State, also known as Bharatpore State, was a Hindu princely state in India.
It was ruled by a Hindu Jat dynasty. At the end of the 17th century, Jat
Bhajja, Zamindar of the village of Sansani took advantage of Mughal
confusion and weakness after the death of Aurangzeb to seize the area and
enlarge his territory. His descendents, Churaman Singh and Badan Singh
continued the expansion, the latter being the founder of the fortress of
Bharatpur in 1724. Bharatpur had 17 gun salute status. Accession to India on
17 April 1949.
The Bharatpur city is situated 180 km south of India's capital, New Delhi,
178 km from Rajasthan's capital Jaipur, 58 km west of Agra of Uttar Pradesh
and 38 km from Mathura of Uttar Pradesh.
|In 1756 the
ruler at that time, Suraj Mal, received the title of Raja. Bharatpur became
increasingly associated with Maratha ambitions and, in spite of treaty ties
to the East India Company, assisted the Maratha Confederacy in their
struggles against the British. This gained them few friends in British
circles, but the early attempts by the British to force the submission of
Bharatpur fortress proved abortive. In 1826 however, the British took the
opportunity offered by a bitter internal feud concerning the succession
finally to reduce the stronghold. The rival claimant was exiled to Allahabad
and Balwant Singh, then a child of seven, was placed on the throne under the
supervision of a British Political Agent.
From that time onwards Bharatpur came under British control until it acceded
to the Indian Union at Independence.
1752 Bharatpur founded and becomes name of state.
18 Jan 1828 British protectorate.
- Sinsiniwal Jat (title: Maharajas)
- Khanu Chand
- He had three sons: Jhujha Singh, Bhajja Singh
and Brajraj Singh.
- Gokula Singh [Ola
Singh] S/o Madu...........................? - 01 Jan 1670
- He was a Jat zamindar of Tilpat, in what is
now the state of Haryana, India. The second of four sons born to Madu,
his birthname was Ola. Gokula provided leadership to the Jat peasants
who challenged the power of the Mughal Empire. The first serious
outbreak of anti-imperial reaction took place among the Jats of Mathura
district, who had been oppressed by the imperial faujdar, Abdun-Nabi. In
1669, the Jat peasantry rose under the leadership of Gokula, resulting
in the death of the faujdar. The freedom of the district could not be
maintained for more than a year, and they were suppressed by Hasan Ali
Khan, the new faujdar, who was aided by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb marched on November 28, 1669 from Delhi to curb the Jat
threat. The Mughals under Hasan Alikhan and Brahmdev Sisodia attacked
Gokula Jat [Battle of Tilpat]. Gokula and his two associates were
captured alive through the efforts of Shaikh Razi-ud-Din, the peshkar of
Hassan Ali. They and other prisoners were presented to the Emperor.
Being furious, Aurangzeb ordered Gokula and Uday Singh to be hacked to
death at Agra Kotwali on 01 January 1670.
- Raja Ram S/o
Bhajja Singh.........................01 Jan 1670 - 04 Jul 1688
- He was the grandson of Khanu Chand. After the
death of Gokula on 01 January 1670, Raja Ram continued the raids against
the Mughals. To avenge the death of Gokula, Raja Ram looted Akbar's tomb
and dragged Akbar's bones and burned them. Aurangzeb appointed Mohammad
Bidar Bakht as commander to crush the rebellion. On 04 July 1688, Raja
Ram Jat was fatally shot. His head was sent to Aurangzeb as proof.
- Bhajja Singh S/o
Khanu Chand......................04 Jul 1688 - 1695 with...
- Churaman Singh S/o
Brajraj Singh..................04 Jul 1688 - 20 Sep 1721
- After the death of Raja Ram (as a participant
warrior) in the war of Bijal between Shekhawats and Chauhans on 04 July
1688, old father of Raja Ram, Bhajja Singh became the leader of Jats.
Aurangzeb played a trick. He appointed Raja Bishan Singh of Amber as
Faujdar of Mathura. Kachwahas were bent upon to subjugate the Jats, who
were fighting for freedom from Mughal rule. Bishan Singh gave a written
promise to destroy the fort of Sinsini. Mughal and Rajput armies jointly
attacked Sinsini and captured it after a war of five months, in the
month of January 1690. In this war 200 Mughals and 700 Rajputs were
killed against 1500 Jats.
In 1702 after the death of Bhajja Singh, Churaman came on front. Within
a short period Churaman gathered 500 horse riders and thousands of
soldiers. Nand Ram, the Zamindar of Hathras, also joined him along with
100 horse riders. Churaman recruited the famous brigand of Mendoo and
Mursan in his army. He constructed a fort at place known as ‘Thoon’ at a
distance of 150 km in west of Agra. Within a short span there were 80
villages under the Thoon state. There was an army of 14,000–15,000. Such
a big army needed a lot of money. Churaman decided to gather booty from
rich states of Kota and Bundi. He acquired Sinsini from the
Mughal-Rajput combine in 1704 after having surrounded the fort whereupon
seeing his fate sealed, the Durgpal accepted a small amount and vacated
the fort hastily. This shows the calculating brains of Churaman where he
managed to make the enemy flee without having to go in for any
bloodshed. In 1705 there was a war with Mughal subadar Mukhtar khan of
Agra and with Raja Bahadur in 1707 at Sinsini. In the second war at
Sinsini 1000 Jats were lost but they got the victory. He died on 20
September 1721 by swallowing up a dose of deadly poison as he lost his
temper based on abusive language used by his elder son: Mohkam.
- Mokham Singh S/o
Churaman Singh......................Oct 1721 - 23 Nov 1722
- He was the grandson of Brajraj Singh. He
disputed the succession with Thakur Badan Singh, who was supported by
Maharaja Jai Singh II of Jaipur. On 18 November 1722 the Rajput-Mughal
combined army besieged the Thoon fort of Mohkam Singh, took it and got
it ploughed by Asses. Thus the Jat state of Badan Singh rose from the
ashes of Thoon, Jatauli and other forts. On 18 November 1722 the
Rajput-Mughal combined army besieged the Thoon fort of Mohkam Singh,
took it and got it ploughed by Asses. Thus the Jat state of Badan Singh
rose from the ashes of Thoon, Jatauli and other forts.
- Badan Singh S/o
Bhav Singh........................23 Nov 1722 - 07 Jun 1756 d. 1756
- He was the grandson of Brajraj Singh.. He
styled himself aS Raja Mahendra. He was Thakur of Deeg and founder of
Bharatpur; he was granted the title of Brijraj by Maharaja Jai Singh II
on 23rd November 1722. After the fall of Thoon and Jatauli, Badan Singh
became formally a samanta of Jaipur Darbar on 23 November 1722. Jai
Singh in exchange honoured Badan Singh with the title of Brijraj i.e.
the king of Brij. He was permitted the use of Nagara, Nishan and
Pachrang flag and gave the Kotwali of Agra. Besides, he was also given
the Jagirs of Mathura, Vrindavan, Mahavan, Hisar, Chhata, Kosi and Hodal
parganas for revenue of Rs. 50-60 lakh. He constructed the Royal Palace
and Gardens at Deeg as well as a temple at Dhir Samir ghat of Vrindavan.
Badan Singh planned to win over the confidence of his own Jat community
and at the same time maintaining a balance with Rajputs and Mughals.
With this vision he established his permanent residence and office near
Deeg. After this he planned to make friendly relations with the
influential zamindars and sardars of the Jat state. To implement his
plan he married his most competent son Suraj Mal to Hansia, the
beautiful daughter of most influential Chaudhary of Jatwara Ratiram. He
recruited all the people in the army of Mohkam Singh in his own army.
Badan Singh himself established marital relations with chiefs of various
groups and married 25 Ranis, including Rani Devki of a Jat family from
Kama. This helped him to increase his influence. He took in his side not
only Jats and Rajput groups but also Brahmans. He awarded titles like
Faujdar, Bakhshi and Sardar to many powerful people to take them into
his side. He also allured the Gujars of Deeg and Nagar parganas by
awarding them with the title of ‘Dhau’. This way he became an undisputed
leader of mass over vast areas. Khemkaran Sogaria who was a close
associate of Churaman was still against him. This problem was solved by
his young son Suraj Mal. Suraj Mal eliminated Khemkaran and acquired
Sogaria pargana from Khemkaran. Badan Singh also acquired 31 villages of
Agra and the Jat dominated Kagaraul pargana on lease. With such a tact
and vision Badan Singh could expand his state bigger than that of
Churaman within a decade. He had 26 sons and one daughter. He was also
an accomplished poet. He died on 07 June 1756 at Deeg.
- Suraj Mal S/o
Badan Singh.........................07 Jun 1756 - 25 Dec 1763 d. 1763
- He was born in Feb 1707. He was son of Badan
Singh and Rani Devki. He was nephew, stepson, and adopted son of Badan
Singh Under Suraj Mal's rule the power of the Jats reached its zenith.
Suraj conquered a vast territory in north central India from the Mughals,
Marathas, Rohillas and Afghans, including the Imperial cities of Agra
and Delhi. Thereafter the Jats proved fickle allies, making and breaking
alliances with the Mughals, the Maharattas, and the British, losing
territory to all three, but also gaining Deeg in the process.
He styled himself aS Raja Brajendra Bahadur. He married 14 wives and had
5 sons. His five sons were: Kanwar Nahar Singh (by Rani Hansia),
Maharaja Jawahir Singh (by Rani Ganga), Maharaja Ratan Singh (by Rani
Ganga), Maharaja Nawal Singh (by Rani Kavaria) and Maharaja Ranjit Singh
(by Rani Khet Kumari).
- Jawahir Singh S/o
Suraj Mal.......................25 Dec 1763 - 27 Aug 1768 d. 1768
- He was defeated in a quarrel with the Raja of
Jaipur and was murdered at Agra in 1768.
- Ratan Singh S/o
Suraj Mal.........................27 Aug 1768 - 11 Apr 1769 d. 1769
- He was also murdered after a short reign.
- Dan Shahi (Regent)...........................22
Aug 1768 - 11 Apr 1769
- Keshri Singh S/o
Ratan Singh......................11 Apr 1769 - 28 Mar 1778 d. 1778
- He was born in 1766.
- Nihal (Nawal)
Singh S/o Suraj Mal (Regent)...11
Apr 1769 - 11 Aug 1775 d. 1775
- Ranjit Singh
S/o Suraj Mal (Regent)..........11
Aug 1775 - 28 Mar 1778 d. 1805
- Ranjit Singh S/o
Suraj Mal (continued)............28
Mar 1778 - 06 Dec 1805
- During his reign, Najaf Khan, stripped the
Jats of all their possessions leaving only the fort of Bharatpur and
territory of nine lakhs in value. After Najaf Khans death in 1782,
Maharaja Scindia seized what was left but was persuaded by Suraj Mal's
widow to restore 11 districts to which a further 3 districts were later
added, which afterwards remained as Bharatpur State. He provided
assistance to General Gerard Lake at Agra in 1803 and was rewarded with
a number of districts, however the following year, in November 1804 at
the Battle of Deeg, he made open war on the British forces, repelling
four assaults on his fort [The Siege of Bharatpur took place between 02
January - 22 February 1805], until he was compelled to make peace and a
new treaty was made on 04 May 1805 after Second Anglo-Maratha War
(1803-1805), by which he was made to pay an indemnity of 20 lakhs,
though he was confirmed in his possessions except for the parganas made
over to him in 1803. He got married and had children. He died in 1805.
- Randhir Singh S/o
Ranjit Singh....................06 Dec 1805 - 07 Oct 1823 d. 1823
- Baldeo Singh S/o
Ranjit Singh.....................07 Oct 1823 - 26 Feb 1825 d. 1825
- Balwant Singh (1st
Feb 1825 - 28 Mar 1825 d. 1853
- He was born in 1819.
- Durjan Sal S/o
Lachman Singh (usurper)............28
Mar 1825 - 19 Jan 1826
- He was the grandson of Ranjit Singh. He
opposed his cousin's accession Balwant Singh and imprisoned him. British
forces eventually laid siege to Bharatpur lasting six weeks and on 18
January 1826, the fort was stormed and fell by the troops of Stapleton
Cotton, 1st Viscount Combermere's (Lord Combermere) and dismantled.
Durjan Sal was then imprisoned at Allahabad. Thereafter, the Jat
Maharajas proved to be good allies to the British, supplying large
numbers of recruits for the Presidency armies and participating in
- Balwant Singh (2nd
Jan 1826 - 21 Mar 1853
- He was restored in January 1826, under the
Regency of his mother and the superintendence of the Political Agent. He
got married and had a son. He died in 1853.
Miraj Kaur (female
Jan 1826 - 1835
- Jashwant Singh S/o
Balwant Singh..................21 Mar 1853 - 12 Dec 1893 d. 1893
- He was born in 1851. From 01 Jan 1877, he
became to known as Sir Jashwant Singh. During his reign the State
rendered loyal assistance to the British Government in 1857 and
maintained order in the vicinity of Bharatpur. The state was
administered by a Council under the Political Agent (21 Mar 1853 - 10
Jun 1869) until he was granted full ruling powers. He married firstly in
1859 to Maharani Bishan Kaur (daughter of Maharaja Narendra Singh of
Patiala) and married secondly to Maharani Darya Kaur. He had children
and died on 12 December 1893.
- Ram Singh S/o
Jashwant Singh......................12 Dec 1893 - 27 Aug 1900 d. 1929
- Full Title: HH Shri Brijindar Sawai Maharaja
RAM SINGH Bahadur Jang. He was born on 09 Sep 1872 at Lohagarh,
Bharatpur. He was removed from the administration of his state in 1895
and finally deposed in June 1900. He married firstly to HH Maharani
Kishan Kaur and married secondly to HH Maharani Giriraj Kaur. He had two
sons (Maharaja Kishan Singh and Maharaj Giriraj Singh) and two daughters
(Maharajkumari Gajindar Kaur and Maharajkumari Gokul Kaur). He died in
September 1929 at Agra.
- Kishan Singh S/o
Ram Singh........................27 Aug 1900 - 27 Mar 1929 d. 1929
- Full Title: Lt.Col. HH Shri Maharaja Shri
Brajendra Sawai KISHAN SINGH Bahadur Jang. He was born on 04 October
1899. He educated at Mayo College, Ajmer (College Diploma 1916) and for
a short time at Wellington College, England in 1914. He was granted full
ruling powers on 28 November 1918. He was responsible for a number of
reforms in the state of Bharatpur, including a reorganization of the
army in 1919, Hindi was made the state language, primary education was
made compulsory, Ayurvedic hospitals were set up, an exhibition to
promote trade and arts was set up on an annual basis, the introduction
of a system of participation of public in state affairs through credit
banks, issuing society and village panchayat acts was started, the
Brij-mandal in Shimla was established, and Social Reform Acts were
enacted. He was appointed an Honorary Lieutenant-Colonel in the British
Army on 24 October 1921. He presided over the Jat Mahasabha Adhiveshan
organized at Pushkar in 1925, in consequence of the disorganisation of
the State Administration and Finances. On 01 Jan 1926, he became to
known as Sir Kishan Singh. He was deprived of his ruling powers in
September 1928. He married on 03 March 1913, daughter of Kunwar Gajindar
Singh of Faridkot. He had four sons and three daughters. He died on 27
- Bibiji Girraj Kaur
Aug 1900 - 28 Nov 1918 d. 1922
- Brijendra Singh
S/o Kishan Singh..................27 Mar 1929 - 17 Apr 1949 d. 1995
- Full title: He was born on 01 December 1918.
He succeeded to the gadi on 14 April 1929. He was conferred with a
permanent local salute of 19 guns for his support during World War I. He
was member of the Lok Sabha 1962-1971. He married firstly June 1941,
Yuvarajkumari Jaya Chamunda Ammani Avaru [HH the Maharani of Bharatpur],
daughter of HH Yuvaraja Sir Sri Kantirava Narasinharaja Wadiyar of
Mysore, and his wife, HH Yuvrani Kempu Cheluvammanniyavaru. He married
secondly in 1961 (divorced 1972), HH Maharani Videh Kaur of the Urs
family of Mysore (b. 1933 - d. 1985), by whom he had children. He joined
the Indian Union on 15 August 1947. He died on 08 July 1995. In August
1947 the state acceded to the newly independent Dominion of India. In
1948, it became part of the Matsya Union and in 1949 it was absorbed
into Rajasthan. Members of the ruling family continue to be active in
national and regional affairs. Several members of the family have served
as members of parliament and in the state legislature.
- Duncan George Mackenzi (b.
1883)............27 Mar 1929 - 1930 d. 1965
Robson......................................1930 - 1932
- Cyril Percy Hancock (b.
1896)..................May 1932 - Aug 1935 d. 1990
- George Richard Tottenham (b.
1890).................1935 - 1936 d. 1977
- Herbert John Todd (b.
1893)....................May 1936 - Aug 1936 d. 1985
- Kumara Padma Sivasankara Menon
(b. 1898)...........1936 - 1938 d. 1982
- George Richard Tottenham (2nd
time)................1938 - 22 Oct 1939
- George Richard Tottenham (continue)............Oct
1939 - 01 Apr 1940
- Kumara Padma Sivasankara Menon..............01
Apr 1940 - Feb 1943
- A.V. Ramanathan................................Feb
1943 - c. 1944
Currency: Rupee = 16 Anna = 64 Pice
= 192 Pie
ND - RY9 .
Diameter: 23.00 mm.
Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Mahe Indrapur
"سکہ زد صاحب قراني زتائید الہ" (Struck coin like
Lord of the Fortuitous Conjunction by the help of God). "حامی دین
محمد شاہ عالم بادشاہ" (The defender of the faith of Prophet
Muhammad, the emperor Shah Alam) / ND.
Reverse legend: "سنہ ٩ جلوس میمنت مانوس ضرب
مہہ اندرپور" (Zarb
Mahindurpur Sanah 9 julus maimanat manus) [Struck at Mahindurpur
in the year 9 of the accession associated with tranquil
prosperity]. Mintage Years: AH1175//3, AH1176//4, AH1177//4,
AH1178//6, AH-//6, AH1178//5, AH1179//7, AH118x//7, AH1181//8 and
AH-//9 (1761-1768). Ruler: Jawahir Singh S/o Suraj Mal (1763-1768)
citing Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II [Ali Gauhar] (ruled: 1760-1788
and 1788-1806). Note: Common.
- Brijendra Singh
S/o Kishan Singh (continue).......17
Apr 1949 - 08 Jul 1995
- Vishvendra Singh
S/o Brijendra Singh..............08 Jul 1995 - date
- Full title: HH Shri Maharaja Shri Brajendra
Sawai VISHVENDRA SINGH Bahadur Jang. He was born on 23 June 1962 at Moti
Mahal in Bharatpur. He succeeded his father on 08 July 1995 as head of
Sinsiniwal Jat. He served as Chairman, Zila Parishad, Distt. Bharatpur,
Rajasthan 1988-1989; Member of the Rajasthan Legislative Assembly (for
five years) 1989-1994; Member of Parliament 9th Lok Sabha, Bharatpur
constituency, Rajathan, 1989-1991; Member of the Legislative Assembly,
Nadbai Constituency, Rajasthan, 1993-1998; Member of Parliament 13th Lok
Sabha, Bharatpur constituency, Rajathan, 1999-2004; Member of the
Committee on Science and Technology, Environment and Forests 1999-2004;
Member of Parliament 14th Lok Sabha, Bharatpur constituency, Rajathan,
2004-2009; Member of the Committee on Personnel, Public Grievances, Law
& Justice, 2004-2009; Member of the Legislative Assembly, Deeg Kumher
Constituency, Rajasthan, from 2013. His interests include wildlife,
squash and tennis. He married on 15 February 1989 to HH Maharani Divya
Kumari [born on 06 November 1963 in Lucknow, daughter of Raja Surendra
Singh Ju Dev of Behri, B.A., educated at Isabella Thorburn College,
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh; Member of the Zila Parishad, Bharatpur; Elected
to the 11th Lok Sabha in 1996; on 12th May 2006, she was declared
elected to the Vidhan Sabha from Deeg constituency (BJP) in a bye
election as a result of the death of Shri Arun Singh (Rajkumar Arun
Singhji of Bharatpur known as Prince Oogie and grandson of Kishan
Singh)]. The couple have one son: Yuvaraj Anirudh Singh.
British India coins:
Coins of Indian Princely States and other