Viramadeva's head was brought to Alauddin. It
miraculously turned away when the Sultan turned towards it. Piroja
immolated herself while holding his head.
Chahamanas of Ranastambhapura
The Chahamanas of Ranastambhapura were a 13th-century
Indian dynasty. They ruled the area around their
in present-day Rajasthan, initially as vassals of the Delhi Sultanate, and
later as sovereigns. They belonged to the Chahamana (Chauhan) clan of the
Rajputs, and are also known as Chauhans of Ranthambore in vernacular
Rajasthani bardic literature.
The Chahamana line of Ranastambhapura was established by Govindaraja, who
agreed to rule as a vassal of the Ghurids in 1192, after they defeated his
father, the Shakambhari Chahamana king Prithviraja III. Govindaraja's
descendants gained and lost their independence to the Delhi Sultanate
multiple times during the 13th century. Hammira, the last king of the
dynasty, adopted an expansionist policy, and raided several neighbouring
kingdoms. The dynasty ended with his defeat against the Delhi Sultan
Alauddin Khalji at the Siege of Ranthambore in 1301.
- Govinda-raja S/o
Prithviraja III...........................1192 - ?
- Govinda was the son of Prithviraja III, who
was defeated and killed in a battle with the Ghurids, in 1192 CE. The
Delhi Sultan Muhammad of Ghor appointed Govinda as his vassal at Ajmer.
However, Prithviraja's brother Hari-raja de-throned him, and himself
became the ruler of Ajmer. Govinda then established a new kingdom with
its capital at Ranastambhapura (modern Ranthambor). After the Muslim
conquest of Ajmer, he granted asylum to Hari.
- Balhana-deva (Balhan)
- Balhana, the son of Govindaraja, is recorded
as a vassal of the Delhi Sultan Iltumish in 1215 CE, but declared
independence in the later years.
- Prahlada (Prahlad)
- Balhana's elder son Prahlada succeeded him,
and died in a lion-hunt.
- Viranarayana (Vir
Narayan) S/o Prahlada
- Prahlada's son Viranarayana was invited to
Delhi by Iltumish, but was poisoned to death there. Iltumish captured
the fort in 1226 CE.
- Vagabhata S/o
- Balhana's younger son Vagabhata then ascended
the throne. He recaptured Ranthambore during the reign of the Delhi
ruler Razia (ruled: 1236-1240). He successfully defended the fort
against the Delhi Sultanate's invasions in 1248 and 1253 CE. He was also
known as Bahar Deo in bardic chronicles.
- Jaitra-simha (Jaitra
Singh) S/o Vagabhata
- Vagbhata's son Jaitrasimha achieved military
successes against Paramaras of Malwa and other Rajput chiefs. He however
lost his sovereignty to Nasir-ud-din, and ended up paying tribute to the
- Hammira-deva (Hammir
Dev) S/o Jaitra-simha..............c. 1283 - 10 Jul 1301
- Hammira was a son of the Chahamana king
Jaitrasimha (Jaitra Singh) and queen Hira Devi. The name "Hammira" is a
Sanskritized form of the Arabic title Amir. He ascended the throne
sometime between 1283 and 1289 CE. The Balvan inscription of 1288 CE
mentions that Hammira captured the elephant force of Arjuna II, the
Paramara king of Malwa. The Hammira-Mahakavya suggests that he also
defeated Arjuna's successor Bhoja II. He also subjugated the Paramara
branch of Abu. He is said to have marched to Chitrakuta (Chittor). He
raided several neighbouring Rajput territories, including Medapata (Mewar)
and Vardhamanpura (modern Wadhwan). In the 1290s, he successfully
defended his kingdom against Jalaluddin Khalji of the Delhi Sultanate.
In 1299, he gave asylum to some Mongol rebels from Delhi, which prompted
Jalaluddin's successor Alauddin Khalji to invade his kingdom. Hammira's
wars with fellow Hindu Rajputs ultimately left him without any allies
against the Delhi Sultanate. He successfully resisted invasions by
Jalal-ud-din and Ala-ud-din's general Ulugh Khan. But he was killed on
10 July 1301, invasion led by Ala-ud-din Khalji.
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